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Effects of Past Global Change on Life (1995)

Chapter: REFERENCES

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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4762.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4762.
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Page 206
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4762.
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Page 207
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4762.
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Page 208

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GLOBAL CLIMATIC INFLUENCE ON CENOZOIC LAND MAMMAL FAUNAS 205 purely terrestrial hypothesis links each first-order immigration episode to wholesale reorganization of the continental ecosystem triggered by climatic shifts. Two major contradictions to the first hypothesis appear in the Oligocene (35 to 30 Ma) and the Middle Miocene (16 to 6 Ma). Despite major global cooling events, the North American mammal fauna admitted very few immigrants. Possibly no land bridges were available at those times, although the appearance of a few immigrants in the Middle Miocene suggests that there was some physical access. More probably, there were ecological barriers to immigrants at these times. During these two intervals the land mammal faunas experienced high diversity and long stable community development (chronofaunal evolution). This lends credence to the view that the ecosystem was near capacity during the Barstovian acme and perhaps during other chronofaunal intervals. Other more disturbed intervals, on the other hand, were open to major immigration episodes that coincided with positive isotopic excursions in the marine realm. Evidently first-order changes in the oxygen isotope record are necessary but not sufficient causes of first-order immigration episodes into the North American land mammal fauna. The record of continental mammal faunas itself offers a strong signal of major global climatic change. The question of why the continental ecosystem was open to immigrations during certain positive isotopic excursions and not others has fundamental significance to our understanding of the stability of present continental ecosystems. It therefore demands further investigation. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We have benefited from discussions with Catherine Badgely, John Barry, David Hodell, Everett Lindsay, Bruce MacFadden, Malcolm McKenna, Ken Miller, Nick Shackleton, Richard Tedford, Elizabeth Vrba, and Michael Woodburne. This research was partly supported by grant number BSR 89 18065 to S.D.W. from the National Science Foundation. This is contribution number 431 in Paleobiology from the Florida Museum of Natural History. REFERENCES Adams, C. G., R. H. Benson, R. B. Kidd, W. B. F. Ryan, and R. C. Wright (1977). The Messinian salinity crisis and evidence of Late Miocene eustatic changes in the world ocean, Nature 269, 383-386. Andrews, P., J. M. Lord, and E. M. Newsbit Evans (1979). Patterns of ecological diversity in fossil and modern mammalian faunas, Biol. Jour. Linnean Soc. 11, 177-205. Axelrod, D. I. (1992). Climatic pulses, A major factor in legume evolution, in Advances in Legume Systematic: The Fossil Record (part 4), P. S. Herendeen and D. L. Dilcher, eds., Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, London, pp. 259-279. Azzaroli, A. (1989). The genus Equus in Europe, in European Neogene Mammal Chronology, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 339-356. Barnosky, C. W. (1984). 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What can we expect as global change progresses? Will there be thresholds that trigger sudden shifts in environmental conditions—or that cause catastrophic destruction of life?

Effects of Past Global Change on Life explores what earth scientists are learning about the impact of large-scale environmental changes on ancient life—and how these findings may help us resolve today's environmental controversies.

Leading authorities discuss historical climate trends and what can be learned from the mass extinctions and other critical periods about the rise and fall of plant and animal species in response to global change. The volume develops a picture of how environmental change has closed some evolutionary doors while opening others—including profound effects on the early members of the human family.

An expert panel offers specific recommendations on expanding research and improving investigative tools—and targets historical periods and geological and biological patterns with the most promise of shedding light on future developments.

This readable and informative book will be of special interest to professionals in the earth sciences and the environmental community as well as concerned policymakers.

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