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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4766.
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Index

A

Acreage, wetlands, 1, 16, 37, 158, 159-160, 195

Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS), 68, 69 , 193

Agricultural wetlands, 2, 9, 17, 73, 158-162, 167, 179, 191, 196, 206, 208, 222

Alaska, 8, 58, 85, 97-98, 100, 112, 149-150, 151, 152, 174

Alder (Alnus rubra), 173

Algae, 61, 137, 141, 157

Alpine wet meadows, 155

Altered wetlands (nonagricultural), 9, 51-52, 74, 86-88, 146, 162-165, 167, 184, 185, 201, 202

Amphibians, 38

Anaerobic conditions, 94-96, 107, 111-113, 115, 118, 121, 172

Arctic Coastal Plain, 151

Arctic tundra, 25, 98, 99-100, 151

Arizona, 37, 38, 40

Arnold, Richard W., 116-117

Arrowhead (Sagittaria latifolia), 104

Assessment of wetlands.

See also Delineation of wetlands

accuracy of, 192, 196, 206

administrative differences, 208-209

aerial photography, 10, 69, 73, 77, 78, 86, 108, 144, 164, 165, 190-194, 195-196, 205, 206, 211

altered sites, 146, 164-165

boundary detection, 193-194, 204-206, 207

field methodology, 71-72, 73, 77, 82, 120, 147, 185, 192-193, 212

functional, 11, 215-226

geographic information systems, 199-201

goals, 184-185

hierarchical approach, 143-144, 145, 148

hydrology, 91-92, 93, 106-108, 147, 165, 191, 202-204, 218, 222

models and modeling, 10, 103, 146, 187, 202-204, 206, 221

modified approach, 139-141

National Food Security Act Manual, 222

need for, 91-92, 215

office methods, 88, 213

and permit applications, 223

Primacy Indicators Method, 141-143, 144, 148

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4766.
×

professional judgment in, 212

quality control and quality assurance, 10, 187, 195, 207-208, 210-212

recommendations, 146

recordkeeping, 10, 212, 214

reference sites, 108, 148, 187, 214, 221

regionalization of, 168-169, 181, 185, 186, 208, 220-21

responsibility for, 10-11

satellite imaging, 10, 108, 191, 193, 201, 205, 206

seed banks used for, 104-105

soil maps, 69, 73, 77, 86, 119-120, 144, 146, 164-165, 192

standards, 212

timeliness of, 212-213

topographic maps, 192

training and certification, 10, 81, 147, 148, 194, 208, 209-210, 211, 214

vegetation, 129-131

Atchafalaya Basin, 157

Atriplex watsonii, 172

B

Beavers, 25

Bentsen, Lloyd, 53

Biodiversity, 37-38, 127, 153

Biological zero, 97-99, 112

Biota of wetlands.

See also Hydrophytic vegetation;

Vegetation

dependent species, 38, 39

and definition of wetlands, 59, 61, 136-137

organisms other than vegetation, 136-137

Black cottonwood, 172

Black gum (Nyssa sylvatica var biflora), 126

Black spruce (Picea mariana), 104, 150, 151

Bogs, 40

Bureau of Land Management, 48, 114

Bureau of Reclamation, 48

Bush administration, 2, 18, 73

C

California, 37, 113, 157, 172

Canada geese, 25

Canadian National Wetlands Working Group, 152

Canadian Wildlife Service, 48

Carex riparia (C. lacustris), 104

Cases (litigation)

Hobbs v. United States, 69

Natural Resources Defense Council v. Callaway, 47, 53

United States v. Akers, 69

United States v. Cumberland Farms of Connecticut, Inc., 69

United States v. Grand River Dam Authority, 47

United States v. Huebner, 69

United States v. Riverside Bayview Homes, 55

Characterization of wetlands. See Hydrology;

Soils;

Vegetation

''Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States'' (Cowardin Report), 54-55, 58

Clean Water Act

exclusions/exemptions, 11, 66, 68-69, 158

jurisdiction, 66

protection of wetlands, 18, 66-68, 153, 160

Section 404, 2, 9, 51, 52-54, 55, 66-69, 155, 158, 179, 184, 195, 211, 217, 218

Clinton administration, 18, 69, 158

Coalition to Restore Coastal Louisiana, 89

Coastal Zone Management Act amendments of 1980, 224

Colorado, 156

Conifer swamps, 85

Connecticut, 219

Conservation Foundation, 48

Conversion of wetlands, 1, 16-17, 44, 69, 100, 158-160

Cottonwood, 172

Cypress (Taxodium) swamps, 25

D

Databases

Annotated National Wetland Plant Species Database, 124

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4766.
×

Soil Survey Data Base, 201

Soil Interpretations Record database, 115

STORET water quality, 201

wetland delineations, 212

Definition of wetlands.

See also Terminology

agricultural wetlands, 158

application of, 63-64

charge to Committee, 14

Clean Water Act and, 52-54

controversial wetlands, 8, 152, 155

Cowardin Report, 54-55, 58

ecosystem concept in, 57, 58, 59

evolution of, 47-56

Food Security Act, 2, 8, 56, 118, 152, 161

FWS, 48, 49-51, 54-55, 57-58

hydrologic criterion, 4, 8, 51, 55, 57, 58, 61, 62, 92-93, 100

importance, 2

interrelationships of criteria, 7-8, 133, 137-145, 148

NRCS, 57

recommendations, 64

reference, 3-4, 12, 59-61, 63-64, 88

regulatory, 3, 8, 12, 47-56, 58-64, 65-66

scientific principles applied to, 43

status of, 57-58

Swamp Land Act of 1850, 44

substrate criterion, 6, 55, 57-58, 61, 62-63

USACE, 2, 49, 51-52, 57, 62, 65-66, 161

vegetation criterion, 6-7, 52, 55, 57, 61, 63

Delineation of wetlands.

See also Assessment of wetlands;

Manuals, federal;

National Wetlands Inventory

agricultural lands, 161

authority for, 67

biological indicators, potential, 137, 148

Clean Water Act and, 66-68

consistency and reliability problems, 207-208

EPA, 68

exemptions and exceptions, 67, 68-69, 72-73, 88, 161

Food Security Act and, 68-70, 190, 192-195

hydrology, 71, 74, 75-78

motivation for, 66

recommendations, 64, 144-147

reference materials for, 146, 196, 198

regionalization and, 9-10, 146, 168, 180

soils, 71, 74, 85-86, 118-119, 142-143, 144-145, 146

transition zones and, 9, 14-15, 24, 41-42, 54-55, 58, 64

USACE, 2, 66

vegetation, 71, 78-85, 121-122, 126-131, 137, 142, 145

Depressional wetlands, 9, 25, 40, 151, 156, 160, 171

Disturbed areas. See Altered wetlands

Duck Stamp Program, 17, 45, 48

E

Ecology of wetlands.

See also Functions of wetlands

classes, 20-21

dry phases, 36

ecosystem nature, 21-34, 57, 59

hydrogeomorphic characteristics, 24-25

hydrology, 22-25

natural disturbances and, 25, 32, 151, 162

nutrient transformation, 25, 32-34

organic matter, 25, 110-111

permafrost, 150-151

sedimentation, 39, 40

soil formation processes, 110-111

transitional zones, 41-42, 139

vegetation, 24, 28-29

variations among wetlands, 15-16, 24-25

Ellender, Allan, 46

Emergency Wetland Reserve Program, 160

Environmental Defense Fund, 89

Environmental movement, 17

Everglades, 20, 89

Evergreen-forested swamps, 85, 126

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4766.
×

Executive Order 11574, 46

Executive Order 11988, 154

F

Fairchild Tropical Garden, 123

Fairy shrimp, 38

Federal Emergency Management Agency, 154

Federal Highway Administration, 218-219

Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972.

See also Clean Water Act

coverage, 1, 45-47

judicial interpretation, 47

Section 402, 46

Section 404, 46-47

Fens, 91, 104, 174

Flooding, indicators, 108-109, 146

Floodplain wetlands, 36, 38, 105, 119, 121, 151, 154-155, 185

Florida, 25, 117, 181, 185

Food, Agricultural, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, 56, 194

Food Security Act

appeals process, 194

definition of wetlands, 2, 8, 56, 118, 152

delineation of wetlands, 68-70, 190, 192-195

exemptions and exclusions, 69, 152, 222

Hydric Soils List, 114

manual, 2, 69, 72-73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 82, 85, 86, 88, 159, 161 , 195, 211

swampbuster provisions, 18, 56, 68, 69, 70, 158, 160, 195, 211

Forested bottomlands, 41-42, 89, 91, 92, 102-103, 111, 172, 185,196

Freshwater tidal marshes, 104

Fringe wetlands, 25, 40

Functions of wetlands

agricultural wetlands, 160-161

assessment, 11, 36, 215-226

biodiversity, 37-38, 153

capacity, 216

categories, 34, 35

classification of wetlands by, 49

definition of, 34

headwater wetlands, 156

indicators, 216-217

isolated wetlands, 156

landscape perspective, 36-37

measurement of, 217-220

nutrient cycling, 32-34, 38, 40

permit assessments, 217

riparian zones, 8-9

shallow/intermittently flooded wetlands, 157

thresholds, 217

unique, 35-36

value to society and, 11, 15, 17-18, 34-35, 36-37, 215-216, 221,223

watershed hydrology and, 38, 40-41, 42

G

Geographic information systems, 199-201, 206

Growing season, 78, 94-103, 107, 146, 172, 181, 183-184

Great Dismal Swamp, 20, 89, 104

H

Hassayampa River, 38, 40

Headwater wetlands, 9, 154, 155-156

Hemlock swamps and bogs, 85, 126, 131

H.R. 11896, 46

Hubbard Brook, New Hampshire, 187

Hydric soils

absence of, 6, 136, 147

atypical, 88

criteria for, 114-116

definition, 56, 85, 96, 110, 114-116, 254

delineation of wetlands with, 118-119, 133, 139

fidelity indicators, 117-118, 146, 189

hydrology and, 76

hydrophytic vegetation and, 118, 130, 134-135

importance, 4, 6, 57-58, 61, 144-145

indicators, 6, 62-63, 85-86, 116, 120, 133, 141, 147, 211

microbial activity, 99

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4766.
×

regional technical committees, 146

redoximorphic features, 61, 94

saturation frequency threshold, 103-104

water table data and, 115, 118-119

Hydric Soils List, 6, 10, 55, 97, 113-118, 146, 148, 181, 186, 188

Hydrology

altered, 147, 163-164

assessment, 4, 5, 91-92, 93, 104-105, 106-108, 138, 139, 140, 146, 185, 191, 202-204, 218, 222

capillary action, 75-76, 93

biota and, 24, 38, 39

boundary delineation with, 91, 108

classification schemes, 174, 180

critical depth (water table), 5, 75, 76, 93, 102, 103, 104-107, 108, 111, 115, 118-119, 146, 203-204

definition of wetlands and, 4, 8, 51, 55, 57, 59, 61, 62

degree-day concept, 95

duration of saturation/innundation, 38, 91, 94-103, 105, 146, 181, 183-184, 189

growing season concept, 5, 78, 94-103, 107, 146, 181, 183-184

hydroperiods, 23-24, 26-27, 32, 91, 109

importance of, 90-91, 138, 139

indicators, 76-77, 92, 108-109, 143, 146, 147-148, 185

interannual variation, 104-106, 138

manuals compared, 75-78, 93, 96, 97, 100-101, 103, 107

models/modeling, 100-102, 103, 105-107, 109, 165, 191, 201-204

moisture gradients, 24, 128

natural disturbances and, 25

nature of, 91

and nutrient transformation, 25, 32-34

and organic matter, 25

recommendations, 144-146, 189

regional variation, 170-171, 174, 175, 186

thresholds, 5, 51, 55, 61, 75, 76, 92-93, 95, 100-101, 103-108, 146, 202

vegetation and, 24, 133-134, 140, 143, 147-148, 184

visual indicators, 5

weather and, 146

Hydrophyte List, 6, 10, 56, 80, 122-126, 128-129, 134, 147, 148,181, 186, 188, 189

Hydrophytic vegetation

absence of, 136-137

adaptations, 123, 131, 141, 172

boundary delineation with, 126, 148

definitions, 56, 78-80, 121, 122-123

dominance measure, 7, 82-83, 126-128, 129, 135, 147

FAC-neutral tests, 7, 132

fidelity rating, 6-7, 80, 124

hydrology and, 76, 104, 140, 147-148, 184

importance, 4, 57, 61

indicators, 81-84, 124, 133, 141, 147-148

manuals compared, 78-85, 122-123

prevalence index, 7, 56, 80-85, 126, 128-129, 135, 144, 147, 205

soil requirements, 118, 133, 134-135

thresholds, 129-130

wetland ecotypes, 125-126, 131-132

I

Illinois, 37, 216

Institute of Ecology, 48

International Committee on Aquic Moisture Regime, 254

Invertebrates, aquatic, 137, 157, 172

Iowa, 174

Island biogeography, 37

Isolated wetlands, 155, 156.

See also Depressional wetlands

K

Kirkham wetlands, 133

L

Lake Calumet, 216

Lodgepole pine bogs, 85

Longleaf pine wet savannahs, 85

Louisiana, 89, 157

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4766.
×

M

Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, 206

Managed wetlands, 24, 225

Manuals, delineation

comparisons, 3, 74-89, 93, 97, 103

definitions and, 65-66

differential applications, 88-89, 214

EPA (1988), 2, 71-72, 97

flow diagrams and charts, 213

interagency (1989), 2, 3, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76-77, 78, 79, 81, 83-84, 86, 88, 89, 93, 97, 98, 103, 111, 128, 165, 174, 185, 190, 205

National Food Security Act Manual (1985), 2, 69, 72-73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 82, 85, 86, 88, 159, 161, 195, 211, 222

recommendations, 3, 144-148

regionalization, 185-186

revisions, proposed (1991), 2, 3, 73-74, 76, 77, 78, 79-80, 82, 84 -85, 87-88, 93, 97, 103

USACE (1987), 2, 3, 70-71, 72, 73, 74, 75-76, 77, 78, 80-81, 82, 85-86, 87, 88, 89, 96, 97, 100-101, 103, 105, 107, 128, 161, 165, 185, 205

Maps/mapping

conventions, 193, 195

digitization, 201

ecoregion, 175, 176-178

soils, 69, 110, 119-120, 144, 146, 165, 171, 181, 192, 193, 201, 256

topographic, 165, 192, 201

wetlands inventory, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195-201

McCracken, Ralph, 114

Methane fluxes, 99

Minnesota peatlands, 20-21, 99, 157, 171

Mississippi River delta, 20, 40, 119, 171

Mississippi River Valley, 160

Missouri River Basin (Upper), 132

Models and modeling, 10, 100-102, 103, 105, 106, 146, 165, 187, 191, 201-204, 206, 221

Monanthochloe littoralis, 172

Montana, 153

Mosses, 98, 125, 137, 150, 151, 157

Muskie, Edmund, 46, 53

Muskegs, 85

Muskrats, 25

N

National Aerial Photography Program, 196

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 191, 201

National Flood Insurance Program, 154

National High Altitude Photography program, 196

National List of Plant Species that Occur in Wetlands. See Hydrophyte List

National Marine Fisheries Service, 48

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 50

National Stream Quality Accounting Network, 175

National Technical Committee for Hydric Soils (NTCHS), 6, 85, 96, 114, 181

National Wetlands Inventory, 10, 48, 66, 69, 114, 118, 123, 164, 190, 191, 192, 194, 195-201, 217

National Wetlands Policy Forum, 18, 225

Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)

Agricultural Water Quality Incentives Program, 194

budget, 158

definition of wetlands, 57, 159

delineation of wetlands, 68, 69, 72-73, 158, 190, 194-195, 211

Environmental Conservation Acreage Program, 194

hydric soils definition, 110

manual, 2, 72-74

National Resources Inventory, 147, 175, 187

regionalization, 179, 181, 183

Soil Interpretations Record database, 115

Wetlands Reserve Program, 19, 194

Nature Conservancy, 48

New Hampshire, 219

New Jersey, 219

Nixon administration, 46

North Carolina, 196

North Dakota, 191

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4766.
×

O

Office of Coastal Zone Management, 48

Okefenoke Swamp, 38

Organic matter, 25, 110-111, 121, 150-151

P

Paper birch swamps and bogs, 85

Parker, W.B., 114

Peatlands, 20-21, 25, 99, 125, 131

Peltandra virginica, 104

Permafrost

soils, 112, 149-150

wetlands, 8, 97, 150-152, 166

Permitting systems and programs

Advanced Identification, 224

altered sites, 51-52

Clean Water Act, 66-67, 211

compensatory mitigation, 223

exemptions, 67

functional assessments, 217, 218-219, 223

Nationwide Permit 26, 9, 154, 155-156, 166-167

permits by rule, 67-68

reforms, 19

Refuse Act of 1899, 46

state authority, 53-54

timeliness of assessments, 212-213

verification of delineations, 211

Pine flatwoods, 25, 41

Pitch pine lowlands, 85

Playas, 73, 82, 85, 112, 155

Plymouth, North Carolina, 100-102, 105, 107

Pocosins, 73, 85

Policies, federal.

See also Regulation of wetlands

Bush administration, 2

conversion of wetlands, 1, 44

excluded lands, 8-9, 11-12, 58, 63-64, 69-70, 155

floodplains, 154

"no net loss" principle, 18-19

protection of wetlands, 13-14, 45, 56

Prairie potholes

agricultural use, 73, 160

biodiversity and, 37

boundary determination, 41, 141

case study, 132, 160

classification schemes, 174

drainage and fill permits, 155

functions, 37, 156, 216

hydrology, 24, 104

regionalization, 171, 172, 174, 186

satellite imaging of, 191

sedimentation and nutrient cycling, 40

vegetation, 82, 85, 132

R

Recommendations

altered lands, 167

assessment methodologies, 203

delineation of wetlands, 64, 188, 226

federal administration, 214

functional assessment of wetlands, 226

hydrology, 144-146, 189

isolated wetlands and headwaters, 166-167

manuals, 144-148

permafrost wetlands, 166

quality control and quality assurance, 214

recordkeeping, 214

regionalization, 188-189

reference definition, 64

reference wetlands, 214

riparian ecosystems, 166

soils, 146-147, 189

studies of wetland phenomena, 42, 96, 146

training and certification of delineators, 214

transition zones, 167

vegetation, 147-148, 189

Red maple swamps, 126, 129-130, 131, 132, 141

Reed, P.B., 123

Reference sites, 108, 148, 187, 214, 221

Refuse Act of 1899, 46

Regionalization

abundance of wetlands, 173-174

advantages and disadvantages, 185-186

classification schemes, 174-179, 225

climatic and physiographic basis, 169, 175, 180, 184-185, 186, 188

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4766.
×

and delineation of wetlands, 9-10, 146, 168-169, 185

ecological basis, 175, 176-178, 188

federal agencies, 179-180

growing season concept and, 146

hierarchy of variation, 169-174

hydrogeomorphic classification, 175, 179, 220-221

hydrology, 170-171, 174, 175, 180, 181, 183-184, 186, 188

implementation, 188

recommendations, 188-189

research support for, 186-187

soils, 117, 146, 171, 181, 186

vegetation, 123, 172-173, 174, 181, 186

Regulation of wetlands.

See also individual statutes

agricultural wetlands, 161-162

consistency and reliability problems, 207-208

current context for, 18-19

history, 16-18

jurisdiction, 15, 47, 51, 52, 53-54, 64, 66, 70, 88

permafrost, 152

responsibility for, 66, 214

riparian ecosystems, 153

staff requirements, 148

state authority, 53-54, 66

Restoration of wetlands, 167, 225

Riparian zones, 8-9, 25, 37, 41, 112, 152-155, 166, 171

River bottomlands, 37

Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, 45

S

S. 2770, 46

Salicornia subterminalis, 172

Salicornia virginica, 172

Salt marshes, 41, 91, 172

Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, 52

Shallow/intermittently flooded wetlands, 9, 156-157, 167

Slope wetlands, 25

Smith, Rep. 53

Smithsonian Institution, 123

Society of Wetland Scientists, 210

Soil Conservation Service, 48, 175, 254.

See also National Resources Conservation Service

Soils.

See also Hydric soils

alterations in, 163

anaerobic conditions, 94-96, 107, 111-113, 115, 118, 121

aquic conditions, 110, 118, 254-256

Canadian classification system, 112

definitions of, 109-110

histosols, 110, 140

inundation, 257

maps/surveys, 69, 110, 119-120, 144, 146, 165, 171, 181, 196, 201, 256

microbes and microbial activity, 98-99

moisture regime, 110, 171, 254

natural drainage classes, 256-257

nomenclature, 171, 253-254

permafrost, 112

recommendations, 146-147

reduction, 255-256

redoximorphic features, 113, 255, 256

regionalization, 117, 146, 171

saturation, 255

taxonomy, 171

temperature, 94-96

transition zones, 134, 139

variation, 139

South Carolina, 103

Sport Fishing Institute, 48

St. Louis, Missouri, 95, 96

Substrates.

See also Hydric soils;

Soils assessment, 6-7

criterion, 6, 55, 57-58, 61, 62-63

nonhydric indicators, 6, 136, 147

Sugar maple swamps, 85

Swamp Land Act of 1850, 16-17, 44, 160

Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), 126

T

Taiga ecosystems, 98

Tamarack, 85, 104

Tennessee Valley Authority, 48

Terminology

"adjacent wetlands,"; 53, 55

"criteria," 4, 62-63

"disturbed areas,"; 87-88

"dominant dpecies,"; 82-83

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4766.
×

growing season, 78, 96-97

history of, 43-47

"hydric soils,"; 56, 114-115

"hydrophytic vegetation, 56, 78-80

"indicators,"; 62-63

"navigable waters,"; 45, 47, 53, 55, 66

normality issue, 51-52

"parameters,"; 4, 61

"swamp,"; 43

"wetland,"; 43, 110

Thermokarst lakes, 151

Transition zones, 9, 14-15, 24, 41-42, 58, 64, 131, 132-133, 134, 135-136, 139, 166, 167

Tundra See Arctic tundra;

Permafrost wetlands

Tussock, 104, 123

U

University of Rhode Island, 50

Uplands, 36, 38, 41-42, 125,

See also Transition zones

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)

certification of wetland delineators, 209, 210, 211, 214

conversion of wetlands, 16-17, 45

definition of wetlands, 2, 49, 51-52, 56, 57, 62

delineation manual, 2, 65-66, 70-71, 73, 74, 75-76, 77, 78, 80-81, 82, 85-86, 88, 89, 96, 100-101, 103, 105, 107, 161, 165

dredge and fill program, 46-47

functional assessment manual, 217-218, 219-220

permitting authority, 46-47, 54, 66-67, 179, 180, 217

regionalization, 179, 180, 182

Special Area Management Plans, 224-225

Waterways Experiment Station, 70, 218, 220

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

Agricultural Conservation Program, 160

conversion of wetlands, 17, 160

manual, 2

regionalization, 175

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

manual, 2, 71-72

North American Landscape Characterization program, 201

policy initiatives, 18, 69

regionalization, 175, 179, 182

wetlands evaluation authority, 46, 68, 211, 223

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS).

See also National Wetlands Inventory

Annotated National Wetland Plant Species Database, 124

definition of wetlands, 48, 49-51, 57-58

Habitat Evaluation Procedure, 218

manual, 2

regionalization, 179, 183

Soil-Vegetation Correlation reports, 174

U.S. Forest Service, 48, 114

U.S. Geological Survey, 48, 50, 175, 187, 196, 201

U.S. Water Resources Council, 218

V

Vegetation.

See also Hydrophytic vegetation

alterations in, 162-163

analysis, 41, 140

boundary setting with, 135-136, 141

criterion, 6-7, 52, 55, 57, 61, 63

evapotranspiration, 112-113

facultative species, 84-85, 125-126, 131-133, 135, 173

and hydrology, 24, 133-134

indicators, 4, 6, 142

opportunistic species, 132

permafrost wetlands, 150-151

phreatophytes, 154, 155

prevalence, 52

regional variation, 172-173, 174

riparian ecosystems, 154, 155

succession, 150-151

stresses on, 121, 172

transition zones, 131, 132-133, 134, 135-136

variation over time, 138-139

zonation, 24, 28-29

Vernal pools, 41, 82, 85, 112, 155, 157

Virginia Institute of Marine Science, 219

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4766.
×

W

Waterfowl, 17, 34, 45, 48, 156

Watershed planning, 223-225

White pine bogs, 85, 131

White spruce (Picea glauca), 150

Wildlife Management Institute, 48

Wildlife Refuge System, 45

Willamette River Valley, 112

Wisconsin, 104, 174, 219

World Wildlife Fund, 89

Y

Yazoo River Basin, 191

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4766.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4766.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4766.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4766.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4766.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4766.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4766.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4766.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4766.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4766.
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"Wetlands" has become a hot word in the current environmental debate. But what does it signify? In 1991, proposed changes in the legal definities of wetlands stirred controversy and focused attention on the scientific and economic aspects of their management.

This volume explores how to define wetlands. The committee--whose members were drawn from academia, government, business, and the environmental community--builds a rational, scientific basis for delineating wetlands in the landscape and offers recommendations for further action.

Wetlands also discusses the diverse hydrological and ecological functions of wetlands, and makes recommendations concerning so-called controversial areas such as permafrost wetlands, riparian ecosystems, irregularly flooded sites, and agricultural wetlands. It presents criteria for identifying wetlands and explores the problems of applying those criteria when there are seasonal changes in water levels.

This comprehensive and practical volume will be of interest to environmental scientists and advocates, hydrologists, policymakers, regulators, faculty, researchers, and students of environmental studies.

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