National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: Appendix D: Biographical Sketches
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×

Index

A

Acetylcholine, 30, 248–249

synthesis affected by choline

in brain, 381, 387–388

in peripheral neurons, 389

ACTH, plasma levels in stress, 182

Acute-phase reactions in stress, 16–17, 180, 191–194

military aspects of, 195–196

Acute stress

and dopamine in brain, 166–167

and norepinephrine in brain, 164–165

and serotonin in brain, 168–169

tyrosine administration in

animal studies of, 282–287, 299

human studies of, 287–293, 298

Acyl-CoA transport, carnitine affecting, 434–437

Additives in foods, regulation of, 464

Adrenal glands, stress affecting, 14, 181–183

Aerobic endurance

ergogenic aids affecting, 226, 227–228

field task tests of, 123

laboratory tests of, 120–122 529

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×

Aerobic power measurements, 117–118

Alarm reaction, 14, 178, 181

Aldosterone secretion, stress affecting, 15, 183

Alertness, caffeine affecting, 409–410

in sleep deprivation, 420–421

Altitude

and effects of caffeine intake, 70–71

and effects of carbohydrate supplementation, 60, 67

Alzheimer’s disease, choline in, 248, 249–250, 402

Amino acids

branched-chain

brain levels affected by diet, 268

as energy source, 259

ratio to tryptophan, 225

as supplements, 267

as drugs or foods, 103, 106, 108–109

ergogenic effects of, 263–270

discussion of, 272–275

large neutral, ratio to tryptophan carbohydrate intake affecting, 22–23, 27

protein intake affecting, 241

plasma levels affected by carbohydrate intake, 329–330

recommended research and usage, 269–270, 458–459

requirements in chronic stress, 274

safety concerns with supplements, 36–38, 455–459

and regulation by FDA, 465–467

supplemental, affecting water consumption, 273

transport into brain, 169, 268

Amphetamine, effects of, 408, 424

Anaerobic power measurements, 117

Androgen secretion, stress affecting, 15, 185

Arachidonic acid, 362

Arginine

effects of administration, 272–273

immunological role of, 191

B

Bicarbonate

ergogenic effects of, 230–231

and muscle pH during exercise, 20, 60

Biochemical strategies for ration design, 7–8, 93–106

Biotin, safe and adequate intake of, 96

Blood doping as ergogenic aid, 226

Blood pressure, caffeine affecting , 33

Brain

function affected by choline, 387–388

neurotransmitters in. See Neurotransmitters in brain

responses to stress, 12–13

Breakfast, food intake in, 331, 336

C

Caffeine, 407–425

alertness affected by, 409–410

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×

in sleep deprivation, 420–421

discussion of, 428–431

effects in sleep deprivation, 411–424

ergogenic effects of, 228–229

expectancies affecting behavioral outcomes with, 141

mood affected by, 409–410

in sleep deprivation, 419–420

performance affected by, 32–34, 293–294, 409

in sleep deprivation, 416–419, 428–430

physiological effects of, 410–411, 421–423

potential to enhance performance, 49–50

recommended research and usage, 56–57, 424–425

research at USARIEM, 70–72

Calcium intake, recommended daily allowance for , 95

Caloric intake

deficiency of, time course for onset of symptoms in, 106

recommended daily allowance for, 95

Carbohydrate intake, 321–343

affecting load-bearing work and marksmanship, 69–70

balance with protein in, 331–332

and cognitive performance, 335–342

complex carbohydrates in, 323

cravings for, 23, 243–244, 334

deficiency of, time course for onset of symptoms in, 106

differences in affective response to, 333–334

discussion of, 348–350

effects at breakfast or at lunch, 331, 336–340

and fatigue, 326–335

folk beliefs on, 322–323

glucose ingestion affecting memory, 341

monoamines affecting, 12

mood changes from, 23, 26–27

and physical performance, 20–21, 342

potential to enhance performance, 49

and reactive hypoglycemia, 323, 328–329

recommended daily allowance, 95

recommended research and usage, 57, 59, 343

serotonin levels in brain affecting, 23, 242–244

and serotonin synthesis in brain, 329–330

simple sugars in, 322–323

in snacks, 340–341

as supplemental fuel source, 226–227, 232

and thermoregulation in cold exposure, 68

and work at high altitude, 60, 67

and work in heat, 68–69

Carcinogenesis, choline role in, 393–394

Cardiovascular stress, tyrosine affecting

in animals, 286–287

in humans, 288–289

Carnitine, 433–451

affecting pyruvate metabolism, 440–443

assay methods for, 438

discussion of, 452

and fatty acid oxidation, 358, 434

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×

functions of, 434–437

and lactate production, 436, 442

metabolism affected by exercise, 438–440, 447–449

and physical performance, 34–36

recommended research and usage, 58, 450–451

supplemental

and available coenzyme A pool, 444–445

dietary intake versus pharmacological doses in, 450

and exercise performance, 449

and fatty acids used during exercise, 443–444

and work output, 446–447

theoretical importance of, 51–52

Catecholamines

activity in stress, 279–280

affecting immune system, 198

plasma levels in stress, 181

synthesis in brain, 162–163

stress affecting, 12–13

tyrosine affecting synthesis of, 246–248, 278–279

Central nervous system responses to stress, 12–13

Chloride

deficiency of, time course for onset of symptoms in, 106

safe and adequate intake of, 96

Choline, 248–250, 381–394

and acetylcholine synthesis in brain, 381, 387–388

and carcinogenesis, 393–394

deficiency of, 30–31, 385–387

fatty liver in, 382, 386–387, 393, 404

dietary sources of, 382–383

discussion of, 402–405

effects at neuromuscular junction, 389

functions of, 29–30

and memory function, 388

metabolism of, 383–385

and neurotransmission in brain, 381, 387–388

plasma levels of, 383

exercise affecting, 404–405

potential areas of interest, 31–32

potential to enhance performance, 50–51

recommended research and usage, 57–58, 59, 394

requirements in humans, 382, 385–387, 402

safe and adequate intake of, 96

and transmembrane signaling, 381–382, 390–393

Chromium, safe and adequate intake of, 96

Chronic stress

amino acid requirements in, 274

and dopamine in brain, 167–168

and norepinephrine in brain, 165–166

and serotonin in brain, 169–170

Circadian rhythms

disruptions of

and adrenal function in stress, 14, 15

affecting performance, 144

stress affecting, 183

Cocoa butter, substitute for, 373

Cognitive performance. See Mental performance

Cold stress

carbohydrate intake affecting thermoregulation in, 68

memory impairment in, 301–316

discussion of, 319–320

glucose affecting, 28, 312–315

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×

tyrosine affecting, 25, 305–312

Combat settings

acute behavioral effects of, 281

food intake in, 10–11, 148–149, 269

sleep deprivation in, 9–10

stress reaction syndrome in, 281

Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR)

questions for, 4

responses to, 53–56

recommendations of, 56–60

Contextual variables affecting food intake, 10–11, 137–151

baseline data in, 139–140

in clinical disorders, 144

combat conditions affecting, 148–149

controlled treatment conditions in, 142

discussion of, 154–157

expectancies in, 140–141

individual differences in, 142–143

levels of treatment complexity in, 146–147

military issues in, 149–150

social factors in, 145–146

Copper, safe and adequate intake of, 96

Corticotropin-releasing factor

affecting immune system, 198

and effects of stress on working memory, 305–306

neuronal production of, 182

Cortisol

plasma levels in stress, 14, 182–183

secretion affected by cytokines, 197

Cycle ergometry, 120

glucose uptake studies in, 213–214

Cyclodextrins as carriers of nutrients, 103–104

Cytokines

and acute-phase reactions, 16–17, 180, 191–194

and cortisol secretion, 197

and hormone production, 14

responses to stress, 189–191

D

Deficiency syndromes, time course for onset of, 106

Dehydration, water intake in, 232, 233

Delivery of nutrients, biochemical strategies for, 100–104

Design of rations, 7, 77–91

basic performance-nutrient

concept in, 84–85

biochemical strategies for, 7–8, 93–106

controlled delivery of nutrients in, 101–104

barriers in, 101–102

discussion of, 108–109

encapsulation techniques in, 103–104

criteria for, 105–106

dual-function ingredients in, 104–105

experimental diets in, 86–89

factors affecting, 78

goal programming in, 85–86

interactions of nutrients in, 98–101

military nutrition standards in, 94–96

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×

practical considerations in, 97–101

self-heating individual meal modules in, 79–82

in tailored-ration system, 89

and time course for onset of nutrient deficiency syndromes, 106

Dexfenfluramine affecting serotonin levels, 243–244

Diacylglycerol, 368

role in transmembrane signalling, 391–392

Dichloroacetate

affecting blood lactate levels, 20

ergogenic effects of, 231

Dihydroxyacetone with pyruvate, ergogenic effects of, 229

Docosahexaenoic acid, 360–362

L-Dopa, food intake affecting therapeutic effects of, 241–242

Dopamine in brain

stress affecting, 13, 166–168

synthesis of, 162–163

tyrosine affecting, 246–248, 278

Drug or food categories

definitions of, 461–463

and delivery of nutrients, 103

dosages affecting, 106, 108–109

and effects of nutrients in pure form or in natural food form, 253–254

for ergogenic aids, 224

and FDA regulations, 38

Dual-function ingredients, 104–105

E

Eicosapentaenoic acid, 360–362

Encapsulation of nutrients, techniques for, 103–104

Endocrine responses to stress, 14–15, 180–186

in animal models, 215–217

in exercise, 214–215

interactions with immune responses, 197–199

pancreatic clamp studies, 215–216

Endorphins

affecting immune system, 198

stress affecting, 186

Endurance capacity tests, 120–123

Energy intake. See Caloric intake

Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome from tryptophan, 36, 455–456, 466–467

Epinephrine

affecting blood glucose levels, 18

plasma levels

in exercise, 214

in stress, 181

synthesis affected by tyrosine, 278

Ergogenic aids

to enhance recovery, 232–233

to maximize muscle glycogen stores, 225–226

neurostimulant, 224–225

to reduce metabolic by-products, 230–232

as supplemental fuel source, 226–230

Ergometry, cycle, 120

glucose uptake studies in, 213–214

Erythropoietin injections as ergogenic aid, 226

Exercise

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×

bicycle ergometer studies in, 213–214

carbohydrate supplementation in, 227, 232

carnitine metabolism in, 35–36, 438–440, 447–449

choline levels in, 404–405

effects of medium-chain triglycerides in, 229–230, 368–370, 378

in endurance tests, 120–121

fuel utilization in, 210–214

metabolic responses to, 18

F

Fat intake

deficiency of, time course for onset of symptoms in, 106

effects of, 254–255

recommended daily allowance for, 95

Fatigue

carbohydrate intake affecting, 26–27, 326–335

in carnitine deficiency, 34

Fatty acids.

See also Lipids, structured

intake affecting physical performance, 20

omega-3, 360–361, 379

omega-6, 361–362

oxidation affected by carnitine, 358, 434

plasma levels affected by caffeine, 228–229

triacylglycerol. See Triglycerides

Fear affecting food intake, 144

Fenfluramine affecting carbohydrate intake, 23

FieldBreak version of Meal Ready-to-Eat, 82

Fight or flight response to stress, 14, 178, 181

Fluoride, safe and adequate intake of, 96

Fluoxetine affecting serotonin release, 242

Folic acid affecting choline metabolism, 384–385

Follicle-stimulating hormone secretion, stress affecting, 15, 185

Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of food components, 38, 461–468

Food ingredients defined as drugs, 461–463.

See also Drug or food categories

G

G protein activation, and signal transduction, 391

Glucagon levels

in exercise, 18, 215

stress affecting, 14, 185

Glucocorticoids, adrenal

affecting immune system, 198

responses to stress, 14, 182–183

Glucose

administration affecting

performance, 28

memory performance in, 341

effects on cold-induced memory

impairment, 28, 312–315

in repeated acquisition procedures, 313–314

metabolism of

during exercise, 211–214

stress affecting, 17–19

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×

plasma levels

carbohydrate intake affecting, 227, 322–323

in reactive hypoglycemia, 323, 328–329

Glycogen in muscle

carbohydrate supplementation affecting, 227, 232

and lactate output from nonexercising muscles, 274–275

maximized by ergogenic aids, 225–226

Growth hormone

affecting immune system, 198

stress affecting secretion of, 15, 184

H

Heat

carbohydrate intake affecting thermoregulation in, 68–69

water loss in, 231–232

Heat shock proteins, 194–195

Heating of food

in self-heating individual meal modules, 79–82

as sterilization technique, 80

Helplessness

learned, 280

noradrenergic, 280

Homocysteine, and choline metabolism, 384–385

Hormonal responses to stress, 14–15.

See also Endocrine responses to stress

5-Hydroxytryptamine. See Serotonin in brain

Hypersensitivity, delayed, stress affecting, 188

Hypoglycemia, reactive, 323, 328–329

Hypoxia, hypobaric, effects of tyrosine in

in animals, 285–286

in humans, 287–288

I

Immune system

malnutrition affecting, 196–197

responses to stress, 15–17, 186–197

interactions with hormonal responses, 197–199

Immunizations, stress affecting antibody responses to, 188

Immunodeficiency syndrome, nutritionally acquired, 196

Individual differences

in affective response to carbohydrate intake, 333–334

in variables affecting food intake, 142–143

Infectious diseases, stress in, 179–180

Insulin

affecting tryptophan levels in plasma, 241

plasma levels

carbohydrate supplementation affecting, 227

in exercise, 18, 214–215

medium-chain fatty acids affecting, 370

stress affecting, 14, 185

Insulin-like growth factor, stress affecting, 186

Interleukins

IL-1, 192–194

IL-6, 194

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×

Intestinal hormones, stress affecting, 186

Iodine, safe and adequate intake of, 96

Iron, recommended daily allowance for, 95

K

Ketone bodies produced from medium-chain fatty acids, 359, 370

L

Lactate

accumulation affected by carnitine, 436, 442

efflux from muscle to blood affected by blood pH, 231

output in muscle glycogen breakdown, 274–275

Lecithin. See Phosphatidylcholine

Levodopa, food intake affecting therapeutic effects of, 241–242

LINDO program in design of combat rations, 85–86

Linoleic acid, 361

Lipids, structured, 351–374

definition of, 362–363

discussion of, 378–379

in enteral and parenteral nutrition, 364–368

and performance enhancement, 28–29

recommended research and usage, 58, 373–374

theoretical importance of, 52

therapeutic uses of, 373

Liposomes for delivery of nutrients, 104

Liver, fatty, in choline deficiency, 382, 386–387, 393, 404

Load-bearing work, carbohydrate intake affecting, 69–70

Lunch, food intake in, 331, 337–340

Luteinizing hormone levels, stress affecting, 185

Lymphocytes

hormones secreted by, 197–198

stress affecting, 187, 189

M

Magnesium, recommended daily allowance for, 95

Malnutrition. See Undernutrition

Manganese, safe and adequate intake of, 96

Marksmanship, carbohydrate intake affecting, 69–70

Meals Ready-to-Eat (MRE), 79

FieldBreak version of, 82

testing of, 148, 149, 155

Memory performance

choline affecting, 388

cold-induced impairment of, 301–320.

See also Cold stress, memory impairment in

glucose intake affecting, 341

Mental performance

caffeine affecting, 32, 409

in sleep deprivation, 416–419

carbohydrate intake affecting, 27–28, 335–342

choline affecting, 31

and cold-induced memory impairment, 301–320

evaluation of, 9–10

food components affecting, 21–24

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×

protein intake affecting, 27–28

sleep deprivation affecting, 128

effects of caffeine in, 416–419

Metabolism

carnitine, exercise affecting, 438–440, 447–449

choline, 383–385

and energy supply for muscular activity, 115–118

and fuel utilization during exercise, 210–213

of long-chain triglycerides, 352–355

of medium-chain triglycerides, 356–359

pyruvate, carnitine affecting, 440–443

stress affecting, 17–19, 209–234

Methionine, and choline metabolism, 384–385

Micelles as carriers of nutrients, 104

Microwave heating for sterilization of food, 80

Minerals

supplemental, regulation of, 465

trace, deficiency of, time course for onset of symptoms in, 106

Molybdenum, safe and adequate intake of, 96

Monoamine neurotransmitters. See Neurotransmitters in brain

Mood

affecting performance, 324–326

caffeine affecting, 32–33, 409–410

in sleep deprivation, 419–420

carbohydrate intake affecting, 23, 26–27, 266, 324–335

and food intake, 144

protein intake affecting, 266

Motivation affecting performance, 325–326

Muscle

carnitine concentrations in exercise, 439

energy supply for, 115–116

glycogen levels

carbohydrate supplementation affecting, 227, 232

and lactate output from nonexercising muscles, 274–275

maximized by ergogenic aids, 225–226

strength measurements, 116–117

N

Nanocapsules for nutrients, 103–104

Neuroendocrine-immune system responses to stress, 177–200

Neuromotor control, assessment of, 118–119

Neurotransmitters in brain

effects on nutrient intake, 22–24

nutrients affecting release of, 22, 239–251

discussion of, 253–261

precursor control of, 245–246

stress affecting, 12–13, 161–175

Nitric oxide, effects of, 190–191

Norepinephrine

affecting blood glucose levels, 18–19

brain activity affected by stress, 12–13, 164–166

plasma levels

exercise affecting, 18, 214

in stress, 181

synthesis in brain, 162–163

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×

tyrosine affecting synthesis of, 246–248, 278

Nutritional standards for military rations, 94–96

O

Obesity, carbohydrate craving in, 243–244, 334

Ohmic heating for sterilization of food, 80

Opioid peptides

affecting immune system, 198

response to carbohydrate intake, 327

stress affecting, 186

Oxytocin levels, stress affecting, 186

P

Pancreas

clamp studies of hormones affecting glucose production, 215–216

hormones affected by stress, 185

Pangamic acid, dichloroacetate activity in, 231

Pantothenic acid, safe and adequate intake of, 96

Parasympathetic cholinergic neurotransmission, choline affecting, 389

Pemmican affecting performance, 255

Performance enhancement research at USARIEM, 65–74

Phosphate

intake affecting tissue oxygen extraction, 20

loading with, ergogenic effects of, 226

Phosphatidylcholine, 30, 248–250, 382, 390

as dietary supplement, 383, 403–404

hydrolysis products of, 392–393

plasma levels of, 383

Phospholipase C activation, and signal transduction, 391

Phospholipids, choline, 382, 390

and signal transduction, 392–393

Phosphorus, recommended daily allowance for, 95

Physical performance

aerobic power in, 117–118

anaerobic power in, 117

carbohydrate intake affecting, 26–27, 342

carnitine affecting, 34–36

energy substrate supply in, 119

evaluation of, 8, 113–124

food components affecting, 19–21

metabolic capacity in, 115–118

muscular strength in, 116–117

neuromotor control in, 118–119

physiological factors in, 114–120

psychological factors in, 114

submaximal endurance capacity in, 120–123

tissue homeostasis in, 120

Pituitary hormones, stress affecting, 14, 184–185

Potassium, recommended daily allowance for, 95

Pregnancy, effects of caffeine in, 34

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×

Premenstrual syndrome, carbohydrate craving in, 244, 334

Prolactin

affecting immune system, 198

stress affecting secretion of, 15, 184–185

Prostaglandin blocking agents affecting performance in stress, 17, 60, 193

Protein intake

affecting tryptophan and serotonin levels in brain, 241

and appetite regulation, 266

and cognitive performance, 27–28

deficiency of, time course for onset of symptoms in, 106

ergogenic effects of, 263–270

discussion of, 272–275

normal, 243

recommended daily allowance for, 95

requirements in stress, 264–265, 269

and tryptophan levels in plasma, 331–332

Protein kinase C activation, and signal transduction, 391–392

Pyruvate

with dihydroxyacetone, ergogenic effects of, 229

metabolism affected by carnitine, 440–443

R

Radiation for sterilization of food, 80

Reaction times, caffeine affecting, 409

in sleep deprivation, 416

Recommendations regarding food components, 56–59

amino acids, 269–270, 458–459

caffeine, 56–57, 424–425

carbohydrates, 57, 59, 343

carnitine, 58, 450–451

choline, 57–58, 59, 394

glucose, 316

and ration design, 104–106

structured lipids, 58, 373–374

tyrosine, 58–59, 293–294, 315–316

Recommended dietary allowances, military, 6, 95–96, 481–500

Regulation of food components by FDA, 38, 461–468

discussion of, 469–475

Renin secretion, stress affecting, 15, 183

Research in nutritional enhancement of soldier performance, 5–6

potential areas for, 59–60

studies at USARIEM from 1985 to 1992, 65–74

S

Safety of supplements

amino acids, 36–38, 455–459

ingredients generally recognized as safe, 463–464

and regulation by FDA, 38, 461–468

Seasonal affective disorder, carbohydrate craving in, 244, 334

Secretin levels in plasma, stress affecting, 186

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×

Selenium, safe and adequate intake of, 96

Self-heating individual meal modules, 79–82

Selye’s studies of responses to stress, 14, 178–179

Serotonin in brain

affecting carbohydrate intake, 23

branched-chain amino acid supplements affecting, 225

and nutrient choice regulation, 242–244

stress affecting, 13, 168–170

synthesis of, 163

carbohydrate intake affecting, 329–330

tryptophan affecting, 240–242

Signalling, transmembrane, choline’s role in, 381–382, 390–393

Situational variables affecting food intake, 137–157

Sleep deprivation, 9–10, 127–134

affecting food intake, 258

and effects of brief fragmented sleep, 129–130

effects of caffeine in, 32, 33, 411–424

effects of glucose in, 28

mental performance in, 128

Snacks affecting performance, 340–341, 349

Social factors affecting food intake, 145–146

Sodium

deficiency of, time course for onset of symptoms in, 106

recommended daily allowance for, 95

“Soldier as a System” initiative, 4, 66

Somatomedin C levels, stress affecting, 186

Sphingomyelin, 393

Standards for nutrition in military rations, 94–96

Starches, glycemic responses to, 323

Sterilization of foods, methods in, 80

Steroids, androgenic, adverse effects of, 15

Stimulants

amphetamine, 408, 424

caffeine. See Caffeine

as ergogenic aids, 224–225

Stress

brain function in, 12–13

catecholamines in, 279–280

combat stress reaction syndrome, 281

endocrine responses to, 14–15, 180–186

in animal models, 215–217

in exercise, 214–215

interactions with immune responses, 197–199

pancreatic clamp studies, 215–216

immune system responses to, 15–17, 186–197

interactions with hormonal responses, 197–199

in infectious diseases, 179–180

metabolic responses to, 17–19, 209–234

and monoamine neurons in brain, 161–171

discussion of, 174–175

dopamine, 166–168

norepinephrine, 164–166

serotonin, 168–170

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×

protein requirements in, 264–265

Stress proteins, 194–195

T

Tardive dyskinesia, choline in, 249

Testosterone levels, stress affecting, 15, 185

Thermoregulation, carbohydrates affecting

in cold exposure, 68

in heat, 68–69

Thymic involution, stress-induced, 187

Thyroid hormone levels, stress affecting, 15, 184

Trace minerals, deficiency of, time course for onset of symptoms in, 106

Treadmill tests, 120

Triglycerides

hepatic accumulation in choline deficiency, 382, 386–387, 393

long-chain

energy content of, 359

metabolism of, 352–355

mixed with medium-chain triglycerides, 358, 368

medium-chain, 355–360

energy content of, 359

in exercise studies, 229–230, 368–370, 378

mixed with long-chain triglycerides, 358, 368

therapeutic uses of, 360, 373

thermal response to, 359, 370, 378

Tryptophan

brain levels of

protein diet affecting, 268, 272

stress affecting, 168–169

effects in pure form or in natural food form, 253–254

eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome from, 36, 455–456, 466–467

plasma levels of, protein affecting, 331–332

ratio to branched-chain amino acids, 225

ratio to other large neutral amino acids, 241

carbohydrate intake affecting, 22–23, 27, 329

safety of, 36, 59

and serotonin synthesis in brain, 240–242

therapeutic uses of, 267

transport into brain, 241, 260

Tumor necrosis factor, 194

Tyrosine, 277–294

and acute stress

animal studies of, 282–287, 299

human studies of, 287–293, 298

and cold-induced memory

impairment, 25, 305–312

in field operations, 307–308

in repeated acquisition procedures, 310

dietary supplements of, 12–13, 24, 266–268

safety of, 36, 37

discussion of, 298–299

effects in pure form or in natural food form, 253–254

and mental performance, 21

potential to enhance performance, 50, 293–294

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×

recommended research and usage, 58–59, 293–294, 315–316

research at USARIEM, 72–73

and synthesis of dopamine and norepinephrine in brain, 162–163, 246–248

U

Underconsumption of rations during combat, 10–11, 148–149, 269

Undernutrition

hepatic glucose production in, 261

and immune system dysfunction, 196–197

performance in, 258

and time course for onset of deficiency syndromes, 106

U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM), performance enhancement research from 1985 to 1992, 65–74

V

Vaccines, stress affecting antibody responses to, 188

Vasoactive intestinal peptide

affecting immune system, 198

stress affecting, 186

Vasopressin, arginine, plasma levels affected by stress, 186

Vitamin intake

deficiency of, time course for onset of symptoms in, 106

recommendations for, 95, 96

regulation of supplements in, 465

W

Warrior’s Edge, 150

Water

deficiency of, time course for onset of symptoms in, 106

intake of

affecting physical performance, 20

amino acids affecting, 273

in dehydration, 232, 233

losses from heat, 231–232

Work-producing aids. See Ergogenic aids

Wound healing, choline affecting, 31–32

Z

Zinc, recommended daily allowance for, 95

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×

There was a problem loading page 544.

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×
Page 529
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×
Page 530
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×
Page 531
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×
Page 532
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×
Page 533
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×
Page 534
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×
Page 535
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×
Page 536
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×
Page 537
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×
Page 538
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×
Page 539
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×
Page 540
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×
Page 541
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×
Page 542
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×
Page 543
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1994. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4563.
×
Page 544
Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $137.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

The physiological or psychological stresses that employees bring to their workplace affect not only their own performance but that of their co-workers and others. These stresses are often compounded by those of the job itself. Medical personnel, firefighters, police, and military personnel in combat settings--among others--experience highly unpredictable timing and types of stressors.

This book reviews and comments on the performance-enhancing potential of specific food components. It reflects the views of military and non-military scientists from such fields as neuroscience, nutrition, physiology, various medical specialties, and performance psychology on the most up-to-date research available on physical and mental performance enhancement in stressful conditions. Although placed within the context of military tasks, the volume will have wide-reaching implications for individuals in any job setting.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!