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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1984. Toxicity Testing: Strategies to Determine Needs and Priorities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/317.
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Page 297
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1984. Toxicity Testing: Strategies to Determine Needs and Priorities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/317.
×
Page 298
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1984. Toxicity Testing: Strategies to Determine Needs and Priorities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/317.
×
Page 299
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1984. Toxicity Testing: Strategies to Determine Needs and Priorities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/317.
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Page 300

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REFERENCES Ames, B. N. 1979. Identifying environmental chemicals causing mutations and cancer. Science 204:587-593. Ames, B. N., L. S. Gold, C. B. Sawyer, and W. Havender. 1982. Definition of carcinogenicity, pp. 663-670. In D. T. Sugimura et al., Eds. Carcinogenic Potency of Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens. New York: Allen R. Liss, Inc. Ames, B. N., and J. McCann. 1981. Validation of the Salmonella test: A reply to Rinkus and Legator. Cancer Res. 41:9192-4201. Ashby, J. The future role of rodents in the detection of possible human carcinogens and mutagens. Mutat. Res. (in press) Barker, R. G. 1963. The Stream of Behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. 352 pp. Bridges, B. A. 1976. Use of a three-tier protocol for evaluation of long-term hazards, particularly mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. pp. 549-568. In R. Montesano, H. Bartsch, and L. Tomatis. Screening Tests in Chemical Carcinogenesis. IARC Scientific Publications No. 12. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Buffler, P. A. 1982. Epidemiological approaches to defining sensitive employees. Ann. Amer. Conf. Gov. Ind. Hyg. 3:11-26. Buffler, P. A., and L. M. Sanderson. 1981, pp. 55-107. In C. R. Shaw, Ed. Prevention of Occupational Cancer. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press. Calkins, D. R., R. L. Dixon, C. R. Gerbert, D. Zarin, and G. S. Omenn. 1980. Identification, characterization, and control of potential human carcinogens: A framework of federal decision-making. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 64:169-76. Craig, P. N., and K. Enslein. 1980. Application of structure-activity studies to develop models for estimation of toxicty, pp. 411-419. In D. B. Walters, Ed. Safe Handling of Chemical Carcinogens, Mutagens, Teratogens and Highly Toxic Substances. Vol. 2. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc. de Serres, F. J., and J. Ashby, Eds. 1981. Evaluation of Short-Term Tests for Carcinogens. Report of the International Collaborative Program. Progress in Mutation Research. Vol. 1. New York: Elsevier North Holland. 828 pp. 297

Estrin, N. F., P. A. Crosley, and C. R. Haynes, Eds. 1982. CTFA Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary, 3rd ed. Washington, D.C.: The Cosmetic , Toiletry and Fragrance Association, Inc. 610 pp. Fischhoff, B., P. Slovic, and S. Lichtenstein. 1977. Knowing with certainty: The appropriateness of extreme confidence. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 3:552-564. Fischhoff, B., P. Slovic, and S. Lichtenstein. The "public" vs. the "experts": Perceived vs. actual disagreements about the risks of nuclear power. In V. Covello, G. Flamm, J. Rodricks, and R. Tardiff, Eds. Analysis of Actual vs. Perceived Risks. New York: Plenum Press. (in press) Hodes, C., G. F. Hazard, R. I. Geran, and S. Richman. 1977. A statistical-heuristic method for automated selection of drugs for screening. J. Med. Chem. 20:469-475. Hollstein, M., J. McCann, F. A. Angelosanto, and W. W. Nichols. 1979. Short-term tests for carcinogens and mutagens. Mutat. Res. 65:133-226. Interagency Regulatory Liaison Group {IRLG). 1979. Scientific bases for identification of potential carcinogens and estimation of risk. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 63:241-268. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 1982. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemica~s to Humans. Chemicals, Industrial Processes, and Industries Associated with Cancer in Humans. IARC Monographs Supplement 4. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 1978. Vol. I, 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Klopman, G. 1983. Computer automated structure evaluation. A new method for evaluating biological activity of diverse molecules. Paper presented at the 33rd semi-annual meeting of the Chemical Manufacturers Association, November 1983, Washington, D.C. Kuzmack, A. M., and R. E. McGaughy. 1975. Quantitative Risk Assessment for Community Exposure to Vinyl Chloride. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development. [61] pp. Lave, L. B., G. S. Omenn, K. D. Heffernan, and G. Dranoff. 1982. Analysis of the Cost-Effectiveness of Tier-Testing for Potential Carcinogens. Paper presented at the First World Conference of American Association of Toxicologists, May 29, 1982. 298

Mendelsohn, M. L. me identification of chemical carcinogens: Performance using IARC data; strategies; optimization; interpretation. (in press) Mintzberg, H. 1975. The manager's job. Folklore and fact. Harv. Bus. Rev. 53:49-61. Moore, J. A., J. E. Huff, L. Hart, and D. B. Walters. 1981. Overview of the National Toxicology Program, pp. 555-574. In J. D. McKinney, Ed. Environmental Health Chemistry. The Chemistry of Environmental Agents as Potential Human Hazards. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc. National Research Council, Committee on National Statistics. 1981. Surveys of Subjective Phenomena: Summary Report. C. F. Turner and E. Martin, Eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 97 pp. Purchase, I. F. H. 1982. An appraisal of predictive tests for carcinogenicity. Mutat. Res. 99:53-71. Raiffa, H. 1968. Decision Analysis: Introductory Lectures on Choices under Uncertainty. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. 309 pp. Rinkus, S. J., and M. S. Legator. 1979. Chemical characterization of 465 known or suspected carcinogens and their correlation with mutagenic activity in the Salmonella typhimurium system. Cancer Res. 39:3289-3318. Sax, N. I. 1979. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, 5th ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. 1,118 pp. Sivak, A. 1982. An evaluation of assay procedures for detection of tumour promoters. Mutat. Res. 98:377-378. SRT International. Chemical Economics Handbook Program {a continuously updated program). International. Menlo Park, Calif.: SRI Upton, A. C., D. G. Clayson, J. D. Jansen, H. Rosenkranz, and G. Williams. Report of ICPEM Task Group on the Differentiation between Genotoxic and Non-Genotoxic Carcinogens. Mutat. Res. (in press) U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. 1981. Assessment of Technologies for Determining Cancer Risks from the Environment, pp. 135-136. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 1981. The Health Consequences of Smoking. The Changing Cigarette. A Report of the Surgeon General. DHHS(PHS) 81-50156. Rockville, Md.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office on Smoking and Health. 252 pp. 299

U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 1974. National Occupational Hazard Survey. Vol. 1: Survey Manual. NIOSH Publ. No. 74-127. Cincinnati, Ohio: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 202 pp. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 1977. National Occupational Hazard Survey. Vol. 2: Data Editing and Data Base Development. NIOSH Publ. No. 77-213. Cincinnati, Ohio: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 154 pp. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 1978. National Occupational Hazard Survey. Vol. 3: Survey Analysis and Supplemental Tables. NIOSH Publ. No. 78-114. Cincinnati, Ohio: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 799 pp. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1979. Act (TSCA) Chemical Substance Inventory. Toxic Substances Control Vol. 1. Initial Inventory. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1980. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Chemical Substance Inventory. Cumulative Supplement to the Inventory. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Weinstein, M. prevention. _ _ _, . 1983. Cost-effective priorities for cancer Science 221:17-23. Weisburger, J. H., and G. M. Williams. 1981. Carcinogen testing: Current problems and new approaches. Science 214:401-407. Windholz, M., S. Budavari, L. Y. Stroumtsos, and M. N. Fertig, Eds. 197 6. me Merck Index. An Encyclopedia of Chemicals and Drugs, 9th ed. Rahway, N.J.: Merck & Co. 1,313 pp. 300

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Prepared at the request of the National Toxicology Program, this landmark report reveals that many chemicals used in pesticides, cosmetics, drugs, food, and commerce have not been sufficiently tested to allow a complete determination of their potential hazards. Given the vast number of chemical substances to which humans are exposed, the authors use a model to show how research priorities for toxicity testing can be set.

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