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Suggested Citation:"Section 1 - Introduction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Initiating the Systems Engineering Process for Rural Connected Vehicle Corridors, Volume 3: Model System Requirements Specification. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26387.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 1 - Introduction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Initiating the Systems Engineering Process for Rural Connected Vehicle Corridors, Volume 3: Model System Requirements Specification. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26387.
×
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Page 6
Suggested Citation:"Section 1 - Introduction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Initiating the Systems Engineering Process for Rural Connected Vehicle Corridors, Volume 3: Model System Requirements Specification. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26387.
×
Page 6
Page 7
Suggested Citation:"Section 1 - Introduction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Initiating the Systems Engineering Process for Rural Connected Vehicle Corridors, Volume 3: Model System Requirements Specification. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26387.
×
Page 7
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Suggested Citation:"Section 1 - Introduction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Initiating the Systems Engineering Process for Rural Connected Vehicle Corridors, Volume 3: Model System Requirements Specification. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26387.
×
Page 8

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4 Introduction is model SyRS guides agencies responsible for rural corridors as they develop requirements for the proposed system that was conceptualized in the model ConOps (NCHRP Research Report 978: Initiating the Systems Engineering Process for Rural Connected Vehicle Corridors, Volume 2: Model Concept of Operations). e structure of this document is based on IEEE 1233-1998 Guide for Developing System Requirements Specications. e purpose of the SyRS is to review, analyze, and transform the user needs in the model ConOps into veriable system requirements that dene what (a function or capability) the system will do but not how the system will do it. 1.1 System Purpose Rural agencies are interested in deploying infrastructure to support connected vehicles to augment their existing ITS/Operations objectives. In most cases, agencies seek to improve safety and mobility while enhancing agency eciency. Connected vehicles are expected to augment and enhance existing ITS/Operations strategies, thus helping agencies further meet their goals. Connected vehicles provide the opportunity for rural agencies to receive more granular data from equipped vehicles and to disseminate information directly to vehicles. Equipped vehicles may interact with other vehicles or infrastructure systems via wireless communications tech- nologies to enable or use a variety of applications to improve rural transportation, including safety and operations. Connectivity may take several forms and use various communications technologies, both those currently available and those under development. Standards and interoperability are expected to play a key distinguishing role for connected vehicles in this project, as compared with standalone proprietary solutions that may have similarities in architecture. For example, devices with incompatible wireless interfaces would not be able to communicate with each other. Technologies will continue to evolve, and the specic deployment approach should consider the current state of industry prior to concept development. 1.2 System Scope is section describes background information relevant to the new or modied system. Back- ground information may include a site map detailing the various connected vehicle devices and areas of interest. It should be noted that information about specic type, number, and placement of connected vehicle devices might not be available at this stage, because they might be nalized through planning activities in early phases. is section also describes a summary of the motivation/objectives for deploying connected vehicles. While each rural corridor may have unique objectives, deploying connected vehicle S E C T I O N 1

Introduction 5   systems tends to have operational objectives that are based on enabling new capabilities for the agency. At its core, these objectives can be summarized as follows: • Collect new data from connected vehicles. e deployment of connected vehicles can allow the agencies to collect more robust and granular data, reducing the latency and increasing the coverage of road condition reports. • Disseminate data to connected vehicles. Direct and constant communication with vehicles and drivers through advisories can support mobility and safety-oriented strategies, such as speed management, detours, parking, and presence of maintenance and emergency vehicles. • Improve accuracy of data disseminated to all travelers. Non-connected vehicle drivers will benet from receiving more accurate information through traditional modes of communica- tion [e.g., 511, mobile apps, and dynamic message signs (DMS)]. • Improve agency decision support capabilities. When fused with other data, connected vehicle data will enable agencies to improve their decision support capabilities. More granular data is expected to improve decisionmaking for operating the transportation system. More timely and accurate data can also be shared with other agencies (e.g., adjacent TMCs, emergency responders, third-party service providers, etc.) to improve trac operations, incident response, and traveler information capabilities. In some cases, agencies may seek to develop new connected vehicle applications, or improve existing ones, to address challenges specic to their region that are not fully addressed by existing applications. 1.3 Referenced Documents and Resources e following documents were used as guidance in the development of this document: • NCHRP Project 08-120, Initiating the Systems Engineering Process for Rural Connected Vehicle Corridors, Dra Model Concept of Operations (ConOps), May 4, 2020. is docu- ment has been published as NCHRP Research Report 978: Initiating the Systems Engineering Process for Rural Connected Vehicle Corridors, Volume 2: Model Concept of Operations. • IEEE Standard 1233-1998 (R2002), IEEE Guide for Developing System Requirements Specication, September 11, 2002. • U.S. DOT’s Architecture Reference for Cooperative and Intelligent Transportation (ARC-IT) Service Packages (https://local.iteris.com/arc-it/html/servicepackages/servicepackages- areaspsort.html). • Connected Vehicle Pilot Deployment Concept Phase 1, System Requirements Specication (SyRS)—WYDOT, Phase 2 Updated Report, May 11, 2018 (FHWA-JPO-16-291) (https:// rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/31601). • Connected Vehicle Pilot Deployment Program Phase 1, System Requirements Specication (SyRS)—New York City July 26, 2016 (FHWA-JPO-16-303) (https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/ dot/31403). • Connected Vehicle Pilot Deployment Program Phase 1, System Requirements Specication (SyRS): Tampa (THEA) Final Report, August 2016 (FHWA-JPO-13-315) (https://rosap.ntl. bts.gov/view/dot/31733). • International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) Systems Engineering Handbook v4 (https://connect.incose.org/Pages/Product-Details.aspx?ProductCode=TechSEHandbookSo). • INCOSE Guide for Writing Requirements (https://connect.incose.org/Pages/Product- Details.aspx?ProductCode=TechGuideWR2019So). • NASA Systems Engineering Handbook (https://www.nasa.gov/seh/index.html). • IEEE Guide for Soware Requirements Specications, in IEEE Standard 830-1984, pp. 1–26, 10 Feb. 1984, doi: 10.1109/IEEESTD.1984.119205.

6 Initiating the Systems Engineering Process for Rural Connected Vehicle Corridors • SAE J3067 Surface Vehicle Information Report—Candidate Improvements to Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Message Set Dictionary [SAE J2735] Using Systems Engineering Methods, August 2014. • SAE J2945/1 On-board System Requirements for V2V Safety Communications, March 30, 2016. • FHWA Systems Engineering for Intelligent Transportation Systems: An Introduction for Transportation Professionals. January 2007. • ISO 19091 Intelligent transport systems—Cooperative ITS—Using V2I and I2V communi- cations for applications related to signalized intersections, dra 2014. • SAE J2735 Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Message Set Dictionary, March 2016 1.4 System Overview is SyRS is a model document that rural agencies can use as they develop their own project-specic SyRS. e SyRS describes generic stakeholders, systems, and processes that exist in a typical rural area. ese items may take dierent forms depending on the agency. For example, some rural agencies may have a Backoce system housed in a brick and mortar transportation management center (TMC) while other rural agencies may have a workstation that is used to operate ITS devices. is SyRS bases the system requirements for the system, use cases, and user needs dened in the NCHRP Research Report 978: Volume 2. Rural agencies are interested in deploying infrastructure to support connected vehicles to augment their existing ITS/Operations objectives. In most cases, agencies seek to improve safety and mobility while enhancing agency eciency. Connected vehicles are expected to augment and enhance existing ITS/Operations strategies, thus helping agencies meet their goals. Connected vehicles provide the opportunity for rural agencies to receive more granular data from equipped vehicles and to disseminate information directly to vehicles. Equipped vehicles may interact with other vehicles or infrastructure systems via wireless communications tech- nologies to enable or use a variety of applications to improve rural transportation, including safety and operations. Connectivity may take several forms and use various communications technologies, both those currently available and those under development. Potential types of communications include the following: • Short Range Wireless. Direct wireless communication [5.9 GHz DSRC, proposed cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X)/PC5 mode, etc.] between and among nearby vehicles, other equipped roadway users, and eld Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment • Wide-Area Wireless. Wireless communication (cellular tower-based network, two-way radio) between roadway users (equipped vehicles and non-motorized roadway users with devices) and centers • Wide-Area Broadcast. One directional wireless communication (satellite, wide-area radio broadcast) from center to roadway users (and eld ITS Roadway Equipment) over a region or greater area Standards and interoperability are expected to play a key distinguishing role for connected vehicles in this project, as compared with standalone proprietary solutions that may have simi- larities in architecture. For example, devices with incompatible wireless interfaces would not be able to communicate with each other. Technologies will continue to evolve, and therefore, the specic deployment approach should consider the current state of industry prior to concept development. e system requirements in this SyRS reference specic connected vehicle- and ITS-related standards where applicable to help identify those standards that will lead to inter- operable solutions.

Introduction 7   A context diagram for a typical rural connected vehicle deployment is depicted in Figure 2. It should be noted that new soware, hardware, and equipment deployed as part of a connected vehicle deployment should, where applicable, be integrated or included as part of existing systems that rural agencies currently use to manage and operate the transportation system. For example, rather than deploying a “new Backoce system” for connected vehicles, it will likely be more benecial for agencies to integrate new functionality and modules into their existing trac management system (TMS). e system of interest is delineated by the dotted line. Items inside the box are components that are included as part of the connected vehicle system. Items outside the box are items with which the connected vehicle system will interface. As shown in the diagram, the connected vehicle system comprises of the following: • Backoce represents the agency’s existing trac management Backoce components that will likely be extended with connected vehicle modules, capabilities, or components. It is responsible for the Backoce functionality of the connected vehicle system, including collecting, disseminating, and managing connected vehicle devices and data exchanges. • e Cloud serves as a mechanism for rural agencies to store and communicate information that can be accessed by personal information devices (PIDs) and onboard units (OBUs). For example, a rural agency may upload signal phase and timing (SPaT) and connected vehicle map message (MAP) information to the Cloud that OBUs can access and download. • Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment represents the connected vehicle roadside devices that are used to send messages to, and receive messages from, nearby vehicles using DSRC or other alternative wireless communications technologies (e.g., C-V2X). Communications with adjacent eld equipment and Backoce centers that monitor and control the road- side equipment are also supported. ese devices operate from a xed position and may be permanently deployed or be portable devices that are located temporarily in the vicinity of a trac incident, road construction, or a special event. It includes a processor, data storage, and communications capabilities that support secure communications with passing vehicles, other eld equipment, and centers. (Source: Noblis 2020.) Figure 2. High-level context diagram for a rural connected vehicle deployment.

8 Initiating the Systems Engineering Process for Rural Connected Vehicle Corridors • PIDs provide the capability for pedestrian and cyclist travelers to send and receive formatted traveler information based on personal input and personal updates. Capabilities include traveler information, trip planning, and route guidance. The PID (frequently, a smartphone) provides travelers with the capability to receive route planning and other personally focused transportation services from the infrastructure in the field, at home, at work, or while in route. PIDs may operate independently or may be linked with connected vehicle equipment. For example, a PID may include Wi-Fi, cellular, DSRC, and/or C-V2X communications. • OBUs provide vehicle-based sensory, processing, storage, and communications functions that support efficient, safe, and convenient travel. The vehicle OBU includes general capa- bilities that apply to passenger cars, trucks, and motorcycles. Many of these capabilities apply to all vehicle types, including personal vehicles, commercial vehicles, emergency vehicles, transit vehicles, and maintenance vehicles. From this perspective, the vehicle OBU includes the common interfaces and functions that apply to all motorized vehicles. The radio(s) sup- porting vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications are key components of the OBU. Both one-way and two-way communications options support a spectrum of information services from basic broadcast to advanced personalized informa- tion services. External systems and components include the following: • Other Centers represents centers or systems with which the Backoffice connected vehicle system may interface. Examples of Other Centers (or systems) include Maintenance Manage- ment Systems, Emergency Management/Public Safety Systems, Fleet and Freight Management Systems, Traveler Information Systems, Other Jurisdiction TMSs, Weather Service Systems, and Event Promoters. • Third-Party Service Providers include satellite service providers (SSPs) (e.g., SiriusXM) and third-party service providers that may receive and disseminate information to vehicle systems and smartphones. Many of these services currently exist and are expected to be augmented by connected vehicle capabilities. • Connected Vehicle Support Environment includes necessary connected vehicle compo- nents required to ensure privacy, security, and interoperable connected vehicle solutions. It includes the Security Credential Management System (SCMS), and Positioning and Timing Systems. • Vehicles represent various vehicles that may be equipped with OBUs and may receive infor- mation from third-party providers. Vehicle types include basic passenger vehicles, commer- cial vehicles, public safety (police, fire, and EMS) vehicles, and maintenance and construction vehicles (e.g., agency maintenance vehicles, safety service patrols, and snowplows). • Vulnerable Road User includes the individual, riding a bicycle or using human power to move (walk), who participates in shared use of the transportation network by motorized and non-motorized transportation modes. Vulnerable Road Users are those using non- motorized travel modes who sometimes share motor vehicle lanes. Cyclists and pedestrians provide input (e.g., a call signal requesting right of way at an intersection) and may be detected by connected vehicle and ITS services to improve safety. • Field Equipment represents equipment distributed on and along the roadway. The devices communicate with the Backoffice, which monitors and controls traffic flow as well as the road and environmental conditions. It could include traffic detectors; environmental sensors; traffic signal equipment; highway advisory radios; DMS; closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras and video image processing systems; grade crossing warning systems; and ramp metering systems. Also included are traffic signals. • Personnel represents rural agency staff (e.g., TMC operators and system administrators) that interface with the Backoffice system.

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Rural corridors often include long stretches of highway with limited power, communications, and intelligent transportation systems (ITS) infrastructure; long distances between cities or services for travelers; different traffic and roadway characteristics; and significant incident-related rerouting distances.

The National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Research Report 978: Initiating the Systems Engineering Process for Rural Connected Vehicle Corridors, Volume 3: Model System Requirements Specification provides information that will apply in general to most current and proposed systems. It is intended to provide a base document that a deploying agency can customize to fit their project and situation.

Supplemental to this report are a research overview (Volume 1), a model concept of operations (Volume 2), and a PowerPoint presentation of context diagrams.

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