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Suggested Citation:"6 Education and Training." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 173

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EDUCATION AND TRAINING 173 6 Education and Training Education and training have important strategic roles to play in the implementation of MARPOL Annex V, as previous chapters have demonstrated. Most significantly, many opportunities for intervening in the hazard evolution model (Chapter 4) involve these approaches. Moreover, it is clear that, given the vast expanse of the sea, violations of Annex V are and will continue to be difficult to detect and prosecute; accordingly, implementation must rely heavily on motivation and education of seafarers, to persuade them to comply voluntarily and give them, through training, the requisite skills and tools. Furthermore, regulatory authorities alone cannot control land-based sources of marine debris. What is needed is behavioral and ethical change. This chapter outlines strategies for initiating and sustaining the various types of education and training needed to promote successful implementation of Annex V. As defined in this report, education refers to informal, formal, and professional communications for all types of audiences, as well as information exchange programs aimed at disseminating experiences with Annex V implementation strategies and technologies. Training is a specific type of education focused on development of skills in repetitive tasks and practices. The first section of the chapter outlines opportunities for education and training in implementing Annex V, briefly highlighting where these efforts are needed in various maritime sectors. The second section assesses past experience with education and training to support Annex V implementation and outlines a model program. The last section describes the key elements needed from government if the full potential of education and training is to be exploited.

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Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

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