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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Reducing Inequalities Between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26383.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Reducing Inequalities Between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26383.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Reducing Inequalities Between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26383.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Reducing Inequalities Between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26383.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Reducing Inequalities Between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26383.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Reducing Inequalities Between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26383.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Reducing Inequalities Between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26383.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Reducing Inequalities Between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26383.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Reducing Inequalities Between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26383.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Reducing Inequalities Between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26383.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Reducing Inequalities Between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26383.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Reducing Inequalities Between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26383.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Reducing Inequalities Between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26383.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Reducing Inequalities Between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26383.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Reducing Inequalities Between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26383.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Reducing Inequalities Between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26383.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Reducing Inequalities Between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26383.
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Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Reducing Inequalities Between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26383.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Reducing Inequalities Between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26383.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Reducing Inequalities Between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26383.
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Erin Hammers Forstag, Rapporteur Board on Children, Youth, and Families Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, NW  Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by a contract between the National Academy of Sci- ences and William T. Grant Foundation (189982), and the National Academy of ­Sciences President’s Committee (unnumbered). Additional support was provided by the National Academy of Sciences W. K. Kellogg Foundation Fund. Any o ­ pinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not ­necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26383 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2022). Reducing Inequalities Between LGBTQ Adolescents and Cisgender, Hetero­ sexual Adolescents: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26383. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Con- gress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the char- ter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, En- gineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medi- cine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the ­ study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typi- cally include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON REDUCING INEQUALITIES BETWEEN LGBTQ ADOLESCENTS AND CISGENDER, HETEROSEXUAL ADOLESCENTS: A WORKSHOP STEPHEN T. RUSSELL (Chair), University of Texas, Austin AISHA CANFIELD-ALLEN, Ceres Policy Research DAVID CHAE, Tulane University NAT DURAN, Illinois Safe Schools Alliance ERROL L. FIELDS, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine JESSICA N. FISH, University of Maryland AMORIE ROBINSON, Ruth Ellis Center JAMA SHELTON, Hunter College Staff AMANDA GRIGG, Program Officer MARISSA GLOVER, Senior Program Assistant NATACHA BLAIN, Board Director EMILY BACKES, Senior Program Officer v PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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BOARD ON CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND FAMILIES DAVID V.B. BRITT (Chair), Retired, Sesame Workshop HAROLYN BELCHER, Center for Diversity in Public Health Leadership Training, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Professor of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine RICHARD F. CATALANO, School of Social Work, University of Washington, Co-founder, Social Development Research Group TAMMY CHANG, Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan DIMITRI CHRISTAKIS, Center for Child Health, Behavior, and Development, Seattle Children’s Research Institute, University of Washington GREG DUNCAN, School of Education, University of California, Irvine NANCY E. HILL, Harvard University, Graduate School of Education STEPHANIE J. MONROE, President, The Wrenwood Group, LLC JAMES M. PERRIN, Harvard Medical School, MassGeneral Hospital for Children NISHA SACHDEV, Center for Health and Health Care in Schools, George Washington University Milken Institute of Public Health MARTIN H. TEICHER, Developmental Biopsychiatry Research Program, McLean, Harvard Medical School JONATHAN TODRES, Georgia State University College of Law JOANNA LEE WILLIAMS, Rutgers University, Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology NATACHA BLAIN, Director vii PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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Acknowledgments This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by indi- viduals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical com- ments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evi- dence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of these proceed- ings: Jessica N. Fish, Department of Family Science, School of Public Health, University of Maryland. We also thank staff member Tom Arrison for reading and providing helpful comments on the manuscript. Although the reviewers provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of these proceedings was overseen by Karina L. Walters, School of Social Work, University of Washington. She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of these proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteur and the National Academies. ix PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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Preface We are pleased to introduce these proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine workshop on Reducing Inequalities Between LGBTQ Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents. The broadest goal of the workshop was to explore effective programs, policies, and practices for reducing inequalities in the areas of mental, emotional, behavioral, and physical health of U.S. lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth ages 13–25.1 The workshop addressed the inter- personal, institutional, and structural factors associated with the inequities that exist and are widening for LGBTQ youth compared to cisgender, hetero- sexual youth. In particular, the planning committee made a commitment to focus on the experiences of LGBTQ youth of color, strategies for supporting them, and lessons to be learned from their experiences. The workshop was informed by prior work at the National Academies, including two important recent consensus studies: The Promise of Adoles­ cence: Realizing Opportunity for All Youth (2019), and Understanding the Well-Being of LGBTQI+ Populations (2020). The Promise of Adolescence explores the neurobiological and social-­behavioral processes that character- ize the developmental period, and that lay the foundation for trajectories for the rest of the life course. The report synthesized the dramatic advances 1 A recent study (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2019) refers to the period of adolescence as encompassing four periods, from early adolescence to young adulthood. The focus of this workshop will be on middle adolescence (starting at age 13) through young adulthood (ages 19–25). The term “youth” in these proceedings encompasses adolescents ages 13–25. xi PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

xii PREFACE in understandings of adolescent brain development and plasticity, and the dynamics between that development and the physical, psychological, inter- personal, social, institutional, and cultural influences that shape adolescents’ lives. A key focus was on inequity, including substantial attention to the lives and well-being of LGBTQ adolescents.2 The report illuminates the promise and possibility of development during the adolescent years, and focuses on the implications for social systems that shape adolescence—their families and communities, systems of care, schools, and health. One year later, Understanding the Status and Well-Being of Sexual and Gender Diverse Populations assessed the state of knowledge about the status and well-being of sexual- and gender-diverse people. The report was the first by the National Academies to take a truly broad approach to understanding well-being—extending beyond physical and mental health3 to include family and community well-being, as well as the cultural, legal, educational, economic, and religious institutions that shape the lives and well-being of sexual- and gender-diverse people. Our workshop built on the foundations in those National Academies reports, with the goal of examining inequalities in mental, emotional, be- havioral, and physical health among LGBTQ youth, what is known about strategies for supporting them, lessons to be learned from these strategies, and how to reduce inequities through programs, practices, and policies. The planning committee sought expertise from researchers to summarize the state of the evidence, although the committee was aware that efforts ­focused on actually reducing inequality (rather than simply measuring it) have rarely been empirically tested. The committee was particularly motivated to seek input from professionals and practitioners whose daily and lived experience is in the service of LGBTQ adolescents, and to hear from LGBTQ youth of color about their perspectives, lives, and recommendations. We are grateful to the extraordinary planning committee, composed of experts in fields of research, practice, and policy in the service of LGBTQ youth. Through their vision and networks, we assembled an amazing group of workshop sessions and speakers, focusing first on key concepts and definitions, research on what is known about reducing inequalities through prevention and intervention, and perspectives from youths. We then focused on four domains or contexts that shape the lives of LGBTQ youth: their families and communities; systems of care, including child welfare and car- ceral systems; education; and health. For each domain we invited experts 2 A recent report (Akhmadikina, Saba, and Russell, 2021) reviews inclusion of LGBTQ youth in The Promise of Adolescence. 3 A prior report (Institute of Medicine, 2011) was transformational in the field of physical and mental health science and policy. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

PREFACE xiii in research to synthesize existing evidence, followed by panel discussions that included researchers, practitioners, and policy advocates working with LGBTQ youth in each of those domains. Across all sessions and panels, we asked all participants to keep the following principles in mind: • That the focus be on solutions or reductions in equality that can impact the long-term well-being of LGBTQ youth; • That the domains we highlight are intertwined and cannot be under­stood in isolation; • That youth and their experiences are intersectional in terms of race, ethnicity, cultural and religious background, and other identities, including intersex youth, youth with differences in sexual develop- ment, and youth who are not out; and • That while we are compelled to focus on vulnerabilities and in- equalities, most LGBTQ youth thrive and contribute to their own well-being and to their communities. We acknowledged the ever-evolving language of LGBTQ, recognizing the importance, meaning, and limitations of language, as well as the ways that our words and labels may shape both the way youth see and feel about themselves as well as public opinion about them. We further acknowledged the urgent need to center the experiences of Black, Brown, and Indigenous people of color, while acknowledging that naming may not resonate with all youth who are marginalized or minoritized. Ultimately, we acknowledged the goal of affirming language that can recognize the multidimensional nature of identity. During the period of three half-days on August 25, 26, and 27, 2021, the workshop was conducted virtually, and reached over 600 participants. Although originally intended to be held in person, the experience illumi- nated the significant interest and motivation by people from across the U.S. and around the world to learn from the workshop program and engage with the goals of reducing inequalities for LGBTQ adolescents. These proceedings illuminate the rich and growing body of evidence on the lives and well-being of LGBTQ adolescents, but also point to the limits of existing evidence for truly identifying the programs, practices, and poli- cies that may reduce inequalities, particularly for LGBTQ youth of color. Yet the perspectives of the practice, policy, and youth experts pointed to promising strategies that are clearly making a difference in communities and for youth every day. Illuminating these strategies was the fundamental goal of the workshop and, in doing so, we hope to have sparked the next generation of research, practice, and policy that will support the well-being of LGBTQ adolescents, particularly LGBTQ youth of color. Finally, we are grateful to the William T. Grant Foundation and the PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

xiv PREFACE National Academies W.K. Kellogg Foundation Fund for the funding to make the workshop possible. Our hope is that this workshop will stimulate further interest in understanding the evidence base for reducing inequality among LGBTQ adolescents, including studies that could further explore the evidence base in depth and provide clear and actionable recommenda- tions for researchers, practitioners, educators, policy makers, youth, and their families. Stephen T. Russell, Chair Planning Committee on Reducing Inequalities Between LGBTQ Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents REFERENCES Akhmadikina, N., Saba, V., and Russell, S.T. 2021. The Promise of Adolescence: Highlighting the Experiences of LGBTQ Youth. The Stories and Numbers Project. Available: https:// storiesandnumbers.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/The-Promise-of-Adolescence-Brief. pdf. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. 2011. The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People: Building a Foundation for Better Understanding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/ NBK64806/. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Promise of Adoles­ cence: Realizing Opportunity for All Youth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Available: https://doi.org/10.17226/25388. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Understanding the Well- Being of LGBTQI+ Populations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Avail- able: https://doi.org/10.17226/25877. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Background, 1 Organization of the Proceedings, 2 Opening Remarks, 2 Key Concepts and Definitions, 4 Research Landscape, 5 Policy Landscape, 8 Reflections, 11 2 LGBTQ YOUTH OF COLOR 13 Lived Expertise, 13 How Do You Define Health and Well-Being?, 14 What Are Promising Solutions to Inequalities in Health and Well-Being That You Have Seen Work in Your Community?, 14 What Are the Barriers to These Types of Solutions?, 14 Who Are the Influential People in Your Community and How Can We Support Them?, 15 If You Had a Magic Wand, What System Would You Change and How?, 15 What Are Common Misconceptions About Youth?, 16 How Does Your Racial or Ethnic Identity Shape the Way You Experience Your Sexual Orientation and/or Gender Identity?, 16 xv PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

xvi CONTENTS How Do You Think COVID-19 Has Impacted LGBTQ Young People and the Community as a Whole?, 17 Research Landscape, 18 Exploring Racism and Sexual Identity during the COVID-19 Pandemic, 20 Systems of Support, 21 Reflections, 22 3 PROMISING INTERVENTIONS IN PERSONAL, CARCERAL, AND CARE SYSTEMS 27 Landscape: Outcomes, Inequalities, and Known Interventions, 27 Paths Forward in Research, 28 Promising Interventions, 30 Juvenile Carceral System Intervention: Youth Justice Agency Policies and Professional Development, 30 Child Welfare System Intervention: The American Civil Liberties Union of Illinois and the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, 32 Child Welfare System Intervention: National Quality Improvement Center, 35 Reflections, 37 4 PROMISING INTERVENTIONS FOR FAMILIES AND COMMUNITIES 39 Research Landscape: Outcomes and Known Interventions, 39 Promising Interventions, 40 Family Interventions: Lead with Love and PATHS, 40 Community Intervention: Community Centers and CenterLink, 43 Community Intervention: Rainbow Pride Youth Alliance, 45 Reflections, 47 5 PROMISING INTERVENTIONS IN MENTAL, EMOTIONAL, AND PHYSICAL HEALTH 49 Landscape: Outcomes, Inequalities, and Known Interventions, Promising Interventions, 50 Mental Health Intervention: EQuIP, 51 Mental Health Intervention: AFFIRM, 53 Mental Health Interventions: The Trevor Project, 54 Physical Health Intervention: HIV Prevention, 56 Reflections, 58 PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

CONTENTS xvii 6 PROMISING INTERVENTIONS IN EDUCATION 61 Landscape: Outcomes, Inequalities, and Known Interventions, 61 Promising Interventions, 65 School-based Intervention: Broward County Public Schools’ LGBTQ+ Coordinator, 65 School-based Intervention: Comprehensive Sex Education, 66 School-based Intervention: GSA Clubs, 68 Reflections, 69 7 CLOSING REFLECTIONS 71 REFERENCES 73 APPENDIXES A Workshop Agenda 83 B Biographic Sketches of Planning Committee Members and Workshop Speakers 87 PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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Acronyms and Abbreviations BIPOC Black, Indigenous, people of color CBPR Community-based, participatory research CBT Cognitive behavioral therapy CSE Comprehensive sexual education EQuIP Empowering Queer Identities in Psychotherapy GSA Clubs formerly known as Gay-Straight Alliances; now referred to either as Genders & Sexualities Alliances or simply GSAs. LGB Lesbian, gay, and bisexual LGBT Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBTQ Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning LGBTQ+ Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and others LGBTQ2S Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and two spirit LGBTQI Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and intersex MEB Mental, emotional, behavioral MSM Men who have sex with men xix PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

xx ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS PATHS Parents and Adolescents Talking about Healthy Sexuality PUSH Providing Unique Support for Health RCT Randomized controlled trial RPYA Rainbow Pride Youth Alliance SIECUS Sexuality Information and Education Council of the U.S. SGD Sexual- and gender-diverse SGM Sexual and gender minority SOGIE Sexual orientation and gender identity and expression STI Sexually transmitted infection PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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To better understand the inequalities facing lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth and the promising interventions being used to address these inequalities, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's Board on Children, Youth, and Families hosted a virtual public workshop titled Reducing Inequalities Between LGBTQ Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents, which convened on August 25–27, 2021. The workshop was developed by a planning committee composed of experts from the fields of sociology, medicine, public health, psychology, social work, policy, and direct-service provision. This Proceedings of a Workshop summarizes the presentations and discussions from that workshop.

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