National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: Appendix A: Committee on Shipborne Wastes Biographical Information
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

APPENDIX B
Annex V of MARPOL 73/78 Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships

with attachments:

Guidelines for the Implementation of Annex V of MARPOL 73/78

Standard Specification for Shipboard Incinerators

Regulation 1

Definitions

For the purposes of this Annex:

  1. Garbage means all kinds of victual, domestic and operational waste excluding fresh fish and parts thereof, generated during the normal operation of the ship and liable to be disposed of continuously or periodically except those substances which are defined or listed in other Annexes to the present Convention.

  2. Nearest land. The term "from the nearest land" means from the baseline from which the territorial sea of the territory in question is established in accordance with international law except that, for the purposes of the present Convention, "from the nearest land" off the north-eastern coast of Australia shall mean from a line drawn from a point on the coast of Australia in

    latitude 11°00' S, longitude 142°08'E

    to a point in latitude 10°35' S, longitude 141°55' E,

    thence to a point latitude 10°00' S, longitude 142°00' E,

    thence to a point latitude 9°10' S, longitude 143°52' E,

    thence to a point latitude 9°00' S, longitude 144°30' E,

    thence to a point latitude 13°00' S, longitude 144°00' E,

    thence to a point latitude 15°00' S, longitude 146°00' E,

    thence to a point latitude 18°00' S, longitude 147°00' E,

    thence to a point latitude 21°00' S, longitude 153°00' E,

    thence to a point on the coast of Australia in

    latitude 24°42' S, longitude 153°15' E.

  3. Special area means a sea area where for recognized technical reasons in relation to its oceanographical and ecological condition and to the particular character of its traffic the adoption of special mandatory methods for the prevention of sea pollution by garbage is required. Special areas shall include those listed in regulation 5 of this Annex.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

Regulation 2

Application

The provisions of this Annex shall apply to all ships.

Regulation 3

Disposal of garbage outside special areas

  1. Subject to the provisions of regulations 4, 5 and 6 of this Annex:

  1. the disposal into the sea of all plastics, including but not limited to synthetic ropes, synthetic fishing nets and plastic garbage bags, is prohibited;

  2. the disposal into the sea of the following garbage shall be made as far as practicable from the nearest land but in any case is prohibited if the distance from the nearest land is less than:

  1. 25 nautical miles for dunnage, lining and packing materials which will float;

  2. 12 nautical miles for food wastes and all other garbage including paper products, rags, glass, metal, bottles, crockery and similar refuse;

  1. disposal into the sea of garbage specified in subparagraph (b)(ii) of this regulation may be permitted when it has passed through a comminuter or grinder and made as far as practicable from the nearest land but in any case is prohibited if the distance from the nearest land is less than 3 nautical miles. Such comminuted or ground garbage shall be capable of passing through a screen with openings no greater than 25 millimetres.

  1. When the garbage is mixed with other discharges having different disposal or discharge requirements the more stringent requirements shall apply.

Regulation 4

Special requirements for disposal of garbage

  1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph (2) of this regulation, the disposal of any materials regulated by this Annex is prohibited from fixed or floating platforms engaged in the exploration, exploitation and associated offshore processing of sea-bed mineral resources, and from all other ships when alongside or within 500 metres of such platforms.

  2. The disposal into the sea Of food wastes may be permitted when they have been passed through a comminuter or grinder from such fixed or floating platforms located more than 12 nautical miles from land and all other

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

ships when alongside or within 500 metres of such platforms. Such comminuted or ground food wastes shall be capable of passing through a screen with openings no greater than 25 millimetres.

Regulation 5

Disposal of garbage within special areas

  1. For the purposes of this Annex the special areas are the Mediterranean Sea area, the Baltic Sea area, the Black Sea area, the Red Sea area, the "Gulfs area", the North Sea area, the Antarctic area and the Wider Caribbean Region, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, which are defined as follows:

  1. The Mediterranean Sea area means the Mediterranean Sea proper including the gulfs and seas therein with the boundary between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea constituted by the 41° N parallel and bounded to the west by the Straits of Gibraltar at the meridian 5°36' W.

  2. The Baltic Sea area means the Baltic Sea proper with the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland and the entrance to the Baltic Sea bounded by the parallel of the Skaw in the Skagerrak at 57°44.8' N.

  3. The Black Sea area means the Black Sea proper with the boundary between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea constituted by the parallel 41° N.

  4. The Red Sea area means the Red Sea proper including the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba bounded at the south by the rhumb line between Ras si Ane (12°8.5' N, 43°19.6' E) and Husn Murad (12°40.4' N, 43°30.2' E).

  5. The Gulfs area means the sea area located northwest of the rhumb line between Ras al Hadd (22°30' N, 59°48' E) and Ras al Fasteh (25°04' N, 61°25' E).

  6. The North Sea area* means the North Sea proper including seas therein with the boundary between:

  1. the North Sea southwards of latitude 62° N and eastwards of longitude 4° W;

  2. the Skagerrak, the southern limit of which is determined east of the Skaw by latitude 57°44.8' N; and

  3. the English Channel and its approaches eastwards of longitude 5° W and northwards of latitude 48°30' N.

*  

Regulation 5(l)(f) was adopted by the MEPC at its twenty-eighth session and entered into force on 18 April 1991.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
  1. The Antarctic area* means the sea area south of latitude 60° S.

  2. The Wider Caribbean Region**, as defined in article 2, paragraph I of the Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region (Cartagena de Indias, 1983), means the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea proper including the bays and seas therein and that portion of the Atlantic Ocean within the boundary constituted by the 30° N parallel from Florida eastward to 77°30' W meridian, thence a thumb line to the intersection of 20° N parallel and 59° W meridian, thence a rhumb line to the intersection of 7°20' N parallel and 50° W meridian, thence a rhumb line drawn south-westerly to the eastern boundary of French Guiana.

  1. Subject to the provisions of regulation 6 of this Annex:

  1. disposal into the sea of the following is prohibited:

  1. all plastics, including but not limited to synthetic ropes, synthetic fishing nets and plastic garbage bags; and

  2. all other garbage, including paper products, rags, glass, metal, bottles, crockery, dunnage, lining and packing materials;

  1. except as provided in subparagraph (c) of this paragraph,*** disposal into the sea of food wastes shall be made as far as practicable from land, but in any case not less than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land;

  2. disposal into the Wider Caribbean Region of food wastes which have been passed through a comminuter or grinder shall be made as far as practicable from land, but in any case not subject to regulation 4 not less than 3 nautical miles from the nearest land. Such comminuted or ground food wastes shall be capable of passing through a screen with openings no greater than 25 millimetres.***

  1. When the garbage is mixed with other discharges having different disposal or discharge requirements the more stringent requirements shall apply.

  2. Reception facilities within special areas:

  1. The Government of each Party to the Convention, the coastline of which borders a special area, undertakes to ensure that as soon as possible in all ports within a special area adequate reception facilities are provided in accordance with regulation 7 of this Annex, taking into account the special needs of ships operating in these areas.

*  

Regulation 5(1)(g) was adopted by the MEPC at its thirtieth session and is expected to enter into force on 17 March 1992.

**  

Regulation 5(1)(h) Was adopted by the MEPC at its thirty-first session and is expected to enter into force on 4 April 1993.

***  

These amendments were adopted by the MEPC at its thirty-first session and are expected to enter into force on 4 April 1993.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
  1. The Government of each Party concerned shall notify the Organization of the measures taken pursuant to subparagraph (a) of this regulation. Upon receipt of sufficient notifications the Organization shall establish a date from which the requirements of this regulation in respect of the area in question shall take effect. The Organization shall notify all Parties of the date so established no less than twelve months in advance of that date.

  2. After the date so established, ships calling also at ports in these special areas where such facilities are not yet available, shall fully comply with the requirements of this regulation.

  1. * Notwithstanding paragraph 4 of this regulation, the following rules apply to the Antarctic area:

  1. The Government of each Party to the Convention at whose ports ships depart en route to or arrive from the Antarctic area undertakes to ensure that as soon as practicable adequate facilities are provided for the reception of all garbage from all ships, without causing undue delay, and according to the needs of the ships using them.

  2. The Government of each Party to the Convention shall ensure that all ships entitled to fly its flag, before entering the Antarctic area, have sufficient capacity on board for the retention of all garbage while operating in the area and have concluded arrangements to discharge such garbage at a reception facility after leaving the area.

Regulation 6

Exceptions

Regulations 3, 4 and 5 of this Annex shall not apply to:

  1. the disposal of garbage from a ship necessary for the purpose of securing the safety of a ship and those on board or saving life at sea; or

  2. the escape of garbage resulting from damage to a ship or its equipment provided all reasonable precautions have been taken before and after the occurrence of the damage, for the purpose of preventing or minimizing the escape; or

  3. the accidental loss of synthetic fishing nets, provided that all reasonable precautions have been taken to prevent such loss.

*  

This amendment was adopted by the MEPC at its thirtieth session and is expected to enter into force on 17 March 1992.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

Regulation 7

Reception facilities

  1. The Government of each Party to the Convention undertakes to ensure the provision of facilities at ports and terminals for the reception of garbage, without causing undue delay to ships, and according to the needs of the ships using them.

  2. The Government of each Party shall notify the Organization for transmission to the Parties concerned of all cases where the facilities provided under this regulation are alleged to be inadequate.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

Guidelines for the implementation of Annex V of 73/78

Preface

The main objectives of these guidelines are to (1) assist governments in developing and enacting domestic laws which give force to and implement Annex V, (2) assist vessel operators in complying with the requirements set forth in Annex V and domestic laws and, (3) assist port and terminal operators in assessing the need for, and providing, adequate reception facilities for garbage generated on different types of ships. Part IV (Garbage) of the Organization's Guidelines on the Provision of Adequate Reception Facilities in Ports, June 1978, has been modified and incorporated in this publication to consolidate all Annex V related guidelines. In the interest of uniformity, governments are requested to refer to these guidelines when preparing appropriate national regulations.

1 Introduction and definitions

1.1 These guidelines have been developed taking into account the regulations embodied in Annex V, the articles and resolutions of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78) (hereinafter referred to as the ''Convention''). Their purpose is to provide guidance to countries which have ratified Annex V and are in the process of implementing the Annex. The guidelines are divided into seven categories that provide a general framework upon which governments will be able to formulate programmes for education and training of seafarers and others to comply with the regulations; methods of reducing shipboard generation of garbage; shipboard garbage handling and storage procedures; shipboard equipment for processing garbage; estimation of the amounts of ship-generated garbage delivered to port; and actions to ensure compliance With the regulations.

1.2 Recognizing that Annex V regulations promote waste management systems for ships, and that ships vary tremendously in size, mission, complement and capability, these guidelines include a range of waste management options that may be combined in many Ways to facilitate compliance with Annex V. Further, recognizing that waste management technology for ships is in an early stage of development, it is recommended that governments and the Organization continue to gather information and review these guidelines periodically.

1.3 Although Annex V permits the discharge of a range of garbage into the sea, it is recommended that whenever practicable ships use, as a primary means, port reception facilities.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

1.4 Governments should stimulate the provision and use of port reception facilities for garbage from ships, as outlined in section 7.2 of these guidelines.

1.5 The Convention provides definitions for terms used throughout these guidelines which establish the scope of Annex V requirements. These definitions are incorporated in section I of these guidelines and in regulation I of Annex V. Definitions taken directly from the Convention are listed in section 1.6, and are followed by other definitions which are useful.

1.6 Definitions from the Convention

1.6.1 Regulations means the regulations contained in the annexes to the Convention.

1.6.2 Harmful substance means any substance which, if introduced into the sea, is liable to create hazards to human health, harm living resources and marine life, damage amenities or interfere with other legitimate uses of the sea, and includes any substance subject to control by the Convention.

1.6.3 Discharge, in relation to harmful substances or effluents containing such substances, means any release, howsoever caused, from a ship and includes any escape, disposal, spilling, leaking, pumping, emitting or emptying.

1.6.3.1 Discharge does not include:

  1. dumping, within the meaning of the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, done at London on 13 November 1972; or

  2. release of harmful substances directly arising from the exploration, exploitation and associated offshore processing of sea-bed mineral resources; or

  3. release of harmful substances for purposes of legitimate scientific research into pollution abatement or control.

1.6.4 Ship means a vessel of any type whatsoever operating in the marine environment and includes hydrofoil boats, air-cushion vehicles, submersibles, floating craft and fixed or floating platforms.

1.6.5 Incident means an event involving the actual or probable discharge into the sea of a harmful substance, or effluents containing such a substance.

1.6.6 Organization means the International Maritime Organization.

1.7 Other definitions

1.7.1 Wastes means useless, unneeded or superfluous matter which is to be discarded.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

1.7.2 Food wastes are any spoiled or unspoiled victual substances, such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, poultry, meat products, food scraps, food particles, and all other materials contaminated by such wastes, generated aboard ship, principally in the galley and dining areas.

1.7.3 Plastic means a solid material which contains as an essential ingredient one or more synthetic organic high polymers and which is formed (shaped) during either manufacture of the polymer or the fabrication into a finished product by heat and/or pressure. Plastics have material properties ranging from hard and brittle to soft and elastic. Plastics are used for a variety of marine purposes including, but not limited to, packaging (vapour-proof barriers, bottles, containers, liners), ship construction (fibreglass and laminated structures, siding, piping, insulation, flooring, carpets, fabrics, paints and finishes, adhesives, electrical and electronic components), disposable eating utensils and cups, bags, sheeting, floats, fishing nets, strapping bands, rope and line.

1.7.4 Domestic waste means all types of food wastes and wastes generated in the living spaces on board the ship.

1.7.5 Cargo-associated waste means all materials which have become wastes as a result of use on board a ship for cargo stowage and handling. Cargo-associated waste includes but is not limited to dunnage, shoring, pallets, lining and packing materials, plywood, paper, cardboard, wire, and steel strapping.

1.7.6 Maintenance waste means materials collected by the engine department and the deck department while maintaining and operating the vessel, such as soot, machinery deposits, scraped paint, deck sweeping, wiping wastes, and rags, etc.

1.7.7 Operational wastes means all cargo-associated waste and maintenance waste, and cargo residues defined as garbage in 1.7.10.

1.7.8 Dishwater is the residue from the manual or automatic washing of dishes and cooking utensils which have been pre-cleaned to the extent that any food particles adhering to them would not normally interfere with the operation of automatic dishwashers. Greywater is drainage from dishwater, shower, laundry, bath and washbasin drains and does not include drainage from toilets, urinals, hospitals, and animal spaces, as defined in regulation 1(3) of Annex IV, as well as drainage from cargo spaces.

1.7.9 Oily rags are rags which have been saturated with oil as controlled in Annex I to the Convention. Contaminated rags are rags which haw been saturated with a substance defined as a harmful substance in the other annexes to the Convention.

1.7.10 Cargo residues for the purposes of these guidelines are defined as the remnants of any cargo material on board that cannot be placed in proper cargo holds (loading excess and spillage) or which remain in cargo holds and elsewhere after unloading procedures are completed (unloading residual and spillage). However, cargo residues are expected to be in small quantities.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

1.7.11 Fishing gear is defined as any physical device or part thereof or combination of items that may be placed on or in the water with the intended purpose of capturing, or controlling for subsequent capture, living marine or freshwater organisms.

1.7.12 Seafarers for the purposes of these guidelines means anyone who goes to sea in a ship for any purpose including, but not limited to transport of goods and services, exploration, exploitation and associated offshore processing of sea-bed mineral resources, fishing and recreation.

1.8 Application

1.8.1 Dishwater and greywater are not included as garbage in the context of Annex V.

1.8.2 Ash and clinkers from shipboard incinerators and coal-burning boilers are operational wastes in the meaning of Annex V, regulation 1(1) and therefore are included in the term all other garbage in the meaning of Annex V, regulations 3(1)(b)(ii) and 5(2)(a)(ii).

1.8.3 Cargo residues are to be treated as garbage under Annex V except when those residues are substances defined or listed under the other annexes to the Convention.

1.8.4 Cargo residues of all other substances are not explicitly excluded from disposal as garbage under the overall definition of garbage in annex V. However, certain of these substances may pose harm to the marine environment and may not be suitable for disposal at reception facilities equipped to handle general garbage because of their possible safety hazards. The disposal of such cargo residues should be based on the physical, chemical and biological properties of the substance and may require special handling not normally provided by garbage reception facilities.

1.8.5 The release of small quantities of food wastes for the specific purpose of fish feeding in connection with fishing or tourist operations is not included as garbage in the context of Annex V.

2 Training, education and information

2.1 The definition of ships used in the Convention requires these guidelines to address not only the professional and commercial maritime community but also the non-commercial seafaring population as sources of pollution of the sea by garbage. The Committee recognized that uniform programmes in the field of training and education would make a valuable contribution to raising the level of the seafarers' compliance with Annex V, thereby ensuring compliance with the Convention. Accordingly, governments should develop and undertake training, education and public information programmes suited for all seafaring communities under their jurisdictions.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

2.2 Governments may exchange and maintain information relevant to compliance with Annex V regulations through the Organization. Accordingly, governments are encouraged to provide the Organization with the following:

2.2.1 Technical information on shipboard waste management methods such as recycling, incineration, compaction, sorting and sanitation systems, packaging and provisioning methods;

2.2.2 Copies of current domestic laws and regulations relating to the prevention of pollution of the sea by garbage;

2.2.3 Educational materials developed to raise the level of compliance with Annex V. Contributions of this type might include printed materials, posters, brochures, photographs, audio and video tapes, and films as well as synopses of training programmes, seminars and formal curricula;

2.2.4 Information and reports on the nature and extent of marine debris found along beaches and in coastal waters under their respective jurisdictions. In order to assess the effectiveness of Annex V, these studies should provide details on amounts, distribution, sources and impacts of marine debris.

2.3 Governments are encouraged to amend their maritime certification examinations and requirements, as appropriate, to include a knowledge of duties imposed by national and international law regarding the control of pollution of the sea by garbage.

2.4 Governments are recommended to require all ships of their registry to permanently post a summary declaration stating the prohibition and restrictions for discharging garbage from ships under Annex V and the penalties for failure to comply. It is suggested this declaration be placed on a placard at least 12.5 cm by 20 cm, made of durable material and fixed in a conspicuous place in galley spaces, the mess deck, wardroom, bridge, main deck and other areas of the ship, as appropriate. The placard should be printed in the language or languages understood by the crew and passengers.

2.5 Governments are encouraged to have maritime colleges and technical institutes under their jurisdiction develop or augment curricula to include both the legal duties as well as the technical options available to professional seafarers for handling ship-generated garbage. These curricula should also include information on environmental impacts of garbage. A list of suggested topics to be included in the curriculum are listed below:

2.5.1 Garbage in the marine environment, sources, types and impacts;

2.5.2 National and international laws relating to, or impinging upon shipboard waste management;

2.5.3 Health and sanitation considerations related to the storage, handling and transfer of ship-generated garbage;

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

2.5.4 Current technology for on-board and shoreside processing of ship-generated garbage;

2.5.5 Provisioning options, materials and procedures to minimize the generation of garbage aboard ship.

2.6 Professional associations and societies of ship officers, engineers, naval architects, shipowners and managers, and seamen are encouraged to ensure their members' competency regarding the handling of ship-generated garbage.

2.6.1 Vessel and reception facility operators should establish training programmes for personnel operating and maintaining garbage reception or processing equipment. It is suggested that the programme include instruction on what constitutes garbage and the applicable regulations for handling and disposing of it. Such training should be reviewed annually.

2.7 Generalized public information programmes are needed to provide information to non-professional seafarers, and others concerned with the health and stability of the marine environment, regarding the impacts of garbage at sea. Governments and involved commercial organizations are encouraged to utilize the Organization's library and to exchange resources and materials, as appropriate, to initiate internal and external public awareness programmes.

2.7.1 Methods for delivering this information include radio and television, articles in periodicals and trade journals, voluntary public projects such as beach clean-up days and adopt-a-beach programmes, public statements by high government officials, posters, brochures, conferences and symposia, cooperative research and development, voluntary product labelling and teaching materials for public schools.

2.7.2 Audiences include recreational boaters and fishermen, port and terminal operators, coastal communities, ship supply industries, shipbuilders, waste management industries, plastic manufacturers and fabricators, trade associations, educators and governments.

2.7.3 The subjects addressed in these programmes are recommended to include the responsibilities of citizens under national and international law; options for handling garbage at sea and upon return to shore; known sources and types of garbage; impacts of plastic debris on sea-birds, fish, marine mammals, sea turtles and ship operations; impacts on coastal tourist trade; current actions by governments and private organizations, and sources of further information.

3 Minimizing the amount of potential garbage

3.1 All ship operators should minimize the taking aboard of potential garbage and on-board generation of garbage.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

3.2 Domestic wastes may be minimized through proper provisioning practices. Ship operators and governments should encourage ships' suppliers and provisioners to consider their products in terms of the garbage they generate. Options available to decrease the amount of domestic waste generated aboard ship include the following:

3.2.1 Bulk packaging of consumable items may result in less waste being created. However, factors such as inadequate shelf-life once a container is open must be considered to avoid increasing wastes.

3.2.2 Reusable packaging and containers can decrease the amount of garbage being generated. Use of disposable cups, utensils, dishes, towels and rags and other convenience items should be limited and replaced by washable items when possible.

3.2.3 Where practical options exist, provisions packaged in or made of materials other than disposable plastic should be selected to replenish ship supplies unless a reusable plastic alternative is available.

3.3 Operational waste generation is specific to individual ship activities and cargoes. It is recommended that manufacturers, shippers, ship operators and governments consider the garbage associated with various categories of cargoes and take action as needed to minimize their generation. Suggested actions are listed below:

3.3.1 Consider replacing disposable plastic sheeting used for cargo protection with permanent, reusable covering material;

3.3.2 Consider stowage systems and methods that reuse coverings, dunnage, shoring, lining and packing materials;

3.3.3 Dunnage, lining and packaging materials generated in port during cargo discharge should preferably be disposed of to the port reception facilities and not retained on board for discharge at sea.

3.4 Cargo residues are created through inefficiencies in loading, unloading and on-board handling.

3.4.1 As cargo residues fall under the scope of these guidelines, it may, in certain cases, be difficult for port reception facilities to handle such residues. It is therefore recommended that cargo be unloaded as efficiently as possible in order to avoid or minimize cargo residues.

3.4.2 Spillage of the cargo during transfer operations should be carefully controlled, both on board and from dockside. Since this spillage typically occurs in port, it should be completely cleaned up prior to sailing and either delivered into the intended cargo space or into the port reception facility. Shipboard areas where spillage is most common should be protected such that the residues are easily recovered.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

3.5 Fishing gear, once discharged, becomes a harmful substance. Fishing vessel operators, their organizations and their respective governments are encouraged to undertake such research, technology development and regulations as may be necessary to minimize the probability of loss, and maximize the probability of recovery of fishing gear from the ocean. It is recommended that fishing vessel operators record and report the loss and recovery of fishing gear. Techniques both to minimize the amount of fishing gear lost in the ocean and to maximize recovery of same are listed below.

3.5.1 Operators and associations of fishing vessels using untended, fixed or drifting gear are encouraged to develop information exchanges with such other ship traffic as may be necessary to minimize accidental encounters between ships and gear. Governments are encouraged to assist in the development of information systems where necessary.

3.5.2 Fishery managers are encouraged to consider the probability of encounters between ship traffic and fishing gear when establishing seasons, areas and gear-type regulations.

3.5.3 Fishery managers, fishing vessel operators and associations are encouraged to utilize gear identification systems which provide information such as vessel name, registration number and nationality, etc. Such systems may be useful to promote reporting, recovery and return of lost gear.

3.5.4 Fishing vessel operators are encouraged to document positions and reasons for loss of their gear. To reduce the potential of entanglement and "ghost fishing" (capture of marine life by discharged fishing gear), benthic traps, trawl and gillnets could be designed to have degradable panels or sections made of natural fibre twine, wood or wire.

3.5.5 Governments are encouraged to consider the development of technology for more effective fishing gear identification systems.

3.6 Governments are encouraged to undertake research and technology development to minimize potential garbage and its impacts on the marine environment. Suggested areas for such study are listed below:

3.6.1 Development of recycling technology and systems for synthetic materials returned to shore as garbage;

3.6.2 Development of technology for degradable synthetic materials to replace current plastic products as appropriate. In this connection, governments should also study the impacts on the environment of the products of degradation of such new materials.

4 Shipboard garbage handling and storage procedures

4.1 Limitations on the discharge of garbage from ships as specified in Annex V are summarized in table 1. Although discharge at sea, except in special areas, of a wide range of ship-generated garbage is permitted outside specified distances from the nearest land, preference should be given to disposal at shore reception facilities.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

Table 1 — Summary of at sea garbage disposal regulations

Garbage type

**All ships except platforms

***Offshore platforms

 

Outside special areas

**In special areas

 

Plastics - includes synthetic ropes and fishing nets and plastic garbage bags

Disposal prohibited

Disposal prohibited

Disposal prohibited

Floating dunnage, lining and packing materials

>25 miles offshore

Disposal prohibited

Disposal prohibited

Paper, rags, glass, metal, bottles, crockery and similar refuse

> 12 miles

Disposal prohibited

Disposal prohibited

All other garbage including paper, rags, glass, etc. comminuted or ground

3 miles

Disposal prohibited

Disposal prohibited

*Food waste not comminuted or ground

12 miles

> 12 miles

Disposal prohibited

*Food waste comminuted or ground

3 miles

> 12 miles

12 miles

Mixed refuse types

****

****

****

* Comminuted or ground garbage must be able to pass through a screen with mesh size no larger than 25 mm.

** Garbage disposal regulations for special areas shall take effect in accordance with regulation 5(4)(b) of Annex V.

*** Offshore platforms and associated ships include all fixed or floating platforms engaged in exploration or exploitation of sea-bed mineral resources, and all ships alongside or within 500 m of such platforms,

**** When garbage is mixed with other harmful substances having different disposal or discharge requirements, the more stringent disposal requirements shall apply.

Note: The Baltic Sea Special Area Disposal Regulations took effect on 1 October 1989.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

4.1.1 Compliance with these limitations requires personnel, equipment and procedures for collecting, sorting, processing, storing and disposing of garbage. Economic and procedural considerations associated with these activities include storage space requirements, sanitation, equipment and personnel costs and in-port garbage service charges.

4.1.2 Compliance with the provisions of Annex V will require careful planning by the ship operator and proper execution by crew members as well as other seafarers. The most appropriate procedures for handling and storing garbage on ship will vary depending on factors such as the type and size of the ship, the area of operation (e.g. distance from nearest land), shipboard garbage processing equipment and storage space, crew size, duration of voyage, and regulations and reception facilities at ports of call. However, in view of the cost involved with the different ultimate disposal techniques, it may also be economically advantageous to keep garbage requiring special handling separate from other garbage. Proper handling and storage will minimize shipboard storage space requirements and enable efficient transfer of retained garbage to port reception facilities.

4.2 To ensure that the most effective and efficient handling and storage procedures are followed, it is recommended that vessel operators develop waste management plans that can be incorporated into crew and vessel operating manuals. Such manuals should identify crew responsibilities (including an environmental control officer) and procedures for all aspects of handling and storing garbage aboard the ship. Procedures for handling ship-generated garbage can be divided into four phases: collection, processing, storage, and disposal. A generalized waste management plan for handling and storing ship-generated garbage is presented in table 2. Specific procedures for each phase are discussed below.

4.3 Collection

Procedures for collecting garbage generated aboard ship should be based on consideration of what can and cannot be discarded overboard while en route. To reduce or avoid the need for sorting after collection, it is recommended that three categories of distinctively marked garbage receptacles be provided to receive garbage as it is generated. These separate receptacles (e.g. cans, bags, or bins) would receive (1) plastics and plastics mixed with non-plastic garbage; (2) food wastes (which includes materials contaminated by such wastes); and (3) other garbage which can be disposed of at sea. Receptacles for each of the three categories of garbage should be clearly marked and distinguishable by colour, graphics, shape, size, or location. These receptacles should be provided in appropriate spaces throughout the ship (e.g. the engine-room, mess deck, wardroom, galley, and other living or working spaces) and all crew members and passengers should be advised of what garbage should and should not be discarded in them. Crew responsibilities should be assigned for collecting or emptying these receptacles and taking the garbage to the appropriate processing or storage location. Use of such a system will facilitate subsequent shipboard processing and minimize the amount of garbage which must be stored aboard ship for return to port.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

Table 2 — Options for shipboard handling and disposal of garbage

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

4.3.1 Plastics and plastics mixed with non-plastic garbage

Plastic garbage must be retained aboard ship for discharge at port reception facilities unless reduced to ash by incineration. When plastic garbage is not separated from other garbage, the mixture must be treated as if it were all plastic.

4.3.2 Food wastes

Some governments have regulations for controlling human, plant, and animal diseases that may be carried by foreign food wastes and materials that have been associated with them (e.g. food packaging and disposable eating utensils). These regulations may require incinerating, sterilizing, or other special treatment of garbage to destroy possible pest and disease organisms. Such garbage should be kept separate from other garbage and preferably retained for disposal in port in accordance with the laws of the receiving country. With regard to such garbage, governments are reminded of their obligation to assure the provision of adequate reception facilities. Precautions must be taken to ensure that plastics contaminated by food wastes (e.g. plastic food wrappers) are not discharged at sea with other food wastes.

4.3.3 Other garbage

Garbage in this category includes, but is not limited to, paper products, rags, glass, metal, bottles, crockery, dunnage, lining and packing materials. Vessels may find it desirable to separate dunnage, lining and packing material which will float since this material is subject to a different discharge limit than other garbage in this category (see table 1). Such garbage should be kept separate from other garbage and preferably retained for disposal in port.

4.3.4 Additional receptacles which might be useful

4.3.4.1 Separate cans or bags could be provided for receiving and storing glass, metal, plastics, paper or other items which can be recycled. To encourage crew members to deposit such items in receptacles provided, proceeds generated from their return might be added to a ship's recreational fund.

4.3.4.2 Synthetic fishing net and line scraps generated by the repair or operation of fishing gear may not be discarded at sea and should be collected in a manner that avoids its loss overboard. Such material may be incinerated, compacted, or stored along with other plastic waste or it may be preferable to keep it separate from other types of garbage if it has strong odour or great volume.

4.3.5 Recovery of garbage at sea

4.3.5.1 Fishermen and other seafarers who recover derelict fishing gear and other persistent garbage during routine operations are encouraged to retain this material for disposal on shore. If lost pots or traps are recovered and space is not available for storage, fishermen and other seafarers are encouraged to remove and transport any line and webbing to port for disposal and return the bare frames to the water, or minimally, to cut open the traps to keep them from continuing to trap marine life.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

4.3.5.2 Seafarers are further encouraged to recover other persistent garbage from the sea as opportunities arise and prudent practice permits.

4.3.6 Oily rags and contaminated rags must be kept on board and discharged to a port reception facility or incinerated.

4.4 Processing

Depending on factors such as the type of ship, area of operation, size of crew, etc., ships may be equipped with incinerators, compactors, comminuters, or other devices for shipboard garbage processing (see section 5). Appropriate members of the crew should be assigned responsibility for operating this equipment on a schedule commensurate with ship needs. In selecting appropriate processing procedures, the following should be considered.

4.4.1 Use of compactors, incinerators, comminuters, and other such devices has a number of advantages, such as making it possible to discharge certain garbage at sea which otherwise might not be permitted, reducing shipboard space requirements for storing garbage, making it easier to off-load garbage in port, and enhancing assimilation of garbage discharged into the marine environment.

4.4.2 It should be noted that special rules on incineration may be established by authorities in some ports and may exist in some special areas. Incineration of the following items requires special precaution due to the potential environmental and health effects from combustion of by-products: hazardous materials (e.g. scraped paint, impregnated wood) and certain types of plastics (e.g. PVC-based plastics). The problems of combustion of by-products are discussed in 5.4.6.

4.4.3 Ships operating primarily in special areas or within 3 nautical miles from the nearest land should choose between storage of either compacted or uncompacted material for off-loading at port reception facilities or incineration with retention of ash and clinkers. This is the most restrictive situation in that no discharge is permitted. The type of ship and the expected volume and type of garbage generated will determine the suitability of compaction, incineration, or storage options.

4.4.4 Compactors make garbage easier to store, to transfer to port reception facilities, and to dispose of at sea when discharge limitations permit. In the latter case, compacted garbage may also aid in sinking, which would reduce aesthetic impacts in coastal waters and along beaches, and perhaps reduce the likelihood of marine life ingesting or otherwise interacting with discharged materials.

4.4.5 Ships operating primarily beyond 3 nautical miles from the nearest land are encouraged to install and use comminuters to grind food wastes to a particle size capable of passing through a screen with openings no larger than 25 mm. Although larger food scraps may be discharged beyond 12 nautical miles, it is recommended that comminuters be used even outside this limit because they hasten assimilation into the marine environment. Because food wastes comminuted with plastics cannot be discharged at sea, all plastic materials must be removed before food wastes are ground up.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

4.5 Storage

Garbage collected from living and working areas throughout the ship should be delivered to designated processing or storage locations. Garbage that must be returned to port for disposal may require long-term storage depending on the length of the voyage or arrangements for off-loading (e.g. transferring garbage to an offshore vessel for incineration or subsequent transfer ashore). Garbage which may be discarded overboard may require short-term or no storage. In all cases, garbage should be stored in a manner which avoids health and safety hazards. The following points should be Considered when selecting procedures for storing garbage:

4.5.1 Ships should use separate cans, drums, boxes, bags or other containers for short-term (disposable garbage) and trip-long (non-disposable garbage) storage. Short-term storage would be appropriate for holding otherwise disposable garbage while a ship is passing through a restricted discharge area.

4.5.2 Sufficient storage space and equipment (e.g. cans, drums, bags or other containers) should be provided. Where space is limited, vessel operators are encouraged to install compactors or incinerators· To the extent possible, all processed and unprocessed garbage which must be stored for any length of time should be in tight, securely covered containers.

4.5.3 Food wastes and associated garbage which are returned to port and which may carry diseases or pests should be stored in tightly covered containers and be kept separate from garbage which does not contain such food wastes. Both types of garbage should be stored in separate clearly marked containers to avoid incorrect disposal and treatment on land.

4.5.4 Storage of waste fishing gear on deck may be appropriate if materials have strong odours or if their size is too great to permit storage elsewhere on the ship. In cases where gear is fouled with marine growth or dead organisms, it may be reasonable to tow gear behind the vessel for a time to wash it out before storing. If it cannot be recovered by the vessel, the appropriate coastal State should be notified of its location.

4.5.5 Disinfection and both preventative and remedial pest control methods should be applied regularly in garbage storage areas.

4.6 Disposal

Although disposal is possible under Annex V, discharge of garbage to port reception facilities should be given first priority. Disposal of ship-generated garbage must be done in a manner consistent with the regulations summarized in table 1. When disposing of garbage, the following points should be considered:

4.6.1 Garbage which may be disposed of at sea can simply be discharged overboard. Disposal of uncompacted garbage is convenient, but results in a maximum number of floating objects which may reach shore even when discharged beyond 25 nautical miles from the nearest land. Compacted garbage

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

is more likely to sink and thus less likely to pose aesthetic problems. If necessary and possible, weights should be added to promote sinking. Compacted bales of garbage should be discharged over deep water (50 m or more) to prevent rapid loss of their structural integrity due to wave action and currents.

4.6.2 Floating cargo-associated waste that is not plastic or otherwise regulated under other MARPOL annexes may be discharged beyond 25 nautical miles from the nearest land. Cargo-associated waste that will sink and is not plastic or otherwise regulated may be discharged beyond 12 nautical miles from the nearest land. Most cargo-associated waste may be generated during the loading and unloading process, usually at dock side. It is recommended that every effort be made to deliver these wastes to the nearest port reception facility system prior to the ship's departure.

4.6.3 Maintenance wastes are generated more or less steadily during the course of routine ship operations. In some cases, maintenance wastes may be contaminated with substances, such as oil or toxic chemicals, controlled under other annexes or other pollution control laws. In such cases, the more stringent disposal requirements take precedence.

4.6.4 To ensure timely transfer of large quantities of ship-generated garbage to port reception facilities, it is essential for ships or their agents to make arrangements well in advance for garbage reception. At the same time, disposal needs should be identified in order to make arrangements for garbage requiring special handling or other necessary arrangements. Special disposal needs might include off-loading food wastes and associated garbage which may carry certain disease or pest organisms, or unusually large, heavy, or odorous derelict fishing gear.

5 Shipboard equipment for processing garbage

5.1 The range of options for garbage handling aboard ships depends largely upon costs, personnel limitations, generation rate, capacity, vessel configuration and traffic patterns. The types of equipment available to address various facets of shipboard garbage handling include incinerators, compactors, comminuters and their associated hardware.

5.2 Grinding or comminution

When not in a special area, the discharge of comminuted food wastes and all other comminuted garbage (except plastics and floatable dunnage, lining and packing materials) may be permitted under regulation 3(1)(c) of Annex V beyond 3 nautical miles from the nearest land. Such comminuted or ground garbage must be capable of passing through a screen with openings no greater than 25 mm unless such comminuters or grinders comply with international or governmentally accepted standards which effectively accomplish this. It is recommended that garbage not be discharged into a ship's sewage treatment system unless it is approved for treating such garbage. Furthermore, garbage should not be stored in bottoms or tanks containing oily wastes. Such actions can result in faulty operation of sewage treatment or oily-water separator equipment and can cause sanitary problems for crew members and passengers. Options for grinding or comminution include the following:

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

5.2.1 A wide variety of food waste grinders are available in the market and are commonly fitted in most modern ships' galleys. These food waste grinders produce a slurry of food particles and water that washes easily through the required 25 mm screen. Output ranges from 10 to 250 liters per minute. It is recommended that the discharge from shipboard comminuters be directed into a holding tank when the vessel is operating within an area where discharge is prohibited.

5.2.2 Size reduction of certain other garbage items can be achieved by shredding or crushing and machines for carrying out this process are available for use on board ships.

5.2.3 Information on the development and use of comminuters for garbage aboard ships should be forwarded to the Organization.

5.3 Table 3 shows compaction options for various types of garbage.

5.3.1 Most garbage can be compacted; the exceptions include unground plastics, fibre and paper board, bulky cargo containers and thick metal items. Pressurized containers should not be compacted since they present an explosion hazard.

5.3.2 Compaction can reduce the volume of garbage into bags, boxes, or briquettes. When these compacted slugs are equally formed and structurally strong, they can be piled up in building block form; this permits the most efficient use of space in the storage compartments. The compaction ratio for normal mixed shipboard garbage may range as high as 12:1.

5.3.3 Some of the available compactors have options such as sanitizing, deodorizing, adjustable compaction ratios, bagging in plastic or paper, boxing in cardboard (with or without plastic or wax paper lining), baling, etc. Paper or cardboard tends to become soaked and weakened by moisture in the garbage during long periods of on-board storage. There have also been problems due to the generation of gas and pressure which can explode tight plastic bags.

5.3.4 If grinding machines are used prior to compaction, the compaction ratio can be increased and the storage space decreased.

5.3.5 A compactor should be installed in a compartment with adequate room for operating and maintaining the unit and storing trash to be processed. The compartment should be located adjacent to the areas of food processing and commissary store-rooms. If not already required by regulations it is recommended that the space have freshwater washdown service, coamings, deck drains, adequate ventilation and hand or automatic fixed fire-fighting equipment.

5.3.6 Information on the development and use of shipboard compactors should be forwarded to the Organization.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

Table 3 — Compaction options for shipboard-generated garbage

Typical examples

Special handling by vessel personnel before compaction

Compaction characteristics

On-board storage space

Rate of alteration

Retainment of compacted form

Density of compacted form

Metal, food and beverage containers, glass, small wood pieces

None

Very rapid

Almost 100%

High

Minimum

Comminuted plastics, fibre and paper board

Minor - reduce material to size for feed, minimal manual labour

Rapid

Approximately 80%

Medium

Minimum

Small metal drums, uncomminuted cargo packing, large pieces of wood

Moderate - longer manual labour time required to size material for feed

Slow

Approximately 50%

Relatively low

Moderate

Uncomminuted plastics

Major - very long manual labour time to size material for feed; usually impractical

Very slow

Less than 10%

Very low

Maximum

Bulky metal cargo containers, thick metal items

Impractical for shipboard compaction; not feasible

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Maximum

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

5.4 In comparison with the technology of land-based incineration, the state of the art in marine incinerators is not highly advanced, primarily because the technology has not yet been subject to constraints on air emissions nor to the types of materials that could be incinerated. Marine incinerators in current use are predominantly designed for intermittent operation and hand stoking and typically do not include any provisions for air pollution control. Control of air pollution is normally required in many ports in the world. Prior to using an incinerator while in port, permission may be required from the port authority concerned. In general, the use of shipboard garbage incinerators in ports in or near urban areas should be discouraged as their use will add to possible air pollution in these areas. Special considerations for incinerators are listed below:

5.4.1 Table 4 presents options for incineration of garbage, including considerations for special handling by vessel personnel, combustibility, reduction of volume, residual materials, exhaust, and on-board storage space. Most garbage is amenable to incineration with the exception of metal and glass.

5.4.2 In contrast to land-based incinerators, shipboard incinerators must be as compact as practicable, and with operating personnel at a premium, automatic operation is desirable. Most shipboard incinerators are designed for intermittent operation: the waste is charged to the incinerator, firing is started, and combustion typically lasts for three to six hours.

5.4.3 Commercial marine incinerators currently available vary greatly in size, have natural or induced draught, and are hand fired. It should be noted that incinerator ratings are usually quoted on the basis of heat input rate rather than on a weight charged basis because of the variability of the heat content in the wastes. Some modern incinerators are designed for continuous firing, and can handle simultaneous disposal of nearly all shipboard waste.

5.4.4 Some of the advantages of the most advanced incinerators may include that they operate under negative pressure, they are highly reliable since they have few moving parts, they require minimal operator skill, they are low in weight, and they have low exhaust and external skin temperatures.

5.4.5 Some of the disadvantages of incinerators may include the possible hazardous nature of the ash or vapour, dirty operation, excessive labour required for charging, stoking and ash removal, and they may not meet air pollution regulations imposed in certain harbors. Some of these disadvantages can be remedied by automatic equipment for charging, stoking and ash discharge into the sea outside areas where such discharge is prohibited. The additional equipment to perform these automatic functions requires more installation space.

5.4.6 The incineration of predominantly plastic wastes, as might be considered under some circumstances in complying with Annex V, requires more air and much higher temperatures for complete destruction. If plastics are to be burnt in a safe manner, the incinerator should be suitable for the purpose, otherwise the following problems can result:

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

Table 4 — Incineration* options for shipboard-generated garbage

Typical examples

Special handling by vessel personnel before incineration

Incineration characteristic

On-board storage space

Combustibility

Reduction of volume

Residual

Exhaust

Paper packaging, food and beverage containers

Minor - easy to feed into hopper

High

Over 95%

Powder ash

Possibly smoky and not hazardous

Minimum

Fibre and paper board

Minor - reduce material to size for feed; minimum manual labour

High

Over 95%

Powder ash

Possibly smoky and not hazardous

Minimum

Plastic packaging, food and beverage containers, etc.

Minor - easy to feed into hopper

High

Over 95%

Powder ash

Possibly smoky and hazardous based on incineration design

Minimum

Plastic sheeting, netting, rope and bulk material

Moderate manual labour time for size reduction

High

Over 95%

Powder ash

Possibly smoky and hazardous based on incinerator design

Minimum

Rubber hoses and bulk pieces

Major manual labour time for size reduction

High

Over 95%

Powder ash

Possibly smoky and hazardous based on incinerator design

Minimum

Metal food and beverage containers, etc.

Minor - easy to feed into hopper

Low

Less 10%

Slag

Possibly smoky and not hazardous

Moderate

Metal cargo, bulky containers, thick metal items

Major manual labour time for size reduction (not easily incinerated)

Very low

Less 5%

Large metal fragments and slag

Possibly smoky and not hazardous

Maximum

Glass food and beverage containers, etc.

Minor - easy to feed into hopper

Low

Less 10%

Slag

Possibly smoky and not hazardous

Moderate

Wood, cargo containers and large wood scraps

Moderate manual labour time for size reduction

High

Over 95%

Powder ash

Possibly smoky and not hazardous

Minimum

* Check local rules for possible reductions.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

5.4.6.1 Depending on the type of plastic and conditions of combustion, some toxic gases can be generated in the exhaust stream, including vaporized hydrochloric (HCl) and hydrocyanic (HCN) acids. These and other intermediary products of plastic combustion can be extremely dangerous.

5.4.6.2 The ash from the combustion of some plastic products may contain heavy metal or other residues which can be toxic and should therefore not be discharged into the sea. Such ashes should be retained on board, where possible, and discharged at port reception facilities.

5.4.6.3 The temperatures generated during incineration of primarily plastic wastes are high enough to possibly damage some garbage incinerators.

5.4.6.4 Plastic incineration requires three to ten times more combustion air than average municipal refuse. If the proper level of oxygen is not supplied, high levels of soot will be formed in the exhaust stream.

5.4.7 Certain ship classification societies have established requirements for the operation or construction of incinerators. The International Association of Classification Societies can provide information as to such requirements.

5.4:8 Information on the development and utilization of marine garbage incinerator systems for shipboard use should be forwarded to the Organization.

6 Port reception facilities for garbage

6.1 The methodology for determining the adequacy of a reception facility should be based on the needs of each type of ship, as well as the number and types of ships using the port. The size and location of a port should be considered in determining adequacy. Emphasis should also be made on calculating the quantities of garbage from ships which are not discharged to the sea in accordance with the provisions of regulations 3, 4 and 5 of Annex V.

6.2 It should be noted that, due to possibly existing different procedures for reception, port reception may require separation on board of:

6.2.1 food wastes (e.g. raw meat because of risk of animal diseases);

6.2.2 cargo-associated waste; and

6.2.3 domestic waste and maintenance waste.

6.3 Estimates of quantities of garbage to be received

6.3.1 Vessel, port and terminal operators should consider the following when determining quantities of garbage on a per ship basis:

6.3.1.1 type of garbage;

6.3.1.2 ship type and design;

6.3.1.3 ship operating route;

6.3.1.4 number of persons on board;

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

6.3.1.5 duration of voyage;

6.3.1.6 time spent in areas where discharge into the sea is prohibited or restricted; and

6.3.1.7 time spent in port.

6.3.2 Governments, in assessing the adequacy of reception facilities, should also consider the technological problems associated with the treatment and disposal of garbage received from ships. Although the establishment of waste management standards is not within the scope of the Convention, governments should take responsible actions within their national programmes to consider such standards.

6.3.2.1 The equipment for treatment and disposal of garbage is a significant factor in determining the adequacy of a reception facility. It not only provides a measure of the time required to complete the process, but it also is the primary means for ensuring that ultimate disposal of the garbage is environmentally safe.

6.3.2.2 Governments are urged to initiate, at the earliest opportunity, studies into the provision of reception facilities at ports in their respective countries. Governments should carry out the studies in close cooperation with port authorities and other local authorities responsible for garbage handling. Such studies should include information such as a port-by-port listing of available garbage reception facilities, the types of garbage they are equipped to handle (e.g. food wastes contaminated with foreign disease or pest organisms, large pieces of derelict fishing gear, or refuse and operational wastes only), their capacities and any Special procedures required to use them. Governments should transmit the results of their studies to the Organization for inclusion in the Annex V library (see section 2.2).

6.3.2.3 While selecting the most appropriate type of reception facility for a particular port, consideration should be given to several alternative methods available. In this regard, floating plants for collection of garbage, such as barges or self-propelled ships, might be considered more effective in a particular location than land-based facilities.

6.3.3 The purpose of these guidelines will be attained if they can provide the necessary stimulus to governments to initiate, and continue studies of, reception facilities as well as treatment and disposal technology. Information on developments in this respect should be forwarded to the Organization.

7 Ensuring compliance with Annex V

Recognizing that direct enforcement of Annex V regulations, particularly at sea, is difficult to accomplish, governments are encouraged to consider not only restrictive and punitive measures but also the removal of any disincentives, creation of positive incentives, and the development of voluntary measures within the regulated community when developing programmes and domestic legislation to ensure compliance with Annex V.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

7.1 Enforcement

7.1.1 Governments should encourage their flag vessels to advise them of ports in foreign countries Party to Annex V which do not have port reception facilities for garbage. This will provide a basis for advising responsible governments of possible problems and calling the Organization's attention to possible infractions. An acceptable reporting format is reproduced in the attached appendix.

7.1.2 Governments should establish a documentation system (e.g. letters or certificates) for ports and terminals under its jurisdiction, stating that adequate facilities are available for receiving ship-generated garbage. Periodic inspection of the reception facilities is recommended.

7.1.3 Governments should identify appropriate enforcement agencies, providing legal authority, adequate training, funding and equipment to incorporate the enforcement of Annex V regulations into their responsibilities. In those cases where customs or agricultural officials are responsible for receiving and inspecting garbage, governments should ensure that the necessary inspections are facilitated as much as possible.

7.1.4 Governments should consider, where applicable, the use of garbage discharge reporting systems (e.g. existing ship's deck log-book or record book) for ships. Such logs, at a minimum, should document the date, time, location by latitude and longitude, or name of port, type of garbage (e.g. food, refuse, cargo-associated waste or maintenance waste) and estimated amount of garbage discharged. Particular attention should be given to the reporting of:

7.1.4.1 the loss of fishing gear;

7.1.4.2 the discharge of cargo residues;

7.1.4.3 any discharge in special areas;

7.1.4.4 discharge at port reception facilities; and

7.1.4.5 discharge of garbage at sea.

7.1.5 The issue of documents or receipts by port reception facilities might also assist the reporting system.

7.2 Compliance incentive systems

7.2.1 The augmentation of port reception facilities to serve ship traffic without undue delay or inconvenience may require capital investment from port and terminal operators as well as the waste management companies serving those ports. Governments are encouraged to evaluate means within their authority to lessen this impact, thereby helping to ensure that garbage delivered to port is actually received and disposed of properly at reasonable cost or without charging special fees to individual ships. Such means include, but are not limited to:

7.2.1.1 tax incentives;

7.2.1.2 loan guarantees;

7.2.1.3 public vessel business preference;

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

7.2.1.4 special funds to assist in problem situations such as remote ports with no land-based waste management system in which to deliver ships' garbage;

7.2.1.5 government subsidies; and

7.2.1.6 special funds to help defray the cost of a bounty programme for lost, abandoned or discarded fishing gear or other persistent garbage. The programme would make appropriate payments to persons who retrieve such fishing gear, or other persistent garbage other than their own, from marine waters under the jurisdiction of government.

7.2.2 The installation of shipboard garbage processing equipment would facilitate compliance with Annex V and lessen the burden on port reception facilities to process garbage for disposal. Therefore, governments should consider actions to encourage certain types of garbage processing equipment to be installed on ships operating under its flag. For example, programmes to lessen costs to shipowners for purchasing and installing such equipment, or requirements for installing compactors, incinerators and comminuters during construction of new ships would be very helpful.

7.2.3 Governments are encouraged to consider the economic impacts of domestic regulations intended to force compliance with Annex V. Unrealistic regulations may lead to higher levels of non-compliance than an education programme without specific regulatory requirements beyond Annex V itself. Due to the highly variable nature of ship operations and configurations, it seems appropriate to maintain the highest possible level of flexibility in domestic regulations to permit ships the greatest range of options for complying with Annex V.

7.2.4 Governments are encouraged to support research and development of technology that will simplify compliance with Annex V regulations for ships and ports. This research should concentrate on:

7.2.4.1 shipboard waste handling systems;

7.2.4.2 ship provision innovations to minimize garbage generation;

7.2.4.3 loading and unloading technology to minimize dunnage, spillage and cargo residues; and

7.2.4.4 new ship construction design to facilitate garbage management and transfer.

7.2.5 Governments are encouraged to work within the Organization to develop port reception systems that simplify the transfer of garbage for international vessels.

7.3 Voluntary measures

7.3.1 Governments are encouraged to assist ship operators and seafarers' organizations in developing resolutions, by-laws and other internal mechanisms that will encourage compliance with Annex V regulations. Some of these groups include:

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

7.3.1.1 seamen's and officers' unions;

7.3.1.2 associations of shipowners and insurers, and classification societies; and

7.3.1.3 pilot associations, fishermen's organizations.

7.3.2 Governments are encouraged to assist and support, where possible, the development of internal systems to promote compliance with Annex V in port authorities and associations, terminal operators' organizations, stevedores' and longshoremen's unions and land-based waste management authorities.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

Appendix

Form for reporting alleged inadequacy of port reception facilities for garbage

1.

Country

 

 

Name Of port or area

 

 

Location in the port (e.g. berth/terminal/jetty)

 

 

Date of incident

 

2.

Type and amount of garbage for discharge to facility:

 

 

a. Total amount:

 

 

food waste

m3

 

cargo-associated waste

m3

 

maintenance waste

m3

 

other

m3

 

b. Amount not accepted by the facility:

 

 

food waste

m3

 

cargo-associated waste

m3

 

maintenance waste

m3

 

other

m3

3.

Special problems encountered:

 

 

Undue delay

 

 

Inconvenient location of facilities

 

 

Unreasonable charges for use of facilities

 

 

Use of facility not technically possible

 

 

Special national regulations

 

 

Other

 

4.

Remarks: (e.g. information received from port authorities or operators of reception facilities: reasons given concerning 2 above).

5.

Ships's particulars

 

 

Name of ship

 

 

Owner or operator

 

 

Distinctive number or letters

 

 

Port of registry

 

 

Number of persons on board

 

 

Date of completion of form

Signature of master

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

Resolution MEPC.59(33)

(adopted on 30 October 1992)

Revised Guidelines for the Implementation of Annex V of MARPOL 73/78

THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION COMMITTEE,

RECALLING Article 38(c) of the Convention on the International Maritime Organization concerning the function of the Marine Environment Protection Committee,

RECOGNIZING that Annex V of the International Convention for the Prevention from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78), provides regulations for the prevention of pollution by garbage from ships,

RECOGNIZING ALSO the necessity of providing guidelines to assist Governments in developing and enacting domestic laws and regulations which give effect to and implement Annex V of MARPOL 73/78,

NOTING that part IV (Garbage) of the Guidelines on. the Provision of Adequate Reception Facilities developed by the Organization in 1978,

BEING AWARE that the Committee at its twenty-sixth session modified the above-mentioned guidelines for garbage and developed guidelines for the implementation of Annex V of MARPOL 73/78 which were incorporated in the publication MARPOL 73/78, Consolidated Edition, 1991,

BEING ALSO AWARE that the Assembly at its seventeenth session adopted resolution A.719(17) on prevention of air pollution from ships, and requested the Committee and the Maritime Safety Committee to develop environmentally based standards for incineration of garbage and other ship-generated waste,

HAVING CONSIDERED the recommendations of the Sub-Committee on Ship Design and Equipment at its thirty-fifth session and the Sub-Committee on Bulk Chemicals at its twenty-second session regarding the standard specification for shipboard incinerators,

  1. ADOPTS the Revised Guidelines for the Implementation of Annex V of MARPOL 73/78; and

  2. RECOMMENDS Governments to implement the provisions of Annex V of MARPOL 73/78 in accordance with the revised guidelines.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Annex

Revised Guidelines for the Implementation of Annex V of MARPOL 73/78

The guidelines contained in MARPOL 73/78, Consolidated Edition, 1991, are amended as set out hereunder.

Replace paragraph 5.4.7 with the following:

''5.4.7 Shipboard incinerators should be designed, constructed, operated and maintained in accordance with the Standard Specification for Shipboard Incinerators set out in appendix 2.''

2 Re-number the present appendix as appendix 1.

3 Add the following as appendix 2:

Appendix 2 Standard specification for shipboard incinerators

1 Scope

1.1 This specification covers the design, manufacture, performance, operation, functioning, and testing of incinerators intended to incinerate garbage and other shipboard wastes generated during the ship's normal service (i.e. maintenance, operational, domestic and cargo-associated wastes, excluding cargo-associated wastes contaminated with Annex II and III substances as defined in the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL 73/78)).

1.2 This specification applies to those incinerator plants with capacities up to 1,160 kW per unit.

1.3 This specification does not apply to systems on special incinerator ships, e.g. for burning industrial wastes such as chemicals, manufacturing residues, etc.

1.4 This specification does not address the electrical supply to the unit, nor the foundation connections and stack connections.

1.5 This specification provides emission requirements in annex A1 and fire protection requirements in annex A2. Provisions for incinerators integrated with heat recovery units and provisions for flue gas temperature are given in annex A3 and annex A4, respectively.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

1.6 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use, including possible port State limitations.

2 Definitions

2.1 Ship means a vessel of any type whatsoever operating in the marine environment and includes hydrofoil boats, air-cushioned vehicles, submersibles, floating craft and fixed or floating platforms.

2.2 Incinerator means shipboard facilities for incinerating solid wastes approximating in composition to household waste and liquid wastes arising from the operation of the ship, e.g. domestic waste, cargo-associated waste, maintenance waste, operational waste, cargo residues, and fishing gear, etc. These facilities may be designed to use or not to use the heat energy produced.

2.3 Garbage means all kinds of victual, domestic and operational waste excluding fresh fish and parts thereof, generated during normal operation of the ship as defined in Annex V to MARPOL 73/78.

2.4 Waste means useless, unneeded or superfluous matter which is to be discarded.

2.5 Food wastes are any spoiled or unspoiled victual substances, such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, poultry, meat products, food scraps, food particles, and all other materials contaminated by such wastes, generated aboard ship, principally in the galley and dining areas.

2.6 Plastic means a solid material which contains as an essential ingredient one or more synthetic organic high polymers and which is formed (shaped) during either manufacture of the polymer or the fabrication into a finished product by heat and/or pressure. Plastics have material properties ranging from hard and brittle to soft and elastic. Plastics are used for a variety of marine purposes including, but not limited to, packaging (vapour-proof barriers, bottles, containers, liners), ship construction (fibreglass and laminated structures, siding, piping, insulation, flooring, carpets, fabrics, paints and finishes, adhesives, electrical and electronic components), disposable eating utensils and cups, bags, sheeting, floats, fishing nets, strapping bands, rope and line.

2.7 Domestic waste means all types of food wastes, sewage and wastes generated in the living spaces on board the ship.

2.8 Cargo-associated waste means all materials which have become wastes as a result of use on board a ship for cargo stowage and handling. Cargo-associated waste includes but is not limited to dunnage, shoring, pallets, lining and packing materials, plywood, paper, cardboard, wire and steel strapping.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

2.9 Maintenance waste means materials collected by the engine department and the deck department while maintaining and operating the vessel, such as soot, machinery deposits, scraped paint, deck sweeping, wiping wastes, oily rags, etc.

2.10 Operational wastes means all cargo-associated wastes and maintenance waste (including ash and clinkers), and cargo residues defined as garbage in 2.13.

2.11 Sludge oil means sludge from fuel and lubricating oil separators, waste lubricating oil from main and auxiliary machinery, waste oil from bilge water separators, drip trays, etc.

2.12 Oily rags are rags which have been saturated with oil as controlled in Annex I to the Convention. Contaminated rags are rags which have been saturated with a substance defined as a harmful substance in the other Annexes to MARPOL 73/78.

2.13 Cargo residues for the purposes of this standard are defined as the remnants of any cargo material on board that cannot be placed in proper cargo holds (loading excess and spillage) or which remains in cargo holds and elsewhere after unloading procedures are completed (unloading residual and spillage). However, cargo residues are expected to be in small quantities.

2.14 Fishing gear is defined as any physical device or part thereof or combination of items that may be placed on or in the water with the intended purpose of capturing, or controlling for subsequent capture, living marine or freshwater organisms.

3 Materials and manufacture

3.1 The materials used in the individual parts of the incinerator are to be suitable for the intended application with respect to heat resistant, mechanical properties, oxidation, corrosion, etc., as in other auxiliary marine equipment.

3.2 Piping for fuel and sludge oil should be seamless steel of adequate strength and to the satisfaction of the Administration. Short lengths of steel, or annealed copper nickel, nickel copper, or copper pipe and tubing may be used at the burners. The use of nonmetallic materials for fuel lines is prohibited. Valves and fittings may be threaded in sizes up to and including 60 mm OD (outside diameter), but threaded unions are not to be used on pressure lines in sizes 33 mm OD and over.

3.3 All rotating or moving mechanical and exposed electrical parts should be protected against accidental contact.

3.4 Incinerator walls are to be protected with insulated fire bricks/ refractory and a cooling system. The outside surface temperature of the incinerator casing being touched during normal operations should not exceed 20°C above ambient temperature.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

3.5 Refractory should be resistant to thermal shocks and resistant to normal ship's vibration. The refractory design temperature should be equal to the combustion chamber design temperature plus 20%. (See 4.1).

3.6 Incinerating systems should be designed such that corrosion will be minimized on the inside of the systems.

3.7 In systems equipped for incinerating liquid wastes, safe ignition and maintenance of combustion must be ensured, e.g. by a supplementary burner.

3.8 The combustion chamber(s) should be designed for easy maintenance of all internal parts including the refractory and insulation.

3.9 The combustion process should take place under negative pressure, which means that the pressure in the furnace under all circumstances should be lower than the ambient pressure in the room where the incinerator is installed. A flue gas fan may be fitted to secure negative pressure.

3.10 The incinerating furnace may be charged with solid waste either by hand or automatically. In every case, fire dangers should be avoided and charging should be possible without danger to the operating personnel.

For instance, where charging is carried out by hand, a charging lock may be provided which ensures that the charging space is isolated from the fire box as long as the filling hatch is open.

Where charging is not effected through a charging lock, an interlock should be installed to prevent the charging door from opening while the incinerator is in operation with burning of garbage in progress or while the furnace temperature is above 220°C.

3.11 Incinerators equipped with a feeding sluice or system should ensure that the material charged will move to the combustion chamber. Such system should be designed such that both operator and environment are protected from hazardous exposure.

3.12 Interlocks should be installed to prevent ash removal doors from opening while burning is in progress or while the furnace temperature is above 220°C.

3.13 The incinerator should be provided with a safe observation port of the combustion chamber in order to provide visual control of the burning process and waste accumulation in the combustion chamber. Neither heat, flame nor particles should be able to pass through the observation port. An example of a safe observation port is high-temperature glass with a metal closure.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

3.14 Electrical requirements

3.14.1 International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, particularly IEC Publication 92, Electrical Installations in Ships and Mobile and Fixed Offshore Units, are applicable for this equipment.

3.14.2 Electrical installation requirements should apply to all electrical equipment, including controls, safety devices, cables, and burners and incinerators.

3.14.2.1 A disconnecting means capable of being locked in the open position should be installed at an accessible location at the incinerator so that the incinerator can be disconnected from all sources of potential energy. This disconnecting means should be an integral part of the incinerator or adjacent to it. (See 5.1).

3.14.2.2 All uninsulated live metal parts should be guarded to avoid accidental contact.

3.14.2.3 The electrical equipment should be so arranged that failure of this equipment will cause the fuel supply to be shut off.

3.14.2.4 All electrical contacts of every safety device installed in the control circuit should be electrically connected in series. However, special consideration should be given to arrangements when certain devices are wired in parallel.

3.14.2.5 All electrical components and devices should have a voltage rating commensurate with the supply voltage of the control system.

3.14.2.6 All electrical devices and electric equipment exposed to the weather should be according to IEC Publication 92-201, table V.

3.14.2.7 All electrical and mechanical control devices should be of a type tested and accepted by a nationally recognized testing agency, according to international standards.

3.14.2.8 The design of the control circuits should be such that limit and primary safety controls should directly open a circuit that functions to interrupt the supply of fuel to combustion units.

3.14.3 Overcurrent protection

3.14.3.1 Conductors for interconnecting wiring that is smaller than the supply conductors should be provided with overcurrent protection based on the size of the smallest interconnecting conductors external to any control box, according to IEC rules.

3.14.3.2 Overcurrent protection for interconnecting wiring should be located at the point where the smaller conductors connect to the larger conductors. However, overall overcurrent protection is acceptable if it is sized on the basis of the smallest conductors of the interconnecting wiring, or according to IEC requirements.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

3.14.3.3 Overcurrent protection devices should be accessible and their function should be identified.

3.14.4 Motors

3.14.4.1 All electric motors should have enclosures corresponding to the environment where they are located, at least IP 44 according to IEC Publication 529.

3.14.4.2 Motors should be provided with a corrosion-resistant nameplate specifying information in accordance with IEC Publication 92-301.

3.14.4.3 Motors should be provided with running protection by means of integral thermal protection, by overcurrent devices, or a combination of both, in accordance with manufacturer's instructions, which should be in accordance with IEC Publication 92-202.

3.14.4.4 Motors should be rated for continuous duty and should be designed for an ambient temperature of 45°C or higher.

3.14.4.5 All motors should be provided with terminal leads or terminal screws in terminal boxes integral with, or secured to, the motor frames.

3.14.5 Ignition system

3.14.5.1 When automatic electric ignition is provided, it should be accomplished by means of either a high-voltage electric spark, a high-energy electric spark or a glow coil.

3.14.5.2 Ignition transformers should have an enclosure corresponding to the environment where they are located, at least IP 44 according to IEC Publication 529.

3.14.5.3 Ignition cable should conform to the requirements of IEC Publication 92-503.

3.14.6 Wiring

3.14.6.1 All wiring for incinerators should be rated and selected in accordance with IEC Publication 92-352.

3.14.7 Bonding and grounding

3.14.7.1 Means should be provided for grounding the major metallic frame or assembly of the incinerators.

3.14.7.2 Non-current-carrying enclosures, frames and similar parts of all electrical components and devices should be bonded to the main frame or assembly of the incinerator. Electrical components that are bonded by their installation do not require a separate bonding conductor.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

3.14.7.3 When an insulated conductor is used to bond electrical components and devices, it should show a continuous green colour, with or without a yellow stripe.

4 Operating requirements

4.1 The incinerator system should be designed and constructed for operation with the following conditions:

Maximum combustion chamber flue gas outlet temperature

1,200°C

Minimum combustion chamber flue gas outlet temperature

850°C

Pre-heat temperature of combustion chamber

650°C

For batch-loaded incinerators, there are no pre-heating requirements. However, the incinerator should be so designed that the temperature in the actual combustion space reaches 600°C within 5 min after start.

Pre-purge, before ignition:

at least four air changes in the chamber(s) and stack, but not less than 15 s

Time between restarts:

at least four air changes in the chamber(s) and stack, but not less than 15 s

Post-purge, after shutoff fuel oil:

not less than 15 s after the closing of the fuel oil valve

Incinerator discharge gases:

Minimum 6% O2.

4.2 Outside surfaces of combustion chamber(s) should be shielded from contact such that people in normal work situations are not exposed to extreme heat (20°C above ambient temperature) or direct contact with surface temperatures exceeding 60°C. Examples of alternatives to accomplish this are a double jacket with an air flow in between or an expanded metal jacket.

4.3 Incinerating systems are to be operated with underpressure (negative pressure) in the combustion chamber such that no gases or smoke can leak out to the surrounding areas.

4.4 The incinerator should have warning plates attached in a prominent location on the unit, warning against unauthorized opening of doors to combustion chamber(s) during operation and against overloading the incinerator with garbage.

4.5 The incinerator should have instruction plate(s) attached in a prominent location on the unit that clearly addresses the following:

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

4.5.1 Cleaning ashes and slag from the combustion chamber(s) and cleaning of combustion air openings before starting the incinerator (where applicable).

4.5.2 Operating procedures and instructions. These should include proper start-up procedures, normal shutdown procedures, emergency shutdown procedures and procedures for loading garbage (where applicable).

4.6 To avoid the building up of dioxins, the flue gas should be shock-cooled to a maximum 350°C right after the incinerator.

5 Operating controls

5.1 The entire unit should be capable of being disconnected from all sources of electricity by means of one disconnect switch located near the incinerator. (See 3.14.2.1)

5.2 There should be an emergency stop switch located outside the compartment, which stops all power to the equipment. The emergency stop switch should also be able to stop all power to the fuel pumps. If the incinerator is equipped with a flue gas fan, the fan should be capable of being restarted independently of the other equipment on the incinerator.

5.3 The control equipment should be so designed that any failure of the following equipment will prevent continued operations and cause the fuel supply to be cut off.

5.3.1 Safety thermostat/draught failure

5.3.1.1 A flue gas temperature controller, with a sensor placed in the flue gas duct, should be provided that will shut down the burner if the flue gas temperature exceeds the temperature set by the manufacturer for the specific design.

5.3.1.2 A combustion temperature controller, with a sensor placed in the combustion chamber, should be provided that will shut down the burner if the combustion chamber temperature exceeds the maximum temperature.

5.3.1.3 A negative pressure switch should be provided to monitor the draught and the negative pressure in the combustion chamber. The purpose of this negative pressure switch is to ensure that there is sufficient draught/negative pressure in the incinerator during operations. The circuit to the program relay for the burner will be opened and an alarm activated before the negative pressure rises to atmospheric pressure.

5.3.2 Flame failure/fuel oil pressure

5.3.2.1 The incinerator should have a flame safeguard control consisting of a flame sensing element and associated equipment for

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

shutdown of the unit in the event of ignition failure and flame failure during the firing cycle. The flame safeguard control should be so designed that the failure of any component will cause a safety shutdown.

5.3.2.2 The flame safeguard control should be capable of closing the fuel valves in not more than 4 s after a flame failure.

5.3.2.3 The flame safeguard control should provide a trial-for-ignition period of not more that 10 s during which fuel may be supplied to establish flame. If flame is not established within 10 s, the fuel supply to the burners should be immediately shut off automatically.

5.3.2.4 Whenever the flame safeguard control has operated because of failure of ignition, flame failure or failure of any component, only one automatic restart may be provided. If this is not successful then manual reset of the flame safeguard control should be required for restart.

5.3.2.5 Flame safeguard controls of the thermostatic type, such as stack switches and pyrostats operated by means of an open bimetallic helix, are prohibited.

5.3.2.6 If fuel oil Pressure drops below that set by the manufacturer, a failure and lockout of the program relay should result. This also applies to sludge oil used as a fuel. (Applies where pressure is important for the combustion process or a pump is not an integral part of the burner.)

5.3.3 Loss of power

If there is a loss of power to the incinerator control/alarm panel (not remote alarm panel), the system should shut down.

5.4 Fuel supply

Two fuel control solenoid valves should be provided in series in the fuel supply line to each burner. On multiple burner units, a valve on the main fuel supply line and a valve at each burner will satisfy this requirement. The valves should be connected electrically in parallel so that both operate simultaneously.

5.5 Alarms

5.5.1 An outlet for an audible alarm should be provided for connection to a local alarm system or a central alarm system. When a failure occurs, a visible indicator should show what caused the failure. (The indicator may cover more than one fault condition.)

5.5.2 The visible indicators should be designed so that, where failure is a safety-related shutdown, manual reset is required.

5.6 After shutdown of the oil burner, provision should be made for the fire box to cool sufficiently. (As an example of how this may be accomplished, the exhaust fan or ejector could be designed to continue

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

to operate. This would not apply in the case of an emergency manual trip.)

6 Other requirements

6.1 Documentation

A complete instruction and maintenance manual with drawings, electric diagrams, spare parts list, etc., should be furnished with each incinerator.

6.2 Installation

All devices and components should, as fitted in the ship, be designed to operate when the ship is upright and when inclined at any angle of list up to and including 15° either way under static conditions and 22.5° either way under dynamic conditions (rolling) and simultaneously inclined dynamically (pitching) 7.5° by bow or stern.

6.3 Incinerator

6.3.1 Incinerators are to be fitted with an energy source with sufficient energy to ensure a safe ignition and complete combustion. The combustion is to take place at sufficient negative pressure in the combustion chamber(s) to ensure no gases or smoke leak out to the surrounding areas. (See 5.3.1.3)

6.3.2 A drip tray is to be fitted under each burner and under any pumps, strainers, etc., that require occasional examination.

7 Tests

7.1 Prototype tests

An operating test for the prototype of each design should be conducted, with a test report completed indicating results of all tests. The tests should be conducted to ensure that all of the control components have been properly installed and that all parts of the incinerator, including controls and safety devices, are in satisfactory operating condition. Tests should include those described in section 7.3 below.

7.2 Factory tests

For each unit, if preassembled, an operating test should be conducted to ensure that all of the control components have been properly installed and that all parts of the incinerator, including controls and safety devices, are in satisfactory operating condition. Tests should include those described in 7.3 below.

7.3 Installation tests

An operating test after installation should be conducted to ensure that all of the control components have been properly installed and that all

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

parts of the incinerator, including controls and safety devices, are in satisfactory operating condition.

7.3.1 Flame safeguard. The operation of the flame safeguard system should be verified by causing flame and ignition failures. Operation of the audible alarm (where applicable) and visible indicator should be verified. The shutdown times should be verified.

7.3.2 Limit controls. Shutdown due to the operation of the limit controls should be verified.

7.3.2.1 Oil pressure limit control. The lowering of the fuel oil pressure below the value required for safe combustion should initiate a safety shutdown.

7.3.2.2 Other interlocks. Other interlocks provided should be tested for proper operation as specified by the unit manufacturer.

7.3.3 Combustion controls. The combustion controls should be stable and operate smoothly.

7.3.4 Programming controls. Programming controls should be verified as controlling and cycling the unit in the intended manner. Proper pre-àpurge, ignition, post-purge and modulation should be verified. A stopwatch should be used for verifying intervals of time.

7.3.5 Fuel supply controls. The satisfactory operation of the two fuel control solenoid valves for all conditions of operation and shutdown should be verified.

7.3.6 Low voltage test. A low voltage test should be conducted to satisfactorily demonstrate that the fuel supply to the burners will be automatically shut off before an incinerator malfunction results from the reduced voltage.

7.3.7 Switches. All switches should be tested to verify proper operation.

8 Certification

8.1 Manufacturer's certification that an incinerator has been constructed in accordance with this standard should be provided (by letter or certificate or in the instruction manual).

9 Marking

9.1 Each incinerator should be permanently marked indicating:

9.1.1 Manufacturer's name or trademark.

9.1.2 Style, type, model or other manufacturer's designation for the incinerator.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

9.1.3 Capacity - to be indicated by net designed heat release of the incinerator in heat units per timed period; for example, British Thermal Units per hour, megajoules per hour, kilocalories per hour.

10 Quality assurance

10.1 Incinerators should be designed, manufactured and tested in a manner that ensures they meet the requirements of this standard.

10.2 The incinerator manufacturer should have a quality system that meets ISO 9001, ''Quality Systems - Model for Quality Assurance in Design/Development, Production, Installation and Servicing''. The quality system should consist of elements necessary to ensure that the incinerators are designed, tested and marked in accordance with this standard. At no time should an incinerator be sold with this standard designation that does not meet the requirements herein (see "Certification").

Annex

A1 - Emission standard for shipboard incinerators with capacities of up to 1,160 kW

Minimum information to be provided

A1.1 An IMO Type Approval Certificate should be required for each shipboard incinerator. In order to obtain such certificate, the incinerator should be designed and built to an IMO approved standard. Each model should go through a specified type approval test operation at the factory or an approved test facility, and under the responsibility of the Administration.

A1.2 Type approval test should include measuring of the following parameters:

Max. capacity

kW or kcal/h

kg/h of specified waste

kg/h per burner

Pilot fuel consumption

kg/h per burner

O2 average in combustion chamber/zone

%

CO average in flue gas

mg/MJ

Soot number average

Bacharach or Ringelman scale

Combustion chamber flue gas outlet temperature average

§C

Amount of unburned components in ashes

% by weight

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

A1.3 Duration of test operation

For sludge oil burning

6-8 hours

For solid waste burning

6-8 hours

A1.4 Fuel/Waste specification for type approval test (% by weight)

Sludge oil consisting of

75% sludge oil from heavy fuel oil

5% waste lubricating oil

20% emulsified water

Solid waste (class 2) consisting of

50% food waste

50% rubbish containing approx. 30% paper, approx. 40% cardboard, approx. 10% rags, approx. 20% plastic

The mixture will have up to 50% moisture and 7% incombustible solids

Classes of waste*

Class 0

Trash, a mixture of highly combustible waste such as paper, cardboard, wood boxes, and combustible floor sweepings, with up to 10% by weight of plastic bags, coated paper, laminated paper, treated corrugated cardboard, oily rags and plastic or rubber scraps. This type of waste contains up to 10% moisture, 5% incombustible solids and has a heating value of about 19,700 kJ/kg as fired.

Class 1

Rubbish, a mixture of combustible waste such as paper, cardboard cartons, wood scrap, foliage and combustible floor sweepings. The mixture contains up to 20% by weight of galley or cafeteria waste, but contains little or no treated papers, plastic or rubber wastes. This type of waste contains 25% moisture, 10% incombustible solids and has a heating value of about 15,100 kJ/kg as fired.

Class 2

Refuse, consisting of an approximately even mixture of rubbish and garbage by weight. This type of waste, common to passenger ship occupancy, consists of up to 50% moisture, 7% incombustible solids and has a heating value of about 10,000 kJ/kg as fired.

Class 3

Garbage, consisting of animal and vegetable wastes from restaurants, cafeterias, galleys, sick bays and like installations. This type of waste contains up to 70% moisture, up to 5% incombustible solids and has a heating value range of about 2,300 kJ/kg as fired.

* Reference: Waste Classification, Incinerator Institute of America.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

Class 4

Aquatic life forms and animal remains, consisting of carcasses, organs and solid organic wastes from vessels carrying animal-type cargoes, consisting of up to 85% moisture, 5% incombustible solids and having a heating value range of about 2,300 kJ/kg as fired.

Class 5

By-product waste, liquid or semi-liquid, such as tar, paints, solvents, sludge, oil, waste oil, etc., from shipboard operations. BTU values must be determined by the individual materials to be destroyed.

Class 6

Solid by-product waste, such as rubber, plastics, wood waste, etc., from industrial operations. BTU values must be determined by the individual materials to be destroyed.

Calorific values

kcal/kg

kJ/kg

Vegetable and putrescibles

1,360

5,700

Paper

3,415

14,300

Rag

3,700

15,500

Plastics

8,600

36,000

Oil sludge

8,600

36,000

Sewage sludge

716

3,000

Densities

kg/m3

Paper (loose)

50

Refuse (75% wet)

720

Dry rubbish

110

Scrap wood

190

Wood sawdust

220

Density of loose general waste generated on board ship will be about 130 kg/m3.

A1.5 Required emission standards to be verified by type approval test

O2 in combustion chamber

6-12%

CO in flue gas maximum average

200 mg/MJ

Soot number maximum average

Bacharach 3 or Ringelman I (a higher soot number is acceptable only during very short periods such as starting up)

Unburned components in ash residues

max. 10% by weight

Combustion chamber flue gas outlet temperature range

900 -1,200°C

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

A high temperature in the actual combustion chamber/zone is an absolute requirement in order to obtain a complete and smoke-free incineration, including that of plastic and other synthetic materials while minimizing dioxin and VOC (volatile organic compounds) emissions.

A1.6 Fuel-related emission

Al.6.1 Even with good incineration technology the emission from an incinerator will depend on the type of material being incinerated. If for instance a vessel has bunkered a fuel with high sulphur content, then sludge oil from separators which is burned in the incinerator will lead to emission of SOx. But again, the SOx emission from the incinerator would only amount to less than one per cent of the SO x discharged with the exhaust from main and auxiliary engines.

A1.6.2 Principal organic constituents (POC) cannot be measured on a continuous basis. Specifically, there are no instruments with provision for continuous time telemetry that measures POC, hydrogen chloride (HCI) or waste destruction efficiency to date. These measurements can only be made using grab sample approaches, where the sample is returned to a laboratory for analysis. In the case of organic constituents (undestroyed wastes), the laboratory work requires considerable time to complete. Thus, continuous emission control can only be assured by secondary measurements.

A1.6.3 On-board operation/emission control

For a shipboard incinerator with IMO type approval, emission control/ monitoring should be limited to the following:

  1. control/monitor O2 content in combustion. chamber (spot checks only);

  2. control/monitor temperature in combustion chamber flue gas outlet.

By continuous (auto) control of the incineration process, ensure that the above-mentioned two parameters are kept within the prescribed limits. This mode of operation will ensure that particulates and ash residue contain only traces of organic constituents.

A1.7 Passenger/Cruise ships with incinerator installations having a total capacity of more than 1,160 kW

A1.7.1 On board this type of vessel, the following conditions will probably exist:

  1. generation of huge amounts of burnable waste with a high content of plastic and synthetic materials;

  2. incinerating plant with a high capacity operating continuously over long periods;

  3. this type of vessel will often be operating in very sensitive coastal areas.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

A1.7.2 In view of the fuel-related emission from a plant with such a high capacity, installation of a flue gas sea water scrubber should be considered. This installation can perform an efficient after-cleaning of the flue gases, thus minimizing the content of HCI, SOx, particulate matter.

A1.7.3 Any restriction in nitrogen oxide (NOx) should only be considered in connection with possible future regulations on pollution from the vessel's total pollution, i.e. main and auxiliary machinery, boilers, etc.

A2 - Fire protection requirements for incinerators and waste stowage spaces

For the purpose of construction, arrangement and insulation, incinerator spaces and waste stowage spaces should be treated as category A machinery spaces (SOLAS II-2/3.19) and service spaces (SOLAS II-2/3.12), respectively. To minimize the fire hazards these spaces represent, the following SOLAS requirements in chapter II-2 should be applied:

A2.1 For passenger vessels carrying more than 36 passengers:

  1. regulation 26.2.2(12) should apply to incinerator and combined incinerator/waste storage spaces, and the flue uptakes from such spaces; and

  2. regulation 26.2.2(13) should apply to waste storage spaces and garbage chutes connected thereto.

A2.2 For all other vessels, including passenger vessels carrying not more than 36 passengers:

  1. regulation 44.2.2(6) should apply to incinerator and combined incinerator/waste spaces, and the flue uptakes from such spaces; and

  2. regulation 44.2.2(9) should apply to waste storage spaces and garbage chutes connected thereto.

A2.3 Incinerators and waste stowage spaces located on weather decks (regulation II-2/3.17) need not meet the above requirements but should be located:

  1. as far aft on the vessel as possible;

  2. not less than 3 m from entrances, air inlets and openings to accommodations, service spaces and control stations;

  3. not less than 5 m measured horizontally from the nearest hazardous area, or vent outlet from a hazardous area; and

  4. not less than 2 m should separate the incinerator and the waste material storage area, unless physically separated by a structural fire barrier.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×

A2.4 A fixed fire detection and fire-extinguishing system should be installed in enclosed spaces containing incinerators, in combined incinerator/waste storage spaces and in any waste storage space in accordance with the following table:

 

Automatic sprinkler system

Fixed fire-extinguishing system

Fixed fire detection system

Combined incinerator and waste storage space

X

 

 

Incinerator space

 

X

X

Waste storage space

X

 

 

A2.5 Where an incinerator or waste storage space is located on weather decks it must be accessible with two means of fire extinguishment: either fire hoses, semi-portable fire extinguishers, fire monitors or a combination of any two of these extinguishing devices. A fixed fire-extinguishing system is acceptable as one means of extinguishment.

A2.6 Flue uptake piping/ducting should be led independently to an appropriate terminus via a continuous funnel or trunk.

A3 - Incinerators integrated with heat recovery units

A3.1 The flue gas system, for incinerators where the flue gas is led through a heat recovery device, should be designed so that the incinerator can continue operation with the economizer coils dry. This may be accomplished with bypass dampers if needed.

A3.2 The incinerator unit should be equipped with a visual and an audible alarm in case of loss of feed-water.

A3.3 The gas side of the heat recovery device should have equipment for proper cleaning. Sufficient access should be provided for adequate inspection of external heating surfaces.

A4 - Flue gas temperature

A4.1 When deciding upon the type of incinerator, consideration should be given as to what the flue gas temperature will be. The flue gas temperature can be a determining factor in the selection of materials for fabricating the stack. Special high-temperature material may be required for use in fabricating the stack when the flue gas temperatures exceed 430°C.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Annex

Form of IMO Type Approval Certificate for shipboard incinerators with capacities of up to 1,160 kW

Certificate of Shipboard Incinerator

Name of Administration

Badge

or

Cypher

This is to certify that the shipboard incinerator listed has been examined and tested in accordance with the requirement of the standard for shipboard incinerators for disposing of ship-generated waste appended to the Guidelines for the implementation of Annex V of MARPOL 73/78.

Incinerator manufactured by _____________________________________

Style, type or model of the incinerator* ___________________

Max. capacity

________ kW or kcal/h

________ kg/h of specified waste

________ kg/h per burner

O2 average in combustion chamber/zone __________ %

CO average in flue gas mg/MJ _______________________

 

Soot number average ______________________________

Bacharach or Ringelman scale

Combustion chamber flue gas outlet temperature average ___

°C

Amount of unburned components in ashes ________________________________________

% by weight

A copy of this certificate should be carded on board a vessel fitted with this equipment at all times.

Official stamp

Signed ________________________________________

Administration of ________________________________

Dated this _____ day of ___ ________________________________

* Delete as appropriate.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 263
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 264
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 265
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 266
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 267
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 268
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 269
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 270
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 271
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 272
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 273
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 274
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 275
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 276
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 277
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 278
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 279
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 280
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 281
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 282
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 283
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 284
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 285
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 286
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 287
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 288
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 289
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 290
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 291
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 292
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 293
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 294
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 295
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 296
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 297
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 298
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 299
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 300
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 301
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 302
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 303
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 304
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 305
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 306
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 307
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 308
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 309
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 310
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 311
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Annex V of MARPOL 73/78." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 312
Next: Appendix C: The International Law of the Sea: Implications for Annex V Implementation »
Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea Get This Book
×
Buy Hardback | $52.95 Buy Ebook | $42.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!