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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance.
This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.
The Institute of Medicine was chartered in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to enlist distinguished members of the appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. In this, the Institute acts under the Academy's 1863 congressional charter responsibility to be an adviser to the federal government and its own initiative in identifying issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.
Support for this study was provided by National Research Council funds.
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 94-67254
International Standard Book Number 0-309-05176-2
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Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The image adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is based on a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatlichemusseen in Berlin.
CONFERENCE COMMITTEE ON FETAL RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS
UTA FRANCKE,* Chair, Professor of Genetics and Pediatrics,
Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California
FREDERICK C. BATTAGLIA,* Professor,
Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado
MARTHA CONSTANTINE-PATON, Professor of Biology,
Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut
EZRA C. DAVIDSON,* Jr., Professor and Chairman,
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, King-Drew Medical Center, Los Angeles, California
JOSEPH M. DAVIE,* Vice President of Research, Biogen, Inc.,
NEAL L. FIRST,** Professor of Reproductive Biology and Biotechnology,
Department of Meat and Animal Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin
HAIG H. KAZAZIAN,* Jr., Sutland Professor of Pediatric Genetics,
The Johns Hopkins University,
Center for Molecular Genetics, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland
Institute of Medicine Staff
CONSTANCE M. PECHURA, Study Director, Associate Director,
Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders
GARY B. ELLIS, Director,
Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention (to January 1993)
MICHAEL STOTO, Director,
Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
TERRI BARBA, Project Assistant
JUDITH M. SCHWARTZ, Contract Writer
The committee and staff are grateful for the time and effort of the conference speakers. These individuals shared their considerable expertise through presentations that brought clarity and focus to difficult issues, ranging from legal and ethical dilemmas to scientific challenges and opportunities. Further, their work encouraged a remarkably free exchange of ideas. We hope that this report adequately reflects these important contributions.
We also wish to thank the conference participants, many of whom traveled long distances and took time out from busy schedules to attend. The discussions benefited greatly from these participants' questions and observations, and the report is richer for them.
Finally, we wish to thank the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences for supporting this conference and the individuals who provided insightful review of the report draft.