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Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
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Appendix

Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
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This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

APPENDIX TABLE 1 Fatty Acid Composition (%) of Some Common Fats Used in Rodent Diets

Fatty Acidsa

Canola Oilb

Cocoa Butterc

Coconut (hydrogenated-96°) Oild

Corn Oile

Cottonseed Oil

Fish (Menhaden) Oilf

Tallow

Linseed Oilg

Olive Oilh

Peanut Oil

Sunflower Oili

Soybean Oilj

8:0

 

 

6.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10:0

 

 

5.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12:0

 

 

46.7

 

 

0.2

0.1

 

 

 

 

 

14:0

 

0.1

18.5

0.1

0.8

7.3

3.4

 

 

0.1

0.1

0.1

14:1

 

 

0.2

 

 

 

0.7

 

 

 

 

 

15:0

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.6

 

 

 

 

 

16:0

3.9

25.4

9.5

11.0

23.4

19.0

24.8

5.3

12.0

10.9

6.7

10.5

16:1

0.2

0.2

 

0.1

0.6

9.1

3.4

 

1.2

0.1

0.1

 

17:0

 

 

 

 

 

0.9

1.3

 

0.1

0.1

 

0.1

17:1

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.8

 

0.1

0.1

 

 

18:0

2.0

33.2

3.1

2.2

2.4

4.2

18.6

4.1

2.3

2.5

4.8

3.9

18:1(n-9)

61.8

32.6

7.1

25.5

17.9

13.2

42.2

20.2

72.9

45.8

18.7

22.6

18:2(n-6)

20.0

2.8

1.9

59.5

53.6

1.3

2.8

12.7

9.6

33.0

67.3

54.2

18:3(n-3)

9.3

0.1

0.1

1.0

0.5

1.3

0.8

53.3

1.0

0.5

1.1

7.7

20:0

0.4

 

 

0.4

0.3

0.4

0.3

 

0.1

1.3

0.2

0.3

20:1(n-11)

1.5

 

 

0.3

 

2.0

 

 

0.3

1.0

0.2

 

20:4(n-6)

 

 

 

 

 

0.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

20:5(n-3)

 

 

 

 

 

11.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

22:0

0.4

 

 

 

 

0.2

 

 

0.1

2.9

0.6

0.3

22:1(n-11)

0.5

 

 

 

 

0.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

22:6(n-3)

 

 

 

 

 

9.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other

0.0

5.6

0.3

0.0

0.5

20.0

0.2

4.4

0.3

1.7

0.3

0.2

n-6:n-3

2.2

28.0

19.0

59.5

107.2

0.1

3.5

0.2

9.6

66.0

61.2

7.0

NOTE: Unless otherwise indicated, fatty acid composition was supplied by E. Wayne Emmons, AOCS Chromatography Chairman, 1991 (personal communication).

a 14:1 and 17:1 contain double bond in n-9 or n-11 position, exact position unknown.

b Abundance of n-3 and monounsaturated fat.

c Abundance of long-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid composition from U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook No. 8-4 (1979).

d A highly saturated fat; contains predominantly medium-chain triglycerides and very little trans fatty acid.

e Good source of essential fatty acid, n-6; suggested for use in the AIN-76 rodent reference diet (American Institute of Nutrition, 1977).

f Contains large amounts of very long chain n-3 fatty acids; usually needs to be supplemented with an n-6 containing oil for use in a rodent diet (fatty acid composition from Ackman, R. G., 1982).

g Contains large quantity n-3 fatty acid; fatty acid composition from U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook No. 8-4 (1979).

h Contains large quantity of monounsaturated fat.

i Greatest source of n-6 fatty acid of these fat sources.

j Contains significant quantity of n-6 and n-3 fatty acid; partially hydrogenated soybean oil will also contain some trans fatty acids.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

APPENDIX TABLE 2 Amino Acid Composition (mg/g nitrogen) of Purified Proteins Used in Laboratory Animal Diets

Amino Acid

Acid Casein

ANRC Casein

Lactalbumin

Whey Protein Concentrate

Soybean Protein Isolate

Alanine

188

188

369

331

269

Arginine

231

231

188

175

475

Asparagine

431

469

769

681

725

Cystine

25

25

200

169

81

Glutamic acid

1,306

1,563

925

1,094

1,194

Glycine

113

125

144

125

263

Histidine

181

200

131

131

163

Isoleucine

288

313

319

338

306

Leucine

569

594

875

744

513

Lysine

481

488

669

588

394

Methionine

181

200

131

156

81

Phenylalanine

319

331

244

219

325

Proline

650

706

319

331

319

Serine

363

381

313

338

325

Threonine

269

300

369

413

238

Tryptophan

75

75

144

125

81

Tyrosine

344

369

250

206

238

Valine

356

388

313

319

313

NOTE: Data was obtained from New Zealand Milk Products, Inc., and Protein Technologies International. All calculations assume protein contained 16 percent nitrogen.

APPENDIX TABLE 3 Molecular Weights of Vitamins

Compound

Molecular Weight

Vitamin A

 

Retinol

286.46

3,4-Dehydroretinol (vitamin A2)

284.44

Retinaldehyde (Retinal)

284.44

Retinoic acid

300.44

Retinyl acetate

328.50

Retinyl palmitate

524.88

Retinyl stearate

552.93

Retinyl oleate

550.91

β-Carotene

536.89

Vitamin D

 

Ergocalciferol (vitamin D2)

396.66

Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3)

384.65

25-Hydroxycholecalciferol

400.65

1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol

416.65

Vitamin E

 

α-Tocopherol

430.72

α-Tocopheryl acetate

472.76

β-Tocopherol

416.69

γ-Tocopherol

416.69

δ-Tocopherol

402.66

α-Tocotrienol

424.67

Vitamin K

 

Phylloquinone (vitamin K1)

450.71

Menaquinone-4

444.66

Menaquinone-7

649.02

Menaquinone-8

717.14

Meanquinone-9

785.26

Menadione

172.18

Menadione sodium bisulfite

276.25

Menadione dimethylpyridinol

 

bisulfite

378.41

Vitamin C

 

Ascorbic acid

176.13

Dehydroascorbic acid

174.11

Biotin

 

Biotin

244.32

Choline

 

Choline (free base)

104.17

Choline bitartrate

253.25

Choline chloride

139.63

Folate

 

Folic acid

441.41

Niacin

 

Nicotinic acid

123.11

Nicotinamide

122.13

Pantothenic acid

 

Pantothenic acid

219.24

Sodium pantothenate

241.22

Calcium pantothenate

476.54

Calcium pantothenate monohydrate

494.56

Vitamin B6

 

Pyridoxine hydrochloride

205.64

Pyridoxal

167.17

Pyridoxal hydrochloride

203.63

Pyridoxamine dihydrochloride

241.12

Pyridoxal phosphate

247.15

Riboflavin

 

Riboflavin

376.37

Sodium riboflavin phosphate

 

(FMN)

478.33

Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)

785.56

Thiamin

 

Thiamin hydrochloride

337.27

Thiamin diphosphate chloride

460.77

Thiamin mononitrate

327.36

Thiamin triphosphate

504.29

Vitamin B12

 

Cyanocobalamin

1,355.39

Hydroxocobalamin

1,346.38

5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin

1,579.61

NOTE: Data are based on atomic weights from Pure and Applied Chemistry (1991; 63:978-979).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

APPENDIX TABLE 4 Conversion Factors

Element

Traditional Unit

Converted Equivalent

Vitamin A

1 international unit

0.3 µg retinol

 

1 international unit

0.34 µg retinyl acetate

 

1 international unit

0.55 µg retinyl palmitate

 

1 international unit

0.6 µg β-carotene

 

1 retinol equivalent

1 µg retinol

 

1 retinol equivalent

6 µg β-carotene

 

1 retinol equivalent

12 µg other provitamin A carotenoids

 

1 retinol equivalent

3.33 IU vitamin A activity from retinol

 

1 retinol equivalent

10 IU vitamin A activity from β-carotene

Vitamin D

1 international unit

25 ng cholecalciferol (vitamin D3)

Vitamin E

1 international unit

1 mg all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate

 

1 international unit

0.74 mg RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate

 

1 international unit

0.91 mg all-rac-α-tocopherol

 

1 international unit

0.67 mg RRR-α-tocopherol

Thiamin

1 international unit

3 µg thiamin hydrochloride

NOTE: These terms are now obsolete; the preferred expression is the molar concentration.

SOURCE: John Edgar Smith, Penn State University, personal communication, 1994.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×
Page 149
Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×
Page 150
Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×
Page 151
Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×
Page 152
Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×
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In the years since the third edition of this indispensable reference was published, a great deal has been learned about the nutritional requirements of common laboratory species: rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, gerbil, and vole.

The Fourth Revised Edition presents the current expert understanding of the lipid, carbohydrate, protein, mineral, vitamin, and other nutritional needs of these animals. The extensive use of tables provides easy access to a wealth of comprehensive data and resource information. The volume also provides an expanded background discussion of general dietary considerations.

In addition to a more user-friendly organization, new features in this edition include:

  1. A significantly expanded section on dietary requirements for rats, reporting substantial new findings.
  2. A new section on nutrients that are not required but that may produce beneficial results.

New information on growth and reproductive performance among the most commonly used strains of rats and mice and on several hamster species.

  1. An expanded discussion of diet formulation and preparation--including sample diets of both purified and natural ingredients.
  2. New information on mineral deficiency and toxicity, including warning signs.

This authoritative resource will be important to researchers, laboratory technicians, and manufacturers of laboratory animal feed.

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