National Academies Press: OpenBook

Measuring Poverty: A New Approach (1995)

Chapter: References and Bibliography

« Previous: Pensions for Needy Veterans, Their Dependents, and Survivors
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 449
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 450
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 451
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 452
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 453
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 454
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 455
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 456
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 457
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 458
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 459
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 460
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 461
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 462
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 463
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 464
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 465
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 466
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 467
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 468
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 469
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 470
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 471
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 472
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 473
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 474
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 475
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 476
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 477
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 478
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 479
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 480
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 481
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4759.
×
Page 482

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 449 References and Bibliography Aaron, Henry J. 1985 Comment: The evaluation of Census Bureau procedures for the measurement of noncash benefits and the incidence of poverty. Pp. 57-62 in Proceedings of the Bureau of the Census Conference on the Measurement of Noncash Benefits. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Adams, Terry K., and Greg J. Duncan 1988 The Persistence of Urban Poverty and Its Demographic and Behavioral Correlates. Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. Adler, N.E., T. Boyce, M.A. Chesney, S. Cohen, S. Folkman, R.L. Kahn, and S.L. Syme 1994 Socioeconomic status and health: The challenge of the gradient. American Psychologist 49 (1):5-14. Advisory Council on Public Welfare 1966 Having the Power, We Have the Duty. Report to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research 1992 Private Health Insurance Premiums in 1987: Policyholders Under Age 65. National Medical Expenditure Survey Data Summary 5, AHCPR Publication No. 92-0061. Prepared by J. Vistnes. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Allin, Susan, and Pat Doyle 1990 Analysis of the Quality of SIPP as It Pertains to the Food Stamp Program. Final Report to the Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C.: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association 1992 ACCRA Cost of Living Index: Comparative Data for 300 Urban Areas, Third

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 450 Quarter 1992. Vol. 25, No. 3. Louisville, Ky.: American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association. An, Chong-Bum, Robert Haveman, and Barbara Wolfe 1991 Teen Out-of-Wedlock Births and Welfare Receipt: The Role of Childhood Events and Economic Circumstances. Discussion Paper 944-91, Institute for Research on Poverty. Madison: University of Wisconsin. Appelbaum, Diana Karter 1977 The level of the poverty line: A historical survey. Social Service Review 51(3)(September):514-523. Ashworth, Karl, Martha Hill, and Robert Walker 1992 A New Approach to Poverty Dynamics. Paper prepared for the American Statistical Association winter meeting, Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. Centre for Research in Social Policy, Loughborough University of Technology, United Kingdom, and Survey Research Center, University of Michigan. Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation 1978 Summary Report: Seattle-Denver Income Maintenance Experiment—Mid-Experimental Labor Supply Results and a Generalization to the National Population . Office of Income Security Policy. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. 1983 Overview of the Seattle-Denver Income Maintenance Experiment Final Report. Office of Income Security Policy. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atkinson, Anthony B. 1985 How Should We Measure Poverty? Some Conceptual Issues. Discussion Paper No. 82. Prepared for the Symposium on Statistics for the Measurement of Poverty organized on behalf of the European Community by the University of Frankfurt and the Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin. Economic and Social Research Council Program on Taxation, Incentives and the Distribution of Income, London School of Economics, England. [Reprinted in part in Atkinson, 1989:7-24] 1989 Poverty and Social Security. Hemel Hempstead, Eng.: Harvester-Wheatsheaf. Atkinson, A.B., and J. Micklewright 1992 Economic Transformation in Eastern Europe and the Distribution of Income. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press. Bailar, Barbara A. 1989 The design of panel surveys. In D. Kasprzyk, G. Duncan, G. Kalton, and M.P. Singh, eds., Panel Surveys. New York: J.W. Wiley and Sons, Inc. Bailis, Lawrence, ed. 1987 Annotated Bibliography of Research on Welfare Dependence of the NonElderly and Its Links to Welfare Policy and Programs. Prepared for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Center for Human Resources, Heller Graduate School, Brandeis University, Waltham, Mass. Barreiros, Lidia 1989 Poverty Measurement: A European Perspective. Contributed paper to the Seminar on Poverty Statistics in the European Community, Noordwijk. Statistical Office of the European Communities [Eurostat], Luxembourg.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 451 1992 How to measure poverty in Europe? The methodological experience of the European Statistical Office. Pp. 281-306 in Poverty Measurement for Economies in Transition in Eastern European Countries. Warsaw: Polish Statistical Association and Polish Central Statistical Office. Baydar, Nazli, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and Frank F. Furstenburg, Jr. 1993 Early warning signs of functional illiteracy: Predictors in childhood and adolescence. Child Development 64 (3):815-829. Becker, Gary S. 1965 A theory of the allocation of time. Economic Journal 75:493-517. Becketti, Sean, William Gould, Lee Lillard, and Finis Welch 1988 The PSID after fourteen years: An evaluation. Journal of Labor Economics 6(4):472-492. Betson, David 1990 Alternative Estimates of the Cost of Children from the 1980-1986 Consumer Expenditure Survey. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 1995 Technical Documentation for the Analysis of Alternative Poverty Measures with the March 1993 Current Population Survey. Paper prepared for the Panel on Poverty and Family Assistance, Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council. Department of Economics, University of Notre Dame. Betson, David, and Robert Michael 1993 A Recommendation for the Construction of Equivalence Scales. Unpublished memorandum prepared for the Panel on Poverty and Family Assistance, Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council. Department of Economics, University of Notre Dame. Blackley, D., J. Follain, and H. Lee 1986 An evaluation of hedonic price indexes for thirty-four large SMSAs. Journal of the American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association 14 (2):179-205. Blakorby, Charles, and David Donaldson 1980 Ethical indices for the measurement of poverty. American Economic Review 48(4):1053-1060. Blank, Rebecca M. 1988 The effect of welfare and wage levels on the location decisions of female- headed households. Journal of Urban Economics 24:186-211. 1989 The effect of medical need and Medicaid on AFDC participation. Journal of Human Resources 24(1):54-87. Blinder, Alan S. 1985 Comment: Measuring income—What kind should be in? Pp. 28-31 in Proceedings of the Bureau of the Census Conference on the Measurement of Noncash Benefits. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Bloomquist, G., M. Berger, and J. Hoehn 1988 New estimates of quality of life in urban areas. American Economic Review 78(March):89-107. Boggess, W. Scott 1993 Family Structure, Economic Status, and High School Completion. Paper prepared for the American Statistical Association winter meeting, Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. Population Studies Center, University of Michigan.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 452 Boldin, Paul, and John Burghardt 1989 Analysis of Household Expenditures in Relation to the Food Stamp Program Benefit Structure. Prepared for the Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C.: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. Bosworth, Barry, Gary Burtless, and John Sabelhaus 1991 The decline in saving: Evidence from household surveys. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1991(1):183-256. Bowie, Chester E. 1991 SIPP Household Sample Loss: 1984-1990 Panels. Unpublished memorandum. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. Bradbury, Bruce 1989 Family size equivalence scales and survey evaluations of income and well- being. Journal of Social Policy 18(3)(July):383-408. Bradshaw, Jonathan 1991 Seeking a Behavioral Representation of Modest but Adequate Levels of Living. Working Paper No. 13. Family Budget Unit, Department of Social Policy and Social Work. Heslington, Eng.: University of York. 1993 Budget Standards for the United Kingdom. Aldershot, Eng.: Avebury. Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne 1990 Promoting healthy development in young children: What educational interventions work? Pp. 125-145 in D.E. Rodgers and E. Ginzberg, eds., Improving the Life Chances of Children at Risk. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Greg J. Duncan, Pamela Kato Lebanov, and aomi Sealand 1993 Do neighborhoods influence child and adolescent development? American Journal of Sociology 99(2):353-395. Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Guang Guo, and Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr. 1993 Who drops out of and who continues beyond high school? A 20-year follow-up of black urban youth. Journal of Research on Adolescence 3(3):271-294. Browning, Edgar K. 1985 Comment: The evaluation of Census Bureau procedures for the measurement of noncash benefits and the incidence of poverty. Pp. 63-67 in Proceedings of the Bureau of the Census Conference on the Measurement of Noncash Benefits. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Browning, Martin 1992 Children and household economic behavior. Journal of Economic Literature 30(3):1434-1475. Browning, Martin, and Costas Meghir 1991 The effects of male and female labor supply on commodity demands. Econometrica 59(4):925-951. Brush, Lorelei R. 1987a Child Care Used by Working Women in the AFDC Population: An Analysis of the SIPP Data Base. Prepared for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Analysis, Research and Training, McLean, Va. 1987b Usage of Different Kinds of Child Care: An Analysis of the SIPP Data Base. Prepared for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation,

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 453 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Analysis, Research and Training, McLean, Va. Buhmann, Brigitte, Lee Rainwater, Guenther Schmaus, and Timothy M. Smeeding 1988 Equivalence scales, well-being, inequality, and poverty: Sensitivity estimates across ten countries using the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) database. The Review of Income and Wealth 34(2):115-142. Bumpass, Larry, and James A. Sweet 1989 National estimates of cohabitation. Demography 26 (4):615-625. Bureau of the Census 1967 1960 Census of Population, Subject Reports, Socioeconomic Status. PC (2)-5C. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1969 Poverty in the United States: 1959-1968. Current Population Reports, Consumer Income, Series P-60, No. 68. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1973 The Current Population Survey: A Report of Methodology. Technical Paper No. 7. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1975 Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970, Bicentennial Edition, Part 1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1978a The Current Population Survey: Design and Methodology. Technical Paper 40. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1978b 1972-1973 U.S. Consumer Expenditure Survey: A Preliminary Evaluation . Technical Paper No. 45. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1982 Money Income of Households, Families, and Persons in the United States: 1980. Current Population Reports, Consumer Income, Series P-60, No. 132. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1985 Income Nonresponses: March 1983 CPS. Technical Paper No. 54. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1986 Estimates of Poverty Including the Value of Noncash Benefits: 1985. Technical Paper No. 56. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1988a Estimates of Poverty Including the Value of Noncash Benefits: 1987. Technical Paper No. 58. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1988b Measuring the Effect of Benefits and Taxes on Income and Poverty: 1986. Current Population Reports, Consumer Income, Series P-60, No. 164-RD-1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1989a Money Income of Households, Families, and Persons in the United States: 1987. Current Population Reports, Consumer Income, Series P-60, No. 162. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1989b Transitions in Income and Poverty Status: 1984-85. Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, Series P-70, No. 15-RD-1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1991 The American Housing Survey for the United States in 1991. Current Housing Reports, Series H150/91. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1992a Measuring the Effect of Benefits and Taxes on Income and Poverty: 1979 to 1991. Current Population Reports, Consumer Income, Series P-60, No. 182-RD. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1992b Money Income of Households, Families, and Persons in the United States: 1991.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 454 Current Population Reports, Consumer Income, Series P-60, No. 180. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1992c Poverty in the United States: 1991. Current Population Reports, Consumer Income, Series P-60, No. 181. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1992d Statistical Abstract of the United States 1992. 112th Edition. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1993a Measuring the Effect of Benefits and Taxes on Income and Poverty: 1992. Current Population Reports, Consumer Income, Series P-60, No. 186-RD. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1993b Money Income of Households, Families, and Persons in the United States: 1992. Current Population Reports, Consumer Income, Series P-60, No. 184 . Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1993c Poverty in the United States: 1992. Current Population Reports, Consumer Income, Series P-60, No. 185. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1993d Statistical Abstract of the United States 1993. 113th Edition. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1995 Income, Poverty, and Valuation of Noncash Benefits: 1993. Current Population Reports, Consumer Income, Series P-60, No. 188. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. no date(a) Report on the SIPP 1984 Panel Wave 6 Annual Roundup and Tax Data. Unpublished memorandum. U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. no date(b) Size of Family—Families by Total Money Income in 1989, by State. Unpublished tabulations from the 1990 census. U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. Bureau of Labor Statistics 1969 Three Standards of Living for an Urban Family of Four Persons, Spring 1967. Bulletin No. 1570-5. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor. 1982 Autumn 1981 Urban Family Budgets and Comparative Indexes for Selected Urban Areas. USDL 82-139. U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. no date Consumer expenditures and income. Chapter 18 in BLS Handbook of Methods. Bulletin 2285. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor. Burke, Vee 1993 Cash and Noncash Benefits for Persons with Limited Income: Eligibility Rules, Recipient and Expenditure Data, FY 1990-92. Congressional Research Report for Congress No. 93-832 EPW, Congressional Research Service. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Burtless, Gary 1986 In-Kind Transfers and the Trend in Poverty. The Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C. Callan, Tim, Brian Nolan, and Christopher T. Whelan 1992 Resources, deprivation, and the measurement of poverty. Pp. 99-134 in Poverty Measurement for Economies in Transition in Eastern European Countries. Warsaw: Polish Statistical Association and Polish Central Statistical Office.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 455 Center on Social Welfare Policy and Law 1988 Analysis of 1988 Benefit Levels in the Program of Aid to Families with Dependent Children. Washington, D.C. Chapman, David W., Leroy Bailey, and Daniel Kasprzyk 1986 Nonresponse adjustment procedures at the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Survey Methodology 12(2):161-180. Chernick, Howard, and Andrew Reschovsky 1986 The Taxation of the Poor: Impacts of Federal Tax Reform Proposals. Draft report. Department of Economics, Hunter College. Chiswick, Barry R. 1985 The evaluation of Census Bureau procedures for the measurement of noncash benefits and the incidence of poverty. Pp. 36-56 in Proceedings of the Bureau of the Census Conference on the Measurement of Noncash Benefits. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Citro, Constance F. 1991 Databases for microsimulation: A comparison of the March CPS and SIPP. Pp. 11-61 in Constance F. Citro and Eric A. Hanushek, eds., Improving Information for Social Policy Decisions: The Uses of Microsimulation Modeling, Vol. II, Technical Papers. Panel to Evaluate Microsimulation Models for Social Welfare Programs, Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Citro, Constance F., and Michael L. Cohen, eds. 1985 The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990. Panel on Decennial Census Methodology, Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Citro, Constance F., and Eric A. Hanushek, eds. 1991 Improving Information for Social Policy Decisions: The Uses of Microsimulation Modeling. 2 vols. Panel to Evaluate Microsimulation Models for Social Welfare Programs, Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Citro, Constance F., and Graham Kalton, eds. 1993 The Future of the Survey of Income and Program Participation. Panel to Evaluate the Survey of Income and Program Participation, Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Clark, Rebecca L. 1988 Out-Migration Among Welfare Recipients. Paper presented at the Population Association of America annual meeting, New Orleans, La. Population Studies and Training Center and Department of Sociology, Brown University. 1990 Does Welfare Affect Migration? Unpublished paper. The Urban Institute, Washington, D.C. 1992 Do They Leave the Safety Net? The Effect of Level of State Welfare Payments on the Out- migration of Low-Income Mothers. Paper prepared for the Population Association of America annual meeting, Denver, Colo. The Urban Institute, Washington, D.C. Clark, Stephen, Richard Hemming, and David Ulph 1981 On indices for the measurement of poverty. The Economic Journal 91:515-526.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 456 Clubb, Jerome M., Peter A. Granda, and Erik W. Austin 1991 Understanding Living Conditions: The Cost of Living Surveys in the U.S., 1888-1937. Paper prepared for the Joint Statistical Meetings, Atlanta, Ga. Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research, University of Michigan. Coder, John 1991 Exploring Nonsampling Errors in the Wage and Salary Income Data from the March Current Population Survey. Paper prepared for the Allied Social Sciences Association/Society of Government Economists meeting, Washington, D.C. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. 1992a Measurement Errors in the Income Data from the March CPS. Background materials prepared for the Panel on Poverty and Family Assistance, Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. 1992b Using administrative record information to evaluate the quality of the income data collected in the Survey of Income and Program Participation. In Proceedings of Statistics Canada Symposium 92—Design and Analysis of Longitudinal Surveys. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. no date The Current Population Survey Earnings Imputation System: An Explanation and Evaluation. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. Coder, John, and Lydia Scoon-Rogers 1994 Evaluating the Quality of Income Data Collected in the Annual Supplement to the March Current Population Survey and the Survey of Income and Program Participation. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce , Washington, D.C. Cohany, Sharon R., Anne E. Polivka, and Jennifer M. Rothgeb 1994 Revisions in the Current Population Survey effective January 1994. Employment and Earnings 41(2) (February):13-37. Colasanto, Diane, Arie Kapteyn, and Jacques van der Gaag 1984 Two subjective definitions of poverty: Results from the Wisconsin Basic Needs Study. Journal of Human Resources 28 (1):127-138. Committee on National Statistics 1989 The Survey of Income and Program Participation: An Interim Assessment . National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Conference on Economic Progress 1959 The Federal Budget and ''The General Welfare"—We Can Afford to Serve Our Human Needs. Washington, D.C.: Conference on Economic Progress. Congressional Budget Office 1977a Poverty Status of Families Under Alternative Definitions of Income. Prepared by John Korbel. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1977b Welfare Reform: Issues, Objectives, and Approaches. Prepared by John Korbel and William Hoagland. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1987 The Changing Distribution of Federal Taxes: 1975-1990. Prepared by Richard Kasten and Frank Sammartino. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 457 1989a Fiscal Federalism and the Partnership Act of 1987. Prepared by Janice Peskin. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1989b Work and Welfare: The Family Support Act of 1988. Staff Working Paper by Janice Peskin, Julia Isaacs, and Alan Fairbank. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Congressional Research Service 1991 Cash and Noncash Benefits for Persons with Limited Income: Eligibility Rules, Recipient and Expenditure Data, FY 1988-90. Compiled by Vee Burke, Education and Public Welfare Division. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Corbett, Thomas 1993 Child poverty and welfare reform: Progress or paralysis? Focus 15(1):1-17. [Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin-Madison] Council of Economic Advisers 1992 Economic Report of the President. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Curtin, Richard T., F. Thomas Juster, and James N. Morgan 1989 Survey estimates of wealth: An assessment of quality. Pp. 473-552 [including comments by Eugene Smolensky] in Robert E. Lipsey and Helen Stone Tice, eds., The Measurement of Saving, Investment, and Wealth. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Cutler, David M., and Lawrence F. Katz 1991 Macroeconomic performance and the disadvantaged. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1991(2):1-74. 1992 Rising inequality? Changes in the distribution of income and consumption in the 1980s. American Economic Review 82(2)(May):546-551. Czajka, John L., and Constance F. Citro 1982 Analysis of household income and poverty statistics under alternative measures of household and family composition. In Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. Washington, D.C.: American Statistical Association. Danziger, Sheldon, Robert Haveman, and Robert Plotnick 1981 How income transfers affect work, savings, and the income distribution: A critical review. Journal of Economic Literature 19 (3):975-1028. Danziger, Sheldon, George Jakubson, Saul Schwartz, and Eugene Smolensky 1982 Work and welfare as determinants of female poverty and household headship. Quarterly Journal of Economics 97(3):519-534. Danziger, Sheldon, Jacques van der Gaag, Michael K. Taussig, and Eugene Smolensky 1984 The direct measurement of welfare levels: How much does it cost to make ends meet? Review of Economics and Statistics 66(3):500-505. David, Martin, and John Fitzgerald 1987 Measuring Poverty and Crises: A Comparison of Annual and Subannual Accounting Periods Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation. Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin-Madison. David, Martin, Roderick J.A. Little, Michael E. Samuhel, and Robert K. Triest 1986 Alternative methods for CPS income imputation. Journal of the American Statistical Association 81 (393):28-41.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 458 Davidson, Gestur, and Ira Moscovice 1989 Health insurance and welfare reentry. HSR: Health Services Research 24(5)(December):599-614. Dear, Ronald B. 1982 No more poverty in America? A critique of Martin Anderson's theory of welfare. Children and Youth Services Review 4(1-2):5-34. Deaton, Angus, and John Muellbauer 1980 Economics and Consumer Behavior. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press. 1986 On measuring child costs: With applications to poor countries. Journal of Political Economy 94(August):720-744. de Neufville, Judith I. 1975 Social Indicators and Public Policy. New York: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company. de Vos, Klaas, and Thesia I. Garner 1991 An evaluation of subjective poverty definitions: Comparing results from the U.S. and the Netherlands. The Review of Income and Wealth 37 (3)(September):267-285. Donaldson, David, and John A. Weymark 1986 Properties of fixed-population poverty indices. International Economic Review 27:667-88. Doyle, Pat, Karen Beauregard, and Enrique Lamas 1993 Health Benefits and Poverty: An Analysis on the National Medical Expenditure Survey. Center for Intramural Research, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C. Doyle, Pat, and Robert Dalrymple 1987 The impact of imputation procedures on distributional characteristics of the low-income population. Pp. 483-508 in Proceedings of the Bureau of the Census Third Annual Research Conference. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Dublin, Louis I., and Alfred J. Lotka 1946 The Money Value of a Man. 2nd edition. New York: Ronald Press. Duncan, Greg J. 1989 Panel Studies of Poverty: Prospects and Problems. Survey Research Center, University of Michigan. 1992 Talking Points for a Discussion of the Temporal Aspects of Poverty. Unpublished memorandum for the Panel on Poverty and Family Assistance, Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council. Survey Research Center, University of Michigan. Duncan, Greg J., Bjorn Gustafsson, Richard Hauser, Gunther Schmauss, Hans Messinger, Ruud Muffels, Brian Nolan, and Jean-Claude Ray 1993 Poverty dynamics in eight countries. Journal of Population Economics. 6(3)(August):215-234. Duncan, Greg J., and Martha S. Hill 1991 Panel Study of Income Dynamics: Research uses and recent innovations. ICPSR Bulletin (February):1-4.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 459 Duncan, Greg J., and Saul D. Hoffman 1990 Welfare benefits, economic opportunities, and out-of- wedlock births among black teenage girls. Demography 27(4):519-535. Duncan, Greg J., F. Thomas Juster, and James N. Morgan 1984 The role of panel studies in a world of scarce resources. Pp. 302-328 in Seymour Sudman and Mary A. Spaeth, eds., The Collection and Analysis of Economic and Consumer Behavior Data: In Memory of Robert Ferber. Bureau of Economic and Business Research. Champaign: University of Illinois. Duncan, Greg J., and Willard Rodgers 1991 Has children's poverty become more persistent? American Sociological Review 56(4)(August):538-550. Duncan, Greg J., Timothy M. Smeeding, and Willard Rodgers 1992 Why Is the Middle Class Shrinking? Paper presented to the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management Research Conference, October. Survey Research Center, University of Michigan. Eargle, Judith 1990 Household Wealth and Asset Ownership: 1988. Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, Series P-70, No. 22. Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Economic Research Service 1976 Analytical support for cost-of-living differentials in the poverty threshold. Technical Paper XV. The Measure of Poverty. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Edmonston, Barry, and Charles Schultze, eds. 1995 Modernizing the U.S. Census. Panel on Census Requirements in the Year 2000 and Beyond, Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Egbuono, L., and B. Starfield 1982 Child health and social status. Pediatrics 69(5):550-557. Eisen, M., C.A. Donald, J.E. Ware, and R.H. Brook 1980 Conceptualization and Measurement of Health for Children in the Health Insurance Study. R-2313-HEW. Santa Monica, Calif.: The Rand Corporation. Ellwood, David T. 1987 Understanding Dependency: Choices, Confidence, or Culture? Prepared for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Center for Human Resources, Heller Graduate School. Waltham, Mass: Brandeis University. Ellwood, David, and Mary Jo Bane 1985 The impact of AFDC on family structure and living arrangements. In R. Erenberg, ed., Research in Labor Economics, Vol. 7. Greenwich, Conn: JAI Press. Ellwood, David T., and Lawrence H. Summers 1985 Measuring income: What kind should be in? Pp. 8-27 in Proceedings of the Bureau of the Census Conference on the Measurement of Noncash Benefits. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Engel, Ernst 1895 Die lebenskosten belgischer arbeiter-familien früher und jetzt. International Statistical Institute Bulletin 9:1-74.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 460 Engel, Rafael J. 1989 Economic vulnerability of the transitory poor elderly. In Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. Alexandria, Va.: American Statistical Association. Eurostat 1990 Inequality and Poverty in Europe (1980-1985). Rapid Reports, Population and Social Conditions, No. 7. Expert Committee on Family Budget Revisions (Watts Committee) 1980 New American Family Budget Standards. Madison: Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin; New York: Center for the Social Sciences, Columbia University. Falk, Gene, and Joe Richardson 1985 Families with Children: Selected Characteristics of Benefit Recipients from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Report No. 85-220-EPW. Congressional Research Service. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Family Budget Unit 1990 The Work of the Family Budget Unit. Working Paper No. 1. Department of Social Policy and Social Work. Heslington, Eng.: University of York. Fay, Robert E. 1989 An analysis of within-household undercoverage in the Current Population Survey. Pp. 156-175 in Proceedings of the Bureau of the Census Fifth Annual Research Conference. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Fay, Robert, Jeffrey S. Passel, and Gregory J. Robinson 1988 The Coverage of the Population in the 1980 Census. 1980 Census of Population and Housing Evaluation Research Report No. PHC80-E4. Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Fein, David 1989 The Social Sources of Census Omission: Racial and Ethnic Differences in Omission Rates in Recent U.S. Censuses. Dissertation submitted to Sociology Department, Princeton University. Fendler, Carol, and Mollie Orshansky 1979 Improving the poverty definition. Pp. 640-645 in Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. Washington, D.C.: American Statistical Association. Findlay, Jeanette, and Robert E. Wright 1992 Gender, Poverty and Intra-Household Distribution of Resources. Luxembourg Income Study, Working Paper No. 83. Department of Political Economy, University of Glasgow, Scotland. Fisher, Gordon M. 1985 Estimates of the Poverty Population Under the Current Official Definition for Years Before 1959: Initial Results. Draft (October). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C. 1992a The development and history of the poverty thresholds. Social Security Bulletin 55(4) (Winter):3-14. 1992b The Development of the Orshansky Poverty Thresholds and Their Subsequent History as the Official U.S. Poverty Measure. Draft (May). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C. 1992c Poverty guidelines for 1992. Social Security Bulletin 55(1)(Spring):43-46.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 461 1993 From Hunter to Orshansky: An Overview of (Unofficial) Poverty Lines in the United States from 1904 to 1965. Paper presented at the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management Research Conference, October. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C. 1994 Is There Such a Thing as an Absolute Poverty Line Over Time? Evidence from the United States, Britain, Canada, and Australia. Paper presented at the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management Research Conference, October. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C. Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Barry M. Lester, and Barry Zuckerman, eds. 1995 Children of Poverty: Research, Health Care, and Policy Issues. New York: Garland. Flik, Robert J., and Bernard M.A. van Praag 1991 Subjective poverty line definitions. De Economist 139(3):311-330. Food and Nutrition Service 1984 The Effects of Legislative Changes in 1981 and 1982 on Food Stamp Program Benefits. Interim Report to Congress. Office of Analysis and Evaluation. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1988a Background Information on Eligibility for the WIC Program. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 1988b Characteristics of the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Program Participants. Office of Analysis and Evaluation. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1988c Food Stamp Program Participation Rates Among the Poverty Population, 1980-1987. Prepared by Carole Trippe and Harold Beebout, Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., Washington, D.C. Office of Analysis and Evaluation. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1989 Food Stamp Analytic Studies—The Dynamics of Food Stamp Program Participation. Prepared by Nancy R. Burstein and Mary G. Visher, Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, Mass. Office of Analysis and Evaluation. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1991 Eligibility Guidance for School Meals Manual. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Foster, James 1984 On economic poverty: A survey of aggregate measures. In R.L. Basmann and George F. Rhodes, Jr., eds., Advances in Econometrics, Vol. 3. London: JAI Press Inc. Foster, James, Joel Greer, and Erik Thorbecke 1984 A class of decomposable poverty measures. Econometrica 52:761-766. Fraker, Thomas, and Robert Moffitt 1985 The Effects of Food Stamp Benefits on the Market Labor of Female Heads of Households. Final Report to the Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C.: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. 1988 The effect of food stamps on labor supply: A bivariate selection model. Journal of Public Economics 35:25-56. 1989 The Effect of Food Stamps on the Labor Supply of Unmarried Adults Without Dependent Children. Final Report to the Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C.: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 462 Fraker, Thomas, Robert Moffitt, and Douglas Wolf 1985 Effective tax rates and guarantees in the AFDC program, 1967-1982. Journal of Human Resources 20(2):251-263. Friedman, Milton 1957 A Theory of the Consumption Function. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. Friedman, Rose D. 1965 Poverty: Definition and Perspective. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute. Fuchs, Victor R. 1965 Toward a theory of poverty. Pp. 71-91 in Task Force on Economic Growth and Opportunity, The Concept of Poverty. Washington, D.C.: Chamber of Commerce of the United States. Gabe, Thomas, and Sharon Stephan 1988 Child Day Care: Patterns of Use Among Families with Preschool Children. Education and Public Welfare Division, Congressional Research Service. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Garfinkel, Irwin, and Robert Haveman. 1977 Earnings Capacity, Poverty and Inequality. New York: Academic Press. Gieseman, Raymond 1987 The Consumer Expenditure Survey: Quality control by comparative analysis. Monthly Labor Review 110(March):8-14. Gillingham, Robert 1975 Place to place rent comparisons. Annals of Economic and Social Measurement 4(1):153-173. 1981 Estimating inter-city differences in the price of housing services: Further evidence. Urban Studies 18:365-369. Goedhart, Theo, Victor Halberstadt, Arie Kapteyn, and Bernard M.S. van Praag 1977 The poverty line: Concept and measurement. Journal of Human Resources 12(4):503-520. Goodreau, Karen, Howard Oberheu, and Denton Vaughan 1984 An assessment of the quality of survey reports of income from the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 2(2):179-186. Gottschalk, Peter 1992 The intergenerational transmission of welfare participation: Facts and possible causes. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 11(2):254-272. Grall, Timothy S. 1994 Households at Risk: Their Housing Situation. Current Housing Reports, Series H121/94-2. Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Gramlich, Edward, and Deborah Laren 1984 Migration and income redistribution responsibilities. Journal of Human Resources 19(4):489-511. Green, Gordon 1983 Underreporting of Income in Household Surveys. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 463 Greenlees, J. 1982 An empirical evaluation of the CPI Home Purchase Index, 1973-1978. Journal of the American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association 10:1-24. Greger, Janet 1985 A Review of The Thrifty Food Plan and Its Use in the Food Stamp Program. Report prepared for the Subcommittee on Domestic Marketing, Consumer Relations, and Nutrition, Committee on Agriculture, U.S. House of Representatives. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Groeneveld, Lyle, Michael Hannan, and Nancy Tuma 1983 Income and marital events: Review of previous research. In Final Report of the Seattle-Denver Income Maintenance Experiments. Menlo Park, Calif.: SRI International. Gueron, Judith M. 1987 Reforming Welfare with Work. Occasional Paper 2. Project on Social Welfare and the American Future. New York: Ford Foundation. Haber, Sheldon E. 1988 Valuing In-Kind Benefits and the Measurement of Poverty and Income. Department of Economics, George Washington University. 1989a The Fungible Value of Government and Employer Provided In-Kind Health Benefits. Department of Economics, George Washington University. 1989b Recipient Value and Market Value: How They Measure Up in Counting the Poor. Department of Economics, George Washington University. Hafner-Eaton, C. 1993 Physician utilization disparities between the uninsured and insured: Comparisons of the chronically ill, acutely ill, and well nonelderly populations. Journal of the American Medical Association 269(6):787-792. Hagenaars, Aldi 1986 The Perception of Poverty. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Company. 1987 A class of poverty indices. International Economic Review 28:583-607. Hagenaars, Aldi, and Klaas de Vos 1988 The definition and measurement of poverty. Journal of Human Resources 23(2): 211-221. Hagenaars, Aldi, and Bernard M.S. van Praag 1985 A synthesis of poverty line definitions. The Review of Income and Wealth 31:139-154. Hahn, Beth A. 1994 Health care utilization: The effect of extending insurance to adults on Medicaid or uninsured. Medical Care 32(3):227-239. Hahn, B., and D. Lefkowitz 1992 Annual Expenses and Sources of Payment for Health Care Services. National Medical Expenditure Survey Research Findings 14, AHCPR Publication No. 93-07397. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Hanson, Sandra L., and Theodora Ooms 1991 The economic costs and rewards of two-earner, two parent families. Journal of Marriage and the Family 53(August):622-634.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 464 Hauver, James H., John A. Goodman, and Marc A. Grainer 1981 The federal poverty thresholds: Appearance and reality. Journal of Consumer Research 8(June):1-10. Haveman, Robert 1992 Who Are the Nation's "Truly Poor"?: Problems and Pitfalls in Defining and Measuring Poverty. Draft. Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin- Madison. 1993 Who are the nation's "truly poor"?: Problems and pitfalls in (re)defining and measuring poverty. The Brookings Review 11(1)(Winter):24-27. Haveman, Robert, and Larry F. Buron 1991 Who Are the Truly Poor? Patterns of Official and Net Earnings Capacity Poverty, 1973-1988. Discussion Paper 956-91, Institute for Research on Poverty. Madison: University of Wisconsin. 1993 Escaping poverty through work: The problem of low earnings capacity in the United States, 1973-1988. The Review of Income and Wealth. Haveman, Robert, and Barbara Wolfe 1993 Intergenerational Determinants of the Education Level of Young Adults. Paper prepared for the American Statistical Association winter meeting, Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. University of Wisconsin-Madison. Haveman, Robert, Barbara Wolfe, and James Spaulding 1991 Childhood events and circumstances influencing high school completion. Demography 29(1):133-157. Hayghe, Howard V., and Suzanne M. Bianchi 1993 Changes in the Labor Force Role of Married Mothers. Paper presented at the American Statistical Association winter meeting, Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, and Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. Hernandez, Donald 1993 America's Children: Resources from Family, Government, and the Economy. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Hill, Martha S. 1992 The Panel Study of Income Dynamics: A User's Guide. Part of the series, Guides to Major Social Science Data Bases. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications, Inc. Hoffman, Saul, and Greg Duncan 1988 A comparison of choice-based multinomial and nested logit models: The family structure and welfare use decisions of divorced or separated women. Journal of Human Resources 23(4):550-562. Hopkins, Kevin R. 1987 Welfare Dependency—Behavior, Culture, and Public Policy. Prepared for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Alexandria, Va.: Hudson Institute. Hoppe, Robert A. 1988 Two Types of Poverty, Two Types of Policy. Paper presented at "Towards Rural Development Policy for the 1990s: Enhancing Income and Employment Opportunities," Symposium sponsored by the Congressional Research Service for the Joint Economic Committee. Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 465 Hurd, Michael D. 1990 Research on the elderly: Economic status, retirement, and consumption and savings. Journal of Economic Literature 28(June):565-637. Huston, Aletha C., ed. 1991 Children in Poverty: Child Development and Public Policy. New York: Cambridge University Press. Huston, Aletha C., Vonnie McLoyd, and Cynthia Garcia Coll 1994 Children and poverty: Issues in contemporary research. Child Development (Special Issue: Children and Poverty) 65 (2):275-282. Hutchens, Robert, George Jakubson, and Saul Schwartz 1989 AFDC and the formation of subfamilies. Journal of Human Resources 24(4):599-628. Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics 1990 Income Data for the Elderly: Guidelines. Income Working Group. Washington, D.C.: Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. Jabine, Thomas B., Karen E. King, and Rita J. Petroni 1990 Survey of Income and Program Participation: Quality Profile. Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Jacobs, Eva, and Stephanie Shipp 1990 A history of the U.S. Consumer Expenditure Survey: 1935 to 1988. In Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. Alexandria, Va.: American Statistical Association. Jacobs, Eva, Stephanie Shipp, and Gregory Brown 1989 Families of working wives spending more on services and nondurables. Monthly Labor Review (February):15-23. Jenkins, Stephen P. 1991 Poverty measurement and the within-household distribution: Agenda for action. Journal of Social Policy 20(4):457-483. Johnson, David S., and Thesia I. Garner 1993 Estimating unique equivalence scales. Pp. 420-427 in Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. Alexandria, Va.: American Statistical Association. Johnson, Paul, and Steven Webb 1992 Official statistics on poverty in the United Kingdom. Pp. 135-154 in Poverty Measurement for Economies in Transition in Eastern European Countries. Warsaw: Polish Statistical Association and Polish Central Statistical Office. Jorgenson, Dale W., and Daniel T. Slesnick 1987 Aggregate consumer behavior and household equivalence scales. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 5(2):219-232. Juster, F. Thomas, and Kathleen A. Kuester 1991 Differences in the measurement of wealth, wealth inequality and wealth composition obtained from alternative U.S. wealth surveys. The Review of Income and Wealth 37(1):33-62. Juster, F. Thomas, and Frank P. Stafford 1985 Time, Goods, and Well-Being. Survey Research Center. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. Juster, F. Thomas, and Richard Suzman 1993 The Health and Retirement Study: An Overview. Health and Retirement Study

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 466 Working Paper Series, Core Paper No. 94-1001. Institute for Social Research and National Institute on Aging. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan; Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Kakwani, Nanak 1980 On a class of poverty measures. Econometrica 48:437-446. Kalton, Graham, Daniel Kasprzyk, and David B. McMillen 1989 Nonsampling errors in panel surveys. Pp. 249-270 in D. Kasprzyk, G. Duncan, G. Kalton, and M.P. Singh, eds., Panel Surveys. New York: J.W. Wiley and Sons, Inc. Kapteyn, Arie 1977 A Theory of Preference Formation. Dissertation submitted to Leyden University, The Netherlands. Kerr, R., and B. Peterkin 1975 The Effect of Household Size on the Cost of Diets That Are Nutritionally Equivalent. CFE(Adm.)325. Consumer and Food Economics Institute. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture. Kiernan, K.E., and V. Estaugh. 1993 Cohabitation: Extra-Marital Childbearing and Social Policy. Occasional Paper 17. London, Eng.: Family Policy Studies Center. Kilpatrick, Robert W. 1973 The income elasticity of the poverty line. Review of Economics and Statistics 55(3)(August):327-332. King, Jill 1976 The consumer price index. Technical Paper V. The Measure of Poverty. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. King, Karen E., S. Patricia Chou, Maryann K. McCormick, and Rita J. Petroni 1990 Investigations of the SIPP's cross-sectional noninterview adjustment method and variables. In Proceedings of the Survey Research Methods Section. Alexandria, Va.: American Statistical Association. Klerman, Lorraine 1991 The health of poor children: Problems and programs. Pp. 136-157 in Aletha C. Huston, ed., Children in Poverty: Child Development and Public Policy. New York: Cambridge University Press. Kokoski, Mary F. 1991 New research on interarea consumer price differences. Monthly Labor Review (July):31-34. Kokoski, Mary, Patrick Cardiff, and Brent Moulton 1992 Interarea Price Indices for Consumer Goods and Services: An Hedonic Approach Using CPI Data. Preliminary draft. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, D.C. 1994 Interarea Price Indices for Consumer Goods and Services: An Hedonic Approach Using CPI Data. BLS Working Paper No. 256, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor. Korbin, Jill E., ed. 1992 Special issue: The impact of poverty on children. American Behavioral Scientist 35(3).

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 467 Kundu, A., and T.E. Smith 1983 An impossibility theorem on poverty indices. International Economic Review 24(June):423-434. Lamas, Enrique, Jan Tin, and Judith Eargle 1994 The Effect of Attrition on Income and Poverty Estimates from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Paper presented at the Conference on Attrition in Longitudinal Surveys. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. Larin, Kathryn A., with Kathryn H. Porter 1992 Enough to Live On: Setting an Appropriate AFDC Need Standard. Washington, D.C.: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Laumann, E.O., J.H. Gagnon, R.T. Michael, and S. Michaels 1994 The Social Organization of Sexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lazear, Edward, and Robert Michael 1980a Family size and the distribution of real per capita income. American Economic Review 70(1):91-107. 1980b Real income equivalence among one-earner and two-earner families. American Economic Review 70(2)(May):203-208. 1988 Allocation of Income Within the Household. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lefkowitz, D., and A. Monhe 1991 Health Insurance, Use of Health Services, and Health Care Expenditures. National Medical Expenditure Survey Research Findings 12, AHCPR Publication No. 92-0017. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Lepkowski, James M. 1989 Treatment of wave nonresponse in panel surveys. Pp. 348-374 in D. Kasprzyk, G. Duncan, G. Kalton, and M.P. Singh, eds., Panel Surveys. New York: J.W. Wiley and Sons, Inc. Lepkowski, James M., Graham Kalton, and Daniel Kasprzyk 1990 Measurement Errors in Panel Surveys. Paper prepared for the International Conference on Measurement Errors in Surveys, Tucson, Ariz. Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. Lerman, Robert I., and Donald L. Lerman 1989 Income sources and income inequality: Measurements from three U.S. income surveys. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement 15(2):167-189. Lerman, Robert I., and Shlomo Yitzhaki 1989 The Time Dimension in Poverty and Inequality. Draft paper prepared for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . Brandeis University and Hebrew University, Israel. Levine, Daniel B., and Linda Ingram, eds. 1988 Income and Poverty Statistics: Problems of Concept and Measurement. Report of a Workshop. Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Lewis, Gordon H., and Richard C. Michel, eds. 1990 Microsimulation Techniques for Tax and Transfer Analysis. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute Press.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 468 Lillard, Lee A., James P. Smith, and Finis Welch 1986 What do we really know about wages? The importance of nonreporting and census imputation. Journal of Political Economy 94 (31):489-506. Lillard, Lee A., and R.J. Willis 1978 Dynamic aspects of earning mobility. Econometrics 46 (5):985-1012. Lindert, Peter H. 1978 Fertility and Scarcity in America. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Lundberg, Shelly, and Robert Plotnick 1990 Adolescent premarital childbearing: Do opportunity costs matter? Paper prepared for the May 1990 Population Association of America conference, Toronto, Canada. Mack, Joanna, and Stewart Lansley 1985 Poor Britain. London, Eng.: George Allen & Unwin, Ltd. Mahoney, Bette, Milo B. Sunderhauf, and Murray S. Weitzman 1973 Consolidated Report of Subcommittee Chairmen: Review of Poverty Statistics. Unpublished memorandum to Paul Krueger. U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Washington, D.C. Maritato, Nancy 1992 Subjective Measures of Poverty. Unpublished paper prepared for the Panel on Poverty and Family Assistance, Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Marquis, Kent H., and Jeffrey C. Moore 1990a Measurement errors in SIPP program reports. Pp. 721-745 in Proceedings of the Bureau of the Census Sixth Annual Research Conference. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1990b SIPP Record Check Final Report. Draft. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. Marquis, Kent H., Jeffrey C. Moore, and Karen E. Bogen 1991 A Cognitive Approach to Redesigning Measurement in the Survey of Income and Program Participation. Draft background paper prepared for the American Statistical Association/Survey Research Methods Section Working Group on Technical Aspects of SIPP. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. Mayer, Susan, and Christopher Jencks 1993 Recent trends in economic inequality in the United States: Income vs. expenditures vs. material well-being. In Dimitri Papadimitriou and Edward Wolff, eds., Poverty and Prosperity in the USA in the Late Twentieth Century. London, Eng.: Macmillan. McCormick, M.C., J. Baker, J. Brooks-Gunn, J. Turner, J. Workman-Daniels, and G. Peckham 1991 Cohort reconstruction: Which infants can be restudied at school age? Pediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 5:410-422. Michael, Robert T. 1985 Consequences of the rise in female labor force participation rates: Questions and probes. Journal of Labor Economics 3(No. 1, Pt. 2):S117-S146.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 469 Michael, Robert T., and Edward P. Lazear 1986 Estimating the personal distribution of income with adjustment for within-family variation. Journal of Labor Economics 4:S216-S244. Michalos, Alex C. 1989 Discrepancies between perceived income needs and actual incomes. Social Indicators Research 21(3)(June):293-296. Michel, Richard C., and Frank S. Levy 1991 Family income: Slower growth and less equity. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy (Summer):40-49. Millar, Jane, and Caroline Glendinning 1989 Survey article: Gender and poverty. Journal of Social Policy 18(3):363-381. Modigliani, Franco, and Richard Brumberg 1954 Utility analysis and the consumption function: An interpretation of cross-section data. In K. Kurihara, ed., Post-Keynesian Economics. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. Moffitt, Robert 1992 Incentive effects of the U.S. welfare system: A review. Journal of Economic Literature 30(March):1-61. Moffitt, Robert, and Barbara Wolfe 1990 The Effect of the Medicaid Program on Welfare Participation and Labor Supply. Discussion Paper No. 909-90, Institute for Research on Poverty. Madison: University of Wisconsin. Monheit, Alan C., and Claudia L. Schur 1988 The dynamics of health insurance loss: A tale of two cohorts. Inquiry 25(Fall):315-327. Moon, Marilyn 1977 The Measurement of Economic Welfare: Its Application to the Aged Poor. New York: Academic Press. 1993 Incorporating Health Issues in the Measurement of Poverty. Unpublished paper prepared for the Panel on Poverty and Family Assistance, Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council. The Urban Institute, Washington, D.C. Morissette, Rene, and Susan Poulin 1991 Income Satisfaction Supplement: Summary of Four Survey Years. Labor and Household Surveys Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Canada. Moulton, Brent R. 1992 Interarea Indexes of the Cost of Shelter Using Hedonic Quality and Adjustment Techniques. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. Muth, Richard 1971 The derived demand for urban residential land. Urban Studies 8:243-254. National Opinion Research Center no date The National Data Program for the Social Sciences [description of the General Social Survey]. Chicago, Ill. Nelson, Charles T., and Gordon W. Green, Jr. 1986 Estimating after-tax income of households, using the March Current Population

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 470 Survey. Pp. 27-36 in Proceedings of the Business and Economic Statistics Section. Washington, D.C.: American Statistical Association. Nelson, Dawn D., Chet Bowie, and Annetta Walker 1987 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) Sample Loss and the Efforts to Reduce It. SIPP Working Paper No. 8709. Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Nelson, Julie 1993 Household equivalence scales: Theory versus policy? Journal of Labor Economics 11(3):471-493. Nelson, Kathryn P., and F. Stevens Redburn 1994 Rethinking Priority Needs for Rental Assistance: Limitations of ''Worst Case Needs." Paper prepared for the American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association midyear meeting. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, D.C. Neter, John, and Joseph Waksberg 1965 Response Errors in Collection of Expenditures Data by Household Interview: An Experimental Study. Technical Paper No. 11. Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Newhouse, Joseph P., and The Insurance Experiment Group 1993 Free for All? Lessons from the RAND Health Insurance Experiment. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Nicholson, J.L. 1976 Appraisal of different methods of estimating equivalence scales and their results. The Review of Income and Wealth 22:1-18. O'Connell, Martin, and Amara Bachu 1990 Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Winter, 1986-87. Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, Series P-70, No. 20. Bureau of the Census.Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Office of Policy Development and Research 1992a Fair Market Rents for the Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, D.C. 1992b FY 1992 Income Limits Briefing Material. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, D.C. Office of Technology Assessment 1992 Does Health Insurance Make a Difference?—Background Paper. OTA-BP-H-99. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1994 Understanding Estimates of National Health Expenditures Under Health Reform. OTA- H-594. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. O'Hare, William 1990 What does it take to get-along? American Demographics 12(5)(May):36-39. 1991 Review of Literature on Post-Censal Estimates of State and Sub-State Poverty . Urban Research Institute, University of Louisville. O'Hare, William, Taynia Mann, Kathryn Porter, and Robert Greenstein 1990 Real Life Poverty in America: Where the American Public Would Set the Poverty Line.Washington, D.C.: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities and Families USA Foundation.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 471 O'Higgins, Michael, and Stephen Jenkins 1990 Poverty in the EC: Estimates for 1975, 1980, and 1985. Pp. 187-212 in Rudolph Teekens and Bernard M.S. van Praag, eds., Analysing Poverty in the European Community: Policy Issues, Research Options, and Data Sources. Luxembourg: Office of Official Publications of the European Communities. Oldfield, Nina 1992 Using Budget Standards to Estimate the Cost of Children. Working Paper No. 15. Family Budget Unit, Department of Social Policy and Social Work. Heslington, Eng.: University of York. O'Neill, June 1985 Comment: The statistical measurement of poverty. Pp. 96-98 in Proceedings of the Bureau of the Census Conference on the Measurement of Noncash Benefits. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 1982 The OECD List of Social Indicators. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Orshansky, Mollie 1963 Children of the poor. Social Security Bulletin 26(7)(July):3-13. 1965a Counting the poor: another look at the poverty profile. Social Security Bulletin 28(1) (January):3-29. 1965b Who's who among the poor: a demographic view of poverty. Social Security Bulletin 28(7) (July):3-32. 1966a More about the poor in 1964. Social Security Bulletin 29(5)(May):3-38. 1966b The poor in city and suburb, 1964. Social Security Bulletin 29(12)(December):22-37. 1966c Recounting the poor—a five-year review. Social Security Bulletin 29(4)(April):20-37. 1968a Demography and ecology of poverty. Pp. 1-29 in Proceedings of a Conference on Research in Poverty. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Social Science Research, Inc. 1968b The shape of poverty in 1966. Social Security Bulletin 31(3)(March):3-32. 1969 How poverty is measured. Monthly Labor Review 92(2)(February):37-41. 1976 Documentation of background information and rationale for current poverty matrix. Technical Paper I (reprints Orshansky Social Security Bulletin articles). The Measure of Poverty. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. 1986 Statement. Pp. 116-124 in U.S. House of Representatives, Census Bureau Measurement of Noncash Benefits: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Census and Population of the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service. Serial No. 99-51. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Orshansky, Mollie, Harold W. Watts, Bradley R. Schiller, and John J. Korbel 1978 Measuring poverty: a debate. Public Welfare 36(2):46-55. Paglin, Morton 1980 Poverty and Transfers In-Kind: A Re-Evaluation of Poverty in the United States. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University. Pahl, Jan 1989 Money and Marriage. London, Eng.: Macmillan.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 472 Parker, L., S. Greer, and B. Zuckerman 1988 Double "jeopardy": The impact of poverty on early child development. The Pediatric Clinics of North America 35:1227-1240. Pearl, Robert B. 1968 Methodology of Consumer Expenditures Surveys. Working Paper No. 27. Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1979 Reevaluation of the 1972-73 U.S. Consumer Expenditure Survey. Technical Paper No. 46. Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Pechman, Joseph A. 1985 Who Paid the Taxes, 1966-1985? Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution . Pennell, Steven G., and James M. Lepkowski 1992 Panel Conditioning Effects in the Survey of Income and Program Participation. Paper prepared for the American Statistical Association annual meeting. Survey Research Center, University of Michigan. Peterkin, Betty, Andrea Blum, Richard Kerr, and Linda Cleveland 1983 The Thrifty Food Plan, 1983. CNO(Adm.)365. Consumer Nutrition Division, Human Nutrition Information Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Peterson, Paul E., and Mark C. Rom 1989 American federalism, welfare policy and residential choices. American Political Science Review 83(3):711-728. 1990 Welfare Magnets—A New Case for a National Standard. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. Petroni, Rita J., and Karen E. King 1988 Evaluation of the Survey of Income and Program Participation's cross-sectional noninterview adjustment methods. Pp. 342-347 in Proceedings of the Survey Research Methods Section. Alexandria, Va.: American Statistical Association. Phipps, Shelley A. 1993 Measuring poverty among Canadian households: Sensitivity to choice of measure and scale. Journal of Human Resources 28(1):162-184. Plotnick, Robert D. 1989 How much poverty is reduced by state income transfers? Monthly Labor Review 112(7)(July):21-26. 1990 Welfare and out-of-wedlock childbearing: Evidence from the 1980s. Journal of Marriage and the Family 52(August):735-746. Plotnick, Robert D., and Richard F. Winters 1985 A politico-economic theory of redistribution. American Political Science Review 79(2):458-73. Pollak, Robert, and Terrence J. Wales 1979 Welfare comparisons and equivalence scales. American Economic Review 69 (March):216-21. Poulin, Susan 1988 An Application of Analytic Techniques to Canadian Income Satisfaction Data. Staff report. Labor and Household Surveys Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 473 President's Commission on Income Maintenance Programs 1969 Poverty Amid Plenty—The American Paradox. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Quinn, Joseph F., Richard V. Burkhauser, and Daniel A. Myers 1990 Passing the Torch: The Influence of Economic Incentives on Work and Retirement. Kalamazoo, Mich.: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. Rabin, R.L. 1970 Implementation of the cost-of-living adjustment for AFDC recipients: A case study of welfare administration. University of Pennsylvania Law Review 118(8): 1143-1166. Radbill, Larry M., and Kathleen Short 1992 Extended Measures of Well-Being: Selected Data from the 1984 Survey of Income and Program Participation. Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, Series P-70, No. 26. Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Rainwater, Lee 1974 What Money Buys: Inequality and the Social Meanings of Income. New York: Basic Books, Inc. 1990 Poverty and Equivalence as Social Constructions. Luxembourg Income Study, Working Paper No. 55. Harvard University. 1992 Poverty in American Eyes. Luxembourg Income Study, Working Paper No. 80. Harvard University. Ramey, C.T., D.M. Bryant, B.H. Wasik, J.J. Sparling, K.H. Fendt, and L.M. LaVange 1992 The Infant Health and Development Program for low birth weight premature infants: Program elements, family participation, and child intelligence. Pediatrics 3(March):454-465. Ravallion, Martin 1992 Poverty Comparisons: A Guide to Concepts and Methods. Living Standards Measurement Study, Working Paper No. 88. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Ravallion, Martin, Gaurav Datt, and Dominique van de Walle 1991 Quantifying absolute poverty in the developing world. The Review of Income and Wealth 37(4):345-361. Rawlings, Steve W. 1993 Household and Family Characteristics: March 1992. Current Population Reports, Series P-20, No. 467. Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Rees, Albert 1985 Comment: Measuring income—What kind should be in? Pp. 32-35 in Proceedings of the Bureau of the Census Conference on the Measurement of Noncash Benefits. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Renwick, Trudi J. 1993a Budget-based poverty measurement: 1992 basic needs budgets for American families. Pp. 573-582 in Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. Alexandria, Va.: American Statistical Association. 1993b Budget-Based Poverty Thresholds and Equivalence Scales. Paper prepared for the American Statistical Association winter meeting, Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. Skidmore College.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 474 Renwick, Trudi J., and Barbara R. Bergmann 1993 A budget-based definition of poverty with an application to single-parent families. Journal of Human Resources 28(1):1-24. Roback, J. 1982 Wages, rents, and the quality of life. Journal of Political Economy 90 (December):1257-1278. Robinson, Gregory J. 1990 Preliminary Estimates of the United States Resident Population on April 1, 1990, Based on Demographic Analysis. Paper presented to the Census Advisory Committee of the American Statistical Association and the Census Advisory Committee on Population Statistics. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. Robinson, John P. 1977 How Americans Use Time: A Social-Psychological Analysis of Everyday Behavior. New York: Praeger Publishers. Rodgers, Joan R., and John L. Rodgers 1991 Measuring the intensity of poverty among subpopulations. Journal of Human Resources 26(2):338-361. 1993 Chronic poverty in the United States. Journal of Human Resources 28(1):25-54. Rosen, H. S. 1978 Estimating inter-city differences in the price of housing services. Urban Studies 15:351-355. 1979 Wage-based indexes of urban quality of life. In Peter Mieszkowski and Mahlon Straszheim, eds., Current Issues in Urban Economics. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press. Rothbarth, E. 1943 Notes on a method of determining equivalent incomes for families of different composition. Appendix 4 in C. Madge, ed., War-Time Pattern of Saving and Spending. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press. Ruggles, Patricia 1988a Accounting Period Impacts on the Measured Duration of Poverty Spells. The Urban Institute, Washington, D.C. 1988b Short-Term Fluctuations in Income and Their Relationship to the Characteristics of the Low- Income Population: New Data from SIPP. SIPP Working Paper No. 8802. Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1990 Drawing the Line—Alternative Poverty Measures and Their Implications for Public Policy. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute Press. Ruggles, Patricia, and Roberton Williams 1987 Transitions In and Out of Poverty: New Data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation. SIPP Working Paper No. 8716. Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1989 Longitudinal measures of poverty: Accounting for income and assets over time. The Review of Income and Wealth 35(3):225-244. Rust, John, and Christopher Phelan 1993 How Social Security and Medicare Affect Retirement Behavior in a World of Incomplete Markets. Monograph prepared for Workshop on Pensions and Public Finance in an Aging Society, Rotterdam. University of Wisconsin- Madison.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 475 Rutter, Michael 1989 Child psychiatric disorders in ICD-10. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines 30(4)(July):499-513. Saluter, Arlene F. 1992 Marital Status and Living Arrangements: March 1992. Current Population Reports, Series P-20, No. 468. Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Sawhill, Isabel V. 1988 Poverty in the U.S.: Why is it so persistent? Journal of Economic Literature 26(September):1073-1119. Schirm, Allen L., Gary D. Swearingen, and Cara S. Hendricks 1992 Development and Evaluation of Alternative State Estimates of Poverty, Food Stamp Program Eligibility, and Food Stamp Program Participation . Report to the Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C.: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. Schwarz, John E., and Thomas J. Volgy 1992 The Forgotten Americans. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. Sen, Amartya 1976 Poverty: An ordinal approach to measurement. Econometrica 44:219-31. 1983 Poor, relatively speaking. Oxford Economic Papers 35:153-169. 1985 A sociological approach to the measurement of poverty: A reply to Professor Peter Townsend. Oxford Economic Papers 37(4):669-676. 1987 The Standard of Living. Tanner Lectures, Clare Hall, Cambridge, 1985. Cambridge Eng.: Cambridge University Press. 1992 Inequality Reexamined. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Seneca, J.J., and M.K. Taussig 1971 Family equivalence scales and personal income tax exemptions for children. Review of Economics and Statistics 53:253-262. Shapiro, Gary, and Paul Bettin 1992 Coverage in Household Surveys. Paper presented to the Census Advisory Committee of the American Statistical Association and the Census Advisory Committee on Population Statistics. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. Shapiro, Gary, Gregg Diffendal, and David Cantor 1993 Survey undercoverage: Major causes and new estimates of magnitude. Pp. 638-663 in Proceedings of the Bureau of the Census 1993 Annual Research Conference. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Shapiro, Gary M., and Donna Kostanich 1988 High response error and poor coverage are severely hurting the value of household survey data. Pp. 443-448 in Proceedings of the Survey Research Methods Section. Washington, D.C.: American Statistical Association. Sherwood, Mark 1975 Family budgets and geographic differences in price levels. Monthly Labor Review (April):8-15. 1977 Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Family Budgets Program. Technical Paper IV. The Measure of Poverty. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 476 Short, Kathleen, and Martina Shea 1991 Transitions in Income and Poverty Status: 1987-88. Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, Series P-70, No. 24. Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Silberstein, Adriana R. 1989 Recall effects in the U.S. Consumer Expenditure Survey. Journal of Official Statistics 5(2):125-142. Slesnick, Daniel T. 1991a Gaining Ground: Poverty in the Postwar United States. Revised July 1991. Department of Economics, University of Texas. 1991b The standard of living in the United States. The Review of Income and Wealth 37(4):363-386. Smeeding, Timothy M. 1982 Alternative Methods for Valuing Selected In-Kind Transfer Benefits and Measuring Their Effect on Poverty. Technical Paper No. 50. Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1988 Valuation of Noncash Benefits and Their Effect on Poverty: What Needs to Be Done and Why? Statement before the Subcommittee on Census and Population, Committee on Post Office and Civil Service, U.S. House of Representatives, March 22. Vanderbilt University. Smeeding, Timothy M., and Barbara Boyle Torrey 1988 Poor children in rich countries. Science 242 (11 November):873-877. Smith, Adam 1776 Wealth of Nations. Modern Library Edition, 1993. New York: Random House, Inc. Smith, James D. 1987 Measuring the informal economy. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 493(September):83-99. Smolensky, Eugene 1985 Comment: The statistical measurement of poverty. Pp. 99-103 in Proceedings of the Bureau of the Census Conference on the Measurement of Noncash Benefits. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Solomon, Carmen D. 1991 Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC): Need Standards, Payment Standards, and Maximum Benefits. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress 91-849-EPW. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Solomon, Carmen D., and Jennifer A. Neisner 1993 Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC): Need Standards, Payment Standards, and Maximum Benefits. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress 93-63-EPW. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Sorenson, Elaine 1993 Noncustodial Fathers: Can They Afford to Pay More Child Support? The Urban Institute, Washington, D.C. Spillman, B.C. 1992 The impact of being uninsured on utilization of basic health care. Inquiry 29:457-466.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 477 Statistics Canada 1991 Income Distributions by Size in Canada—1990. Household Surveys Division. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 1992 Income After-Tax, Distributions by Size in Canada—1990. Household Surveys Division. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Steffick, Diane 1993 Housing Subsidies. Unpublished memorandum, The Urban Institute, Washington, D.C. Stein, R.E., S.L. Gortmaker, E.C. Perrin, J.M. Perrin, I.B. Pless, D.K. Walker, and M. Weitzman 1987 Severity of illness: Concepts and measurements. The Lancet 2:1506-1509. Stephenson, Stanley, Jr. 1977 Relative measure of poverty. Technical Paper XIV. The Measure of Poverty. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Survey Research Center 1989 A Panel Study of Income Dynamics—Procedures and Tape Codes, 1987 Interviewing Year. Institute for Social Research. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. Takayama, Noriyuki 1979 Poverty, income inequality and their measures: Professor Sen's axiomatic approach reconsidered. Econometrica 47:747-759. Taylor, Amy K., and Jessica S. Banthin 1994 Out-of-Pocket Expenditures for Personal Health Services: Changes in 1977 and 1988. National Medical Expenditure Survey Research Findings 21, AHCPR Publication No. 94-0065. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Thibodeau, T. 1989 Housing price indexes from the 1974-1983 SIMSA Annual Housing Surveys. Journal of the American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association 1(1):100-117. Thon, Dominique 1979 On measuring poverty. The Review of Income and Wealth 25:429-39. Thornton, Arland 1988 Cohabitation and marriage in the 1980s. Demography 25(4) (November):497-508. Townsend, Peter 1954 Measuring poverty. British Journal of Sociology 5(2)(June):130-137. 1962 The meaning of poverty. British Journal of Sociology 13(3)(September):210-227. 1979 Poverty in the United Kingdom: A Survey of Household Resources and Standards of Living. Harmondsworth, Eng.: Penguin Books. 1985 A sociological approach to the measurement of poverty—A rejoinder to Professor Amartya Sen. Oxford Economic Papers 37:659-668. 1992 The International Analysis of Poverty. Hemel Hempstead, Eng.: Harvester-Wheatsheaf Townsend, Peter, and David Gordon 1991 What is enough? New evidence on poverty allowing the definition of a minimum benefit. Pp. 35-69 in Michael Adler, Colin Bell, Jochen Clasen, and Adrian Sinfield, eds., The Sociology of Social Security. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 478 Tsakloglou, Panos 1990 A Comparison of Poverty Rate Estimates Using Expenditure and Income Data. Luxembourg Income Study, Working Paper No. 71. Luxembourg: Statistical Office of the European Communities. Tucker, Clyde, Gil Haugh, Sylvia Johnson-Herring, Sharon Krieger, and Karen Vigliano no date The Impact of Political and Economic Conditions on Refusal Rates to the Current Population Survey and the Consumer Expenditure Surveys. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. Urban Systems Research & Engineering, Inc. (USR&E) 1980 AFDC Standards of Need: An Evaluation of Current Practices, Alternative Approaches, and Policy Options. Prepared for the Social Security Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Cambridge, Mass.: Urban Systems Research & Engineering, Inc. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare 1976 The Measure of Poverty. A report to Congress as mandated by the Education Amendments of 1974. Includes 17 technical appendices. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. General Accounting Office 1985a An Evaluation of the 1981 AFDC Changes: Final Report. GAO/PEMD-85-4. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1985b Federal Benefit Programs: A Profile. GAO/HRD-86-14. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1986a An Evaluation of the Census Bureau's Measurement Conference. GAO/PEMD-86-8BR. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1986b Noncash Benefits: Initial Results Show Valuation Methods Differentially Affect the Poor. GAO/PEMD-87-7BR. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1987a Noncash Benefits: Methodological Review of Experimental Valuation Methods Indicates Many Problems Remain. GAO/PEMD-87-23. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1987b Welfare—Income and Relative Poverty Status of AFDC Families. GAO/HRD-88-9. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1988 Evaluation of Poverty Indicators. GAO/T-PEMD-88-1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1992 Unemployed Parents—An Evaluation of the Effects of Welfare Benefits on Family Stability. GAO/PEMD-92-19BR. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. House of Representatives 1985 Children in Poverty. Committee on Ways and Means. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1990 Overview of Entitlement Programs: 1990 Green Book. Background material and data on programs within the jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1991 Overview of Entitlement Programs: 1991 Green Book. Background material and data on programs within the jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1992 Overview of Entitlement Programs: 1992 Green Book. Background material and

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 479 data on programs within the jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1993 Overview of Entitlement Programs: 1993 Green Book. Background material and data on programs within the jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1994 Overview of Entitlement Programs: 1994 Green Book. Background material and data on programs within the jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity 1965 National Anti-Poverty Plan and 1967 Budget Request. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity. 1966 National Anti-Poverty Plan—FY 1968-FY 1972. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity. U.S. Senate 1986 Work and Welfare. Committee on Labor and Human Resources and Committee on Finance. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. van den Bosch, Karel 1992 Comparing Longitudinal Poverty Across Countries: Results from Five EC-Countries and Some Methodological Explorations. Paper prepared for the International Social Science Methodology Conference at Trento, Italy. Centre of Social Policy, University of Antwerp, The Netherlands. van der Gaag, Jacques 1981 On Measuring the Cost of Children. Discussion Paper 663-81, Institute for Research on Poverty. Madison: University of Wisconsin. van Praag, Bernard M.S. 1968 Individual Welfare Functions and Consumer Behavior. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Company. van Praag, B.M.S., S. Dubnoff, and N. van der Saar 1988 On the measurement and explanation of standards with respect to income, age, and education. Journal of Economic Psychology 9:481-498. van Praag, Bernard M.S., Theo Goedhart, and Arie Kapteyn 1980 The poverty line: A pilot survey in Europe. Review of Economics and Statistics 62:461-465. Vaughan, Denton R. 1985 Using subjective assessments of income to estimate family equivalence scales: A report on work in progress. Pp. 31-44 in Survey of Income and Program Participation and Related Longitudinal Surveys: 1984. Selected papers given at the 1984 annual meeting of the American Statistical Association, Philadelphia, Pa. Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1989 Reflections on the Income Estimates from the Initial Panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). ORS Working Paper Series, No. 39. Office of Research and Statistics, Social Security Administration. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 1993 Exploring the use of the public's views to set income poverty thresholds and adjust them over time. Social Security Bulletin 56(2)(Summer):22-46. Veit-Wilson, John 1994 Dignity not Poverty: A Minimum Income Standard for the UK. Commission on

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 480 Social Justice Issue Paper 6. London, Eng.: Institute for Public Policy Research. Vickery, Clair 1977 The time-poor: A new look at poverty. Journal of Human Resources 12 (1):27-48. Walker, K.E., and M.E. Woods 1976 Time Use: A Measure of Household Production of Family Goods and Services. Washington D.C.: American Home Economics Association. Ward, Michael P. 1985 The statistical measurement of poverty. Pp. 68-95 in Proceedings of the Bureau of the Census Conference on the Measurement of Noncash Benefits. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Watts, Harold W. 1967 The iso-prop index: An approach to the determination of differential poverty income thresholds. Journal of Human Resources 2(1):3-18. 1968 An economic definition of poverty. Pp. 316-329 in Daniel P. Moynihan, ed., On Understanding Poverty: Perspectives from the Social Sciences. New York: Basic Books. 1980 Special panel suggests changes in BLS Family Budget Program. Monthly Labor Review 103 (12)(December):3-10. 1986 Have our measures of poverty become poorer? Focus 9(2)(Summer):18-23. [Institute for Research on Poverty, University Wisconsin-Madison] 1993 A Review of Alternative Budget-Based Expenditure Norms. Unpublished paper prepared for the Panel on Poverty and Family Assistance, Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council. Columbia University. Weinberg, Daniel H. 1987 Filling the ''poverty gap," 1979-1984. Journal of Human Resources 22 (4):563-573. 1989 Poverty Dynamics and the Poverty Gap, 1984-1986. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C. 1990 Income Inequality and Measures of Well-Being: The Next Decade. Paper prepared for the Joint Statistical Meetings, Anaheim, Calif. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. Weinberg, Daniel H., and Enrique J. Lamas 1992 The history and current issues of U.S. poverty measurement. Pp. 173-199 in Poverty Measurement for Economies in Transition in Eastern European Countries. Warsaw: Polish Statistical Association and Polish Central Statistical Office. 1993 Some experimental results on alternative poverty measures. Pp. 549-555 in Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. Alexandria, Va.: American Statistical Association. Weinberg, Daniel H., and Rita J. Petroni 1992 The Survey of Income and Program Participation in the 1990s. SIPP Working Paper No. 9206. Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Weisbrod, Burton A., and W. Lee Hansen 1968 An income-net worth approach to measuring economic welfare. American Economic Review 58(5)(December):1315-1329.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 481 Welniak, Edward J., Jr. 1990 Effects of the March Current Population Survey's new processing system on estimates of income and poverty. In Proceedings of the Business and Economic Statistics Section. Alexandria, Va.: American Statistical Association. Welniak, Edward J., and John F. Coder 1980 A measure of the bias in the March CPS earnings imputation system. Pp. 421-425 in Proceedings of the Survey Research Methods Section. Washington, D.C.: American Statistical Association. Whiteford, Peter, and Leslie Hicks 1992 The Cost of Lone Parents: Evidence from Budget Standards. Working Paper No. 16. Family Budget Unit, Department of Social Policy and Social Work. Heslington, Eng.: University of York. Will, B. Phyllis 1986 Poverty: That Intangible Which Evades Definition or Measurement. Working paper, Statistics Canada, Ottawa. Williams, Roberton 1986 Poverty rates and program participation in the SIPP and the CPS. In Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. Alexandria, Va.: American Statistical Association. 1987 Measuring Poverty with the SIPP and the CPS. SIPP Working Paper No. 8723. Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Willis, R.J., and R.T. Michael 1994 Innovation in family formation: Evidence on cohabitation in the United States. Pp. 10-45 in J. Ermisch and K. Ogawa, eds., The Family, the Market and the State in Aging Societies. Cambridge, Eng.: Oxford University Press. Winkler, A. 1989 The Incentive Effects of Medicaid on Women's Labor Supply. University of Missouri, St. Louis, Mo. Wise, David A. 1992 Topics in the Economics of Aging. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Wiseman, Michael 1993 Welfare reform in the states: The Bush legacy. Focus 15(1):1-17. [Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin-Madison] Wolfe, Barbara L., and Steven Hill 1992 The Health, Earnings Capacity, and Poverty of Single- Mother Families. Discussion Paper 964-92, Institute for Research on Poverty. Madison: University of Wisconsin. Wolfe, Barbara, and Robert Moffitt 1991 A new index to value in-kind benefits. The Review of Income and Wealth 37(4): 387-408. Wolfson, M.C., and J.M. Evans 1989 Statistics Canada's Low-Income Cut-Offs: Methodological Concerns and Possibilities—A Discussion Paper . Research Paper Series. Analytical Studies Branch. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Ycas, Martynas A., and Charles A. Lininger 1983 The Income Survey Development Program: Design features and initial findings. Pp. 25-31 in Martin H. David, ed., Technical, Conceptual, and Administrative

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 482 Lessons of the Income Survey Development Program (ISDP): Papers Presented at a Conference. New York: Social Science Research Council. Young, Michael 1952 Distribution of income within the family. British Journal of Sociology 3(4) December:305-321. Young, Nathan C. 1991 Longitudinal Analysis of Food Stamp Recipiency in the SIPP: Using Seam Contrasts to Evaluate Measurement Error Bias. Prepared for the Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute. Yu, Autumn C.S. 1992 Low-Cost Budget Standards for Three Household Types. Working Paper No. 17. Family Budget Unit, Department of Social Policy and Social Work. Heslington, Eng.: University of York. Zill, Nicholas, Kristin A. Moore, Ellen Wolpow Smith, Thomas Stief, and Mary Jo Coiro 1991 The Life Circumstances and Development of Children in Welfare Families: A Profile Based on National Survey Data. Washington, D.C.: Child Trends, Inc.

Next: Biographical Sketches of Panel Members and Staff »
Measuring Poverty: A New Approach Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $75.00 Buy Ebook | $59.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Each year's poverty figures are anxiously awaited by policymakers, analysts, and the media. Yet questions are increasing about the 30-year-old measure as social and economic conditions change.

In Measuring Poverty a distinguished panel provides policymakers with an up-to-date evaluation of

  • Concepts and procedures for deriving the poverty threshold, including adjustments for different family circumstances.
  • Definitions of family resources.
  • Procedures for annual updates of poverty measures.

The volume explores specific issues underlying the poverty measure, analyzes the likely effects of any changes on poverty rates, and discusses the impact on eligibility for public benefits. In supporting its recommendations the panel provides insightful recognition of the political and social dimensions of this key economic indicator.

Measuring Poverty will be important to government officials, policy analysts, statisticians, economists, researchers, and others involved in virtually all poverty and social welfare issues.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!