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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals

Fourth Revised Edition, 1995

Subcommittee on Laboratory Animal Nutrition

Committee on Animal Nutrition

Board on Agriculture

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1995

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

This study was supported by the National Institutes of Health of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services under cooperative agreement No. 5 R01 RR06161-03. Additional support was provided by Ziegler Brothers, Inc., and Harlan Sprague-Dawley Co.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Nutrient requirements of laboratory animals / Subcommittee on Laboratory Animal Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture, National Research Council. — 4th rev. ed.

p. cm. — (Nutrient requirements of domestic animals)

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 0-309-05126-6

1. Laboratory animals—Feeding and feeds. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Laboratory Animal Nutrition. II. Series.

SF95.N32

[SF406.2]

636.08'542 s—dc20

[636'.93233] 94-43585

CIP

© 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

SUBCOMMITTEE ON LABORATORY ANIMAL NUTRITION

NORLIN J. BENEVENGA, Chair,

University of Wisconsin, Madison

CHRISTOPHER CALVERT,

University of California, Davis

CURTIS D. ECKHERT,

University of California, Los Angeles

GEORGE C. FAHEY,

University of Illinois

JANET L. GREGER,

University of Wisconsin, Madison

CARL L. KEEN,

University of California, Davis

JOSEPH J. KNAPKA,

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

HULDA MAGALHAES,

Bucknell University

OLAV T. OFTEDAL,

National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C.

PHILIP G. REEVES,

Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Grand Forks, North Dakota

HELEN ANDERSON SHAW,

University of North Carolina, Greensboro

JOHN EDGAR SMITH,

Pennsylvania State University, University Park

ROBERT D. STEELE,

University of Wisconsin, Madison

COMMITTEE ON ANIMAL NUTRITION

HAROLD F. HINTZ, Chair,

Cornell University

GARY L. CROMWELL,

University of Kentucky

GEORGE C. FAHEY,

University of Illinois

RONALD L. HORST,

Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa

TERRY J. KLOPFENSTEIN,

University of Nebraska

LAURIE M. LAWRENCE,

University of Kentucky

LARRY M. MILLIGAN,

University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada

ALICE N. PELL,

Cornell University

JERRY L. SELL,

Iowa State University

ROBERT P. WILSON,

Mississippi State University

Staff

MARY I. POOS, Project Director

JANET OVERTON, Editor

DENNIS BLACKWELL, Senior Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

BOARD ON AGRICULTURE

DALE E. BAUMAN, Chair,

Cornell University

PHILIP H. ABELSON,

American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.

JOHN M. ANTLE,

Montana State University

WILLIAM B. DELAUDER,

Delaware State University

SUSAN K. HARLANDER,

Land O'Lakes, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota

RICHARD R. HARWOOD,

Michigan State University

T. KENT KIRK,

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Madison, Wisconsin

JAMES R. MOSELEY,

Jim Moseley Farms, Inc., Clarks Hill, Indiana, and Purdue University

NORMAN R. SCOTT,

Cornell University

GEORGE E. SEIDEL, JR.,

Colorado State University

CHRISTOPHER R. SOMERVILLE,

Carnegie Institute of Washington, Stanford, California

PATRICIA B. SWAN,

Iowa State University

JOHN R. WELSER,

The Upjohn Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan

Staff

SUSAN E. OFFUTT, Executive Director

CARLA CARLSON, Director of Communications

JANET OVERTON, Editor

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

Preface

The first edition of Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals was published in 1962. It summarized the nutrient requirements of the rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, monkey, and cat based on an evaluation of the literature. The second revised edition was published in 1972 and updated the information presented in the first edition. The third revised edition was published in 1978 and was expanded to include a chapter on general aspects of nutrition, and the species chapters incorporated information on expected growth and reproductive performance in addition to the nutrient requirements of the laboratory rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, gerbil, vole, and the nutrient requirements of fishes.

In this, the fourth revised edition, the subcommittee reviewed the literature and summarized the nutrient requirements of the rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, gerbil, and vole. The subcommittee structure was altered for this publication as members were assigned by nutrient across species rather than by nutrient within a species. This structure provided the subcommittee with nutrient expertise that could be applied to more than one species. To maintain a species expertise, one member of the subcommittee was designated as the species chair and integrated the information into the chapter. The species chair also developed a section on expected growth and reproduction of the various breeds within a species and reviewed the literature to assemble natural-ingredient and purified diets that should meet the needs of animals of the species used in long-term studies.

After its review of the literature, the subcommittee emphasized the need for experiments designed to determine nutrient requirements of laboratory animals. Work of that nature is of considerable value in compiling the information contained in a publication such as this. Thus, not all the requirements reported in this publication were derived from experiments specifically designed to estimate the requirement of a nutrient, and interpretation of published work was required to derive an estimate. Where appropriate, the subcommittee used information available for one species to estimate the requirements for another species. The text devoted to each nutrient includes a description of decisions made to obtain the requirement shown in the table.

The subcommittee thanks Mary Poos, Dennis Blackwell, and Janet Overton for their assistance during the development and preparation of this document.

N. J. Benevenga, Chair

Subcommittee on Laboratory Animal Nutrition

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
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This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

Tables and Figures

TABLES

2-1

 

Some Reproductive Characteristics of Representative Strains of Inbred and Outbred Rat Colonies at the National Institutes of Health

 

12

2-2

 

Estimated Nutrient Requirements for Maintenance, Growth, and Reproduction of Rats

 

13

2-3

 

Examples of Natural-Ingredient Diets Used for Rat and Mouse Colonies at the National Institutes of Health

 

14

2-4

 

Example of a Commonly Used Purified Diet (AIN-76A) for Rats

 

14

2-5

 

Examples of Recently Tested Purified Diets for Rapid Growth of Young Rats and Mice or for Maintenance of Adult Rats and Mice

 

15

2-6

 

Relative Ability of n-6 and n-3 Fatty Acids to Alleviate Several Signs of EFA Deficiency in Rats

 

19

2-7

 

Digestibility of Some Selected Dietary Fats

 

21

2-8

 

Examples of Amino Acid Patterns Used in Studies with Purified Diets Containing 5 Percent Fat

 

24

2-9

 

Comparison of National Research Council Estimates of Indispensable Amino Acid Requirements for Growth

 

25

2-10

 

Equivalence of β-Carotene and Retinol at Different Concentrations

 

38

2-11

 

Vitamin A Repletion of Vitamin A-Deficient Rats

 

38

3-1

 

Average Growth of Commonly Used Strains of Laboratory Mice

 

81

3-2

 

Some Reproductive Characteristics of Representative Strains of Inbred and Outbred Mouse Colonies Maintained at the National Institutes of Health

 

81

3-3

 

Estimated Nutrient Requirements of Mice

 

82

3-4

 

Protein Requirements for Growth for Various Strains of Mice

 

86

3-5

 

Protein Requirements for Reproduction for Various Strains of Mice

 

87

3-6

 

Amino Acid Requirements for Growth for Various Strains of Mice

 

88

4-1

 

Estimated Nutrient Requirements for Growth for Guinea Pigs

 

104

4-2

 

Example of a Natural-Ingredient Diet Used for Guinea Pig Breeding Colonies at the National Institutes of Health

 

106

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

4-3

 

Examples of Four Satisfactory Purified Diets for Guinea Pigs

 

106

4-4

 

Protein Requirement for Growth for Various Strains of Guinea Pigs

 

109

4-5

 

Amino Acid Requirement for Growth for Male Hartley Guinea Pigs

 

110

5-1

 

Names, Characteristics, and History of Laboratory Hamsters

 

126

5-2

 

Developmental Indices for Golden, Chinese, and Siberian Hamsters

 

127

5-3

 

Reproductive Indices for Golden, Chinese, and Siberian Hamsters

 

128

5-4

 

Growth of Golden Hamster Outbred Cr:RGH (SYR)

 

129

5-5A

 

Rutten and de Groot Purified Diet for Hamsters

 

129

5-5B

 

Rutten and de Groot Mineral Mix

 

129

5-5C

 

Rutten and de Groot Vitamin Mix

 

129

5-6A

 

Hayes Purified Diet for Hamsters

 

130

5-6B

 

Hayes Mineral Mix

 

130

5-6C

 

Hayes-Cathcart Vitamin Mix

 

130

5-7A

 

Natural-Ingredient Diet for Hamsters

 

130

5-7B

 

Trace Mineral Mix

 

130

5-7C

 

Vitamin Mix

 

130

5-8

 

Protein Requirements

 

130

6-1

 

Reproductive and Developmental Indices for the Mongolian Gerbil

 

140

7-1

 

Reproductive and Developmental Indices for Voles

 

145

FIGURES

2-1

 

Mean body weight of male and female rats of five inbred strains

 

12

2-2

 

Nitrogen gain response curves

 

25

APPENDIX TABLES

1

 

Fatty Acid Composition (%) of Some Common Fats Used in Rodent Diets

 

151

2

 

Amino Acid Composition (mg/g nitrogen) of Purified Proteins Used in Laboratory Animal Diets

 

152

3

 

Molecular Weights of Vitamins

 

152

4

 

Conversion Factors

 

153

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals

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In the years since the third edition of this indispensable reference was published, a great deal has been learned about the nutritional requirements of common laboratory species: rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, gerbil, and vole.

The Fourth Revised Edition presents the current expert understanding of the lipid, carbohydrate, protein, mineral, vitamin, and other nutritional needs of these animals. The extensive use of tables provides easy access to a wealth of comprehensive data and resource information. The volume also provides an expanded background discussion of general dietary considerations.

In addition to a more user-friendly organization, new features in this edition include:

  1. A significantly expanded section on dietary requirements for rats, reporting substantial new findings.
  2. A new section on nutrients that are not required but that may produce beneficial results.

New information on growth and reproductive performance among the most commonly used strains of rats and mice and on several hamster species.

  1. An expanded discussion of diet formulation and preparation--including sample diets of both purified and natural ingredients.
  2. New information on mineral deficiency and toxicity, including warning signs.

This authoritative resource will be important to researchers, laboratory technicians, and manufacturers of laboratory animal feed.

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