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EDUCATION AND TRAINING 174 OVERVIEW OF OPPORTUNITIES FOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING Education and training play important roles in Annex V implementation throughout all fleets. The two approaches are mutually reinforcing. Early environmental education motivates young sailors to comply with the Marine Plastic Pollution Research and Control Act (MPPRCA), for example, while Navy training enables them to carry out the mandates. This example also illustrates that, to effect behavioral change in groups, education and training programs must be long-term. It is important to remember that such programs, as valuable as they are, cannot easily overcome failure of the port side (or any other element) of the vessel garbage management system. Education is a key tool for influencing recreational fishermen and boaters and is also critical for commercial fisheries, due to limited enforcement capabilities and the difficulty of reaching these sectors in any other way. Information exchange programs need to reach all sectors, to maximize the benefits of knowledge gained about Annex V implementation strategies and technologies. Training of crews on large commercial and military ships is essential if proper garbage-handling procedures are to be followed consistently. Beyond the practical arguments for conducting Annex V education and training programs, there are political reasons as well. Education is one of the most accepted interventions for dealing with environmental hazards (Laska, 1994). Even so, direct government appropriations for support of educational programs are rare. Types of Education and Training There are three basic audiences for Annex V education and training: the public; employees and/or visitors on vessels, in ports, and in the supply chain; and managers of vessel, port, and supply operations. Different types of programs must be developed for each audience. The goal of all three types of programs is implementation of Annex V, but the objectives vary depending on audience characteristics. The three types of programs are described briefly here. Public Awareness Campaigns Public awareness campaigns are directed at informing the general public about Annex V and fostering support for compliance. The ultimate goal of such campaigns is social and cultural change. An example would be a multimedia campaign in coastal areas explaining the ecological harm caused by marine debris.