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EDUCATION AND TRAINING 173 6 Education and Training Education and training have important strategic roles to play in the implementation of MARPOL Annex V, as previous chapters have demonstrated. Most significantly, many opportunities for intervening in the hazard evolution model (Chapter 4) involve these approaches. Moreover, it is clear that, given the vast expanse of the sea, violations of Annex V are and will continue to be difficult to detect and prosecute; accordingly, implementation must rely heavily on motivation and education of seafarers, to persuade them to comply voluntarily and give them, through training, the requisite skills and tools. Furthermore, regulatory authorities alone cannot control land-based sources of marine debris. What is needed is behavioral and ethical change. This chapter outlines strategies for initiating and sustaining the various types of education and training needed to promote successful implementation of Annex V. As defined in this report, education refers to informal, formal, and professional communications for all types of audiences, as well as information exchange programs aimed at disseminating experiences with Annex V implementation strategies and technologies. Training is a specific type of education focused on development of skills in repetitive tasks and practices. The first section of the chapter outlines opportunities for education and training in implementing Annex V, briefly highlighting where these efforts are needed in various maritime sectors. The second section assesses past experience with education and training to support Annex V implementation and outlines a model program. The last section describes the key elements needed from government if the full potential of education and training is to be exploited.