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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

Index

A

Achromotrichia

mice, 94, 95

rats, 47, 49

Acyl ceramide, 19

Acyl glucosyl ceramide, 19

Adenosine triphosphate, rats, 51

Aflatoxin B1, 51

Age-related differences

nutrient requirements, 3

rat

protein requirements, 23

vitamin K deficiency, 44

vitamin requirements, 39, 40-42

Aging research, rats in, 27

Alanine

ascorbic acid-deficient guinea pigs, 117

vitamin B6 metabolism and, rats, 45-46

Alcohol research, 7

Aldehyde oxidase, rats, 33

Alkaline phosphatase, guinea pigs, 117

Alopecia

gerbils, 141, 142

guinea pigs, 110, 118

mice, 85, 91, 94, 95

rats, 27, 36, 47, 49, 50

Amino acids

in common feed formulations, 152

crystalline, 103, 111-112

genetic differences in requirements, 3

gerbil requirements, 141

guinea pig requirements, 107-112

hamster requirements, 131-132

isomeric forms, 6

mouse requirements, 85-88

rat

requirements, 23-26

vitamin B6 metabolism and, 45-46

vole requirements, 146

See also specific amino acid

Anemia

guinea pigs, 113, 117, 118, 119

mice, 90, 95

rats, 26, 31, 32, 36, 45, 48

Anorexia

guinea pigs, 119

mice, 91

rats, 31, 36, 52

Antibiotics

myo-inositol in mouse diet and, 97

pantothenic acid deficiency and, 49

Antioxidants

storage of feedstuffs, 8

vitamin E as, 41

Arachidonic acid

gerbil metabolism, 141

rat tissue concentration, 18-19

Arginine

guinea pig requirements, 103, 108-109, 111

mouse requirements, 87

in rat diet, 25, 27, 53

Ariboflavinosis, mice, 95-96

Armenian hamster, 125

Arsenic in guinea pig diet, 119-120

Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, 51

Ascorbic acid

in guinea pig diet

requirements, 117-118

vitamin D metabolism and, 116

in hamster diet, 136

L-gulonolactone oxidase in synthesis of, 3

in mouse diet, 96-97

in rat diet, 57

mineral interactions, 31

vole requirement, 147

Asparagine, in rat diet, 25, 26

Aspartate aminotransferase, 45-46

Ataxia

guinea pigs, 114

mice, 96

rats, 27, 33

Autoclave sterilization of diets, 8

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

B

Bacterial contaminants, 9

Binders, in pelleted diets, 6

Bioavailability

chemically defined diets, 6

natural-ingredient diets, 5

Biotin

dietary role, 47

guinea pig requirements, 118

hamster requirements, 134

mouse requirements, 94

rat requirements, 47

Blood abnormalities

guinea pigs, 117, 118, 119

hamsters, 134

mice, 90

rats, 29, 30, 31, 36, 42, 43-44, 46, 51, 52, 55

Blood pressure, rat

chloride deficiency and, 29

potassium concentrations and, 30

sodium toxicity and, 30

Bone abnormalities

guinea pigs, 112-113, 115, 116, 118

mice, 89

rats, 27, 28, 30, 31, 33, 39, 40, 41, 42

Boron, in guinea pig diet, 119-120

C

Cadmium

in guinea pig diet, 119-120

in rat diet, 31, 36

Calcium

gerbil requirements, 141

guinea pig requirements, 112-113

hamster requirements, 132-133

mouse requirements, 88-89

rat

mineral interactions, 27-29, 33

nephrocalcinosis and, 37

requirements, 27-28

vitamin metabolism, 40, 41

vole requirements, 147

Caloric intake

rat, 15

growth energy, 16-17

maintenance energy, 16

protein deficiency, 26

restrictions, 9

Cancer, vitamin A and, mice, 92

Cancer research

hamsters in, 125

rats in, 27

Carbohydrates

guinea pig requirements, 108

hamster requirements, 129-131

mouse requirements, 85

in purified diets, 5

rat requirements, 20-22

Carboxylase enzymes, 47

Cardiovascular abnormalities

guinea pigs, 114, 116

mice, 90, 94

rats, 29, 31, 32, 48, 52

Carnitine

ascorbic acid-deficient guinea pigs, 117

riboflavin metabolism and, rats, 51

Carnosine, mouse requirements, 87

Carotenoids

guinea pig utilization, 115

in rat diet, 20, 38-40

Casein

in guinea pig diet, 108-109

in hamster diet, 127, 135

in mouse diet, 86, 91

in purified diets, 6

in rat diet, 23, 26, 37, 43, 47, 48

trace minerals in, 6

in vole diet, 146

Cataract formation

guinea pigs, 110

rats, 22, 27, 35, 50

Catecholamine metabolism, mice, 90

Cavia porcellus. See Guinea pig

Cellulose

in guinea pig diet, 107, 119

in mouse diet, 96

in rat diet, 15, 45, 53

Cerebrospinal fluid pressure, vitamin A-deficient rats, 39

Chemically defined diets, 6-7

Chinese hamsters, 125-126

Chloride

gerbil requirements, 142

guinea pig requirements, 113

hamster requirements, 132

mouse requirements, 89

rat requirements, 28-29, 38

vole requirements, 147

Cholesterol research, gerbils in, 141

Choline

dietary role, 47

dietary sources, 47

gerbil requirements, 142

guinea pig requirements, 118

hamster requirements, 134

mouse requirements, 94

rat

niacin toxicity vs. deficiency in, 49

requirements, 47-48

vitamin B12 metabolism and, 46

Chromium

in guinea pig diet, 119-120

protein-source deficiency, 6

in rat diet, 54-55

Cobalt

in guinea pig diet, 119-120

in hamster vitamin B12 metabolism, 135

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

mouse requirements, 91

protein-source deficiency, 6

Cod liver oil, in guinea pig diet, 116

Collagen synthesis

ascorbic acid-deficient guinea pigs, 118

guinea pig as model for, 103

Columbinate, linoleate mobilization and, rats, 19

Contaminants, diet

maximum allowances, 9

pathogenic, 9

types of, 8-9

Convulsions

gerbils, 141

guinea pigs, 113

mice, 89, 96

rats, 29, 45

Copper

gerbil requirements, 142

in guinea pig diet

ascorbic acid deficiency and, 118

requirements, 114

mouse requirements, 90

protein-source deficiency, 6

in rat diet

ascorbic acid and, 57

mineral interactions, 31, 34, 36

requirements, 30-31

toxic concentrations, 9

in water lines, 4

Coprophagy, 4

guinea pig

folate requirement, 118

nutrition, 103

vitamin requirements, 120

hamster vitamin metabolism and, 134

mouse vitamin requirements and, 93, 94

rats

biotin metabolism, 47

essential fatty acid deficiency, 19

thiamin deficiency, 52

vitamin B6 metabolism, 45

vitamin K activity, 43

vole nutrition, 146

Corneal abnormalities

guinea pigs, 115, 119

mice, 96

rats, 27, 30, 39, 50

Cornstarch, in hamster diet, 129, 131, 135

Creatinine, rat, 46

Cricetulus barabensis, 125

Cricetus cricetus, 125

Crocetulus migratorius, 125

Crumbled diets, 7

Cyanosis, potassium-deficient rats and, 30

Cysteine, mouse requirements, 87

Cystine

in guinea pig diet, 108, 110

in rat diet, 24, 26

Cytogenetic research, hamsters in, 125

D

Death

gerbils, 141

guinea pigs

ascorbic acid deficiency, 117

pantothenic acid deficiency, 119

potassium intake, 113

thiamin deficiency, 119

rats

manganese toxicity, 33

newborn, 19

potassium deficiency, 30

protein deficiency, 26

sodium deficiency, 30

vitamin deficiency, 49-50

zinc toxicity, 36

Deficiencies

ascorbic acid, guinea pigs, 117-118

biotin

guinea pigs, 118

hamsters, 134

mice, 94

rats, 47

calcium/phosphorus

guinea pigs, 112-113

hamsters, 132

mice, 89

rats, 28

carbohydrate

guinea pigs, 108

hamsters, 129, 131

rats, 22

choline

hamsters, 134

mice, 94

rats, 48

copper

mice, 90

rats, 31

essential fatty acids

gerbils, 141

guinea pigs, 108

hamsters, 128

mice, 85

rats, 17-18, 19

folates

guinea pigs, 118

hamsters, 134

mice, 94-95

rats, 48

iodine

hamsters, 133

rats, 32

iron

gerbils, 142

hamsters, 133

mice, 90

rats, 32

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

lipids, hamsters, 127

magnesium

gerbils, 141

guinea pigs, 113

mice, 89

rats, 29-30, 37

manganese

guinea pigs, 114

mice, 91

rats, 33

molybdenum, rats, 34

niacin

guinea pigs, 118-119

hamsters, 134-135

rats, 49

pantothenic acid

guinea pigs, 119

hamsters, 134-135

rats, 49-50

phosphorus. See Deficiencies, calcium/phosphorus

potassium

guinea pigs, 114

rats, 30

protein/amino acids

guinea pigs, 108-109, 110, 111, 112

hamsters, 132

mice, 87

rats, 26-27

voles, 146

pyridoxine, guinea pigs, 119

riboflavin

gerbils, 142

guinea pigs, 119

hamsters, 135

mice, 95-96

rats, 50-51

selenium, rats, 35-36

sodium/chloride

gerbils, 142

guinea pigs, 113

rats, 29-30

voles, 147

sulfur, guinea pigs, 113

thiamin

guinea pigs, 119

hamsters, 135

mice, 96

rats, 52

vitamin A

guinea pigs, 115

hamsters, 133

mice, 92

rats, 39-40

vitamin B6

hamsters, 135

mice, 95

rats, 45-46

vitamin B12

hamsters, 135

mice, 94

rats, 46-47

vitamin D

guinea pigs, 116

hamsters, 132, 133

mice, 92-93

rats, 41

vitamin E

guinea pigs, 116

hamsters, 133-134

mice, 93

rats, 42

vitamin K

guinea pigs, 117

hamsters, 134

mice, 93

rats, 44

water, gerbils, 140-141

zinc

guinea pigs, 114

mice, 91

rats, 36

Dental abnormalities

guinea pigs, 113, 115, 116

hamsters, 132

protein-deficient rats, 27

Diabetes, rats, 51, 58

Diabetes research, hamsters in, 125

Diarrhea

guinea pigs, 119

rats, 22, 30

Diet, 4

forms of, 6-7

crumbled, 7

liquid, 7

meal, 6-7

pelleted, 6

manufacture and storage, 7-8

nutrient concentrations, 5, 6

quality assurance and potential contaminants, 8-9

types, 4

chemically defined, 6, 7

fixed-formula, 5

natural-ingredient, 4-5, 7

nutrient concentrations, 5

open-formula, 5

purified, 5, 7

See also Formulation of diets;

Manufacture of diets

Digestible energy

rat diet, 14, 15

vole diet, 146

1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol, 40

Dopaminergic system, in rats, 45

Dwarf hamsters, 125

E

Egg white

dried, trace minerals in, 6

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

raw

avidin in, 47

in hamster diet, 134

Energy requirements

gerbil, 140

guinea pig, 107, 119

hamster, 126-127

mouse, 83-84

rat, 14-15

digestible, 14, 15, 16

gestation and lactation, 17

growth, 16-17

maintenance, 16

metabolizable, 14, 16, 17

vole, 146

Environmental conditions

ascorbic acid deterioration and, 117

feed storage, 7-8

mouse maintenance energy requirements and, 83

nutrient requirements and, 4

for voles, 145

Essential fatty acids

deficiencies

gerbils, 141

guinea pigs, 108

hamsters, 128

mice, 85

rats, 17-18, 19

requirements

gerbils, 141

guinea pigs, 108

hamsters, 128

mice, 85

rats, 17-19

storage considerations, 8

See also Lipids

Ethanol

exposure to, of thiamin-deficient mice, 96

in rat diet, 46

Ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase, 51

European hamster, 125

Exercise, rat riboflavin requirements and, 50

Extruded diets, 6

Eye abnormalities

guinea pigs, 115

mice, 85, 92

rats, 39, 42, 47, 50

See also Cataract formation;

Corneal abnormalitites

F

Fatty acids

autooxidation, 41

in common diet formulations, 151

diet formulation to induce deficiency, 8

essential

gerbils, 141

guinea pigs, 108

hamsters, 128

mice, 85

rats, 17-19

mouse energy metabolism and, 84

vitamin-deficient rats, 45-47

See also Lipids

Feces. See Coprophagy

Fiber

in guinea pig diet, 119

sources for, 107

utilization, 107

in hamster diet, 135-136

in mouse diet, 96

in purified diets, 5

in rat diet, 53

vitamin B12 metabolism and, 46

Fixed-formula diets, 5

batch variation, 8

quality control, 9

Flavin adenine dinucleotide in rats, 50-51

Flavin mononucleotide in rats, 50-51

Fluoride/fluorine in guinea pigs, 113, 119-120

Folates

dietary role, 48

guinea pig requirements, 103, 118

hamster requirements, 134

mouse requirements, 94-95

in rat diet

requirements, 48

thiamin deficiency and, 52

vitamin B12 metabolism and, 46

Formiminoglutamate in folate-deficient rats, 48

Formulation of diets

amino acid composition, 152

chemically defined diets, 6-7

definition, 4

fatty acid composition, 151

for gerbils, 140

for guinea pigs, 103, 106-107

for hamsters, 126

manufacturing process, 7

for mice, 83

natural-ingredient diets, 4-5

physical form of feed, 6-7

potential contaminants, 8-9

purified diets, 5-6

quality assurance in, 8

for rats, 13-14

selection of, 4

storage considerations, 7-8

for voles, 145

Fructose

in hamster diet, 129

in mouse diet, 85

in rat diet, 22, 28, 31, 38, 49

G

Galactose, in rat diet, 22, 58

Gamma aminobutyric acid, in rats, 45

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

Gender differences

mouse

maintenance energy requirements, 83-84

protein requirements, 86

rat

copper deficiency, 31

fatty acid requirements, 17, 19

growth patterns, 11

vitamin K deficiency, 43

Gerbil

amino acid/protein requirements, 141

diet formulation, 140

energy requirements, 140

growth, 140

lipid requirements, 141

mineral requirements, 141-142

natural history, 140

reproductive patterns, 140

vitamin requirements, 142

water intake, 140-141

Germ-free environments

diet formulation, 4, 6, 8

guinea pigs in, 105

mice in, 81-82, 93, 97

Gestation

guinea pig

diet for, 107

patterns, 105

selenium requirement, 115

hamster patterns, 126

mouse

amino acid requirements, 88

copper requirement, 90

energy requirements, 84

managanese requirement, 91

pantothenic acid requirement, 95

protein requirements, 86

vitamin B6 requirement, 95

vitamin B12 requirement, 93

zinc requirement, 91

rat

carbohydrate diet, 22

copper requirement, 31

energy requirements, 17

fatty acid requirements, 18

magnesium requirement, 29

manganese requirement, 32

protein requirements, 26

selenium requirement, 35

sodium requirement, 30

thiamin requirement, 52

vitamin requirements, 39, 42, 45, 49

zinc requirement, 36

See also Reproduction

Giardiasis, rats, 46

Glucose metabolism

hamster, 129, 131, 135

rat, 20-22, 54-55, 56

Glutamic acid, rats, 25

Glutathione peroxidase

guinea pigs, 114-115

rats, 34, 35, 41

Glutathione reductase, rats, 50, 51

Glycine in guinea pig diet, 108

Golden hamsters. See Hamsters

Growth

diet formulation, 13-14

gerbil

amino acid/protein requirements, 141

patterns, 140

guinea pig, 105

amino acid requirements, 110-112

ascorbic acid requirement, 117-118

carbohydrate requirements, 108

dietary lipids, 107-108

fatty acid requirements, 108

fluoride requirement, 113

nutrient requirements, 105-106

pantothenic acid requirement, 119

protein requirements, 108-110

pyridoxine requirement, 119

vitamin A requirement, 115

vitamin D requirement, 116

hamster

amino acid/protein requirements, 131-132

biotin requirement, 134

choline requirement, 134

lipid requirements, 127-128

pantothenic acid requirement, 134

patterns, 126

trace mineral requirements, 132-133

vitamin A requirement, 133

mouse

amino acid requirements, 87-88

copper requirement, 90

dietary fat, 84-85

energy metabolism, 83-84

fiber intake, 96

manganese requirement, 90-91

pantothenic acid requirement, 95

patterns, 80

protein requirements, 85-86

riboflavin requirement, 96

thiamin requirement, 96

vitamin B6 requirement, 95

rat

amino acid requirements, 24-26

calcium/phosphorus requirement, 27-28

carbohydrate diet in, 20-22

chloride requirement, 28-29

chromium intake and, 54

copper requirement, 31

diet formulation, 13-14

dietary lipids, 20

energy requirements, 16-17

fiber intake and, 53

iron requirement, 32

lithium intake and, 54

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

magnesium requirement, 29

manganese requirement, 32-33

niacin metabolism, 49

nutrient requirements, 12

patterns, 11

protein requirements, 23-24

silicon intake and, 56

sodium requirement, 30

sulfur intake and, 56

thiamin requirement, 51-52

vitamin requirements, 38-40, 47, 49-50

vole

patterns, 144

protein requirements, 146

Guar gum

in mouse diet, 96

in rat diet, 46, 53

Guinea pig

amino acid requirements, 111-112

ascorbic acid requirements, 117-118

biotin requirements, 118

calcium requirements, 112-113

carbohydrate requirements, 108

chloride requirements, 113

choline requirements, 118

data sources, 105

dietary fiber, 107, 119

diets for, 106-107

digestive anatomy, 103, 107

energy requirements, 107, 119

essential fatty acid requirements, 108

estimation of nutrient requirements, 105-106, 111

folate requirements, 118

gestation, 112, 115

growth patterns, 105

L-gulonolactone oxidase, 3

laboratory diet vs. natural diet, 103

lactation, 112, 115

lipid requirements, 107-108

magnesium requirements, 112-113

mineral interactions, 112-113

myo-inositol in diet of, 120

niacin requirements, 118-119

pantothenic acid requirements, 119

phosphorus requirements, 112-113

potassium requirements, 113-114

protein requirements, 108-110, 112

pyridoxine requirement, 119

reproductive patterns, 105

as research subject, 103

riboflavin requirements, 119

sodium requirements, 113

sulfur requirements, 113

thiamin requirement, 119

trace minerals in diet of, 119-120

vanadium in glucose metabolism of, 56

vitamin A requirements, 115-116

vitamin B12 in diet of, 120

vitamin C requirements, 103

vitamin D requirements, 116

vitamin E requirements, 116

vitamin K requirements, 117

Warfarin, 117

water intake, 103

Gum arabic, in guinea pig diet, 119

H

Hair abnormalities

guinea pigs, 108, 113, 118, 119

hamsters, 128, 133, 134-135

mice, 85, 91, 94, 95

rats, 27, 30, 32, 35, 36, 42, 47, 49, 50

Hamster

amino acid/protein requirements, 131-132

ascorbic acid in diet of, 136

biotin requirements, 134

carbohydrate requirements, 129-131

choline requirements, 134

diet formulation, 126

digestive anatomy, 125

energy requirements, 126-127

essential fatty acid requirements, 128

examples of diets for, 126

fiber in diet of, 135-136

folate requirements, 134

lipid requirements, 127-128

mineral requirements, 132

myo-inositol requirements, 134

natural history, 126

niacin requirements, 134-135

pantothenic acid requirements, 135

reproductive patterns, 126

as research subjects, 125

riboflavin requirements, 135

thiamin requirements, 135

trace mineral requirements, 132-133

vitamin A requirements, 133

vitamin B6 requirements, 135

vitamin B12 requirements, 135

vitamin D requirements, 133

vitamin E requirements, 133-134

vitamin K requirements, 134

Warfarin-resistant, 134

water intake, 126

wet tail condition, 131

Hematopoietic system

copper-deficient rats, 31

dietary nickel in, 55

High-energy diets, 4

Histidine

guinea pig requirement, 111

mouse requirements, 87

in rat diet, 25, 26, 27

Homovanillic acid in rats, 45

Housing conditions

nutrient requirements and, 4

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

rats

coprophagy and, 43

zinc requirements and, 36

for voles, 145

Hyperexcitability/hyperirritability

mice, 89, 95

rats, 4, 26, 29, 45

Hyperlipidemia, rats, 32, 40

Hypertension research, rats in, 27

Hypertriglyceridemia, 22

Hypoproteinemia, rats, 26

I

Immune system disorders

guinea pigs, 112, 118

mice, 90, 91, 92, 94-95

rats, 31, 32, 36, 47, 50

Immunological research, 5

diet contaminants and, 8-9

Iodine

guinea pig requirements, 114-115

hamster requirements, 132-133

mouse requirements, 91

rat requirements, 31-32

vanadium and, 56

Ionizing radiation, 8

Iron

gerbil requirements, 142

guinea pig requirements, 114

hamster requirements, 133

mouse requirements, 90

protein-source deficiency, 6

in rat diet

ascorbic acid and, 57

mineral interactions, 27, 33, 36, 55

requirements, 32

riboflavin and, 51

Isoleucine

guinea pig requirement, 111

mouse requirement, 87

rat requirement, 25-26

K

Keratinization

guinea pigs, 115

mice, 92

rats, 39

Kidney abnormalities

guinea pigs, 108, 113, 115, 116

hamsters, 128

mice, 89, 94

rats, 19, 22, 27, 29, 30, 31, 36-38, 41, 48, 55

Kwashiorker syndrome, 112

Kyphoscoliosis, vitamin-deficient rats and, 42

L

L-gulonolactone oxidase

in ascorbic acid synthesis, 3, 57

genetic variation, 3

voles, 147

Laboratory rats. See Rat

Lactalbumin

in rat diet, 23, 37, 43

trace minerals in, 6

Lactation

guinea pig

amino acid requirements, 112

nutrient requirements, 105

selenium requirement, 115

mouse

amino acid requirements, 88

copper requirement, 90

energy requirements, 84

magnesium requirement, 89

managanese requirement, 91

nutrient requirements, 81

pantothenic acid requirement, 95

protein requirements, 86

thiamin requirement, 96

vitamin B12 requirement, 93

zinc requirement, 91

rat

carbohydrate diet in, 22

energy requirements, 15, 17

fatty acid requirements, 18

mineral requirements, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 35, 36

protein requirements, 26

vitamin requirements, 39, 45, 49, 52

Lactose

in hamster diet, 129

mineral uptake in rats and, 28, 29

Lead

ascorbic acid and, in rat diet, 57

in guinea pig diet, 119-120

Lecithin, choline in, 47

Leucine

guinea pig

ascorbic acid deficiency, 117

requirement, 111

mouse requirement, 87

rat requirement, 25, 26

Leucrose, in rat diet, 22

Leukopenia in folate-deficient rats, 48

Lignin in vitamin B6 metabolism in rats, 45

Linoleic acid

in commercial feeds, 8

gerbil diet, 141

guinea pig diet, 108

mouse diet, 85

rat diet, 17-20, 42

α-Linolenic acid, rats, 18-19, 20

Lipids

gerbil requirements, 141

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

guinea pig requirements, 107-108

hamster requirements, 127-128

mouse requirements, 84-85

myo-inositol and, 97

rat diet

choline and, 47

dietary concentration, 20

digestibility, 19-20

gestation, 17

requirements, 17, 19-20

storage considerations, 8

See also Essential fatty acids;

Fatty acids

Lipofuscin, rats, 42

Liquid diets, 7

Lithium, rats, 55

Liver abnormalities

guinea pigs, 112, 113, 114, 116, 118

hamsters, 133, 134

mice, 90, 91, 94, 96

rats, 19, 22, 27, 31, 32, 36, 40, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 58

Lysine

guinea pig requirement, 111

mouse requirements, 87

rat

deficiency, 27

requirement, 24-26

in vole diet, 146

M

Magnesium

gerbil requirements, 141

guinea pig requirements, 112, 113

mouse

lactation, 81

requirements, 89

in rat diet

ascorbic acid and, 57

deficiency, 29-30

nephrocalcinosis and, 37

requirements, 29

Maintenance energy

definition, 16

mouse requirements, 83-84

rat requirements, 16, 17

Manganese

gerbil requirements, 142

guinea pig requirements, 114

mouse requirements, 90-91

protein-source deficiency, 6

in rat diet

mineral interactions, 27, 33

requirements, 32-33

Mannose in rat diet, 22

Manufacture of diets, 7

chemically defined, 7

crumbled, 7

extruded, 6

for guinea pigs, 103

meal form, 6-7

natural-ingredient, 5, 7

pelleted, 6, 7

purified, 7

quality control, 8-9

Maximum concentrations of contaminants, 9

Meal form diets, 6-7

Menadione, 43-44

guinea pig diet, 117

hamster diet, 134

Menaquinones, 43

Meriones unguiculatus. See Gerbil

Mesocricetus auratus. See Hamsters

Mesocricetus brandti, 125

Mesocricetus neutoni, 125

Metabolizable energy

guinea pig, 107

mouse, 83, 84

rat, 14

Methionine

bioavailability, 6

gerbil, 142

guinea pig, 109-110, 118

mouse, 87

rat, 24, 26

choline and, 47

deficiency, 27

vitamin B12 metabolism and, 46, 47

vole, 146

MHH:EPH hamster, 125

Micronutrient research, 5

Microtus. See Voles

Minerals

environmental source, 4

in fixed-formula natural-ingredient diets, 5

hamster requirements, 132

in natural-ingredient diets, 7

in rat diet

nephrocalcinosis and, 36-38

potentially beneficial, 53-57

requirements, 27

vole requirements, 146-147

See also specific mineral;

Trace minerals

Molybdenum

gerbil requirements, 142

guinea pig requirements, 114, 115

hamster requirements, 132-133

mouse requirements, 91, 92

rat requirements, 33-34

Mongolian gerbil. See Gerbil

Mouse

amino acid requirements, 87-88

ascorbic acid in diet of, 96-97

biotin requirements, 94

calcium requirements, 88-89

carbohydrate requirements, 85

chloride requirements, 89

choline requirements, 94

copper requirements, 90

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

data sources, 81

energy metabolism, 83-84

essential fatty acid requirements, 85

estimation of nutrient requirements, 80-83

fat sources, 84

fiber in diet of, 96

folic acid requirements, 94-95

formulation of diets, 13-14, 83

genetic diversity, 80, 83

in germ-free environments, 81, 82

gestation, 85-86, 90-91, 93, 95

growth patterns, 81

growth performance norms, 80

intestinal flora, 80, 93, 94

iodine requirements, 91

iron requirements, 90

lactation, 81, 85-86, 89-91, 93-96

magnesium requirements, 81, 89

maintenance nutrition, 81

manganese requirements, 90-91

molybedenum requirements, 91, 92

myo-inositol in diet of, 97

niacin requirements, 88, 95

pantothenic acid requirements, 95

phosphorus requirements, 88-89

potassium requirements, 89

potentially beneficial dietary constituents, 96-97

protein requirements, 85-86

reproductive performance norms, 80

as research subjects, 80

riboflavin requirements, 95-96

selenium requirements, 91-92

sodium requirements, 89

strain variation, 3

thiamin requirements, 95-96

trace mineral requirements, 89-90

vitamin A requirements, 92

vitamin B6 requirements, 95

vitamin B12 requirements, 93-94

vitamin D requirements, 92-93

vitamin E requirements, 93

vitamin K requirements, 93

zinc requirements, 91

Mus musculus. See Mouse

Muscular dystrophy and vitamin E deficiency

guinea pigs, 116

hamsters, 133-134

mice, 93

Myo-inositol

gerbil requirements, 142

in guinea pig diet, 120

hamster requirements, 134

in mouse diet, 97

rats, 58

N

NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, 51

National Institutes of Health

guinea pig diets, 106

rat population, 11-12, 13

Natural-ingredient diets

advantages of, 52-53

bioavailability, 5

definition, 4-5

fixed-formula, 5

for guinea pigs, 106, 107

for hamsters, 126

manufacturing process, 7

for mice, 83

nutrient concentrations, 5

for rats, 12-15, 23

for voles, 145

Nephrocalcinosis

mouse, 89

rat, 13, 22, 27, 36-38

Neurological disorders

guinea pig, 119

hamster, 133, 135

mouse, 93, 95

n-3 fatty acid deficiency in, 18-19

rat, 18, 42, 45-46, 47, 48, 49, 52

Neutrophil function in rats, 31

Newborn survival rate

guinea pigs, 112

mice

manganese intake, 91

vitamin B6 intake, 95

rats, 12

carbohydrate intake, 22

manganese intake, 33

protein metabolism, 26

vitamin intake, 39, 41, 47, 51

zinc intake, 36

Niacin

dietary role, 48

guinea pig

requirements, 118-119

tryptophan requirement, 110-111

hamster requirements, 134-135

mouse

requirements, 95

tryptophan intake and, 88

rat requirements, 48-49

Nickel

in guinea pig diet, 119-120

in rat diet, 55

theoretical dietary role, 55

Nicotinamide in rats, 49

Nitrogen metabolism

guinea pig, 108, 111-112

hamster, 131

rat, 25, 53

Nitrous oxide, vitamin B12 deficiency and, rats, 46

Norway rat. See Rat

Nutrient assays, 8

Nutrient requirements

animal environment as variable in, 3-4

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

caloric restriction and, 9

genetic differences in, 3

microbiological status as factor in, 4

nutrient interaction effect, 4

research conditions as factor in, 4

stage-of-life factors in, 3

See also specific animal;

specific nutrient

O

ODS rat, 57

Open-formula diets, 5

Osteoporosis

rats, 27, 28

vitamin D-deficient mice, 93

Oxalates

ascorbic acid-deficient guinea pigs, 117-118

in calcium uptake of rats, 28

P

Pancreas abnormalities in rats, 31, 33

Pantothenic acid

dietary sources, 49

guinea pig requirements, 119

hamster requirements, 135

mouse requirements, 95

rat requirements, 49-50

Pectin

in guinea pig diet, 119

in rat diet, 45, 46, 53

Pelleted diets, 6, 7

Phenylalanine

guinea pig requirement, 111

in hamster diet, 131

mouse requirement, 87-88

rat requirement, 24, 26

Phodopus campbelli, 125

Phodopus sungorus, 125

Phosphorus

gerbil requirement, 141

guinea pig requirement, 112-113

hamster requirement, 132, 133

mouse requirements, 88-89

in rat diet

mineral interactions, 29, 33, 36

nephrocalcinosis and, 37

requirements, 27-28

vitamin metabolism and, 40

Phthalysulfathiazole, in mouse diet, 97

Phylloquinone, 43, 44

in guinea pig diet, 117

in hamster diet, 134

Phytate, mineral uptake in rats and, 28-29, 36

Pigmentation abnormalities

guinea pig, 118

hamster, 134

mouse, 94, 95

rat, 27, 42, 47, 49

Polyneuritis, thiamin-deficient hamsters and, 135

Potassium

guinea pig requirements, 113-114

mouse requirements, 89

rat requirements, 30

vole requirements, 147

Potato, 53

Priapism, fatty acid-deficient guinea pigs and, 108

Proline in rat diet, 25

Prostaglandin formation

copper-deficient rats, 31

rats, 17

Protein requirements

gerbil, 141

guinea pig, 108-110, 112

hamster, 131-132

mouse, 84, 85-86

as protein:energy ratio, 23

rat, 17, 22-24, 26-27, 39

vole, 146

Protein sources

amino acid isomers, 6

mouse zinc requirement and, 91

nephrocalcinosis, rats and, 37

phosphorus in, 28

in purified diets, 5, 6

in purified guinea pig diets, 107

trace mineral deficiencies in, 6

vitamin K in, 43

Prothrombin

rats, 43-44

vitamin-K-deficient hamsters, 134

Purified diets

definition, 5

disadvantages, 5, 6

guinea pig, 106-107

hamster, 126

manufacturing process, 7

mouse, 83

nutrient concentrations, 5, 6

rat, 13-14, 27, 36-38

vole, 145

vs. natural-ingredient diets, 52-53

Pyridoxal. See Vitamin B6

Pyridoxamine. See Vitamin B6

Pyridoxine

guinea pig requirement, 119

See also Vitamin B6

Q

Quality assurance, importance of, 8-9

R

Rat

age-related effects, 23, 39, 40-42

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

amino acid requirements, 24-26

anatomy, 11

ascorbic acid in diet of, 57

basal metabolic rate, 15

biotin requirement, 47

calcium/phosphorus requirements, 27-28

carbohydrate requirement, 20-22

chloride requirement, 28-29

choline requirement, 47-48

chromium in diet of, 54-55

copper requirement, 30-31

coprophagy in, 4

data sources, 12

diet formulation, 13-14

dietary lipid concentration, 20

dilution of diet, 15

essential fatty acid requirements, 17-19

estimation of nutrient requirements, 12

fiber in diet of, 53

folate requirement, 48

fructose/sucrose in diet of, 22

gender differences, 11, 17, 19, 43-44

general energy requirements, 14-15

gestation, 17, 18, 29, 31, 32, 35, 36, 39, 42, 45, 49, 52

growth characteristics, 11

growth energy requirements, 16-17

iodine requirement, 31-32

iron requirement, 32

L-gulonolactone oxidase in, 3

lactation, 17-18, 22, 26, 28-32, 35, 36, 39, 45, 49, 52

lipid digestibility, 19-20

lithium in diet of, 55

magnesium requirement, 29

maintenance energy requirements, 16

manganese requirement, 32-33

mineral interaction, 28

mineral requirements, 27.

See also specific mineral or trace element

molybdenum requirement, 33-34

myo-inositol in diet of, 58

natural-ingredient vs. purified diets for, 52-53

nephrocalcinosis, 13, 22, 27, 36-38

niacin requirement, 48-49

nickel in diet of, 55

ODS mutant, 57

pantothenic acid requirement, 49-50

potassium requirement, 30

potentially beneficial components in diet of, 53-54

protein requirements, 22-24, 26

reproductive energy requirements, 17

reproductive performance, 11-12, 22

as research subjects, 11

riboflavin requirement, 50-51

selenium requirement, 34-36

silicon in diet of, 56

sodium requirement, 30

sulfur in diet of, 56

thiamin requirement, 51-52

trace mineral requirements, 30-31

triene:tetraene ratio, 17-18

vanadium in diet of, 56-57

vitamin A requirement, 38-40

vitamin B12 metabolism, 46-47

vitamin B6 requirements, 44-46

vitamin D requirement, 40-41

vitamin E metabolism, 41-43

vitamin K requirement, 43-44

vitamin requirements, 38.

See also specific vitamin

Warfarin-resistant, 44

weanling, 15, 16, 26

zinc requirement, 36

Rattus norvegici. See Rat

Reproduction

gerbil, 140

guinea pig

amino acid requirements, 112

ascorbic acid requirement, 117

glutathione peroxidase activity and, 115

nutrient requirements, 105

protein requirements, 112

hamster

amino acid/protein requirements, 131-132

biotin deficiency and, 134

iron deficiency and, 133

vitamin requirements, 134

mouse

biotin deficiency, 94

copper deficiency, 90

dietary fat, 84

folic acid intake, 94

patterns, 80

protein requirements, 84, 86

riboflavin requirement, 95

thiamin requirement, 96

vitamin A toxicity, 92

vitamin B6 intake, 95

vitamin E deficiency, 93

zinc deficiency, 91

rat

biotin metabolism, 47

chromium deficiency, 54

iodine deficiency, 32

iron requirement, 32

lithium deficiency, 55

magnesium deficiency, 29-30

managanese requirement, 32-33

nutrient requirements, 12, 17-18

riboflavin metabolism, 50, 51

sodium requirement, 30

vitamin A deficiency, 39

vitamin deficiency and, 40, 46-47

vitamin requirements, 42

zinc requirement, 36

vole

amino acid/protein requirements, 146

patterns, 144

purified diets, 145

See also Gestation;

Lactation;

Newborn survival rate

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

Research conditions

diet formulation, 4, 8-9

guinea pig diet, 103

mouse nutrient requirements, 82

natural-ingredient diets, 5

physical form of diets, 6, 7

suitability of rat, 11

Reticulocyte count in vitamin B6-deficient mice, 95

Retinol in rat diet, 38-40

Retinyl esters, in mouse diet, 92

Retinyl function in guinea pigs, 108

Riboflavin

dietary role, 50

gerbil requirement, 142

guinea pig requirement, 119

hamster requirement, 135

mouse requirement, 95-96

in rat diet

requirement, 50-51

vitamin interaction, 50

Rickets

hamsters, 132-133

mice, 92-93

rats, 41

Romanian hamster, 125

S

Safflower oil, 18

Salmonella, in mice, 96

Scurvy, guinea pigs, 117

Selenium

dietary forms, 34

gerbil requirements, 142

guinea pig requirements, 114-115

hamster requirements, 132-133

mouse requirements, 91-92

protein-source deficiency, 6

in rat diet

requirement, 34-36

vitamin E and, 41

role of, 34

Sexual behavior/development

fatty acid-deficient guinea pigs, 108

zinc-deficient rats, 36

Silicon

in guinea pig diet, 119-120

in rat diet, 56

Skin disorders

gerbils, 142

guinea pigs, 108, 114, 115, 119

hamsters, 128, 135

mice, 85, 95, 96

rats, 19, 42, 45, 47, 49, 50

vitamin-deficient rats, 47

Sodium

gerbil requirements, 141-142

guinea pig requirements, 113

hamster requirements, 132

mouse requirements, 89

rat requirements, 30

vole requirements, 147

Sorbitol in rat diet, 22

Sorbose in rat diet, 22

Sphingolipids, 19

Spleen abnormalities

guinea pigs, 108, 116

mice, 90

Sterilization

of diets, 6, 8

vitamin A deterioration in, 92

Storage

ascorbic acid in feeds, 117

feeds, 7-8

vitamin A deterioration in, 92

Strain variation

hamsters, 125

mice, 80

amino acid requirements, 87

nutrient requirements, 3

rats

growth patterns, 3

mineral requirements, 30

reproductive performance, 11-12

vitamin K deficiency, 44

voles, 144, 145

Stress

research conditions and, 4

vitamin A and, rats, 39

Sucrose

in hamster diet, 129, 131, 135

in mouse diet, 85

in rat diet, 22, 28, 31, 48-49

Sulfa drugs, 47, 134

Sulfaguanidine, in hamster diet, 134

Sulfanomide, in hamster diet, 134

Sulfite oxidase, rats, 33

Sulfur

guinea pig requirements, 110, 113

rat requirements, 24, 26, 56

Symptoms of dietary deficiencies/excesses

adrenalopathy

guinea pigs, 118

rats, 30, 49

voles, 147

anemia

guinea pigs, 113, 117, 118, 119

mice, 90, 95

rats, 26, 31, 32, 36, 45, 48, 50

arteriovenous abnormalities, rats, 19, 29, 41

ascites, rats, 30, 36

blood abnormalities

guinea pigs, 117, 118, 119

hamsters, 134

mice, 90

rats, 29, 30, 31, 36, 42, 43, 44, 46, 51, 52, 55

bone abnormalities

guinea pigs, 112-113, 115, 116, 118

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

mice, 89

rats, 27, 28, 30, 31, 33, 39, 40, 41, 42

cardiovascular abnormalities

guinea pigs, 114, 116

mice, 90, 94

rats, 29, 31, 32, 48, 52

cataract formation

guinea pigs, 110

rats, 22, 27, 35, 50

cerebrospinal fluid pressure, rats, 39

convulsions

gerbils, 141

guinea pigs, 113

mice, 89, 96

rats, 29, 45

corneal abnormalities

guinea pigs, 115, 119

mice, 96

rats, 27, 30, 39, 50

death

gerbils, 141

guinea pigs, 113, 117, 119

hamsters, 127, 129, 135

mice, 94, 96

rats, 19, 26, 30, 33, 36

dental abnormalities

guinea pigs, 113, 115, 116

hamsters, 132

rats, 27

developmental

gerbils, 142

guinea pigs, 112, 113, 115, 116, 118, 119

hamsters, 133, 134-135

mice, 89, 91, 94, 95, 96

rats, 19, 21, 22, 26, 28, 29, 30, 33, 35, 36, 39-40, 41, 47, 48, 49

voles, 146

edema, rats, 36

excretory abnormalities

guinea pigs, 119

hamsters, 131, 134, 135

rats, 22, 27, 28, 29, 30, 48

exploratory behaviors, rats, 18

feeding behavior

guinea pigs, 114, 117, 119

hamsters, 134, 135

mice, 91

rats, 30, 31, 33, 36, 51, 52

hair abnormalities

gerbils, 141, 142

guinea pigs, 108, 112, 113, 118, 119

hamsters, 128, 133, 134-135

mice, 85, 91, 94, 95

rats, 27, 30, 32, 35, 36, 42, 47, 49, 50

hemorrhage

guinea pigs, 117, 118, 119

hamsters, 133

mice, 96

rats, 28, 44

hyperirritability/hyperexcitability

mice, 89, 95

rats, 29, 36, 41, 45

hypoproteinemia, rats, 26

immunological dysfunction

guinea pigs, 112, 118

mice, 90, 91, 92, 94-95

rats, 31, 32, 36, 42, 47, 50

keratinization

guinea pigs, 115

hamsters, 133

mice, 92

rats, 39

kidney abnormalities

guinea pigs, 108, 113, 115, 116

mice, 89, 94

rats, 19, 22, 27, 29, 30, 31, 36-38, 41, 48, 55

liver abnormalities

guinea pigs, 112, 113, 114, 116, 118

hamsters, 133, 134

mice, 90, 91, 94, 96

rats, 19, 22, 27, 31, 32, 36, 40, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51

metabolic dysfunction

guinea pigs, 114, 116, 117-118

mice, 83, 90, 91

rats, 35, 36, 46, 51, 57

muscle abnormalities

guinea pigs, 114, 116, 117, 118, 119

hamsters, 133-134

mice, 91, 93, 94, 96

rats, 26, 27, 30, 42, 46, 50-51, 85

neurological abnormalities

guinea pigs, 119

hamsters, 133, 135

mice, 93, 95

rats, 18, 42, 45-46, 47, 48, 49, 52

pancreas abnormalities, rats, 31, 33

pigmentation abnormalities

guinea pigs, 118

hamsters, 134

mice, 94, 95

rats, 27, 42, 47, 49

reproductive performance

guinea pigs, 112, 114, 115-116

hamsters, 133, 134

mice, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96

rats, 19, 22, 26, 28, 29-30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 39, 40, 41, 42, 46, 47, 51

voles, 147

retinal abnormalities

mice, 85

rats, 18

rickets

hamsters, 132-133

mice, 92-93

rats, 41

sensory response, rats, 18, 45

skin abnormalities

gerbils, 142

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

guinea pigs, 108, 114, 115, 119

hamsters, 128, 135

mice, 85, 95, 96

rats, 19, 42, 45, 47, 49, 50

spectacle eye

mice, 85

rats, 47

spleen disorders

guinea pigs, 108, 116

mice, 90

tetany

guinea pigs, 113

rats, 41

thyroid abnormalities

hamsters, 133

mice, 91

rats, 32

vision disorder, rats, 39

xerophthalmia

guinea pigs, 115

hamsters, 133

mice, 92

T

Taurine

in gerbil diet, 141

vitamin B6 metabolism and, rats, 46

Temperature

choline metabolism and, rats, 47-48

coprophagy and, rats, 43

for diet sterilization, 8

feedstuff storage, 7-8

mouse maintenance energy requirements and, 83

nutrient requirements and, 3-4

rat energy requirements and, 15

vitamin loss in feed pelleting, 7

vole energy metabolism and, 146

Teratogenicity

biotin deficiency and, mice, 94

riboflavin deficiency and, mice, 96

vitamin A toxicity

guinea pig, 115-116

mouse, 92

rat, 40

vitamin D toxicity, rat, 40

Tetraethylorthosilicate, 56

Thiamin

guinea pig requirements, 119

hamster requirements, 135

mouse requirements, 96

in rat diet

requirement, 51-52

vitamin interactions, 57

Threonine

guinea pig requirement, 111

mouse requirement, 87

rat requirement, 25, 26

Thymus abnormalities

ascorbic acid-deficient guinea pigs, 118

copper-deficient mice, 90

Thyroid abnormalities and iodine deficiency

hamster, 133

mouse, 91

rat, 32

Tin

guinea pig diet, 119-120

mineral interactions in rats, 36

α-Tocopherol, 8, 40, 41, 42-43, 93, 116, 133

Torula yeast, 6, 54, 133

Toxicity

biotin, rats, 47

choline

mice, 94

rats, 48

copper

mice, 90

rats, 31

diet formulation as source of, 9

iodine, in rats, 32

iron

mice, 90

rats, 32

lithium, rats, 55

manganese, rats, 33

molybdenum, rats, 34

niacin, rats, 49

nickel, rats, 55

pantothenic acid, rats, 50

potassium, rats, 30

riboflavin, rats, 51

selenium, rats, 36

silicon, rats, 56

sodium, rats, 30

vanadium, rats, 57

vitamin A

guinea pig, 115-116

hamsters, 133

mice, 92

rats, 40

vitamin B6, rats, 46

vitamin D

guinea pig, 116

mice, 93

rats, 41

vitamin E

mice, 93

rats, 42-43

vitamin K, rats, 44

zinc

mice, 91

rats, 36

Toxicological research, 5

diet contaminants and, 8, 9

hamsters in, 125

Trace minerals

definition, 27

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

in fixed-formula feeds, 5

gerbil requirements, 142

in guinea pig diet, 119-120

mouse requirements, 89-90

in protein sources, deficiencies in, 6

in rat diet

nonessential, 53-54

requirements, 30-31

See also specific trace element

Trace nutrients, 6

Triene:tetraene ratio

guinea pig, 108

rat, 17-18

Triglycerides

choline-deficient rats, 48

lipid digestibility and, rats, 19-20

Tryptophan

guinea pig diet, 109-111, 118

hamster niacin metabolism and, 135

mouse requirement, 88, 95

rat diet, 25-26, 27, 48-49

vole diet, 146

Tumor growth, dietary fat and

mice, 84-85

rats, 20

Tungsten, rats, 33

Turkish hamsters, 125

Tyrosine

guinea pig requirement, 111

in mouse diet, 87-88

rat requirement, 24

V

Valine

mouse diet, 87

rat diet, 25-26

Vanadium

guinea pig diet, 119-120

rat diet, 56-57

Vasodilation, magnesium-deficient rats, 29

Vitamin A

deterioration in storage, 8

dietary role of, 38

form in feeds, 39

guinea pig requirements, 115-116

hamster requirements, 133

mouse requirements, 92

in rat diet

dietary lipids and, 20

requirements, 38-40

vitamin interactions, 42, 44

toxic concentrations, 9

Vitamin B6

in gerbil diet, 141

hamster requirements, 135

mouse requirements, 95

in rat diet

requirements, 44-46

riboflavin metabolism and, 50

vitamin interactions, 50

Vitamin B12

dietary role, 46

in guinea pig diet, 120

hamster requirements, 135

mouse requirements, 93-94

in rat diet, 46-47, 57

Vitamin C

deterioration in storage, 8

mouse requirements, 96-97

toxic concentrations, 9

See also Ascorbic acid

Vitamin D

guinea pig requirement, 116

hamster requirement, 132-133

mouse requirement, 92-93

in rat diet

mineral uptake and, 28-29

requirement, 40-41

Vitamin E

antioxidant role, 41

guinea pig requirements, 116

hamster requirements, 133-134

mouse requirements, 93

in rat diet

requirement, 41-43

vitamin interactions, 39, 42, 44, 57

Vitamin K

dietary role, 43

guinea pig requirements, 117

hamster requirements, 134

mouse requirements, 93

in rat diet, 40, 43-44

Vitamins

in casein in purified diets, 6

gerbil requirements, 142

interaction in rats, 39, 42, 50, 57

molecular weights, 152

in natural-ingredient diets, 5, 7

potentially beneficial, in rat diet, 57-58

rat requirements, 38

in sterilized diets, 8

unit conversion factors, 153

vole requirements, 147

See also specific vitamin

Voles

amino acid/protein requirements, 146

diet formulation, 145

digestive anatomy, 145-146

energy metabolism, 146

growth patterns, 144

housing for, 145

mineral requirements, 146-147

natural history, 144

reproductive patterns, 144

as research subjects, 144-145

vitamin requirements, 147

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

W

Warfarin, guinea pigs, 117

resistance and vitamin K

hamsters, 134

rats, 44

Wastage, diet formulation and, 6-7

Water intake

fatty acid-deficient guinea pigs, 108

gerbil, 140-141

hamster patterns, 126

minerals in, 4

X

Xanthine oxidase/dehydrogenase, rats, 33, 46

Xerophthalmia, vitamin A deficiency and

hamsters, 133

mice, 92

Xylan, vitamin B12 metabolism and, rats, 46

Xylitol, thiamin metabolism and, rats, 51

Xylose toxicity, rats, 22

Z

Zinc

gerbil requirements, 142

guinea pig requirements, 114

housing conditions and, 4

mouse requirements, 91

protein-source deficiency, 6

in rat diet

deficiency, 30

mineral interactions, 27, 31

requirements, 36

vitamin A and, 39

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
×

Other Titles in the Series

Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, Ninth Rev. Ed., 1994

0-309-04892-3

Nutrient Requirements of Fish, 1993

0-309-04891-5

Nutrient Requirements of Horses, Fifth Rev. Ed., 1989

0-309-03989-4

Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, Sixth Rev. Ed., Update 1989

0-309-03826-X

Nutrient Requirements of Swine, Ninth Rev. Ed., 1988

0-309-03779-4

Nutrient Requirements of Cats, Rev. Ed., 1986

0-309-03682-8

Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, Sixth Rev. Ed., 1985

0-309-03596-1

Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, Rev. Ed., 1985

0-309-03496-5

Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, Sixth Rev. Ed., 1984

0-309-03447-7

Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes, Rev. Ed., 1982

0-309-03325-X

Nutrient Requirements of Goats, 1981

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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4758.
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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 Get This Book
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In the years since the third edition of this indispensable reference was published, a great deal has been learned about the nutritional requirements of common laboratory species: rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, gerbil, and vole.

The Fourth Revised Edition presents the current expert understanding of the lipid, carbohydrate, protein, mineral, vitamin, and other nutritional needs of these animals. The extensive use of tables provides easy access to a wealth of comprehensive data and resource information. The volume also provides an expanded background discussion of general dietary considerations.

In addition to a more user-friendly organization, new features in this edition include:

  1. A significantly expanded section on dietary requirements for rats, reporting substantial new findings.
  2. A new section on nutrients that are not required but that may produce beneficial results.

New information on growth and reproductive performance among the most commonly used strains of rats and mice and on several hamster species.

  1. An expanded discussion of diet formulation and preparation--including sample diets of both purified and natural ingredients.
  2. New information on mineral deficiency and toxicity, including warning signs.

This authoritative resource will be important to researchers, laboratory technicians, and manufacturers of laboratory animal feed.

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