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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals (1995)

Chapter: Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
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Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries

This appendix presents Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries (LCSSs) for 88 substances commonly encountered in laboratories. These summaries have been prepared in accord with the general and comprehensive approach to experiment planning and risk assessment that is outlined in Chapters 2 ("Prudent Planning of Experiments") and 3 ("Evaluating Hazards and Assessing Risks in the Laboratory") of this volume, and they should be used only by individuals familiar with the content of those chapters. The scope of coverage and degree of detail provided in these summaries should be appropriate for prudent experiment planning in most commonly encountered laboratory situations. Each summary includes chemical and toxicological information derived from the various secondary sources discussed in Chapter 3, as well as from Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs).

The committee encourages the dissemination of these summaries as a means of promoting the prudent use of hazardous chemicals in laboratory work. It anticipates that these summaries will also serve as models for the preparation of additional LCSSs for chemicals not included in this appendix. In fact, the committee recommends that laboratory workers routinely prepare new LCSSs for unfamiliar substances as part of the risk assessment they should carry out for each experiment as outlined at the conclusion of Chapter 3.

The preparation and use of Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries as described here are consistent with the Chemical Hygiene Plans required for every laboratory under the OSHA Laboratory Standard. Thus, the identification of substances that meet the OSHA criteria for "particularly hazardous substances" or "select carcinogens" should be facilitated by the use of these summaries.

LIMITATIONS OF LCSSs

All users of Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries should understand their limitations. In each summary, the content of the section on toxicity is dependent on the quality of the information available. For some chemicals the description of toxicity hazards is based on extensive experience with human exposure, while in other cases this discussion is based on limited data from animal tests. If a substance meets the OSHA definition of a "select carcinogen" (based on current information), that fact is noted here. The discussion of toxic effects has been written so as to be comprehensible to the average laboratory worker, with full knowledge that the use of plain language may lead to a lack of precision in the description of toxic effects. The section on reactivity and incompatibility summarizes only those items that are likely to be encountered in normal laboratory use and should not be considered comprehensive. If more extensive information is required for any of the categories of information given in these summaries, the sources listed in Chapter 3 should be consulted. In addition, OSHA regulations (Standards—29 CFR) are now available on the WorldWideWeb, as are further links to safety and health information: http://www.osha.gov/safhlth.html.

These summaries should be used only by laboratory workers with general training in the safe handling of chemicals. LCSSs are intended to be used in conjunction with Chapters 3 through 7 of this volume, and these summaries make frequent reference to the contents of those chapters. The information in these summaries has been selected for its relevance to the laboratory use of chemicals. In particular, the listing of chemicals and toxicological hazards is not intended to be a comprehensive review of the literature for a given substance. These summaries do not contain information on

  • household or nonlaboratory use of a chemical;

  • commercial, manufacturing, or other large-scale use of chemicals;

  • consequences of abuse of a chemical by deliberate ingestion, inhalation, or injection;

  • environmental effects of release, disposal, or incineration of a chemical; or

  • shipment or transportation of a chemical in accordance with applicable laws and regulations.

The information contained in these summaries is believed to be accurate at the time of publication of this volume. A recent MSDS should be consulted for updated information, especially on exposure limits.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

PREPARATION OF NEW LCSSs

All of the information required for the preparation of new LCSSs should be available in the sources discussed in Chapter 3. The following directions should be helpful in preparing specific sections of new LCSSs:

  • Odor: Information on odor and odor thresholds can be found in NIOSH Guidelines, Royal Society Chemical Safety Data Sheets, and in the AIHA publication "Odor Thresholds for Chemicals with Established Occupational Health Standards."

  • Toxicity data: LD50 and LC50 values can be found in MSDSs and other sources listed in Chapter 3. Exposure limits are included in MSDSs and are listed in the ACGIH Threshold Limit Value booklet, which is updated annually.

  • Major hazards: This section should provide key words indicating only the most important potential hazards associated with the title substance.

  • Toxicity: The first paragraph of this section should discuss acute toxicity hazards using plain language. Symptoms of exposure by inhalation, skin contact, eye contact, and ingestion should be separately described, and the degree of hazard of the substance should be identified as "high," "moderate," or "low," as discussed in Chapter 3. The paragraph should indicate whether there are adequate warning properties for the substance. The second paragraph should address chronic toxicity. For potential carcinogens, whether the substance is classified as an OSHA ''select carcinogen" should be indicated.

  • Flammability and explosibility: This section should indicate the NFPA rating for the substance, explosion limits, toxic substances that may be produced in a fire, and the type of fire extinguisher appropriate for fighting fires.

  • Storage and handling: This section should make reference to the appropriate sections of Chapter 5 and should also highlight any special procedures of particular importance in work with the title substance.

SECTIONS INCLUDED IN LCSSs

Each of the 88 LCSSs supplied in this appendix includes those of the following sections that apply to the title substance:

  • Substance,

  • Formula,

  • Physical properties,

  • Odor,

  • Vapor density,

  • Vapor pressure,

  • Flash point,

  • Autoignition temperature,

  • Toxicity data,

  • Major hazards,

  • Toxicity,

  • Flammability and explosibility,

  • Reactivity and incompatibility,

  • Storage and handling,

  • Accidents,

  • Disposal.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
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LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARIES

Acetaldehyde

Acetic Acid

Acetone

Acetonitrile

Acetylene

Acrolein

Acrylamide

Acrylonitrile

Aluminum Trichloride

Ammonia (Anhydrous)

Ammonium Hydroxide

Aniline

Arsine

Benzene

Boron Trifluoride

Bromine

Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide

Butyllithiums

Carbon Disulfide

Carbon Monoxide

Carbon Tetrachloride

Chlorine

Chloroform

Chloromethyl Methyl Ether (and Related Compounds)

Chromium Trioxide and Other Chromium(VI) Salts

Cyanogen Bromide

Diazomethane

Diborane

Dichloromethane

Diethyl Ether

Diethylnitrosamine (and Related Nitrosamines)

Dimethyl Sulfate

Dimethyl Sulfoxide

Dimethylformamide

Dioxane

Ethanol

Ethidium Bromide

Ethyl Acetate

Ethylene Dibromide

Ethylene Oxide

Fluorides (Inorganic)

Fluorine

Formaldehyde

Hexamethylphosphoramide

Hexane (and Related Hydrocarbons)

Hydrazine

Hydrobromic Acid and Hydrogen Bromide

Hydrochloric Acid and Hydrogen Chloride

Hydrogen

Hydrogen Cyanide

Hydrogen Fluoride and Hydrofluoric Acid

Hydrogen Peroxide

Hydrogen Sulfide

Iodine

Lead and Its Inorganic Compounds

Lithium Aluminum Hydride

Mercury

Methanol

Methyl Ethyl Ketone

Methyl Iodide

Nickel Carbonyl

Nitric Acid

Nitrogen Dioxide

Osmium Tetroxide

Oxygen

Ozone

Palladium on Carbon

Peracetic Acid (and Related Percarboxylic Acids)

Perchloric Acid (and Inorganic Perchlorates)

Phenol

Phosgene

Phosphorus

Potassium

Potassium Hydride and Sodium Hydride

Pyridine

Silver and Its Compounds

Sodium

Sodium Azide

Sodium Cyanide and Potassium Cyanide

Sodium Hydroxide and Potassium Hydroxide

Sulfur Dioxide

Sulfuric Acid

Tetrahydrofuran

Toluene

Toluene Diisocyanate

Trifluoroacetic Acid

Trimethylaluminum (and Related Organoaluminum Compounds)

Trimethyltin Chloride (and Other Organotin Compounds)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: ACETALDEHYDE

Substance

Acetaldehyde

(Ethanal, acetic aldehyde)

CAS 75-07-0

 

Formula

CH3CHO

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 21 °C, mp -124 °C

Miscible with water

 

Odor

Pungent, fruity odor detectable at 0.0068 to 1000 ppm (mean = 0.067 ppm)

Vapor Density

1.52 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

740 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

-38 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

185 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

661 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

20,550 ppm (37,000 mg/m3; 30 min)

 

PEL (OSHA)

200 ppm (360 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

100 ppm (180 mg/m3)

 

STEL (ACGIH)

150 ppm (270 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Highly flammable liquid; irritating to the eyes and respiratory system.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of acetaldehyde is low by inhalation and moderate by ingestion. Exposure to acetaldehyde by inhalation is irritating to the respiratory tract and mucous membranes; this substance is a narcotic and can cause central nervous system depression. Ingestion of acetaldehyde may cause severe irritation of the digestive tract leading to nausea, vomiting, headache, and liver damage. Acetaldehyde causes irritation and burning upon skin contact and is a severe eye irritant.

Acetaldehyde has caused nasal tumors in rats exposed by inhalation and is listed by IARC in Group 2B ("possible human carcinogen"). It is not classified as a "select carcinogen" according to the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard. Acetaldehyde is mutagenic and has been shown to be a reproductive toxin in animals. Acetaldehyde is formed by metabolism of ethanol, and chronic exposure can produce symptoms similar to alcoholism.

Flammability and Explosibility

Acetaldehyde is a dangerous fire hazard (NFPA rating = 4) owing to its volatility and low autoignition temperature. Its vapor is explosive in the concentration range 4 to 66% in air and may be ignited by hot surfaces such as hot plates or light bulbs, or by static

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

electricity discharges. The vapor is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and "flash back." Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight acetaldehyde fires.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Acetaldehyde is a reactive substance and on storage in the presence of air may undergo oxidation to form explosive peroxides. It may also polymerize violently when in contact with strong acids or trace metals such as iron. Acetaldehyde may undergo violent reactions with acid chlorides, anhydrides, amines, hydrogen cyanide, and hydrogen sulfide.

Storage and Handling

Acetaldehyde should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for dealing with extremely flammable substances (Chapter 5.F). In particular, acetaldehyde should be used only in areas free of ignition sources, and quantities greater than 1 liter should be stored in tightly sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidizers. Acetaldehyde should always be stored under an inert atmosphere of nitrogen or argon to prevent autoxidation.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If acetaldehyde is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the acetaldehyde with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Alternatively, acetaldehyde spills may be neutralized with sodium bisulfite solution before cleanup. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess acetaldehyde and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

The information in this LCSS has been compiled by a committee of the National Research Council from literature sources and Material Safety Data Sheets and is believed to be accurate as of July 1994. This summary is intended for use by trained laboratory personnel in conjunction with the NRC report Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. This LCSS presents a concise summary of safety information that should be adequate for most laboratory uses of the title substance, but in some cases it may be advisable to consult more comprehensive references. This information should not be used as a guide to the nonlaboratory use of this chemical.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: ACETIC ACID

Substance

Acetic acid

(Ethanoic acid)

CAS 64-19-7

 

Formula

CH3COOH

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 118 °C, mp 17 °C

Miscible in water (100 g/100 mL)

 

Odor

Strong, pungent, vinegar-like odor detectable at 0.2 to 1.0 ppm

Vapor Density

2.1 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

11 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

39 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

426 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

3310 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

1060 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (mice)

5620 ppm (1 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

10 ppm (25 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

10 ppm (25 mg/m3)

 

STEL (ACGIH)

15 ppm (37 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Corrosive to the skin and eyes; vapor or mist is very irritating and can be destructive to the eyes, mucous membranes, and respiratory system; ingestion causes internal irritation and severe injury.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of acetic acid is low. The immediate toxic effects of acetic acid are due to its corrosive action and dehydration of tissues with which it comes in contact. A 10% aqueous solution of acetic acid produced mild or no irritation on guinea pig skin. At 25 to 50%, generally severe irritation results. In the eye, a 4 to 10% solution will produce immediate pain and sometimes injury to the cornea. Acetic acid solutions of 80% or greater concentration can cause serious burns of the skin and eyes. Acetic acid is slightly toxic by inhalation; exposure to 50 ppm is extremely irritating to the eyes, nose, and throat.

Acetic acid has not been found to be carcinogenic or to show reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans.

Flammability and Explosibility

Acetic acid is a combustible substance (NFPA rating = 2). Heating can release vapors that can be ignited. Vapors or gases may travel considerable distances to ignition source

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

and "flash back." Acetic acid vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 4 to 16% (by volume). Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for acetic acid fires.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Contact with strong oxidizers may cause fire.

Storage and Handling

Acetic acid should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C. In particular, acetic acid should be used only in areas free of ignition sources, and quantities greater than 1 liter should be stored in tightly sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidizers.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If acetic acid is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the acetic acid with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Cleaned-up material is a RCRA Hazardous Waste. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess acetic acid and waste material containing this substance should be placed in a covered metal container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: ACETONE

Substance

Acetone

(2-Propanone)

CAS 67-64-1

 

Formula

CH3COCH3

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 56 °C, mp -94 °C

Miscible with water

 

Odor

Characteristic pungent odor detectable at 33 to 700 ppm (mean = 130 ppm)

Vapor Density

2.0 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

180 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

-18 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

465 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

5800 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

20,000 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

50,100 mg/m3

 

PEL (OSHA)

1000 ppm (2400 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

750 ppm

 

STEL (ACGIH)

1000 ppm (2400 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Highly flammable.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of acetone is low. Acetone is primarily a central nervous system depressant at high concentrations (greater than 12,000 ppm). Unacclimated volunteers exposed to 500 ppm acetone experienced eye and nasal irritation, but it has been reported that 1000 ppm for an 8-hour day produced no effects other than slight transient irritation to eyes, nose, and throat. Therefore there are good warning properties for those unaccustomed to working with acetone; however, frequent use of acetone seems to cause accommodation to its slight irritating properties. Acetone is practically nontoxic by ingestion. A case of a man swallowing 200 mL of acetone resulted in his becoming stuporous after 1 hour and then comatose; he regained consciousness 12 hour later. Acetone is slightly irritating to the skin, and prolonged contact may cause dermatitis. Liquid acetone produces moderate transient eye irritation.

Acetone has not been found to be carcinogenic in animal tests or to have effects on reproduction or fertility.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Flammability and Explosibility

Acetone is extremely flammable (NFPA rating = 3), and its vapor can travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and "flash back." Acetone vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 2 to 13% (by volume). Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for acetone fires.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Fires and/or explosions may result from the reaction of acetone with strong oxidizing agents (e.g., chromium trioxide) and very strong bases (e.g., potassium t-butoxide).

Storage and Handling

Acetone should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for dealing with extremely flammable substances (Chapter 5.F). In particular, acetone should be used only in areas free of ignition sources, and quantities greater than 1 liter should be stored in tightly sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidizers.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If acetone is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the acetone with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess acetone and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Substance

Acetonitrile

(Methyl cyanide, cyanomethane)

CAS 75-05-8

 

Formula

H3C-C=N

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 82 °C, mp - 46°C

Miscible with water (>100 g/100 mL)

 

Odor

Aromatic ether-like odor detectable at 40 ppm

Vapor Density

1.42 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

73 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

6 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

524 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

LD30 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

1250 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

7551 ppm (8 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

40 ppm (70 mg/m3)

 

STEL (OSHA)

60 ppm (105 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

40 ppm (70 mg/m3)

 

STEL (ACGIH)

60 ppm (105 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Flammable liquid and vapor; liquid severely irritates the eyes.

Toxicity

Acetonitrile is slightly toxic by acute exposure through oral intake, skin contact, and inhalation. However, acetonitrile can be converted by the body to cyanide. Symptoms of exposure include weakness, flushing, headache, difficult and/or rapid breathing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, blue-gray discoloration of the skin and lips (due to a lack of oxygen), stupor, and loss of consciousness. Acetonitrile is severely irritating to the eyes and slightly irritating to the skin. Prolonged contact can lead to absorption through the skin and more intense irritation. Acetonitrile is regarded as having adequate warning properties.

Acetonitrile is not mutagenic in bacterial and animal cells and has not been found to be a carcinogen in humans. Single high-dose exposure in animals during pregnancy produced birth defects possibly due to the liberation of cyanide. Multiple oral doses during pregnancy did not produce birth defects. Repeated exposure in animals produced adverse lung effects.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Flammability and Explosibility

Acetonitrile is a flammable liquid (NFPA rating = 3), and its vapor can travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and "flash back." Acetonitrile vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 4 to 16% (by volume). Hazardous gases produced in a fire include hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for acetonitrile fires.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Contact of acetonitrile with strong oxidizers can result in violent reactions. Acetonitrile hydrolyzes on exposure to strong acids and bases. It is incompatible with reducing agents and alkali metals and may attack plastics, rubber, and some coatings.

Storage and Handling

Acetonitrile should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for dealing with highly flammable substances (Chapter 5.F). In particular, acetonitrile should be used only in areas free of ignition sources, and quantities greater than 1 liter should be stored in tightly sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidizers.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If acetonitrile is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the acetonitrile with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Evacuation and cleanup using respiratory and skin protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess acetonitrile and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: ACETYLENE

Substance

Acetylene

(Ethyne; welding gas)

CAS 74-86-2

 

Formula

HC=CH

 

Physical Properties

Colorless gas

bp -84 °C (sublimes), mp - 82 °C

Slightly soluble in water (0.106 g/100 mL)

 

Odor

Odorless, although garlic-like or ''gassy" odor often detectable because of trace impurities

Vapor Density

0.91 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

3.04 X 104 mmHg (~40 atmospheres) at 16.8 °C

 

Flash Point

-18 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

305 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LC50 inhal (rat)

simple asphyxiant (>500,000 ppm)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

simple asphyxiant

Major Hazards

Extremely flammable gas; simple asphyxiant.

Toxicity

Acetylene is relatively nontoxic and has been used as an anesthetic. Inhalation of acetylene can be hazardous because of its action as a simple asphyxiant. Concentrations of about 10% in air cause slight intoxication, and levels of 20% in air may produce headaches and labored breathing. At higher concentrations (33% and above), acetylene acts as a narcotic, causing unconsciousness in 7 min or less, with rapid and full recovery normally seen on removal from exposure of less than several hours. Concentrations of acetylene above 50% in air can cause death by asphyxiation within 5 min. Commercially available acetylene may contain highly toxic impurities, including phosphine, arsine, and hydrogen sulfide; the presence of these impurities must be considered in setting acceptable exposure levels to acetylene. For example, the concentration of acetylene containing 95 ppm of phosphine impurity (which has a TLV of 0.3 ppm) should not exceed 3160 ppm to stay within the TLV for phosphine.

There is no evidence that acetylene is a human carcinogen or reproductive toxin.

Flammability and Explosibility

Acetylene is a highly flammable gas and forms explosive mixtures with air over an unusually wide range of concentrations (2 to 80%). Acetylene can polymerize exothermically, leading to deflagration. With a very high positive free energy of formation, acetylene

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

is thermodynamically unstable and is sensitive to shock and pressure. Its stability is enhanced by the presence of small amounts of other compounds such as methane, and acetylene in cylinders is relatively safe to handle because it is dissolved in acetone. Acetylene fires can be fought with carbon dioxide, dry chemical, and halon extinguishers; firefighting is greatly facilitated by shutting off the gas supply.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Acetylene forms highly unstable acetylides with many metals, including copper, brass, mercury, potassium, silver, and gold. The dry acetylides are sensitive, powerful explosives. Acetylene may react violently with fluorine and other halogens (chlorine, bromine, iodine) and forms explosive compounds on contact with nitric acid.

Storage and Handling

Acetylene should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for dealing with extremely flammable substances (Chapter 5.F) and compressed gases (Chapter 5.H). In particular, acetylene should be used only in well-ventilated areas free of ignition sources. Acetylene is supplied in specially designed steel cylinders containing acetone and an inert material. More than 1 liter of the gas should never be stored in other containers. Brass or copper tubing, valves, or fittings should never be allowed to come in contact with acetylene. If acetylene must be purified, it should be passed through concentrated H2SO4 and NaOH (do not use activated carbon).

Accidents

If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of an acetylene leak, shut down and remove all ignition sources and ventilate the area at once to prevent flammable mixtures from forming. Carefully remove cylinders with slow leaks to remote outdoor locations. Limit access to an affected area. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large release or a leak in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess acetylene should be returned to the vendor for disposal; disposal should not be attempted in the laboratory. Excess acetylene should be vented from reaction flasks, tubing, etc., rather than scrubbed with strong base to avoid the formation of acetylides. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: ACROLEIN

Substance

Acrolein

(Acrylaldehyde, acrylic aldehyde, 2-propenal)

CAS 107-02-8

 

Formula

H2C = CHCHO

 

Physical Properties

Colorless to yellow liquid

bp 53 °C, mp -87 °C

Highly soluble in water (21 g/100 mL)

 

Odor

Pungent, lacrimatory, intensely irritating odor detectable at 0.02 to 0.4 ppm

Vapor Density

1.9 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

210 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

-26 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

234 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

42 to 46 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

562 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

300 mg/m3(30 min)

 

PEL (OSHA)

0.1 ppm (0.25 mg/m3)

 

STEL (OSHA)

0.3 ppm (0.69 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

0.1 ppm (0.23 mg/m3)

 

STEL (ACGIH)

0.3 ppm (0.69 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Highly toxic; causes severe irritation and corrosion of skin, eyes, nose, and respiratory system; highly flammable; may polymerize violently upon loss or removal of inhibitor or initiation by chemical agents.

Toxicity

Acrolein is a highly toxic and corrosive substance. Inhalation of acrolein can cause moderate to severe eye, nose, and respiratory system irritation after a few minutes of exposure to concentrations as low as 0.25 ppm. Higher concentrations can cause immediate and/ or delayed lung injury including pulmonary edema and respiratory insufficiency; fatal reactions have occurred upon exposure to as little as 10 ppm. This substance is a powerful lacrimator, and eye contact with acrolein liquid or vapor can cause severe burns. Skin contact can cause severe redness, swelling, burns with blistering, and corrosion. Acrolein can be absorbed through the skin, leading to systemic effects including delayed pulmonary edema. Ingestion of acrolein can cause gastrointestinal distress, pulmonary congestion, and edema. Acrolein has been reported to be a weak skin sensitizer in some individuals. This substance is regarded as having adequate warning properties.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

Acrolein is mutagenic in bacteria but did not cause increased tumor incidence in animals exposed chronically by injection or inhalation. Administration to pregnant rats caused malformations and lethality to embryos. Chronic exposure to as little as 0.21 ppm acrolein caused inflammatory changes in lungs, liver, kidneys, and brains of experimental animals.

Flammability and Explosibility

Acrolein is a highly flammable liquid (NFPA rating = 3) and its vapor can travel a considerable distance and "flash back." Acrolein vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 2.8 to 31% (by volume). Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for acrolein fires.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Acrolein can polymerize violently upon exposure to heat (temperatures above 50 °C), light, or various chemical initiators such as amines, bases, and acids. Commercial acrolein contains an inhibitor such as hydroquinone; samples from which the inhibitor has been removed (e.g., by distillation) are extremely hazardous.

Storage and Handling

Because of its corrosivity, flammability, and high acute toxicity, acrolein should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with compounds of high toxicity (Chapter 5.D) and extremely flammable substances (Chapter 5.F). In particular, work with acrolein should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and butyl rubber gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact. Acrolein should be used only in areas free of ignition sources. Containers of acrolein should be stored in secondary containers in areas separate from amines, oxidizers, acids, and bases.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If acrolein is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If acrolein is inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once, since immediate or delayed respiratory injury may result.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the acrolein with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection should be employed owing to the risk of severe eye, nose, and respiratory injury.

Disposal

Excess acrolein and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: ACRYLAMIDE

Substance

Acrylamide

(2-Propeneamide, vinyl amide)

CAS 79-06-1

 

Formula

H2C = CH-CONH2

 

Physical Properties

Colorless crystals

bp 125 °C (25 mmHg), mp 85 °C

Soluble in water (216 g/100 mL)

 

Odor

Odorless solid

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

124 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rat)

400 mg/kg

 

PEL (OSHA)

0.3 mg/m3—skin

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

0.03 mg/m3—skin

Major Hazards

Suspected human carcinogen (OSHA "select carcinogen") and neurotoxin.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of acrylamide is moderate by ingestion or skin contact. Skin exposure leads to redness and peeling of the skin of the palms. Aqueous acrylamide solutions cause eye irritation; exposure to a 50% solution of acrylamide caused slight corneal injury and slight conjunctival irritation, which healed in 8 days.

The chronic toxicity of acrylamide is high. Repeated exposure to ~2 mg/kg per day may result in neurotoxic effects, including unsteadiness, muscle weakness, and numbness in the feet (leading to paralysis of the legs), numbness in the hands, slurred speech, vertigo, and fatigue. Exposure to slightly higher repeated doses in animal studies has induced multisite cancers and reproductive effects, including abortion, reduced fertility, and mutagenicity. Acrylamide is listed in IARC Group 2B ("possible human carcinogen") and is classified as a "select carcinogen" under the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard.

Flammability and Explosibility

The volatility of acrylamide is low (0.03 mmHg at 40 °C), and it does not pose a significant flammability hazard.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

May polymerize violently on strong heating or exposure to strong base. Acrylamide may react violently with strong oxidizers.

Storage and Handling

Because of its carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity, acrylamide should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with compounds of high chronic toxicity (Chapter 5.D). In particular, this substance should be handled only when wearing appropriate impermeable gloves to prevent skin contact, and all operations that have the potential of producing acrylamide dusts or aerosols of solutions should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If acrylamide is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of acrylamide dust are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, mix acrylamide with an absorbent material (avoid raising dust), place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Evacuation and cleanup using respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess acrylamide and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: ACRYLONITRILE

Substance

Acrylonitrile

(Vinyl cyanide, 2-propenenitrile, cyanoethylene, ACN)

CAS 107-13-1

 

Formula

H2C = CH-C=N

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 77 °C, mp -82 °C

Moderately soluble in water (7.3 g/100 mL)

 

Odor

Mild pyridine-like odor at 2 to 22 ppm

Vapor Density

1.83 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

100 mmHg at 22.8 °C

 

Flash Point

-1 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

481 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

78 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

250 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

425 ppm (4 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

2 ppm

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

2 ppm—skin

Major Hazards

Probable human carcinogen (OSHA "select carcinogen"); moderate acute toxicity; highly flammable.

Toxicity

Acrylonitrile is classified as moderately toxic by acute exposure through oral intake, skin contact, and inhalation. Symptoms of exposure include weakness, lightheadedness, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Acrylonitrile is severely irritating to the eyes and mildly irritating to the skin; prolonged contact with the skin can lead to burns.

Acrylonitrile is mutagenic in bacterial and mammalian cell cultures and embryotoxic/ teratogenic in rats at levels that produce maternal toxicity. Acrylonitrile is carcinogenic in rats and is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen (29 CFR 1910.1045). Acrylonitrile is listed in IARC Group 2A ("probable human carcinogen") and is classified as a "select carcinogen" under the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard.

Flammability and Explosibility

Highly flammable liquid (NFPA rating = 3). Vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 3 to 17% (by volume). Hazardous gases produced in fire include hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight acrylonitrile fires.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Violent reaction may occur on exposure to strong acids and bases, amines, strong oxidants, copper, and bromine. Violent polymerization can be initiated by heat, light, strong bases, peroxides, and azo compounds.

Storage and Handling

Because of its carcinogenicity and flammability, acrylonitrile should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with compounds of high chronic toxicity (Chapter 5.D) and extremely flammable substances (Chapter 5.F). In particular, work with acrylonitrile should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact. Acrylonitrile should be used only in areas free of ignition sources. Containers of acrylonitrile should be stored in secondary containers in the dark in areas separate from oxidizers and bases.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If acrylonitrile is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the acrylonitrile with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Evacuation and cleanup using respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess acrylonitrile and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: ALUMINUM TRICHLORIDE

Substance

Aluminum trichloride

(Aluminum chloride, trichloroaluminium)

CAS 7446-70-0

 

Formula

AlCl3

 

Physical Properties

White crystalline solid

Sublimes at 181 °C

Reacts violently with water (90 g/100 mL)

 

Odor

Hydrogen chloride odor detectable when exposed to moist air

Vapor Pressure

1 mmHg at 100 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

3730 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

>2 g/kg

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

2 mg(Al)/m3

Major Hazards

Highly corrosive solid that reacts with water to form hydrochloric acid.

Toxicity

Aluminum chloride is strongly irritating and highly corrosive to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes owing to its reaction with water to form hydrochloric acid. It is slightly toxic by ingestion but can cause severe burns to the mouth and digestive tract until hydrolyzed in the stomach. Inhalation of aluminum trichloride dust, vapor, or its hydrolysis products can result in severe damage to the tissues of the respiratory tract and can lead to shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and headache; inhalation of large amounts may lead to respiratory tract spasms and pulmonary edema and can be fatal. Skin and eye contact with aluminum chloride can cause severe burns.

Aluminum chloride may cause allergic skin reactions. Long-term exposure can cause damage to lungs. In some animal tests, aluminum chloride has shown developmental and reproductive toxicity. Aluminum chloride has not been found to be carcinogenic in humans.

Flammability and Explosibility

Aluminum chloride is not flammable but reacts violently with water, so fires involving this substance should be extinguished with carbon dioxide or dry chemicals. Toxic fumes (HCl and reaction products) can be released during fires.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Anhydrous aluminum chloride reacts violently with water to produce HCl and a great deal of heat. Aluminum chloride reacts violently on heating with nitrobenzene and may react violently or explosively with ethylene oxide, organic azides, organic perchlorates, and sodium borohydride. In the presence of moisture, this substance is highly corrosive to most metals.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Storage and Handling

Aluminum chloride should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C. In particular, work with this substance should be conducted in a fume hood, and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times when handling AlCl3. Aluminum chloride should be stored in sealed containers under an inert atmosphere in a cool, dry place. Care should be taken in opening containers of this compound because of the possibility of the buildup of HCl vapor from hydrolysis with traces of moisture.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If aluminum chloride is ingested, wash the mouth with water and seek immediate medical attention. If large amounts of this compound (or the HCl vapor generated from its contact with water) are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, sweep up the aluminum chloride (avoid raising dust) and collect in a bag while wearing appropriate protective clothing. Small spills may be collected and carefully hydrolyzed with a large excess of cold water, neutralized with base, and disposed of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Small excess amounts of aluminum chloride and waste material containing this substance should be cautiously added to a large stirred excess of water, neutralized, and filtered. The insoluble solids should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. The neutral aqueous solution should be flushed down a drain with plenty of water. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: AMMONIA (ANHYDROUS)

Substance

Ammonia (anhydrous)

CAS 7664-41-7

 

Formula

NH3

 

Physical Properties

Colorless gas

bp -33 °C, mp -78 °C

Highly soluble in water (89.9g/100 mL at 0 °C)

 

Odor

Intense pungent odor detectable at 17 ppm

 

Vapor Density

0.59 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

8.71 atm at 21 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

690 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

350 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

2000 ppm (4 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

35 ppm (27 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

25 ppm (17 mg/m3)

 

STEL (ACGIH)

35 ppm (27 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Extremely irritating and corrosive to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract.

Toxicity

Ammonia gas is extremely corrosive and irritating to the skin, eyes, nose, and respiratory tract. Exposure by inhalation causes irritation of the nose, throat, and mucous membranes. Lacrimation and irritation begin at 130 to 200 ppm, and exposure at 3000 ppm is intolerable. Exposure to high concentrations (above approximately 2500 ppm) is life threatening, causing severe damage to the respiratory tract, resulting in bronchitis, chemical pneumonitis, and pulmonary edema, which can be fatal. Eye contact with ammonia vapor is severely irritating, and exposure of the eyes to liquid ammonia or mists can result in serious damage, which may result in permanent eye injury and blindness. Skin contact with ammonia vapor, mists, and liquid can cause severe irritation and burns; contact with the liquid results in cryogenic burns as well. Ingestion of liquid ammonia burns the tissues, causing severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and collapse and can be fatal. Ammonia gas is regarded as having adequate warning properties.

Ammonia has not been found to be carcinogenic or to show reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans. Chronic exposure to ammonia can cause respiratory irritation and damage.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Flammability and Explosibility

Ammonia vapor is slightly flammable (NFPA rating = 1) and ignites only with difficulty. Ammonia forms explosive mixtures with air in the range 16 to 25%. Water, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for ammonia fires.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Ammonia vapors or solutions can react with compounds of silver, gold, and mercury to produce unstable and highly explosive products. Do not use a mercury manometer for measuring ammonia gas pressure. Highly explosive nitrogen halides can form in reactions of ammonia with halogens, hypohalites, and similar compounds. Violent reactions can occur with oxidizing agents such as chromium trioxide, hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, sodium and potassium nitrate, chlorite, chlorate, and bromate salts.

Storage and Handling

Anhydrous ammonia should be handled in the laboratory using the ''basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the procedures for work with compressed gases discussed in Chapter 5.H. All work with ammonia should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact. Cylinders of ammonia should be stored in locations appropriate for compressed gas storage and separated from incompatible compounds such as acids, halogens, and oxidizers. Only steel valves and fittings should be used on ammonia containers; copper, silver, and zinc should not be permitted to come into contact with ammonia.

Accidents

Prompt medical attention is required in all cases of overexposure to ammonia. In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If ammonia is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of ammonia are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a gaseous ammonia leak, shut down all ignition sources and ventilate the area at once to prevent flammable mixtures from forming. Carefully remove cylinders with slow leaks to a fume hood or remote outdoor location. Limit access to an affected area. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large release in a confined area.

Disposal

Cylinders containing excess ammonia should be returned to the manufacturer. Ammonia gas may also be dissolved in water for neutralization and disposal. In some localities, aqueous ammonia may be disposed of down the drain after appropriate neutralization and dilution. If ammonia gas is directed into water, precautions should be taken to prevent the suckback of water into the ammonia-containing vessel or cylinder. Dissolution of ammonia in water is accompanied by heat evolution. In a fume hood, the diluted ammonia solution should be neutralized with a nonoxidizing strong acid such as HCl. The resulting solution can be discharged to the sanitary sewer. If drain disposal is not permitted, the aqueous ammonia should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE

Substance

Ammonium hydroxide

(Aqua ammonia, ammonia)

CAS 1336-21-6

 

Formula

28 to 30% NH3 in H2O

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp: unstable above 27.8 °C, mp - 71.7 °C

Concentrated ammonium hydroxide is a 29% solution of NH3 in H2O.

 

Odor

Strong pungent ammonia odor detectable at 17 ppm

Vapor Density

0.59 for anhydrous NH3 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

115 mmHg at 20 °C for 29% solution

Autoignition Temperature

690 °C (for ammonia)

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

350 mg/kg

 

PEL (OSHA)

35 ppm (27 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

25 ppm (17 mg/m3)

 

STEL (ACGIH)

35 ppm (27 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Highly corrosive to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes.

Toxicity

Ammonia solutions are extremely corrosive and irritating to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Exposure by inhalation can cause irritation of the nose, throat, and mucous membranes. Exposure to high concentrations of ammonia vapor (above approximately 2500 ppm) is life threatening, causing severe damage to the respiratory tract and resulting in bronchitis, chemical pneumonitis, and pulmonary edema, which can be fatal. Eye contact with ammonia vapor is severely irritating, and exposure of the eyes to ammonium hydroxide can result in serious damage and may cause permanent eye injury and blindness. Skin contact can result in severe irritation and burns; contact with the liquid results in cryogenic burns as well. Ingestion of ammonium hydroxide burns the mouth, throat, and gastrointestinal tract and can lead to severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and collapse.

Ammonium hydroxide has not been found to be carcinogenic or to show reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans. Chronic exposure to ammonia can cause respiratory irritation and damage.

Flammability and Explosibility

Ammonia vapor is slightly flammable (NFPA rating = 1) and ignites only with difficulty. Ammonia forms explosive mixtures with air in the range 16 to 25%. Water, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for ammonia fires.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Highly explosive nitrogen halides will form in reactions with halogens, hypohalites, and similar compounds. Reaction with certain gold, mercury, and silver compounds may form explosive products. Violent reactions can occur with oxidizing agents such as chromium trioxide, hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, chlorite, chlorate, and bromate salts. Exothermic and violent reactions may occur if concentrated ammonium hydroxide solution is mixed with strong acids, acidic metal and nonmetal halides, and oxyhalides.

Storage and Handling

Ammonium hydroxide should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C. All work with this substance should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact. Containers should be tightly sealed to prevent escape of vapor and should be stored in a cool area separate from halogens, acids, and oxidizers. Containers stored in warm locations may build up dangerous internal pressures of ammonia gas.

Accident

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If ammonium hydroxide is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of ammonia are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, soak up ammonium hydroxide with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Alternatively, flood the spill with water to dilute the ammonia before cleanup. Boric, citric, and similar powdered acids are good granular neutralizing spill cleanup materials. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

In some localities, ammonium hydroxide may be disposed of down the drain after appropriate neutralization and dilution. In a fume hood, the concentrated solution should be diluted with water to about 4% concentration in a suitably large container, and neutralized with a nonoxidizing strong acid such as HCl. The resulting solution can be discharged to the sanitary sewer. If neutralization and drain disposal are not permitted, excess ammonium hydroxide and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: ANILINE

Substance

Aniline

(Phenylamine; aminobenzene)

CAS 62-53-3

 

Formula

C6H5NH2

 

Physical Properties

Colorless, oily liquid; darkens to brown on exposure to air and light

bp 184 °C, mp -6 °C

Moderately soluble in water (3.5 g/100 mL at 20 °C)

 

Odor

Sweet, amine-like odor detectable at 0.6 to 10 ppm

Vapor Density

3.2 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

0.7 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

70 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

615 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

250 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

820 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

478 ppm

 

PEL (OSHA)

5 ppm (19 mg/m3)—skin

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

2 ppm (7.6 mg/m3)—skin

Major Hazards

Moderately toxic if swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin; causes skin and eye irritation.

Toxicity

Aniline is a moderate skin irritant, a moderate to severe eye irritant, and a skin sensitizer in animals. Aniline is moderately toxic via inhalation and ingestion. Symptoms of exposure (which may be delayed up to 4 hours) include headache, weakness, dizziness, nausea, difficulty breathing, and unconsciousness. Exposure to aniline results in the formation of methemoglobin and can thus interfere with the ability of the blood to transport oxygen. Effects from exposure at levels near the lethal dose include hypoactivity, tremors, convulsions, liver and kidney effects, and cyanosis.

Aniline has not been found to be a carcinogen or reproductive toxin in humans. Some tests in rats demonstrate carcinogenic activity. However, other tests in which mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits were treated by various routes of administration gave negative results. Aniline produced developmental toxicity only at maternally toxic dose levels but did not have a selective toxicity for the fetus. It produces genetic damage in animals and in mammalian cell cultures but not in bacterial cell cultures.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Flammability and Explosibility

Aniline is a combustible liquid (NFPA rating = 2). Smoke from a fire involving aniline may contain toxic nitrogen oxides and aniline vapor. Toxic aniline vapors are given off at high temperatures and form explosive mixtures in air. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight aniline fires.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Reacts violently with strong oxidizing agents, including nitric acid, peroxides, and ozone.

Storage and Handling

Aniline should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C. In particular, aniline should only be used in areas free of ignition sources, and quantities greater than 1 liter should be stored in tightly sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidizers.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If aniline is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the aniline with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in a covered metal container, label clearly, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess aniline and waste material containing this substance should be placed in a covered metal container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: ARSINE

Substance

Arsine

(Arsenic hydride, arsenic trihydride, hydrogen arsenide)

CAS 7784-42-1

 

Formula

AsH3

 

Physical Properties

Colorless gas

bp -62 C, mp -117 °C

Slightly soluble in water (0.07 g/100 mL at 20 °C)

 

Odor

Garlic-like odor detectable at 0.5 to 1 ppm

Vapor Density

2.7 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

>760 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

< -62 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

Not established. Decomposes at 232 to 300 °C to form elemental arsenic and hydrogen.

Toxicity Data

LCLO inhal (rat)

94 ppm (300 mg/m3; 15 min)

 

PEL (OSHA)

0.05 ppm (0.2 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

0.05 ppm (0.16 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Extremely toxic gas that destroys red blood cells and can cause widespread organ injury and death.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of arsine by inhalation is extremely high. This substance is a powerful systemic toxin with a strong affinity for the hemoglobin in the blood, causing hemolysis. Acute inhalation of arsine can cause the breakdown of red blood cells and hemoglobin, impairment of kidney function, damage to the liver and heart, electroencephalogram abnormality, hemolytic anemia, and death due to kidney or heart failure. Symptoms may be delayed for several hours, particularly if very low concentrations have been inhaled. Symptoms of exposure to arsine may include headache, malaise, weakness, dizziness, breathing difficulty, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, jaundice, dark red (bloody) urine followed by absence of urination, pulmonary edema, and coma. Exposure to a concentration of 5 to 10 ppm in air for several minutes may be hazardous to human health. The minimum amount of arsine detectable by odor is about 0.5 ppm; since the permissible exposure limit is 0.05 ppm, arsine does not have adequate warning properties to avoid overexposure.

In cases where the amount of inhaled arsine is insufficient to produce acute effects, or where small quantities are inhaled over prolonged periods, destruction of red blood cells

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

will occur. The only symptoms noted may be general tiredness, pallor, breathlessness on exertion, and palpitations as would be expected with severe secondary anemia. The carcinogenicity of arsine in humans has not been established; however, arsenic and certain inorganic arsenic compounds are recognized human carcinogens.

Flammability and Explosibility

Arsine is flammable in air, having a lower explosion limit (LEL) of 5.8%. The upper limit has not been determined. Combustion products (arsenic trioxide and water) are less toxic than arsine itself. In the event of an arsine fire, stop the flow of gas if possible without risk of harmful exposure and let the fire burn itself out.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Arsine is a strong reducing agent and reacts violently with oxidizing agents such as fluorine, chlorine, nitric acid, and nitrogen trichloride.

Storage and Handling

Because of its high acute toxicity, arsine should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional practices for work with compounds of high toxicity (Chapter 5.D), flammability (Chapter 5.F), and for work with compressed gases (Chapter 5.H). In particular, cylinders of arsine should be stored and used in a continuously ventilated gas cabinet or fume hood. Local fire codes should be reviewed for limitations on quantity and storage requirements. Carbon steel, stainless steel, Monel®, and Hastelloy ®C are preferred materials for handling arsine; brass and aluminum should be avoided. Kel-F® and Teflon® are preferred gasket materials; Viton® and Nylon® are acceptable.

Accidents

In the event of a release of arsine, the area should be evacuated immediately. Regard anyone exposed to arsine as having inhaled a potentially toxic dose. Rescue of an affected individual requires appropriate respiratory protection. Remove exposed individuals to an uncontaminated area and seek immediate emergency medical help. Keep victim warm, quiet, and at rest; provide assisted respiration if breathing has stopped.

To respond to a release, use appropriate protective equipment and clothing. Positive pressure air-supplied respiratory protection is required. Close cylinder valve and ventilate area. Remove cylinder to a fume hood or remote area if it cannot be shut off.

Emergency response and rescue procedures should be in place before beginning work with arsine. Local rescue assistance may be needed and should be prearranged.

Disposal

Excess arsine should be returned to the manufacturer, according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: BENZENE

Substance

Benzene

(Benzol)

CAS 71-43-2

 

Formula

C6H6

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 80.1 °C, mp 5.5 °C

Slightly soluble in water (0.18 g/100 mL)

 

Odor

"Paint-thinner-like" odor detectable at 12 ppm

Vapor Density

2.7 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

75 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

-11.1 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

560 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

930 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

10,000 ppm (7 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

1 ppm (3.2 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

10 ppm (32 mg/m3)

 

STEL (ACGIH)

5 ppm (16 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Highly flammable; chronic toxin affecting the blood-forming organs; OSHA "select carcinogen."

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of benzene is low. Inhalation of benzene can cause dizziness, euphoria, giddiness, headache, nausea, drowsiness, and weakness. Benzene can cause moderate irritation to skin and severe irritation to eyes and mucous membranes. Benzene readily penetrates the skin to cause the same toxic effects as inhalation or ingestion.

The chronic toxicity of benzene is significant. Exposure to benzene affects the blood and blood-forming organs such as the bone marrow, causing irreversible injury; blood disorders including anemia and leukemia may result. The symptoms of chronic benzene exposure may include fatigue, nervousness, irritability, blurred vision, and labored breathing. Benzene is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen (Standard 1910.1028) and is listed in IARC Group 1 ("carcinogenic to humans"). This substance is classified as a "select carcinogen" under the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard.

Flammability and Explosibility

Benzene is a highly flammable liquid (NFPA rating = 3), and its vapors may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and "flash back." Vapor-air mixtures are

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

explosive above the flash point. Carbon dioxide and dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight benzene fires.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Fire and explosion hazard with strong oxidizers such as chlorine, oxygen, and bromine (in the presence of certain catalysts such as iron) and with strong acids.

Storage and Handling

Because of its carcinogenicity and flammability, benzene should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with compounds of high chronic toxicity (Chapter 5.D) and extremely flammable substances (Chapter 5.F). In particular, work with benzene should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact. Benzene should be used only in areas free of ignition sources.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If benzene is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the benzene with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection should be employed during spill cleanup.

Disposal

Excess benzene and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: BORON TRIFLUORIDE

Substance

Boron trifluoride

(Boron fluoride, trifluoroborane)

CAS 7637-07-2

 

Formula

BF3

 

Physical Properties

Colorless gas, fumes in moist air

bp -100 °C, mp -127 °C

Highly soluble in cold water (332 g/100 mL)

 

Odor

Pungent odor detectable at 1.5 ppm

Vapor Density

2.4 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

>1 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

Noncombustible

 

Toxicity Data

LC50 inhal (rat)

387 ppm (1070 mg/m3; 1 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

1 ppm (3 mg/m3; ceiling)

 

TLV (ACGIH)

1 ppm (3 mg/m3; ceiling)

Major Hazards

Highly corrosive to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes; reacts violently with water to form highly toxic HF.

Toxicity

Boron trifluoride (and organic complexes such as BF3-etherate) are extremely corrosive substances that are destructive to all tissues of the body. Upon contact with moisture in the skin and other tissues, these compounds react to form hydrofluoric acid and fluoroboric acid, which cause severe burns. Boron trifluoride gas is extremely irritating to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Inhalation of boron trifluoride can cause severe irritation and burning of the respiratory tract, difficulty breathing, and possibly respiratory failure and death. Exposure of the eyes to BF3 can cause severe burns and blindness. This compound is not considered to have adequate warning properties.

Boron trifluoride has not been found to be carcinogenic or to show reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans. Chronic exposure to boron trifluoride gas can cause respiratory irritation and damage.

Flammability and Explosibility

Boron trifluoride gas is noncombustible. Water should not be used to extinguish any fire in which boron trifluoride is present. Dry chemical powder should be used for fires involving organic complexes of boron trifluoride.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Boron trifluoride reacts violently with water and alkali and alkaline earth metals such as sodium, potassium, and calcium. It may react exothermically with alkyl nitrates, ethylene oxide, and butadiene.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Storage and Handling

Boron trifluoride should be handled in the laboratory using the ''basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented in the case of work with gaseous boron trifluoride with the procedures of Chapter 5.H. All work with boron trifluoride should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn to prevent eye and skin contact. Cylinders of boron trifluoride should be stored in locations appropriate for compressed gas storage and separated from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and other incompatible substances. Solutions of boron trifluoride should be stored in tightly sealed containers under an inert atmosphere in secondary containers.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If boron trifluoride is inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once. If this compound is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately.

In the event of accidental release of boron trifluoride gas, evacuate the area, and if the cause of the release is a leaking cylinder, remove the cylinder to a fume hood or open area if it is possible to do so safely. Positive pressure air-supplied respiratory protection and protective clothing may be necessary to deal with a leaking cylinder of boron trifluoride, and emergency response personnel should be notified.

Disposal

Cylinders containing excess boron trifluoride should be returned to the manufacturer. Solutions of boron trifluoride should be labeled and disposed of according to your institution's disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: BROMINE

Substance

Bromine

CAS 7726-95-6

 

Formula

Br2

 

Physical Properties

Dark red-brown liquid

bp 59 °C, mp -7 °C

Slightly soluble in water (3.5 g/100 mL)

 

Odor

Odor can be detected at concentrations as low as 0.05 ppm; exposure to concentrations below 1 ppm causes lacrimation.

Vapor Density

5.5 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

175 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

Noncombustible

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

2600 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

2700 mg/m3

 

PEL (OSHA)

0.1 ppm

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

0.1 ppm (0.7 mg/m3)

 

STEL (ACGIH)

0.3 ppm (2 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Highly corrosive to skin and eyes; moderately toxic via inhalation; reacts violently with readily oxidized substances.

Toxicity

Bromine is highly corrosive to the skin, causing irritation and destruction with blister formation. If bromine is not removed from the skin immediately, deep-seated ulcers develop, which heal slowly. Severely painful and destructive eye burns may result from contact with either liquid or concentrated vapors of bromine. Bromine is a moderately toxic substance via inhalation. There are good warning properties for bromine: lacrimation begins at ~1 ppm, and 50 ppm is highly irritating to humans. A short exposure (minutes) to 1000 ppm would likely be fatal for humans. Vapor exposures can cause irritation and damage to the upper and lower respiratory tract (nose, throat, and lungs) to varying degrees depending on the concentration. If exposure is sufficiently high, it will cause pulmonary edema, which could lead to death. Other reported symptoms of overexposure include coughing, tightness of chest, nosebleed, headache, and dizziness, followed after some hours by abdominal pain, diarrhea, and a measles-like rash on the trunk and extremities.

Animal studies on the chronic toxicity of bromine revealed disturbances in the respiratory, nervous, and endocrine systems after exposure to 0.2 ppm for 4 months; similar exposure to 0.02 ppm did not produce any adverse effects.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Flammability and Explosibility

Bromine alone is a noncombustible substance (NFPA rating = 0).

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Bromine reacts violently with easily oxidized substances, including many organic compounds and a number of metals. Explosions have been reported to occur, for example, on addition of bromine to methanol, acetaldehyde, and DMF. Fires and/or explosions may result from the reactions of bromine with hydrogen, acetylene, ammonia, aluminum, mercury, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus.

Storage and Handling

Bromine should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C. In particular, work with bromine should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and rubber gloves should be worn at all times when handling this corrosive substance. Containers of bromine should be stored at room temperature in a secondary container separately from readily oxidizable substances.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. If irritation or burns develop, seek medical attention. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water and obtain medical attention. If bromine is ingested, give the person large amounts of milk or water to dilute the bromine (do not attempt to induce vomiting) and obtain medical attention immediately. If a significant amount of bromine is inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

Treat small spills of bromine with sodium thiosulfate and an inert absorbent, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Large spills may require evacuation of the area and cleanup using full protective equipment.

Disposal

Excess bromine and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. Special care should be taken not to mix bromine with incompatible waste materials. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: TERT-BUTYL HYDROPEROXIDE

Substance

tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (and related organic peroxides)

(TBHP; 2-hydroperoxy-2-methylpropane)

CAS 75-91-2

 

Formula

(CH3)3COOH

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

Commercially available as 70 and 90% aqueous solutions and as "anhydrous solutions" in hydrocarbon solvents (e.g., decane)

70% aq TBHP: bp 96 °C, mp -3 °C

Moderately soluble in water

 

Odor

Not available

 

Vapor Pressure

62 mmHg at 45 °C

 

Flash Point

27 to 54 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

Self-accelerating decomposition at 88 to 93 °C

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

406 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

460 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

500 ppm (4 h)

Major Hazards

Highly reactive oxidizing agent; sensitive to heat and shock; eye and skin irritant.

Toxicity

Moderately toxic by inhalation and ingestion and severely irritating to the eyes and skin.

t-Butyl hydroperoxide has not been found to be carcinogenic or to show reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans.

Flammability and Explosibility

tert-Butyl hydroperoxide is a flammable liquid and a highly reactive oxidizing agent. Pure TBHP is shock sensitive and may explode on heating. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for fires involving tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

tert-Butyl hydroperoxide and concentrated aqueous solutions of TBHP react violently with traces of acid and the salts of certain metals, including, in particular, manganese, iron, and cobalt. Mixing anhydrous tert-butyl hydroperoxide with organic and readily oxidized substances can cause ignition and explosion. TBHP can initiate polymerization of certain olefins.

Storage and Handling

tert-Butyl hydroperoxide should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C supplemented by the additional precautions for work with reactive and explosive substances (Chapter 5.G). In particular, tert-butyl hydroperox

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

ide should be stored in the dark at room temperature (do not refrigerate) separately from oxidizable compounds, flammable substances, and acids. Reactions involving this substance should be carried out behind a safety shield.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If tert-butyl hydroperoxide is inhaled or ingested, obtain medical attention immediately.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the tert-butyl hydroperoxide with a spill pillow or noncombustible absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area. Cleanup of anhydrous tert-butyl hydroperoxide and concentrated solutions requires special precautions and should be carried out by trained personnel working from behind a body shield.

Disposal

Excess tert-butyl hydroperoxide and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: BUTYLLITHIUMS

Substance

Butyllithiums (and related alkyl lithium reagents)

n-butyllithium: CAS 109-72-8

s-butyllithium (1-methylpropyllithium): CAS 598-30-1

t-butyllithium (1,1-dimethylethyllithium): CAS 594-19-4

Formula

C4H9Li

Physical Properties

Usually supplied and handled as solutions in ether or hydrocarbon solvents

Odor

Odor of the solvent

Toxicity Data

There is little toxicity data available for the butyllithiums; for data on ether and hydrocarbon solvents, see the appropriate LCSSs.

Major Hazards

Highly reactive; violent reactions may occur on exposure to water, CO2 and other materials; may ignite spontaneously on exposure to air; highly corrosive to the skin and eyes.

Toxicity

Solutions of the butyllithiums are corrosive to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Reaction with water generates highly corrosive lithium alkoxides and lithium hydroxide.

Flammability and Explosibility

The risk of fire or explosion on exposure of butyllithium solutions to the atmosphere depends on the identity of the organolithium compound, the nature of the solvent, the concentration of the solution, and the humidity. t-Butyllithium solutions are the most pyrophoric and may ignite spontaneously on exposure to air. Dilute solutions (1.6 M, 15% or less) of n-butyllithium in hydrocarbon solvents, although highly flammable, have a low degree of pyrophoricity and do not spontaneously ignite. Under normal laboratory conditions (25 °C, relative humidity of 70% or less), solutions of -20% concentration will usually not ignite spontaneously on exposure to air. More concentrated solutions of n-butyllithium (50 to 80%) are most dangerous and will immediately ignite on exposure to air. Contact with water or moist materials can lead to fires and explosions, and the butyllithiums also react violently with oxygen.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

The butyllithiums are extremely reactive organometallic compounds. Violent explosions occur on contact with water with ignition of the solvent and of the butane produced. t-Butyllithium will ignite spontaneously in air. The butyllithiums ignite on contact with water, carbon dioxide, and halogenated hydrocarbons. The butyllithiums are incompatible with acids, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, and many other classes of organic compounds.

Storage and Handling

Butyllithium solutions should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with flammable (Chapter 5.F) and reactive (Chapter 5.G) substances. In particular, butyllithium should be stored and handled in areas free of ignition sources, and containers of butyllithium should be stored under an inert atmosphere. Work with butyllithium

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

should be conducted in a fume hood under an inert gas such as nitrogen or argon. Safety glasses, impermeable gloves, and a fire-retardant laboratory coat are required.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If butyllithium solution is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of butyllithium solution are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, and allow the butyllithium to react with atmospheric moisture. Carefully treat the residue with water, soak up with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess butyllithium solution can be destroyed by dilution with hydrocarbon solvent to a concentration of approximately 5 wt %, followed by gradual addition to water with vigorous stirring under an inert atmosphere. Alternatively, the butyllithium solution can be slowly poured (transfer by cannula for s- or t-butyllithium) into a plastic tub or other container of powdered dry ice.

The residues from the above procedures and excess butyllithium should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: CARBON DISULFIDE

Substance

Carbon disulfide

(Carbon disulfide)

CAS 75-15-0

 

Formula

CS2

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 46 °C, mp -111 °C

Slightly soluble in water (0.22 g/100 mL)

 

Odor

Cabbage-like odor detectable at 0.016 to 0.42 ppm (mean = 0.2 ppm)

Vapor Density

2.6 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

300 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

-30 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

90 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

3188 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

25,000 mg/m3 (2 h)

 

STEL (OSHA)

12 ppm (36 mg/m3)-skin

 

PEL (OSHA)

4 ppm (12 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

10 ppm (31 mg/m3)-skin

Major Hazards

Extremely flammable, volatile liquid; vapors are readily ignited by hot surfaces.

Toxicity

Carbon disulfide is only slightly toxic to laboratory animals by inhalation or ingestion, but its toxicity is relatively greater in humans. Exposure to 5000 ppm of carbon disulfide for 15 min can be fatal to humans. CS2 may also exert its toxic effects after absorption through skin. By all routes of exposure, carbon disulfide affects the central nervous system. Overexposure to CS2 may cause headache, dizziness, fatigue, muscle weakness, numbness, nervousness, or psychological disturbances. Contact of the liquid or high concentrations of CS2 vapor with the eyes may cause irritation. Skin contact can also cause rash or skin irritation. Carbon disulfide is regarded as a substance with good warning properties.

Chronic exposure to relatively high concentrations of carbon disulfide may cause the central nervous system effects described above. In addition, chronic overexposure to carbon disulfide causes increased atherosclerosis, leading to risk of cardiovascular disease. Prolonged exposure of female workers to low concentrations of carbon disulfide has been associated with birth defects in offspring; exposure limit values provide little margin of safety for risk of developmental effects. Carbon disulfide has not been found to be a carcinogen in humans.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Flammability and Explosibility

Carbon disulfide is extremely flammable and is a dangerous fire hazard (NFPA rating = 3). It is has a high vapor pressure and extremely low autoignition temperature. Its vapor is heavier than air and can travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back. The vapor forms explosive mixtures in air at concentrations of 1.3 to 50%. Carbon disulfide can be ignited by hot surfaces such as steam baths that would ordinarily not constitute an ignition source for other flammable vapors. Rust (iron oxide) may increase the likelihood of ignition by hot surfaces. Carbon disulfide fires should be extinguished with CO2 or dry chemical extinguishers.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Reactions of alkali metals with carbon disulfide may cause explosions. Carbon disulfide reacts violently with metal azides.

Storage and Handling

Carbon disulfide should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented by additional precautions for dealing with extremely flammable substances (Chapter 5.F). In particular, carbon disulfide should be used only in areas free of ignition sources (including hot plates, incandescent light bulbs, and steam baths), and this substance should be stored in tightly sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidizers.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If carbon disulfide is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, take care to remove all ignition sources, soak up the carbon disulfide with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly, taking appropriate precautions because of the extreme flammability of the liquid and vapor. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess carbon disulfide and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: CARBON MONOXIDE

Substance

Carbon monoxide

(Carbonic oxide, monoxide)

CAS 630-08-0

 

Formula

CO

 

Physical Properties

Colorless gas

bp -191.5 °C, mp -205 °C

Slightly soluble in water (0.004 g/100 mL at 20 °C)

 

Odor

Odorless gas

 

Vapor Density

0.97 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

>760 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

< - 191 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

609 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LC50 inhal (rat)

1807 ppm (2065 mg/m3; 4 h)

 

LCLO inhal (man)

4000 ppm (4570 mg/m3; 30 min)

 

PEL (OSHA)

50 ppm (55 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

25 ppm (29 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Moderately toxic gas with no warning properties; decreases the ability of the blood to carry oxygen to the tissues.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of carbon monoxide by inhalation is moderate. Carbon monoxide is a chemical asphyxiant that exerts its effects by combining preferentially with hemoglobin, the oxygen-transport pigment of the blood, thereby excluding oxygen. Symptoms of exposure to CO at 500 to 1000 ppm include headache, palpitations, dizziness, weakness, confusion, and nausea. Loss of consciousness and death may result from exposure to concentrations of 4000 ppm and higher; high concentrations may be rapidly fatal without producing significant warning symptoms. Exposure to this gas may aggravate heart and artery disease and may cause chest pain in individuals with preexisting heart disease. Pregnant women are more susceptible to the effects of carbon monoxide exposure. Since carbon monoxide is odorless, colorless, and tasteless, it has no warning properties, and unanticipated overexposure to this highly dangerous gas can readily occur.

Carbon monoxide has not been found to be carcinogenic in humans. This substance has shown developmental toxicity in animal tests. Chronic exposures to carbon monoxide at levels around 50 ppm are thought by some investigators to have a negative impact on

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

the results of behavioral tests such as time discrimination, visual vigilance, choice response tests, visual evoked responses, and visual discrimination thresholds.

Flammability and Explosibility

Carbon monoxide is a flammable gas. It forms explosive mixtures with air in the range of 12.5 to 74% by volume.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Carbon monoxide is a reducing agent; it reacts violently with strong oxidizers. It undergoes violent reactions with many interhalogen compounds such as ClF3, BrF3, and BrF5. CO reacts with many metals to form metal carbonyls, some of which may explode on heating, and reduces many metal oxides exothermically. Carbon monoxide reacts with sodium and with potassium to form explosive products that are sensitive to shock, heat, and contact with water.

Storage and Handling

Because of its toxic, flammable, and gaseous nature, carbon monoxide should be handled using the ''basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with flammable compounds (Chapter 5.F) and for work at high pressure (Chapter 5.H). In particular, cylinders of carbon monoxide should be stored and used in a continuously ventilated gas cabinet or fume hood. Local fire codes should be reviewed for limitations on quantity and storage requirements.

Accidents

In the event of a release of carbon monoxide, evacuate the area immediately. Rescue of an affected individual requires appropriate respiratory protection. Remove exposed individual to an uncontaminated area and seek immediate emergency help. Keep victim warm, quiet, and at rest and provide assisted respiration if breathing has stopped.

To respond to a release, use appropriate protective equipment and clothing. Positive pressure air-supplied respiratory protection is required. Close cylinder valve and ventilate area. Remove cylinder to a fume hood or remote area if it cannot be shut off.

Disposal

Excess carbon monoxide should be returned to the manufacturer, according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: CARBON TETRACHLORIDE

Substance

Carbon tetrachloride

(Tetrachloromethane)

CAS 56-23-5

 

Formula

CCl4

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 77 °C, mp -23 °C

Insoluble in water (0.05 g/100 mL)

 

Odor

Ethereal, sweet, pungent odor detectable at 140 to 584 ppm (mean = 252 ppm)

Vapor Density

5.3 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

91 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

Noncombustible

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

2350 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

>20 g/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

8000 ppm (4 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

2 ppm (13 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

5 ppm (32.5 mg/m3)-skin

 

STEL (ACGIH)

10 ppm (65 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Low to moderate acute toxicity; harmful to the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of carbon tetrachloride is low to moderate. Inhalation of carbon tetrachloride can produce symptoms such as dizziness, headache, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, stupor, and diarrhea. This substance is a depressant of the central nervous system, and inhalation of high concentrations causes damage to the liver, heart, and kidneys. Exposure to 1000 to 2000 ppm for 30 to 60 min can be fatal to humans. Ingestion of carbon tetrachloride leads to similar toxic effects, and swallowing as little as 4 mL can be lethal. Carbon tetrachloride irritates the skin, and prolonged contact may cause dryness and cracking. This substance is also slowly absorbed through the skin. Carbon tetrachloride liquid and vapor are also irritating to the eyes. The odor of carbon tetrachloride does not provide adequate warning of the presence of harmful concentrations.

Carbon tetrachloride shows carcinogenic effects in animal studies and is listed by IARC in Group 2B ("possible human carcinogen"). It is not classified as a "select carcinogen" according to the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard. Prolonged or repeated exposure to this substance may result in liver and kidney damage. There is some evidence from animal studies that carbon tetrachloride may be a developmental and reproductive toxin in both males and females.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Flammability and Explosibility

Carbon tetrachloride is noncombustible. Exposure to fire or high temperatures may lead to formation of phosgene, a highly toxic gas.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Carbon tetrachloride may react explosively with reactive metals such as the alkali metals, aluminum, magnesium, and zinc. It can also react violently with boron and silicon hydrides, and upon heating with DMF.

Storage and Handling

Carbon tetrachloride should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If carbon tetrachloride is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, soak up carbon tetrachloride with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess carbon tetrachloride and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: CHLORINE

Substance

Chlorine

CAS 7782-50-5

 

Formula

Cl2

 

Physical Properties

Greenish colored gas or amber liquid

bp -34.1 °C, mp -101 °C

Slightly soluble in water (0.7 g/100 mL)

 

Odor

Highly pungent, bleach-like odor detectable at 0.02 to 3.4 ppm (mean = 0.08 ppm)

Vapor Density

2.4 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

4800 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LC50 inhal (rat)

293 ppm (879 mg/m3; 1 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

1.0 ppm (3 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

0.5 ppm (1.5 mg/m3)

 

STEL (ACGIH)

1 ppm (2.9 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Highly irritating and corrosive to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract; reacts violently with readily oxidized substances.

Toxicity

Chlorine is a severe irritant of the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. Inhalation may cause coughing, choking, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, difficulty breathing, and delayed pulmonary edema, which can be fatal. Exposure to -500 ppm for 30 min may be fatal, and 1000 ppm can be lethal after a few breaths. Chlorine is highly irritating to the eyes and skin; exposure to 3 to 8 ppm causes stinging and burning of the eyes, and contact with liquid chlorine or high concentrations of the vapor can cause severe burns. Chlorine can be detected by its odor below the permissible limit; however, because of olfactory fatigue, odor may not always provide adequate warning of the presence of harmful concentrations of this substance.

Chronic exposures in animals up to 2.5 ppm for 2 years caused effects only in the upper respiratory tract, primarily the nose. Higher concentrations or repeated exposure has caused corrosion of the teeth. There is no evidence for carcinogenicity or reproductive or developmental toxicity of chlorine in humans.

Flammability and Explosibility

Chlorine is noncombustible but is a strong oxidizer and will support combustion of most flammable substances.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Chlorine reacts violently or explosively with a wide range of substances, including hydrogen, acetylene, many hydrocarbons in the presence of light, ammonia, reactive metals, and metal hydrides and related compounds, including diborane, silane, and phosphine.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Storage and Handling

Chlorine should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the procedures for work with compressed gases discussed in Chapter 5.H. All work with chlorine should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact. Cylinders of chlorine should be stored in locations appropriate for compressed gas storage and separated from incompatible compounds such as hydrogen, acetylene, ammonia, and flammable materials.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If chlorine is inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In case of accidental release of chlorine gas, such as from a leaking cylinder or associated apparatus, evacuate the area and eliminate the source of the leak if this can be done safely. Full-face supplied-air respiratory protection and protective clothing may be required to deal with a chlorine release. Cylinders with slow leaks should be carefully removed to a fume hood or remote outdoor locations. Chlorine leaks may be detected by passing a rag dampened with aqueous ammonia over the suspected valve or fitting. White fumes indicate escaping chlorine gas.

Disposal

Excess chlorine in cylinders should be returned to the manufacturer for disposal. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: CHLOROFORM

Substance

Chloroform

 

 

(Trichloromethane)

 

 

CAS 67-66-3

 

Formula

CHCl3

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

 

 

bp 61 °C, mp -63.5 °C

 

Slightly soluble in water (0.8 g/100 mL)

Odor

Ethereal, sweet odor detectable at 133 to 276 ppm (mean = 192 ppm)

Vapor Density

4.1 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

160 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

Noncombustible

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

908 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

>20 g/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

9937 ppm (47,702 mg/m3; 4 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

50 ppm (240 mg/m3; ceiling)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

10 ppm (48 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Low acute toxicity; skin and eye irritant.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of chloroform is low by all routes of exposure. Inhalation can cause dizziness, headache, drowsiness, and nausea, and at higher concentrations, disorientation, delirium, and unconsciousness. Inhalation of high concentrations may also cause liver and kidney damage. Exposure to 25,000 ppm for 5 min can be fatal to humans. Ingestion of chloroform can cause severe burning of the mouth and throat, chest pain, and vomiting. Chloroform is irritating to the skin and eyes, and liquid splashed in the eyes can cause burning pain and reversible corneal injury. Olfactory fatigue occurs on exposure to chloroform vapor, and it is not regarded as a substance with adequate warning properties.

Chloroform shows carcinogenic effects in animal studies and is listed by IARC in Group 2B ("possible human carcinogen"). It is not classified as a "select carcinogen" according to the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard. Prolonged or repeated exposure to this substance may result in liver and kidney injury. There is some evidence from animal studies that chloroform is a developmental and reproductive toxin.

Flammability and Explosibility

Chloroform is noncombustible. Exposure to fire or high temperatures may lead to formation of phosgene, a highly toxic gas.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Chloroform reacts violently with alkali metals such as sodium and potassium, with a mixture of acetone and base, and with a number of strong bases such as potassium and sodium hydroxide, potassium t-butoxide, sodium methoxide, and sodium hydride. Chloroform reacts explosively with fluorine and dinitrogen tetroxide.

Storage and Handling

Chloroform should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C. In the presence of light, chloroform undergoes autoxidation to generate phosgene; this can be minimized by storing this substance in the dark under nitrogen. Commercial samples of chloroform frequently contain 0.5 to 1% ethanol as a stabilizer.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If chloroform is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, soak up chloroform with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess chloroform and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: CHLOROMETHYL METHYL ETHER (AND RELATED COMPOUNDS)

Substance

Chloromethyl methyl ether

(Methyl chloromethyl ether; CMME)

CAS 107-30-2

 

Formula

ClCH2OCH3

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 55 to 59 °C, mp -104 °C

Hydrolyzes in water

 

Odor

Similar to HCl

 

Vapor Pressure

260 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

15 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

Not available

 

Toxicity Data

LC50 inhal (rat)

55 ppm (180 mg/m3; 7 h)

 

LD50 oral (rat)

817 mg/kg

Major Hazards

OSHA "select carcinogen"; highly irritating to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of chloromethyl methyl ether is moderate to high. Inhalation of the vapor is severely irritating to the eyes, skin, nose, and respiratory tract, and causes sore throat, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing. Exposure to high concentrations can lead to delayed pulmonary edema, which can be fatal. Eye or skin contact with the liquid can result in severe and painful burns. Ingestion of this substance may lead to severe burns of the mouth and stomach and can be fatal.

Chloromethyl methyl ether is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen (29 CFR 1910.1006) and is listed in IARC Group 1 ("carcinogenic to humans"). This substance is classified as a "select carcinogen" under the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard. Note also that some commercial samples of chloromethyl methyl ether contain up to 7% of highly carcinogenic bis(chloromethyl) ether. Hydrolysis of chloromethyl methyl ether produces HCl and formaldehyde, which can recombine to form bis(chloromethyl) ether. No information is available on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of chloromethyl methyl ether. Odor does not provide adequate warning of the harmful presence of this carcinogenic substance.

Flammability and Explosibility

Chloromethyl methyl ether is highly flammable. Fires involving this substance should be extinguished with carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Chloromethyl methyl ether decomposes in water to form HCl and formaldehyde, and reacts readily with oxidizing agents.

Storage and Handling

Because of its carcinogenicity, chloromethyl methyl ether should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with compounds of high chronic toxicity (Chapter 5.D) and high flammability (Chapter 5.F). In particular, work with this substance should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and appropriate impermeable gloves and splash goggles should be worn at all times to prevent skin and eye contact. Chloromethyl methyl ether is also highly flammable and should be used only in areas free of ignition sources; quantities greater than 1 liter should be stored in tightly sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidizers in secondary containers.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If chloromethyl methyl ether is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the chloromethyl methyl ether with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess chloromethyl methyl ether and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: CHROMIUM TRIOXIDE AND OTHER CHROMIUM(VI) SALTS

Substance

Chromium trioxide

(Chromic anhydride; chromic acid; chromium(VI) oxide; chromic trioxide; chromium oxide)

CAS 1333-82-0

 

Formula

CrO3

 

Physical Properties

Dark red flakes or crystals

mp 196 °C, bp: decomposes at 250 °C

Very soluble in water (62 g/100 mL)

 

Flash Point

Noncombustible

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

80 mg/kg

 

PEL (OSHA)

0.1 mg (CrO3)/m3 (ceiling)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

0.05 mg (Cr)/m3

Major Hazards

Probable human carcinogen (OSHA "select carcinogen"); severely irritating to the skin and mucous membranes; very strong oxidizing agent.

Toxicity

Chromium trioxide and other chromium(VI) salts are moderately toxic substances by ingestion; 1 to 15 g may be a fatal dose in humans. Ingestion of nonlethal doses of these compounds can cause stomach, liver, and kidney damage; symptoms may include clammy, cyanotic skin, sore throat, gastric burning, vomiting, and diarrhea. Chromic acid is irritating to the skin, and prolonged contact can cause ulceration. Inhalation of chromate dust or chromic acid mist can result in severe irritation of the nose, throat, bronchial tubes, and lungs and may cause coughing, labored breathing, and swelling of the larynx. Eye contact with chromium trioxide and its solutions can cause severe burns and possible loss of vision.

Occupational exposure to chromium(VI) compounds has been related to an increased risk of lung cancer. Several hexavalent compounds of chromium, including chromium trioxide, are listed in IARC Group 1 ("carcinogenic to humans") and are classified as "select carcinogens" under the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard. Long-term exposure to chromium trioxide or chromium(VI) salts may cause ulceration of the respiratory system and skin. Exposure to chromium trioxide by inhalation or skin contact may lead to sensitization. Chromium trioxide has exhibited teratogenic activity in animal tests.

Flammability and Explosibility

Chromium trioxide is not combustible but is a strong oxidizing agent and can accelerate the burning rate of combustible materials. Contact with easily oxidized organic or other combustible materials (including paper and oil) may result in ignition, violent combustion, or explosion. The use of dry chemical, carbon dioxide, Halon, or water spray extinguishers is recommended for fires involving chromium(VI) compounds.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Chromium trioxide and certain other chromium(VI) compounds are useful as strong oxidizing agents in the laboratory, but appropriate precautionary measures should be taken when conducting these reactions. Chromium trioxide has been reported to react violently with a variety of substances, including readily oxidized organic compounds such as acetone, acetaldehyde, methanol, ethanol, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, acetic acid, and DMF, and violent reactions may also occur on reaction with alkali metals, gaseous ammonia, phosphorus, and selenium.

Storage and Handling

Because of their carcinogenicity, chromium(VI) compounds should be handled using the ''basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with compounds of high toxicity (Chapter 5.D). In particular, chromium trioxide should be handled in a fume hood to avoid the inhalation of dust, and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent skin contact. The practice of using chromate solutions to clean glassware should be avoided. Chromium trioxide should be stored in areas separated from readily oxidized materials.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If chromium trioxide or other chromium compounds are ingested, give the person large amounts of water or milk and obtain medical attention immediately. If dust or aerosols of these compounds are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all combustibles from the area, sweep up the chromium compounds, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. In the event solutions containing chromium compounds are spilled, neutralize (if possible) with aqueous base, soak up with a spill pillow or appropriate noncombustible absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill of powder, particularly in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess chromium compounds and waste material containing these substances should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: CYANOGEN BROMIDE

Substance

Cyanogen bromide

(Bromine cyanide, bromocyanogen, cyanobromide)

CAS 506-68-3

 

Formula

BrCN

 

Physical Properties

Colorless needles

bp 62 °C, mp 52 °C

Soluble in water

 

Odor

Penetrating odor

 

Vapor Pressure

100 mmHg at 22.6 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LCLO inhal (human)

92 ppm (398 mg/m3; 10 min)

 

LCLO inhal (mouse)

115 ppm (500 mg/m3; 10 min)

Major Hazards

High acute toxicity; severely irritating.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of cyanogen bromide is high. Toxic effects are similar to but not as severe as those of hydrogen cyanide. Toxic symptoms may include cyanosis, nausea, dizziness, headache, lung irritation, chest pain, and pulmonary edema, which may be fatal.

Cyanogen bromide may cause chronic pulmonary edema.

Flammability and Explosibility

Cyanogen bromide is noncombustible. Impure material decomposes rapidly and can be explosive.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Cyanogen bromide can react violently with large quantities of acid. It may decompose when exposed to heat, moist air, or water, producing toxic fumes of hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen bromide. Cyanogen bromide can polymerize violently on prolonged storage at ambient temperature.

Storage and Handling

Because of its high acute toxicity, cyanogen bromide should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with compounds of high toxicity (Chapter 5.D). In particular, work with BrCN should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact. Containers of cyanogen bromide should be kept tightly sealed and stored under nitrogen in a secondary container in a refrigerator.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If cyanogen

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

bromide is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, sweep up cyanogen bromide, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory and appropriate impermeable protective gloves and clothing should be worn while conducting cleanup of this highly toxic substance.

Disposal

Excess cyanogen bromide and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: DIAZOMETHANE

Substance

Diazomethane

(Diazirine, azimethylene)

CAS 334-88-3

 

Formula

CH2N2

 

Physical Properties

Yellow gas

bp - 23 °C, mp -145 °C

Reacts with water

 

Odor

Musty odor (no accepted threshold value)

Vapor Density

1.4 (air = 1.0)

 

Autoignition Temperature

150 °C; impure material explodes at lower temperature

Toxicity Data

LCLO inhal (cat)

175 ppm (10 min)

 

PEL (OSHA)

0.2 ppm (0.4 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

0.2 ppm (0.4 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Powerful allergen with high acute toxicity; extremely unstable; may explode on contact with alkali metals, calcium sulfate (Drierite), or rough edges such as those found on ground glass.

 

Toxicity

Diazomethane vapor causes severe irritation of the skin, eyes, mucous membranes, and lungs. It is considered to be a substance with poor warning properties, and the effects of exposure may be delayed in onset. Symptoms of exposure may include headache, chest pain, cough, fever, severe asthmatic attacks, and pulmonary edema, which can be fatal. Exposure of the skin and mucous membranes to diazomethane may cause serious burns.

Diazomethane is a powerful allergen. Prolonged or repeated exposure to diazomethane can lead to sensitization of the skin and lungs, in which case asthma-like symptoms or fever may occur as the result of exposure to concentrations of diazomethane that previously caused no symptoms. Chronic exposure to diazomethane has been reported to cause cancer in experimental animals, but this substance has not been identified as a human carcinogen.

Note that diazomethane is often prepared in situ from precursors that may themselves be highly toxic and/or carcinogenic.

Flammability and Explosibility

Pure diazomethane gas and liquid are readily flammable and can explode easily. A variety of conditions have been reported to cause explosions of diazomethane, including contact with rough surfaces such as ground-glass joints, etched or scratched flasks, and glass tubing that has not been carefully fire-polished. Direct sunlight and strong artificial light

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

may also cause explosions of this substance. Violent reactions may occur on exposure of diazomethane to alkali metals.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Explosions may occur on exposure of diazomethane to alkali metals and calcium sulfate (Drierite).

Storage and Handling

Because of its high toxicity and explosibility, diazomethane should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with compounds of high chronic toxicity (Chapter 5.D) and for work with reactive and explosive substances (Chapter 5.G). In particular, diazomethane should preferably be handled in solution using glassware specially designated for diazomethane (e.g., with Clear-Seal joints) and should be used as soon as possible after preparation. Storage of diazomethane solutions (even at low temperature) is not advisable. All work with diazomethane should be conducted in a fume hood behind a safety shield, and appropriate impermeable gloves, protective clothing, and safety goggles should be worn at all times.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If this compound is inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources and close off the hood. Diazomethane solutions can be soaked up with a spill pillow or an absorbent material such as clay or vermiculite, placed in an appropriate container, and disposed of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Small amounts of excess diazomethane can be destroyed by carefully adding acetic acid dropwise to a dilute solution of the diazomethane in an inert solvent such as ether at 0ºC. Excess diazomethane solutions and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: DIBORANE

Substance

Diborane

(Boroethane, boron hydride, diboron hexahydride)

CAS 19287-45-7

 

Formula

B2H6

 

Physical Properties

Colorless gas

bp -93 °C, mp -165 °C

Rapidly decomposes in water to form hydrogen gas

 

Odor

Repulsive odor detectable at 1.8 to 3.5 ppm

Vapor Density

0.96 (air = 1.0)

 

Flash Point

-90 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

38 to 52 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LC50 inhal (rat)

50 ppm (4 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

0.1 ppm

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

0.1 ppm

Major Hazards

Highly toxic, flammable, and reactive gas; contact with air or halogenated compounds results in fires and explosions.

Toxicity

Inhalation of diborane gas results in irritation of the respiratory tract and may result in headache, cough, nausea, difficulty in breathing, chills, fever, and weakness. The odor of diborane cannot be detected below the permissible exposure limit, so this substance is considered to have poor warning properties. Overexposure to diborane can cause damage to the central nervous system, liver, and kidneys. Death can result from pulmonary edema (fluid in the lungs) and/or from lack of oxygen. Exposure to diborane gas has not been found to have significant effects on the skin and mucous membranes, but high concentrations can cause eye irritation, and contact with the liquid can cause burns.

Chronic exposure to low concentrations of diborane may cause headache, lightheadedness, fatigue, weakness in the muscles, and tremors. Repeated exposure may produce chronic respiratory distress, particularly in susceptible individuals. An existing dermatitis may also be worsened by repeated exposure to the liquid. Diborane has not been shown to have carcinogenic or reproductive or developmental effects in humans.

Flammability and Explosibility

Diborane is a flammable gas that ignites spontaneously in moist air at room temperature and forms explosive mixtures with air from 0.8% up to 88% by volume. Diborane reacts with halogenated hydrocarbons, and fire extinguishing agents such as Halon or carbon

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

tetrachloride are therefore not recommended. Carbon dioxide extinguishers should be used to fight diborane fires. Fires involving diborane sometimes release toxic gases such as boron oxide smoke.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Explodes on contact with fluorine, chlorine, halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g., chloroform and carbon tetrachloride), fuming nitric acid, and nitrogen trifluoride. Diborane is a strong reducing agent that produces hydrogen upon heating or upon reaction with water. Contact with aluminum, lithium, and other active metals forms metal hydrides, which may ignite spontaneously. Diborane is incompatible with oxidizing agents, halogens, and halogenated compounds. Diborane will attack some forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings.

Storage and Handling

Diborane should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with reactive and explosive compounds described in Chapter 5.G. In particular, diborane should be used only in a fume hood free of ignition sources and should be stored in a cold, dry, well-ventilated area separated from incompatible substances and isolated from sources of sparks and open flames.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If this compound is inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a leak, remove all ignition sources and ventilate the area of the leak. Respiratory protection and protective clothing may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area. If a cylinder is the source of the leak and the leak cannot be stopped, if possible remove the leaking cylinder to a fume hood or a safe place in the open air, and repair the leak or allow the cylinder to empty. If the leak has resulted in a fire, water spray can be used to cool the container and to reduce corrosive vapors, keeping in mind that if flames are extinguished, explosive re-ignition can occur.

Disposal

Excess diborane and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: DICHLOROMETHANE

Substance

Dichloromethane

(Methylene chloride; aerothene MM)

CAS 75-09-2

 

Formula

CH2Cl2

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 40 °C, mp -97 °C

Slightly soluble in water (1.32 g/100 mL)

 

Odor

Odor threshold 160 to 230 ppm

 

Vapor Density

2.93 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

440 mmHg at 25 °C

 

Flash Point

Noncombustible

 

Autoignition Temperature

556 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

1600 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

88,000 mg/m3; 30 min

 

PEL (OSHA)

500 ppm (8 h)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

50 ppm

Major Hazards

Low acute toxicity; skin and eye irritant.

Toxicity

Dichloromethane is classified as only slightly toxic by the oral and inhalation routes. Exposure to high concentrations of dichloromethane vapor (>500 ppm for 8 h) can lead to lightheadedness, fatigue, weakness, and nausea. Contact of the compound with the eyes causes painful irritation and can lead to conjunctivitis and corneal injury if not promptly removed by washing. Dichloromethane is a mild skin irritant, and upon prolonged contact (e.g., under the cover of clothing or shoes) can cause burns after 30 to 60 min exposure.

Dichloromethane is not teratogenic at levels up to 4500 ppm or embryotoxic in rats and mice at levels up to 1250 ppm.

Flammability and Explosibility

Noncombustible. Dichloromethane vapor concentrated in a confined or poorly ventilated area can be ignited with a high-energy spark, flame, or high-intensity heat source.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Reacts violently with alkali metals, aluminum, magnesium powder, potassium t-butoxide, nitrogen tetroxide, and strong oxidizing agents.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Storage and Handling

This compound should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If dichloromethane is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, soak up dichloromethane with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess dichloromethane and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: DIETHYL ETHER

Substance

Diethyl ether

(Ethyl ether, ether)

CAS 60-29-7

 

Formula

(CH3CH2)2O

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 35 °C, mp -116 °C

Slightly soluble in water (8 g/100 mL)

 

Odor

Pungent odor detectable at 0.33 ppm

 

Vapor Density

2.6 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

442 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

-45 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

160 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

1215 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

73,000 ppm (2 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

400 ppm

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

400 ppm

 

STEL (ACGIH)

500 ppm

Major Hazards

Extremely flammable liquid and vapor; forms explosive peroxides upon storage in contact with air.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of diethyl ether is low. Inhalation of high concentrations can cause sedation, unconsciousness, and respiratory paralysis. These effects are usually reversible upon cessation of exposure. Diethyl ether is mildly irritating to the eyes and skin, but does not generally cause irreversible damage. Repeated contact can cause dryness and cracking of the skin due to removal of skin oils. The liquid is not readily absorbed through the skin, in part because of its high volatility. Diethyl ether is slightly toxic by ingestion. Diethyl ether is regarded as having adequate warning properties.

There is no evidence for carcinogenicity of diethyl ether, and no reproductive effects have been reported. Chronic exposure to diethyl ether vapor may lead to loss of appetite, exhaustion, drowsiness, dizziness, and other central nervous system effects.

Flammability and Explosibility

Diethyl ether is extremely flammable (NFPA rating = 4) and is one of the most dangerous fire hazards commonly encountered in the laboratory, owing to its volatility and extremely low ignition temperature. Ether vapor may be ignited by hot surfaces such as hot plates

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

and static electricity discharges, and since the vapor is heavier than air, it may travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and flash back. Ether vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 1.9 to 36% (by volume). Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for ether fires. Diethyl ether forms unstable peroxides on exposure to air in a reaction that is promoted by light; the presence of these peroxides may lead to explosive residues upon distillation.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Diethyl ether may react violently with halogens or strong oxidizing agents such as perchloric acid.

Storage and Handling

Diethyl ether should be handled in the laboratory using the ''basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented by additional precautions for dealing with extremely flammable substances (Chapter 5.F). In particular, ether should be used only in areas free of ignition sources (including hot plates, incandescent light bulbs, and steam baths), and this substance should be stored in tightly sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidizers. Because of the tendency of diethyl ether to form peroxides on contact with air, containers should be dated upon receipt and at the time they are opened. Once opened, containers of diethyl ether should be tested periodically for the presence of peroxides according to the procedures described in Chapter 5. Diethyl ether is generally supplied with additives that inhibit peroxide formation; distillation removes these inhibitors and renders the liquid more prone to peroxide formation. Material found to contain peroxides should be treated to destroy the peroxides before use or disposed of properly.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If diethyl ether is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill of diethyl ether, exercise extreme caution because of its highly flammable nature. Remove all ignition sources, soak up the diethyl ether as quickly as possible with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess diethyl ether and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: DIETHYLNITROSAMINE (AND RELATED NITROSAMINES)

Substance

Diethylnitrosamine (and related nitrosamines)

(N-nitrosodiethylamine; N-ethyl-N-nitrosoethananime)

CAS 55-18-5

 

Formula

(CH3CH2)2N-NO

 

Physical Properties

Yellow liquid

bp 177 °C

Soluble in water

 

Odor

Not available

 

Vapor Pressure

1.7 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

61 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

Not available

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

280 mg/kg

Major Hazards

Probable human carcinogen (OSHA "select carcinogen"); other nitrosamines should also be regarded as carcinogenic.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of diethylnitrosamine is classified as moderate. Other nitrosamines of higher molecular weight are somewhat less toxic. Harmful exposure to nitrosamines can occur by inhalation and ingestion and may cause nausea, vomiting, and fever. This substance does not have adequate warning properties.

Chronic exposure to nitrosamines can cause severe liver damage. Diethylnitrosamine is listed in IARC Group 2A ("probable human carcinogen") and is classified as an OSHA "select carcinogen." Nitrosamines are suspected of causing cancers of the lung, nasal sinuses, brain, esophagus, stomach, liver, bladder, and kidney. Diethylnitrosamine is mutagenic and teratogenic.

Flammability and Explosibility

Volatilization during combustion produces hazardous vapors. Combustion products contain nitrogen oxides.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Diethylnitrosamine is decomposed by strong acids, liberating nitrous acid. Nitrosamines are incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.

Storage and Handling

Because of its carcinogenicity, diethylnitrosamine should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with compounds of high chronic toxicity (Chapter 5.D). In particular, work with diethylni-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

trosamine should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and appropriate impermeable gloves and splash goggles should be worn at all times to prevent skin and eye contact.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with copious amounts of water while removing contaminated clothing. Place contaminated items in a plastic bag. Seal the bag and dispose of it appropriately. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If diethylnitrosamine is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If diethylnitrosamine is inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, immediately evacuate and isolate the area. Decontamination should be performed by trained people wearing self-contained breathing apparatus and impervious clothing. The diethylnitrosamine should be soaked up with absorbents and placed in closed containers for disposal. After pickup is complete, wash the spill site and ventilate the area.

Disposal

Excess diethylnitrosamine and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: DIMETHYL SULFATE

Substance

Dimethyl sulfate

(Methyl sulfate; DMS)

CAS 77-78-1

 

Formula

(CH3)2SO4

 

Physical Properties

Colorless, oily liquid

bp 189 °C, mp -32 °C

Soluble in water (2.8 g/100 mL at 20 °C); reacts slowly with water to form sulfuric acid and methanol

 

Odor

Almost odorless

 

Vapor Density

4.3 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

0.5 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

83 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

495 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

205 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

9 ppm(45 mg/m3; 4 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

1 ppm(5 mg/m3)—skin

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

0.1 ppm (0.52 mg/m3)—skin

Major Hazards

Liquid and vapor can cause severe burns to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract; corrosive and moderately toxic by ingestion; probable human carcinogen (OSHA "select carcinogen").

Toxicity

Dimethyl sulfate is extremely hazardous because of its lack of warning properties and delayed toxic effects. The vapor of this compound is extremely irritating to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract, and contact with the liquid can cause very severe burns to the eyes and skin. Ingestion of dimethyl sulfate causes burns to the mouth, throat, and gastrointestinal tract. The effects of overexposure to dimethyl sulfate vapor may be delayed. After a latent period of 10 hours or more, headache and severe pain to the eyes upon exposure to light may occur, followed by cough, tightness of the chest, shortness of breath, difficulty in swallowing and speaking, vomiting, diarrhea, and painful urination. Fatal pulmonary edema may develop. Systemic effects of dimethyl sulfate include damage to the liver and kidneys.

Dimethyl sulfate is listed by IARC in Group 2A ("probable human carcinogen") and is classified as a "select carcinogen" under the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard. Data indicate that dimethyl sulfate does not specifically harm unborn animals; dimethyl

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

sulfate is not a developmental toxin. It is a strong alkylating agent and does produce genetic damage in animals and in bacterial and mammalian cell cultures.

Flammability and Explosibility

Dimethyl sulfate is a combustible liquid (NFPA rating = 2). Toxic dimethyl sulfate vapors are produced in a fire. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight dimethyl sulfate fires.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Dimethyl sulfate can react violently with ammonium hydroxide, sodium azide, and strong oxidizers.

Storage and Handling

Because of its carcinogenicity, dimethyl sulfate should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with compounds of high chronic toxicity (Chapter 5.D). In particular, work with dimethyl sulfate should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and appropriate impermeable gloves and safety goggles should be worn at all times to prevent skin and eye contact.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If dimethyl sulfate is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the dimethyl sulfate with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess dimethyl sulfate and waste material containing this substance should be placed in a covered metal container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: DIMETHYL SULFOXIDE

Substance

Dimethyl sulfoxide

(DMSO, methyl sulfoxide)

CAS 67-68-5

 

Formula

(CH3)2SO

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 189 °C (decomposes), mp 18.5 °C

Miscible with water

 

Odor

Mild garlic odor

 

Vapor Pressure

0.37 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

95 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

215 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

14,500 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

40,000 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

1600 mg/m3 (4 h)

Major Hazards

Freely penetrates skin and may carry dissolved chemicals across the skin.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of DMSO by all routes of exposure is very low. Inhalation of DMSO vapor can cause irritation of the respiratory tract, and at higher concentrations may cause vomiting, chills, headache, and dizziness. The material is only slightly toxic by ingestion and may cause vomiting, abdominal pain, and lethargy. Dimethyl sulfoxide is relatively nontoxic by skin absorption, but can cause itching, scaling, and a transient burning sensation. Dimethyl sulfoxide can increase the tendency for other chemicals to penetrate the skin and so increase their toxic effects. Contact of DMSO liquid with the eyes may cause irritation with redness, pain, and blurred vision.

Chronic exposure to dimethyl sulfoxide can cause damage to the cornea of the eye. Dimethyl sulfoxide has not been found to be carcinogenic or to show reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans.

Flammability and Explosibility

Combustible when exposed to heat or flame (NFPA rating = 1). Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight DMSO fires.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

DMSO reacts violently with strong oxidizers, many acyl halides, boron hydrides, and alkali metals. DMSO can form explosive mixtures with metal salts of oxoacids (sodium perchlorate, iron(III) nitrate).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Storage and Handling

Dimethyl sulfoxide should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If dimethyl sulfoxide is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the dimethyl sulfoxide with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess dimethyl sulfoxide and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: DIMETHYLFORMAMIDE

Substance

Dimethylformamide

(N,N-Dimethylformamide, DMF)

CAS 68-12-2

 

Formula

(CH3)2NCHO

 

Physical Properties

Colorless, clear liquid

bp 153 °C, mp -61 °C

Miscible with water in all proportions

 

Odor

Faint, ammonia-like odor detectable at 100 ppm

 

Vapor Density

2.5 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

2.6 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

58 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

445 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

2800 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

4720 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (mouse)

9400 mg/m3; 2 h

 

PEL (OSHA)

10 ppm (30 mg/m3—skin)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

10 ppm (30 mg/m3—skin)

Major Hazards

Low acute toxicity; readily absorbed through the skin.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of DMF is low by inhalation, ingestion, and skin contact. Contact with liquid DMF may cause eye and skin irritation. DMF is an excellent solvent for many toxic materials that are not ordinarily absorbed and can increase the hazard of these substances by skin contact. Exposure to high concentrations of DMF may lead to liver damage and other systemic effects.

Dimethylformamide is listed by IARC in Group 2B ("possible human carcinogen"). It is not classified as a "select carcinogen" according to the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard. No significant reproductive effects have been observed in animal tests. Repeated exposure to DMF may result in damage to the liver, kidneys, and cardiovascular system.

Flammability and Explosibility

DMF is a combustible liquid (NFPA rating = 2). Vapors are heavier than air and may travel to source of ignition and flash back. DMF vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 2.2 to 15.2% (by volume). Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight DMF fires.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Though stable at normal temperatures and storage conditions, DMF may react violently with halogens, acyl halides, strong oxidizers, and polyhalogenated compounds in the presence of iron. Decomposition products include toxic gases and vapors such as dimethylamine and carbon monoxide. DMF will attack some forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings.

Storage and Handling

DMF should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C. In particular, DMF should be used only in areas free of ignition sources, and quantities greater than 1 liter should be stored in tightly sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidizers.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. Destroy contaminated shoes. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If DMF is ingested, do not induce vomiting. Obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the DMF with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess DMF and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: DIOXANE

Substance

Dioxane

(1,4-Dioxane; p-dioxane; diethylene ether; 1,4-diethylene dioxide)

CAS 123-91-1

 

Formula

O(CH2CH2)2O

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 101 °C, mp 12 °C

Miscible with water

 

Odor

Mild ether-like odor detectable at 0.8 to 172 ppm (mean = 12 ppm)

Vapor Density

3 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

40 mmHg at 25 °C

 

Flash Point

12 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

180 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (mouse)

5700 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

13,000 ppm (46,800 mg/m3; 2 h)

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

7600 mg/kg

 

PEL (OSHA)

100 ppm (360 mg/m3)—skin

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

25 ppm (90 mg/m3)—skin

Major Hazards

Highly flammable; forms sensitive peroxides on exposure to air that may explode on concentration by distillation or drying.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of 1,4-dioxane is low. Exposure to 200 to 300 ppm causes irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. Inhalation of higher concentrations can result in damage to the kidneys and liver. Symptoms of overexposure may include upper respiratory tract irritation, coughing, drowsiness, vertigo, headache, stomach pains, nausea, and vomiting. Prolonged or repeated contact may produce drying and cracking of the skin. Ingestion of this substance will result in the effects of exposure by inhalation. The odor of dioxane is not unpleasant, and its irritating effects may be transitory; consequently, it is not regarded as a substance with adequate warning properties.

Dioxane shows carcinogenic effects in animal studies and is listed by IARC in Group 2B ("possible human carcinogen"). It is not classified as a "select carcinogen" according to the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard. Prolonged or repeated exposure to this substance may result in liver and kidney injury. Dioxane has not been shown to be a reproductive or developmental toxin in humans.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Flammability and Explosibility

Dioxane is a highly flammable liquid (NFPA rating = 3). Its vapor is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back. Dioxane vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 2 to 22% (by volume). Fires involving dioxane should be extinguished with carbon dioxide or dry powder extinguishers.

Dioxane can form shock- and heat-sensitive peroxides that may explode on concentration by distillation or evaporation. Samples of this substance should always be tested for the presence of peroxides before distilling or allowing to evaporate. Dioxane should never be distilled to dryness.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Dioxane can form potentially explosive peroxides upon long exposure to air. Dioxane may react violently with Raney nickel catalyst, nitric and perchloric acids, sulfur trioxide, and strong oxidizing reagents.

Storage and Handling

Dioxane should be handled in the laboratory using the ''basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for dealing with extremely flammable substances (Chapter 5.F). In particular, dioxane should be used only in areas free of ignition sources, and quantities greater than 1 liter should be stored in tightly sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidizers. Containers of dioxane should be dated when opened and tested periodically for the presence of peroxides.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If dioxane is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the dioxane with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess dioxane and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: ETHANOL

Substance

Ethanol

(Ethyl alcohol, alcohol, methylcarbinol)

CAS 64-17-5

 

Formula

C2H5OH

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 78 °C, mp -114 °C

Miscible with water

 

Odor

Pleasant alcoholic odor detectable at 49 to 716 ppm (mean = 180 ppm)

Vapor Density

1.6 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

43 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

13 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

363 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

7060 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

>20 mL/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

20,000 ppm(10 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

1000 ppm(1900 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

1000 ppm(1900 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Flammable liquid

 

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of ethanol is very low. Ingestion of ethanol can cause temporary nervous system depression with anesthetic effects such as dizziness, headache, confusion, and loss of consciousness; large doses (250 to 500 mL) can be fatal in humans. High concentrations of ethanol vapor are irritating to the eyes and upper respiratory tract. Liquid ethanol does not significantly irritate the skin but is a moderate eye irritant. Exposure to high concentrations of ethanol by inhalation (over 1000 ppm) can cause central nervous system (CNS) effects, including dizziness, headache, and giddiness followed by depression, drowsiness, and fatigue. Ethanol is regarded as a substance with good warning properties.

Tests in some animals indicate that ethanol may have developmental and reproductive toxicity if ingested. There is no evidence that laboratory exposure to ethanol has carcinogenic effects.

To discourage deliberate ingestion, ethanol for laboratory use is often "denatured" by the addition of other chemicals; the toxicity of possible additives must also be considered when evaluating the risk of laboratory exposure to ethanol.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Flammability and Explosibility

Ethanol is a flammable liquid (NFPA rating = 3), and its vapor can travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and "flash back." Ethanol vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 4.3 to 19% (by volume). Hazardous gases produced in ethanol fires include carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for ethanol fires.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Contact of ethanol with strong oxidizers, peroxides, strong alkalis, and strong acids may cause fires and explosions.

Storage and Handling

Ethanol should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for dealing with highly flammable substances (Chapter 5.F). In particular, ethanol should be used only in areas free of ignition sources, and quantities greater than 1 liter should be stored in tightly sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidizers.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If ethanol is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the ethanol with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess ethanol and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: ETHIDIUM BROMIDE

Substance

Ethidium bromide

(Dromilac, homidium bromide)

CAS 1239-45-8

Formula

C21H20BrN3

Physical Properties

Dark red crystals

mp 260 to 262 °C

Soluble in water (5 g/100 mL)

Odor

Odorless solid

Major Hazards

Potent mutagen

Toxicity

Acute toxic effects from exposure to ethidium bromide have not been thoroughly investigated. Ethidium bromide is irritating to the eyes, skin, mucous membranes, and upper respiratory tract.

Although there is no evidence for the carcinogenicity or teratogenicity of this substance in humans, ethidium bromide is strongly mutagenic and therefore should be regarded as a possible carcinogen and reproductive toxin.

Flammability and Explosibility

Ethidium bromide does not pose a flammability hazard (NFPA rating = 1).

Reactivity and Incompatibility

No incompatibilities are known.

Storage and Handling

Ethidium bromide should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C. Because of its mutagenicity, stock solutions of this compound should be prepared in a fume hood, and protective gloves should be worn at all times while handling this substance. Operations capable of generating ethidium bromide dust or aerosols of ethidium bromide solutions should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If ethidium bromide is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately.

In the event of a spill, mix ethidium bromide with an absorbent material (avoid raising dust), place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Soak up aqueous solutions with a spill pillow or absorbent material.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Disposal

Excess ethidium bromide and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: ETHYL ACETATE

Substance

Ethyl acetate

(Acetic acid ethyl ester, ethyl ethanoate, acetoxyethane)

CAS 141-78-6

 

Formula

CH3COOC2H5

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 77 °C, mp -84 °C

Moderately soluble in water (9 g/100 mL)

 

Odor

Pleasant fruity odor detectable at 7 to 50 ppm (mean = 18 ppm)

Vapor Density

3.0 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

76 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

-4 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

427 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

5620 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

1600 ppm (8 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

400 ppm (1400 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

400 ppm (1440 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Flammable liquid and vapor

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of ethyl acetate is low. Ethyl acetate vapor causes eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritation at concentrations above 400 ppm. Exposure to high concentrations may lead to headache, nausea, blurred vision, central nervous system depression, dizziness, drowsiness, and fatigue. Ingestion of ethyl acetate may cause gastrointestinal irritation and, with larger amounts, central nervous system depression. Eye contact with the liquid can produce temporary irritation and lacrimation. Skin contact produces irritation. Ethyl acetate is regarded as a substance with good warning properties.

No chronic systemic effects have been reported in humans, and ethyl acetate has not been shown to be a human carcinogen, reproductive, or developmental toxin.

Flammability and Explosibility

Ethyl acetate is a flammable liquid (NFPA rating = 3), and its vapor can travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and "flash back." Ethyl acetate vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 2 to 11.5% (by volume). Hazardous gases produced in ethyl acetate fires include carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for ethyl acetate fires.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Contact with strong oxidizers, strong alkalis, and strong acids may cause fires and explosions.

Storage and Handling

Ethyl acetate should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for dealing with highly flammable substances (Chapter 5.F). In particular, ethyl acetate should be used only in areas free of ignition sources, and quantities greater than 1 liter should be stored in tightly sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidizers.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If ethyl acetate is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the ethyl acetate with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess ethyl acetate and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: ETHYLENE DIBROMIDE

Substance

Ethylene dibromide

(1,2-Dibromoethane, ethylene bromide, EDB)

CAS 106-93-4

 

Formula

BrCH2CH2Br

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 131 °C, mp 9 °C

Slightly soluble in water (0.4 g/100 mL at 20 °C)

 

Odor

Mild, sweet odor detectable at 10 ppm

 

Vapor Density

6.5 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

12 mmHg at 25 °C

 

Flash Point

Noncombustible

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

108 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

300 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

14,300 mg/m3 (30 min)

 

PEL (OSHA)

20 ppm (150 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Suspected human carcinogen (OSHA "select carcinogen"); moderate acute toxicity; severe skin and eye irritant.

Toxicity

Ethylene dibromide is moderately toxic by inhalation, ingestion, and skin contact and is a severe irritant of the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Symptoms of overexposure by inhalation may include depression of the central nervous system, respiratory tract irritation, and pulmonary edema. Oral intake of 5 to 10 mL can be fatal to humans owing to liver and kidney damage. Skin contact with EDB can produce severe irritation and blistering; serious skin injury can result from contact with clothing and shoes wet with EDB. This compound can be absorbed through the skin in toxic amounts. EDB vapors are severely irritating to the eyes, and contact with the liquid can damage vision.

EDB is listed in IARC Group 2A ("probable human carcinogen") and is classified as a "select carcinogen" under the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard. Chronic inhalation may cause pulmonary, renal, and hepatic damage. EDB is a suspected reproductive toxin implicated in reduction in male fertility. Ethylene dibromide is considered to be a compound with poor warning properties due to potential chronic and carcinogenic effects.

Flammability and Explosibility

Ethylene dibromide is a noncombustible substance (NFPA rating = 0).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Reactivity and Incompatibility

EDB reacts vigorously with alkali metals, zinc, magnesium, aluminum, caustic alkalis, strong oxidizers, and liquid ammonia. Liquid EDB will attack some forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings.

Storage and Handling

Because of its carcinogenicity, EDB should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with compounds of high chronic toxicity (Chapter 5.D). In particular, work with EDB should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and appropriate impermeable gloves and safety goggles should be worn to prevent skin contact. Gloves and protective clothing should be changed immediately if EDB contamination occurs. Since EDB can penetrate neoprene and other plastics, protective apparel made of these materials does not provide adequate protection from contact with EDB.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately remove contaminated clothing and wash with soap and water. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If EDB is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be restricted from areas of spill or leaks until cleanup has been completed. Soak up EDB with a spill pillow or absorbent material such as vermiculite or dry sand, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Evacuation and cleanup using respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess EDB and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: ETHYLENE OXIDE

Substance

Ethylene oxide

(1,2 Epoxyethane; oxacyclopropane; dimethylene oxide)

CAS 75-21-8

 

Formula

C2H4O

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid or gas

bp 10.7 °C, mp -111.3 °C

Miscible with water

 

Odor

Sweet odor detectable at 257 to 690 ppm (mean = 420 ppm)

 

Vapor Density

1.5 at bp (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

1095 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

-20 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

429 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

72 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

800 ppm (1600 mg/m3)

 

PEL (OSHA)

1 ppm (2 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

1 ppm (2 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

OSHA "select carcinogen"; highly flammable; severe irritant.

Toxicity

Ethylene oxide is a severe irritant to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract and exhibits moderate acute toxicity by all routes of exposure. Symptoms of overexposure by inhalation may be delayed and can include nausea, vomiting, headache, drowsiness, and difficulty breathing. Ethylene oxide can cause serious burns to the skin, which may only appear after a delay of 1 to 5 hours. This substance may also be absorbed through the skin to cause the systemic effects listed above. Eye contact can result in severe burns. Ethylene oxide is not considered to have adequate warning properties.

Ethylene oxide is listed by IARC in Group 2A ("probable human carcinogen") and is classified as a "select carcinogen" under the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard. There is some evidence from animal studies that ethylene oxide may be a developmental and reproductive toxin in both males and females. Exposure to this substance may lead to sensitization.

Flammability and Explosibility

Ethylene oxide is an extremely flammable substance (NFPA rating = 4). Ethylene oxide vapor may be ignited by hot surfaces such as hot plates and static electricity discharges, and since the vapor is heavier than air, it may travel a considerable distance to an

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

ignition source and flash back. Ethylene oxide vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 3 to 100% (by volume). Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for ethylene oxide fires. Ethylene oxide may explode when heated in a closed vessel.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Ethylene oxide can undergo violent polymerization, which can be initiated by contact with metal surfaces, strong acids or bases, alkali metals, iron oxide or chloride, and aluminum chloride.

Storage and Handling

Because of its carcinogenicity, flammability, and reactivity, ethylene oxide should be handled using the ''basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with compounds of high chronic toxicity (Chapter 5.D) and extremely flammable substances (Chapter 5.F). In particular, work with ethylene oxide should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and appropriate impermeable gloves and splash goggles should be worn at all times to prevent skin and eye contact. Ethylene oxide should be used only in areas free of ignition sources and should be stored in the cold in tightly sealed containers placed within a secondary container.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If ethylene oxide is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill of liquid ethylene oxide, remove all ignition sources, soak up the ethylene oxide with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. In the event of accidental release of ethylene oxide gas, evacuate the area and eliminate the source of the release, such as a leaking cylinder, if possible. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess ethylene oxide and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: FLUORIDES (INORGANIC)

Substance

Fluorides (inorganic)

NaF: CAS 7681-49-4

 

Physical Properties

NaF: mp 993 °C, bp 1700 °C

Slightly soluble to insoluble in water

 

Odor

Odorless

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

245 mg/kg (potassium fluoride)

 

 

52 mg/kg (sodium fluoride)

 

 

377 mg/kg (stannous fluoride)

 

PEL (OSHA)

2.5 mg/m3

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

2.5 mg/m3

Major Hazards

Moderate acute toxicity; irritating to eyes and respiratory tract.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of fluorides is generally moderate. High exposures may cause irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Ingestion of fluoride may cause a salty or soapy taste, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, shortness of breath, difficulty in speaking, thirst, weak pulse, disturbed color vision, muscular weakness, convulsions, loss of consciousness, and death. In humans the approximate lethal dose of NaF by ingestion is 5 g.

Repeated inhalation of fluoride dust may cause excessive calcification of the bone and calcification of ligaments of the ribs, pelvis, and spinal column. Repeated skin contact may cause a rash

Fluorides have not been shown to be carcinogenic or to show reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans.

Flammability and Explosibility

Fluorides are not combustible.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Contact with strong acids may cause formation of highly toxic and corrosive hydrogen fluoride.

Storage and Handling

Fluorides should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If fluorides are ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of fluorides are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

In the event of a spill, sweep up fluorides, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess fluorides and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: FLUORINE

Substance

Fluorine

CAS 7782-41-4

 

Formula

F2

 

Physical Properties

Pale yellow gas

bp -188 °C, mp -219 °C

Reacts with water

 

Odor

Strong ozone-like odor detectable at 0.1 to 0.2 ppm

Vapor Density

1.695 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

>760 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LC50 inhal (rat)

185 ppm (300 mg/m3; 1 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

0.1 ppm (0.2 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

1 ppm (1.6 mg/m3)

 

STEL (ACGIH)

2 ppm (3.1 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Dangerously reactive gas; contact with many materials results in ignition or violent reactions; highly irritating and corrosive to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of fluorine is high. Even very low concentrations irritate the respiratory tract, and brief exposure to 50 ppm can be intolerable. High concentrations can cause severe damage to the respiratory system and can result in the delayed onset of pulmonary edema, which may be fatal. Fluorine is highly irritating to the eyes, and high concentrations cause severe injury and can lead to permanent damage and blindness. Fluorine is extremely corrosive to the skin, causing damage similar to second-degree thermal bums. Fluorine is not considered to have adequate warning properties.

Chronic toxicity is unlikely to occur due to the corrosive effects of fluorine exposure. Fluorine has not been found to be carcinogenic or to show reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans.

Flammability and Explosibility

Fluorine is not flammable, but is a very strong oxidizer, reacting vigorously with most oxidizable materials at room temperature, frequently with ignition. Water should not be used to fight fires involving fluorine.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Fluorine is an extremely powerful oxidizing agent that reacts violently with a great many materials, including water, most organic substances (including greases, many plastics, rubbers, and coatings), silicon-containing compounds, and most metals. The reaction with water produces HF and ozone. Fluorine reacts explosively or forms explosive compounds, often at very low temperatures, with chemicals as diverse as graphite, sodium acetate, stainless steel, perchloric acid, and water or ice. Fluorine ignites in contact with ammonia,

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

ceramic materials, phosphorus, sulfur, copper wire, acetone, and many other organic and inorganic compounds. The literature on incompatibilities of fluorine should be carefully reviewed before attempting work with this substance.

Storage and Handling

Because of its extreme reactivity, toxicity, and gaseous nature, fluorine should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with reactive or explosive chemicals (Chapter 5.G) and work with compressed gases (Chapter 5.H). Work with fluorine requires special precautions and protective equipment and should be carried out only by specially trained personnel. Fluorine will react with many materials normally recommended for handling compressed gases.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If large amounts of fluorine are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a small leak, stop flow of gas if possible, or move cylinder to a fume hood or to a safe location in the open air. Accidental releases of fluorine require evacuation of the affected area and should be handled only by trained personnel equipped with proper protective clothing and respiratory protection.

Disposal

Excess fluorine should be returned to the manufacturer if possible, according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: FORMALDEHYDE

Substance

Formaldehyde

(Methanal; 37% aqueous solution (usually containing 10 to 15% methanol) is called formalin; solid polymer is called paraformaldehyde)

CAS 50-00-0

 

Formula

HCHO

 

Physical Properties

Clear, colorless liquid

Formaldehyde: bp -19 °C, mp -92 °C

Formalin: bp 96 °C, mp -15 °C

Miscible with water

 

Odor

Pungent odor detectable at 1 ppm

 

Vapor Density

~1 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

Formaldehyde: 10 mmHg at -88 °C Formalin: 23 to 26 mmHg at 25 °C

 

Flash Point

50 °C for formalin containing 15% methanol

 

Autoignition Temperature

424 °C for formalin containing 15% methanol

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

500 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

270 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

203 mg/m3 (2 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

1 ppm (1.5 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

0.3 ppm (ceiling)(0.37 mg/m3)

 

STEL (OSHA)

2 ppm (2.5 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Probable human carcinogen (OSHA "select carcinogen"); moderate acute toxicity; skin sensitizer.

Toxicity

Formaldehyde is moderately toxic by skin contact and inhalation. Exposure to formaldehyde gas can cause irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract, coughing, dry throat, tightening of the chest, headache, a sensation of pressure in the head, and palpitations of the heart. Exposure to 0.1 to 5 ppm causes irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat; above 10 ppm severe lacrimation occurs, burning in the nose and throat is experienced, and breathing becomes difficult. Acute exposure to concentrations above 25 ppm can cause serious injury, including fatal pulmonary edema. Formaldehyde has low acute toxicity via the oral route. Ingestion can cause irritation of the mouth, throat, and stomach, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, and coma. An oral dose of 30 to 100 mL of 37% formalin can be fatal in humans. Formalin solutions can cause severe eye burns and loss of vision. Eye contact may lead to delayed effects that are not appreciably eased by eye washing.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

Formaldehyde is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen (Standard 1910.1048) and is listed in IARC Group 2A ("probable human carcinogen"). This substance is classified as a "select carcinogen" under the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard. Prolonged or repeated exposure to formaldehyde can cause dermatitis and sensitization of the skin and respiratory tract. Following skin contact, a symptom-free period may occur in sensitized individuals. Subsequent exposures can then lead to itching, redness, and the formation of blisters.

Flammability and Explosibility

Formaldehyde gas is extremely flammable; formalin solution is a combustible liquid (NFPA rating = 2 for 37% formaldehyde (15% methanol), NFPA rating = 4 for 37% formaldehyde (methanol free)). Toxic vapors may be given off in a fire. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight formaldehyde fires.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Formaldehyde may react violently with strong oxidizing agents, ammonia and strong alkalis, isocyanates, peracids, anhydrides, and inorganic acids. Formaldehyde reacts with HCl to form the potent carcinogen, bis-chloromethyl ether.

Storage and Handling

Because of its carcinogenicity and flammability, formaldehyde should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with compounds of high chronic toxicity (Chapter 5.D) and extremely flammable substances (Chapter 5.F). In particular, work with formaldehyde should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact. Formaldehyde should be used only in areas free of ignition sources. Containers of formaldehyde should be stored in secondary containers in areas separate from oxidizers and bases.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If formaldehyde is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the formaldehyde with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess formaldehyde and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: HEXAMETHYLPHOSPHORAMIDE

Substance

Hexamethylphosphoramide

(Hexamethylphosphoric triamide, HMPA, HMPT)

CAS 680-31-9

 

Formula

(Me2N)3P = O

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 233 °C, mp 6 °C

Completely miscible with water

 

Odor

Spicy odor (no threshold data)

 

Vapor Density

6.2 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

0.07 mmHg at 25 °C

 

Flash Point

105 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

2525 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

2600 mg/kg

Major Hazards

Possible human carcinogen (OSHA "select carcinogen")

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of hexamethylphosphoramide is low. HMPA can cause irritation upon contact with the skin and eyes.

Hexamethylphosphoramide has been found to cause cancer in laboratory animals exposed by inhalation and meets the criteria for classification as an OSHA "select carcinogen." Chronic exposure to HMPA can cause damage to the lungs and kidneys. Reproductive effects in male animals treated with hexamethylphosphoramide have been observed. HMPA should be regarded as a substance with poor warning properties.

Flammability and Explosibility

Combustible liquid. Its decomposition at high temperatures or in a fire can produce phosphine, phosphorus oxides, and oxides of nitrogen, which are extremely toxic. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for HMPA fires.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents and strong acids.

Storage and Handling

Because of its carcinogenicity, hexamethylphosphoramide should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with compounds of high chronic toxicity (Chapter 5.D). In particular, this compound should be handled only in a fume hood, using appropriate impermeable gloves and splash goggles to prevent skin and eye contact. Containers of this substance should be stored in secondary containers.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If hexamethylphosphoramide is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, soak up the hexamethylphosphoramide with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess hexamethylphosphoramide and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: HEXANE (AND RELATED HYDROCARBONS)

Substance

Hexane (and related aliphatic hydrocarbons)

(Normal hexane, skellysolve B)

CAS 110-54-3

 

Formula

C6H14

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 69 °C, mp -95 °C

Slightly soluble in water (0.014 g/100 mL)

 

Odor

Mild gasoline-like odor detectable at 65 to 248 ppm

Vapor Density

3.0 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

124 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

-21.7 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

225 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

28,700 mg/kg

 

PEL (OSHA)

500 ppm (1800 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

50 ppm

Major Hazards

Highly flammable; chronic exposure may cause neurotoxic effects.

Toxicity

Hexane and related aliphatic hydrocarbons exhibit only slight acute toxicity by all routes of exposure. The liquid may cause irritation upon contact with skin or eyes. Hexane vapor (and the vapor of other volatile hydrocarbons) at high concentrations (>1000 ppm) is a narcotic, and inhalation may result in lightheadedness, giddiness, nausea, and headache. Ingestion of hexane or other hydrocarbons may lead to aspiration of the substance into the lungs, causing pneumonia. Prolonged skin exposure may cause irritation due to the ability of these solvents to remove fats from the skin. Hexane is regarded as a substance with good warning properties.

Chronic exposure to hexane or other aliphatic hydrocarbons may cause central nervous system toxicity. Hexane has not been found to be a carcinogen or reproductive toxin in humans.

Flammability and Explosibility

Hexane is extremely flammable (NFPA rating = 3), and its vapor can travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and "flash back." Hexane vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 1.1 to 7.5 % (by volume). Hydrocarbons of significantly higher molecular weight have correspondingly higher vapor pressures and therefore present a

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

reduced flammability hazard. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for hexane fires.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Contact with strong oxidizing agents may cause explosions or fires.

Storage and Handling

Hexane and other aliphatic hydrocarbons should be handled in the laboratory using the ''basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for dealing with extremely flammable substances (Chapter 5.F). In particular, hexane should be used only in areas free of ignition sources, and quantities greater than 1 liter should be stored in tightly sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidizers.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If hexane is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the hexane with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess hexane and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: HYDRAZINE

Substance

Hydrazine

(Diamide, diamine)

CAS 302-01-2

 

Formula

NH2NH2

 

Physical Properties

Colorless oily liquid that fumes in air

bp 113.5 °C, mp 1.4 °C

Miscible with water

 

Odor

Fishy or ammonia-like odor detectable at 3 to 4 ppm (mean = 3.7 ppm)

Vapor Density

1.04 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

14.4 mmHg at 25 °C

 

Flash Point

38 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

24 °C on iron rust surface; 270 °C on glass surface

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

60 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

91 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

570 ppm (744 mg/m3; 4 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

1 ppm (1.3 mg/m3)—skin

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

0.1 ppm (0.13 mg/m3)—skin-suspected human carcinogen

 

(proposed)

0.01 ppm (0.013 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Possible human carcinogen (OSHA "select carcinogen"); corrosive to eyes, skin, and mucous membranes; highly flammable and reactive.

Toxicity

Hydrazine is extremely destructive to the tissues of the mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract, eyes, and skin. Skin contact with the liquid can result in severe burns; hydrazine is readily absorbed through the skin, leading to systemic effects, which may include damage to the liver, kidney, nervous system, and red blood cells. Hydrazine vapor is irritating to the nose, throat, and respiratory tract, and inhalation of high concentrations may be fatal as a result of spasm, inflammation, chemical pneumonitis, and pulmonary edema. Symptoms of exposure may include a burning sensation, coughing, wheezing, laryngitis, shortness of breath, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Hydrazine vapor is extremely irritating to the eyes and can cause temporary blindness. Eye contact with the liquid can result in severe burns and permanent damage. Hydrazine is not considered to have adequate warning properties.

Hydrazine is listed by IARC in Group 2B "possible human carcinogen" and is classified as a "select carcinogen" according to the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

Chronic exposure to subacute levels of hydrazine can cause lethargy, vomiting, tremors, itching and burning of the eyes and skin, conjunctivitis, and contact dermatitis. Hydrazine has been found to exhibit reproductive and developmental toxicity in animal tests.

Flammability and Explosibility

Hydrazine is a flammable liquid (NFPA rating = 3) over a very broad range of vapor concentrations (4.7 to 100%). Hydrazine may undergo autoxidation and ignite spontaneously when brought in contact with porous substances such as rusty surfaces, earth, wood, or cloth. Fires should be extinguished with water spray, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical extinguishers.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Hydrazine is a highly reactive reducing agent that forms shock-sensitive, explosive mixtures with many compounds. It explodes on contact with barium oxide, calcium oxide, chromate salts, and many other substances. On contact with metal catalysts (platinum black, Raney nickel, etc.), hydrazine decomposes to ammonia, hydrogen, and nitrogen gases, which may ignite or explode.

Storage and Handling

Because of its carcinogenicity, reactivity, and flammability, hydrazine should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with compounds of high chronic toxicity (Chapter 5.D), flammability (Chapter 5.F), and reactivity (Chapter 5.G). In particular, work with hydrazine should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact. Hydrazine should be used only in areas free of ignition sources. Hydrazine should be stored under nitrogen in containers placed in secondary containers in areas separate from oxidizers and acids.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If hydrazine is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If significant quantities of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the hydrazine with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Evacuation and cleanup using respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess hydrazine and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: HYDROBROMIC ACID AND HYDROGEN BROMIDE

Substance

Hydrobromic acid

CAS 10035-10-6

Hydrogen bromide

CAS 10035-10-6

Formula

Reagent grade conc HBr contains 48 wt

% HBr in water

HBr

Physical Properties

bp 126 °C, mp -11 °C

Miscible with water

bp -67° C, mp -87 °C

Miscible with water

Odor

Sharp, irritating odor detectable at 2 ppm

Sharp, irritating odor detectable at 2 ppm

Vapor Density

 

2.71 (air = 1.0)

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rabbit)

900 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

2858 ppm/1 h

 

PEL (OSHA)

3 ppm (10 mg/m3)

 

TLV (ACGIH)

3 ppm (10 mg/m3; ceiling)

Major Hazards

Highly corrosive; causes severe burns on eye and skin contact and upon inhalation of gas.

Toxicity

Hydrobromic acid and hydrogen bromide gas are highly corrosive substances that can cause severe burns upon contact with all body tissues. The aqueous acid and gas are strong eye irritants and lacrimators. Contact of concentrated hydrobromic acid or concentrated HBr vapor with the eyes may cause severe injury, resulting in permanent impairment of vision and possible blindness. Skin contact with the acid or HBr gas can produce severe burns. Ingestion can lead to severe burns of the mouth, throat, and gastrointestinal system and can be fatal. Inhalation of hydrogen bromide gas can cause extreme irritation and injury to the upper respiratory tract and lungs, and exposure to high concentrations may cause death. HBr gas is regarded as having adequate warning properties.

Hydrogen bromide has not been found to be carcinogenic or to show reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans.

Flammability and Explosibility

Noncombustible, but contact with metals may produce highly flammable hydrogen gas.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Hydrobromic acid and hydrogen bromide react violently with many metals with the generation of highly flammable hydrogen gas, which may explode. Reaction with oxidizers such as permanganates, chlorates, chlorites, and hypochlorites may produce chlorine or bromine.

Storage and Handling

Hydrobromic acid should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C. Splash goggles and rubber gloves should be worn when handling this acid, and containers of HBr should be stored in a well-ventilated location separated

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

from incompatible metals. Water should never be added to HBr because splattering may result; always add acid to water. Containers of hydrobromic acid should be stored in secondary plastic trays to avoid corrosion of metal storage shelves due to drips or spills.

Hydrogen bromide gas should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the procedures described in Chapter 5.H for the handling of compressed gases. Cylinders of hydrogen bromide should be stored in cool, dry locations, separated from alkali metals and other incompatible substances.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, remove contaminated clothing and immediately wash with flowing water for at least 15 min. In case of eye contact, immediately wash with copious amounts of water for at least 15 min while holding the eyelids open. Seek medical attention. In case of ingestion, do not induce vomiting. Give large amounts of water or milk if available and transport to medical facility. In case of inhalation, remove to fresh air and seek medical attention.

Carefully neutralize spills of hydrobromic acid with a suitable agent such as powdered sodium bicarbonate, further dilute with absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Dilution with water before applying the solid adsorbent may be an effective means of reducing exposure to hydrogen bromide vapor. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Leaks of HBr gas are evident from the formation of dense white fumes on contact with the atmosphere. Small leaks can be detected by holding an open container of concentrated ammonium hydroxide near the site of the suspected leak; dense white fumes confirm a leak is present. In case of the accidental release of hydrogen bromide gas, such as from a leaking cylinder or associated apparatus, evacuate the area and eliminate the source of the leak if this can be done safely. Remove cylinder to a fume hood or remote area if it cannot be shut off. Full respiratory protection and protective clothing may be required to deal with a hydrogen bromide release.

Disposal

In many localities, hydrobromic acid or the residue from a spill may be disposed of down the drain after appropriate dilution and neutralization. Otherwise, hydrobromic acid and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. Excess hydrogen bromide in cylinders should be returned to the manufacturer. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: HYDROCHLORIC ACID AND HYDROGEN CHLORIDE

Substance

Hydrochloric acid

(Muriatic acid)

CAS 7647-01-0

Hydrogen chloride

CAS 7647-01-0

Formula

Reagent grade conc HCl contains 37 wt

% HCl in water; constant-boiling acid

(an azeotrope with water) contains ~20% HCl

HCl

Physical Properties

Concentrated acid evolves HCl at 60 °C leading to the formation of an azeotrope of constant composition

(20% HCl)

bp 110 °C, mp -24 °C

Miscible with water

bp -85 °C, mp -114 °C

Miscible with water

Odor

Sharp, irritating odor detectable at 0.25 to 10 ppm

Sharp, irritating odor detectable at 0.25 to 10 ppm

Vapor Density

 

1.27 (air = 1.0)

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rabbit)

900 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

3124 ppm (1 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

5 ppm (7 mg/m3; ceiling)

 

TLV (ACGIH)

5 ppm (7.5 mg/m3; ceiling)

Major Hazards

Highly corrosive; causes severe burns on eye and skin contact and upon inhalation of gas.

Toxicity

Hydrochloric acid and hydrogen chloride gas are highly corrosive substances that may cause severe burns upon contact with any body tissue. The aqueous acid and gas are strong eye irritants and lacrimators. Contact of conc hydrochloric acid or concentrated HCl vapor with the eyes may cause severe injury, resulting in permanent impairment of vision and possible blindness, and skin contact results in severe burns. Ingestion can cause severe burns of the mouth, throat, and gastrointestinal system and can be fatal. Inhalation of hydrogen chloride gas can cause severe irritation and injury to the upper respiratory tract and lungs, and exposure to high concentrations may cause death. HCl gas is regarded as having adequate warning properties.

Hydrogen chloride has not been found to be carcinogenic or to show reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans.

Flammability and Explosibility

Noncombustible, but contact with metals may produce highly flammable hydrogen gas.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Hydrochloric acid and hydrogen chloride react violently with many metals, with the generation of highly flammable hydrogen gas, which may explode. Reaction with oxidizers such as permanganates, chlorates, chlorites, and hypochlorites may produce chlorine or bromine.

Storage and Handling

Hydrochloric acid should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C. Splash goggles and rubber gloves should be worn when handling this acid, and containers of HCl should be stored in a well-ventilated location separated from incompatible metals. Water should never be added to HCl because splattering may result; always add acid to water. Containers of hydrochloric acid should be stored in secondary plastic trays to avoid corrosion of metal storage shelves due to drips or spills.

 

Hydrogen chloride gas should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the procedures described in Chapter 5.H for the handling of compressed gases. Cylinders of hydrogen chloride should be stored in cool, dry locations separated from alkali metals and other incompatible substances.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, remove contaminated clothing and immediately wash with flowing water for at least 15 min. In case of eye contact, immediately wash with copious amounts of water for at least 15 min while holding the eyelids open. Seek medical attention. In case of ingestion, do not induce vomiting. Give large amounts of water or milk if available and transport to medical facility. In case of inhalation, remove to fresh air and seek medical attention.

 

Carefully neutralize spills of hydrochloric acid with a suitable agent such as powdered sodium bicarbonate, further dilute with absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Dilution with water before applying the solid adsorbent may be an effective means of reducing exposure to hydrogen chloride vapor. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

 

Leaks of HCl gas are evident from the formation of dense white fumes on contact with the atmosphere. Small leaks can be detected by holding an open container of concentrated ammonium hydroxide near the site of the suspected leak; dense white fumes confirm that a leak is present. In case of accidental release of hydrogen chloride gas, such as from a leaking cylinder or associated apparatus, evacuate the area and eliminate the source of the leak if this can be done safely. Remove cylinder to a fume hood or remote area if it cannot be shut off. Full respiratory protection and protective clothing may be required to deal with a hydrogen chloride release.

Disposal

In many localities, hydrochloric acid or the residue from a spill may be disposed of down the drain after appropriate dilution and neutralization. Otherwise, hydrochloric acid and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. Excess hydrogen chloride in cylinders should be returned to the manufacturer. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: HYDROGEN

Substance

Hydrogen

 

 

(Water gas)

 

 

CAS 1333-74-0

 

Formula

H2

 

Physical Properties

Colorless gas

 

 

bp - 252.8 °C, mp - 259.2 °C

 

 

Slightly soluble in water (0.17 mg/100 mL)

Odor

Odorless gas

 

Vapor Density

0.069 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

Critical temperature is - 239.9 °C; noncondensible above this temperature

Autoignition Temperature

500 to 590 °C

 

Toxicity Data

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

None established; simple asphyxiant

Major Hazards

Highly flammable gas; explosion hazard in the presence of heat, flame, or oxidizing agents.

Toxicity

Hydrogen is practically nontoxic. In high concentrations this gas is a simple asphyxiant, and ultimate loss of consciousness may occur when oxygen concentrations fall below 18%. Skin contact with liquid hydrogen can cause frostbite.

Flammability and Explosibility

Hydrogen is a highly flammable gas that burns with an almost invisible flame and low heat radiation. Hydrogen forms explosive mixtures with air from 4 to 75% by volume. These explosive mixtures of hydrogen with air (or oxygen) can be ignited by a number of finely divided metals (such as common hydrogenation catalysts). In the event of fire, shut off the flow of gas and extinguish with carbon dioxide, dry chemical, or halon extinguishers. Warming of liquid hydrogen contained in an enclosed vessel to above its critical temperature can cause bursting of that container.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Hydrogen is a reducing agent and reacts explosively with strong oxidizers such as halogens (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine) and interhalogen compounds.

Storage and Handling

Because of its flammable and gaseous nature, hydrogen should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with flammable compounds (Chapter 5.F) and for work at high pressure (Chapter 5.H). In particular, hydrogen cylinders should be clamped or otherwise supported in place and used only in areas free of ignition sources and separate from oxidizers. Expansion of hydrogen released rapidly from a compressed cylinder will cause evolution of heat due to its negative Joule-Thompson coefficient.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Accidents

If large amounts of hydrogen are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once. In the event of a leak, remove all ignition sources and allow the hydrogen to disperse with increased ventilation. Hydrogen disperses rapidly in normal open environments. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess hydrogen cylinders should be returned to the vendor. Excess hydrogen gas present over reaction mixtures should be carefully vented to the atmosphere under conditions of good ventilation after all ignition sources have been removed. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: HYDROGEN CYANIDE

Substance

Hydrogen cyanide

(Hydrocyanic acid; prussic acid)

CAS 74-90-8

 

Formula

HCN

 

Physical Properties

Colorless or pale blue liquid or gas

bp 26 °C, mp -13 °C

Miscible in water in all proportions

 

Odor

Bitter almond odor detectable at 1 to 5 ppm; however, 20 to 60% of the population are reported to be unable to detect the odor of HCN

Vapor Pressure

750 mmHg at 25 °C

Flash Point

-18 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

538 °C

 

Toxicity Data

Approx LD oral (rat)

10 mg/kg

 

Approx LD skin

-1500 mg/kg

 

(rabbit)

 

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

63 ppm (40 min)

 

PEL (OSHA)

10 ppm (11 mg/m3)—skin

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

Ceiling 10 ppm (11 mg/m3)—skin

Major Hazards

High acute toxicity; inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact may be rapidly fatal.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of hydrogen cyanide is high, and exposure by inhalation, ingestion, or eye or skin contact can be rapidly fatal. Symptoms observed at low levels of exposure (e.g., inhalation of 18 to 36 ppm for several hours) include weakness, headache, confusion, nausea, and vomiting. Inhalation of 270 ppm can cause immediate death, and 100 to 200 ppm can be fatal in 30 to 60 min. Aqueous solutions of HCN are readily absorbed through the skin and eyes, and absorption of 50 mg can be fatal. In humans, ingestion of 50 to 100 mg of HCN can be fatal. Because there is wide variation in the ability of different individuals to detect the odor of HCN, this substance is regarded as having poor warning properties.

Effects of chronic exposure to hydrogen cyanide are nonspecific and rare.

Flammability and Explosibility

Hydrogen cyanide is a highly flammable liquid. Liquid HCN contains a stabilizer (usually phosphoric acid), and old samples may explode if the acid stabilizer is not maintained at a sufficient concentration.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Reactivity and Incompatibility

HCN can polymerize explosively if heated above 50 °C or in the presence of trace amounts of alkali.

Storage and Handling

Because of its high acute toxicity, hydrogen cyanide should be handled using the ''basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with compounds of high toxicity (Chapter 5.D) and flammability (Chapter 5.F). In particular, work with HCN should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact. Never work alone with hydrogen cyanide. HCN should be used only in areas free of ignition sources. Containers of HCN should be protected from physical damage and stored in areas separate from ignition sources and other materials. Hydrogen cyanide should not be stored for extended periods (>90 days) unless testing confirms product quality.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If hydrogen cyanide is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If HCN is inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once. Specific medical procedures for treating cyanide exposure are available but usually must be administered by properly trained personnel. Consult your environmental safety office or its equivalent before beginning work with hydrogen cyanide.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources. Cleanup should be conducted wearing appropriate chemical-resistant clothing and respiratory protection

Disposal

Excess hydrogen cyanide and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: HYDROGEN FLUORIDE AND HYDROFLUORIC ACID

Substance

Hydrogen fluoride and hydrofluoric acid

CAS 7664-39-3

 

Formula

HF

 

Physical Properties

Colorless, clear, fuming liquid

Anhydrous HF: bp 20 °C, mp -83 °C

Miscible with water

 

Odor

Acrid, irritating odor

 

Vapor Pressure

Anhydrous HF: 775 mmHg at 20 °C

Hydrofluoric acid: 14 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

Noncombustible

 

Toxicity Data

LCLO inhal (humans)

50 ppm (0.5 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

3 ppm (as fluoride)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

3 ppm (2.6 mg/m3; ceiling as fluoride)

Major Hazards

Extremely corrosive liquid and vapor that can cause severe injury via skin and eye contact, inhalation, or ingestion.

Toxicity

Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride and hydrofluoric acid are extremely corrosive to all tissues of the body. Skin contact results in painful deep-seated burns that are slow to heal. Burns from dilute (<50%) HF solutions do not usually become apparent until several hours after exposure; more concentrated solutions and anhydrous HF cause immediate painful burns and tissue destruction. HF burns pose unique dangers distinct from other acids such as HCl and H2SO4: undissociated HF readily penetrates the skin, damaging underlying tissue; fluoride ion can then cause destruction of soft tissues and decalcification of the bones. Hydrofluoric acid and HF vapor can cause severe burns to the eyes, which may lead to permanent damage and blindness. At 10 to 15 ppm, HF vapor is irritating to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Exposure to higher concentrations can result in serious damage to the lungs, and fatal pulmonary edema may develop after a delay of several hours. Brief exposure (5 min) to 50 to 250 ppm may be fatal to humans. Ingestion of HF can produce severe injury to the mouth, throat, and gastrointestinal tract and may be fatal.

HF has not been reported to be a human carcinogen. No acceptable animal test reports are available to define the developmental or reproductive toxicity of this substance.

Flammability and Explosibility

Hydrogen fluoride is not a combustible substance.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Reactivity and Incompatibility

HF reacts with glass, ceramics, and some metals. Reactions with metals may generate potentially explosive hydrogen gas.

Storage and Handling

Dilute solutions of hydrofluoric acid (<50%) should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C. Because of its corrosivity and high acute toxicity, anhydrous hydrogen fluoride and concentrated solutions of HF should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with compounds of high toxicity (Chapter 5.D). All work with HF should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and neoprene gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact. Containers of HF should be stored in secondary containers made of polyethylene in areas separate from incompatible materials. Work with anhydrous HF should be undertaken using special equipment and only by well-trained personnel familiar with first aid procedures.

Accidents

Laboratory personnel should be familiar with first aid procedures before beginning work with HF; calcium gluconate gel should be readily accessible in areas where HF exposure potential exists.

First aid must be started within seconds in the event of contact of any form. In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with water for 15 min and remove contaminated clothing. If available, apply calcium gluconate gel. Obtain medical attention at once, and inform attending physician that injury involves HF rather than other acid. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 5 min while holding the eyelids apart and seek medical attention at once. If HF is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If HF vapor is inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill of dilute hydrofluoric acid, soak up the acid with an HF-compatible spill pillow or neutralize with lime, transfer material to a polyethylene container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area. Releases of anhydrous HF require specially trained personnel.

Disposal

Excess hydrogen fluoride and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: HYDROGEN PEROXIDE

Substance

Hydrogen peroxide

(Hydrogen dioxide)

CAS 7722-84-1

 

Formula

HOOH

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 150 °C, mp -0.4 °C

Miscible in all proportions in water

 

Odor

Slightly pungent, irritating odor

 

Vapor Density

1.15 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

1 mm Hg at 15.3 °C

5 mm Hg at 30 °C

 

Flash Point

Noncombustible

 

Autoignition Temperature

None

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

75 mg/kg (70%)

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

700 mg/kg (90%)

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

9200 mg/kg (70%)

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

>2000 ppm (90%)

 

PEL (OSHA)

1 ppm (1.4 mg/m3) (90%)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

1 ppm (1.4 mg/m3) (90%)

Major Hazards

Contact with certain metals and organic compounds can lead to fires and explosions; concentrated solutions can cause severe irritation or burns of the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes.

Toxicity

Contact with aqueous concentrations of less than 50% cause skin irritation, but more concentrated solutions of H202 are corrosive to the skin. At greater than 10% concentration, hydrogen peroxide is corrosive to the eyes and can cause severe irreversible damage and possibly blindness. Hydrogen peroxide is moderately toxic by ingestion and slightly toxic by inhalation. This substance is not considered to have adequate warning properties.

Hydrogen peroxide has not been found to be carcinogenic in humans. Repeated inhalation exposures produced nasal discharge, bleached hair, and respiratory tract congestion, with some deaths occurring in rats and mice exposed to concentrations greater than 67 ppm.

Flammability and Explosibility

Hydrogen peroxide is not flammable, but concentrated solutions may undergo violent decomposition in the presence of trace impurities or upon heating.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Contact with many organic compounds can lead to immediate fires or violent explosions (consult Bretherick for references and examples). Hydrogen peroxide reacts with certain organic functional groups (ethers, acetals, etc.) to form peroxides, which may explode upon concentration. Reaction with acetone generates explosive cyclic dimeric and trimeric peroxides. Explosions may also occur on exposure of hydrogen peroxide to metals such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, copper, iron, and nickel.

Storage and Handling

Hydrogen peroxide should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the procedures for work with reactive and explosive substances (Chapter 5.G). Use extreme care when carrying out reactions with hydrogen peroxide because of the fire and explosion potential (immediate or delayed). The use of safety shields is advisable, and is essential for experiments involving concentrated (>50%) solutions of hydrogen peroxide. Sealed containers of hydrogen peroxide can build up dangerous pressures of oxygen, owing to slow decomposition.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If hydrogen peroxide is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the hydrogen peroxide with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess hydrogen peroxide and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: HYDROGEN SULFIDE

Substance

Hydrogen sulfide

(Hydrosulfuric acid, sulfur hydride)

CAS 7783-06-4

 

Formula

H2S

 

Physical Properties

Colorless gas

bp -61 °C, mp -83 °C

Slightly soluble in water (2.9 g/100 mL at 20 °C)

 

Odor

Strong rotten egg odor detectable at 0.001 to 0.1 ppm (mean = 0.0094 ppm); olfactory fatigue occurs quickly at high concentrations

Vapor Density

1.189 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

20 atm at 25 °C

 

Flash Point

< -82.4 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

260 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LC50 inhal (rat)

444 ppm (580 mg/m3)

 

LCLO inhal (human)

800 ppm (1110 mg/m3; 5 min)

 

PEL (OSHA)

20 ppm (ceiling) (28 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

10 ppm (14 mg/m3)

 

STEL (ACGIH)

15 ppm (21 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Moderately toxic gas; inhalation of large concentrations can cause unconsciousness, respiratory paralysis, and death; highly flammable.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of hydrogen sulfide by inhalation is moderate. A 5-min exposure to 800 ppm has resulted in death. Inhalation of 1000 to 2000 ppm may cause coma after a single breath. Exposure to lower concentrations may cause headache, dizziness, and upset stomach. Low concentrations of H2S (20 to 150 ppm) can cause eye irritation, which may be delayed in onset. Although the odor of hydrogen sulfide is detectable at very low concentrations, it rapidly causes olfactory fatigue at higher levels, and therefore is not considered to have adequate warning properties.

Hydrogen sulfide has not been shown to be carcinogenic or to have reproductive or developmental effects in humans.

Flammability and Explosibility

Hydrogen sulfide is flammable in air in the range of 4.3 to 45.5% (NFPA rating = 4). Combustion products (sulfur oxides) are also toxic by inhalation. In the event of a hydrogen

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

sulfide fire, stop the flow of gas if possible without risk of harmful exposure and let the fire burn itself out.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Hydrogen sulfide is incompatible with strong oxidizers. It will attack many metals, forming sulfides. Liquid hydrogen sulfide will attack some forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings. H2S reacts violently with a variety of metal oxides, including the oxides of chromium, mercury, silver, lead, nickel, and iron.

Storage and Handling

Because of its toxic, flammable, and gaseous nature, hydrogen sulfide should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with flammable compounds (Chapter 5.F) and for work at high pressure (Chapter 5.H). In particular, cylinders of hydrogen sulfide should be stored and used in a continuously ventilated gas cabinet or fume hood. Local fire codes should be reviewed for limitations on quantity and storage requirements.

Accidents

In the event of a release of hydrogen sulfide, the area should be evacuated immediately. Use appropriate respiratory protection to rescue an affected individual. Remove exposed individual to an uncontaminated area, and seek immediate emergency help. Keep victim warm, quiet, and at rest; provide assisted respiration if breathing has stopped.

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention.

To respond to a release, use appropriate protective equipment and clothing. Positive pressure air-supplied respiratory protection is required. Close cylinder valve and ventilate area. Remove cylinder to a fume hood or remote area if it cannot be shut off.

Disposal

Excess hydrogen sulfide should be returned to the manufacturer, according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: IODINE

Substance

Iodine

CAS 7553-56-2

 

Formula

I2

 

Physical Properties

Blue-violet to black crystalline solid

bp 185 °C, mp 114 °C

Slightly soluble in water (0.03 g/100 mL at 20 °C)

 

Odor

Sharp, characteristic odor

 

Vapor Density

8.8 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

0.3 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

Noncombustible

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

14,000 mg/kg

 

LCLO inhal (rat)

80 ppm (800 mg/m3; 1 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

0.1 ppm (ceiling, 1 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

0.1 ppm (ceiling, 1 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Iodine vapor is highly toxic and is a severe irritant to the eyes and respiratory tract.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of iodine by inhalation is high. Exposure may cause severe breathing difficulties, which may be delayed in onset; headache, tightness of the chest, and congestion of the lungs may also result. In an experimental investigation, four human subjects tolerated 0.57 ppm iodine vapor for 5 min without eye irritation, but all experienced eye irritation in 2 min at 1.63 ppm. Iodine in crystalline form or in concentrated solutions is a severe skin irritant; it is not easily removed from the skin, and the lesions resemble thermal burns. Iodine is more toxic by the oral route in humans than in experimental animals; ingestion of 2 to 3 g of the solid may be fatal in humans.

Iodine has not been found to be carcinogenic or to show reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans. Chronic absorption of iodine may cause insomnia, inflammation of the eyes and nose, bronchitis, tremor, rapid heartbeat, diarrhea, and weight loss.

Flammability and Explosibility

Iodine is noncombustible and in itself represents a negligible fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame. However, when heated, it will increase the burning rate of combustible materials.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Iodine is stable under normal temperatures and pressures. Iodine may react violently with acetylene, ammonia, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, acrylonitrile, powdered antimony, tetraamine copper(II) sulfate, and liquid chlorine. Iodine

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

can form sensitive, explosive mixtures with potassium, sodium, and oxygen difluoride; ammonium hydroxide reacts with iodine to produce nitrogen triiodide, which detonates on drying.

Storage and Handling

Iodine should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C. In particular, safety goggles and rubber gloves should be worn when handling iodine, and operations involving large quantities should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure to iodine vapor or dusts by inhalation.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If iodine is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, sweep up solid iodine, soak up liquid spills with absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess iodine and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: LEAD AND ITS INORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Formula

Pb

 

Physical Properties

Bluish-white, silvery, or gray solid

bp 1740 °C, mp 327 °C

Insoluble (metal; solubility of lead salts varies)

 

Odor

Odorless

 

Toxicity Data

LDLO oral (pigeon)

160 mg/kg

 

PEL (OSHA)

0.05 mg/m3

 

PEL (action level)

0.03 mg/m3

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

0.05 mg/m3

 

(PEL and TLV apply to lead and inorganic lead compounds)

Major Hazards

Chronic toxin affecting the kidneys and central and peripheral nervous systems; reproductive and developmental toxin.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of lead and inorganic lead compounds is moderate to low. Symptoms of exposure include decreased appetite, insomnia, headache, muscle and joint pain, colic, and constipation. Inorganic lead compounds are not significantly absorbed through the skin.

Chronic exposure to inorganic lead via inhalation or ingestion can result in damage to the peripheral and central nervous system, anemia, and chronic kidney disease. Lead can accumulate in the soft tissues and bones, with the highest accumulation in the liver and kidneys, and elimination is slow. Lead has shown developmental and reproductive toxicity in both male and female animals and humans. Lead is listed by IARC in Group 2B ("possible human carcinogen") and by NTP as "reasonably anticipated to be a carcinogen," but is not considered to be a "select carcinogen" under the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard.

Flammability and Explosibility

Lead powder is combustible when exposed to heat or flame.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Violent reactions of lead with sodium azide, zirconium, sodium acetylide, and chlorine trifluoride have been reported. Reactivity of lead compounds varies depending on structure.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Storage and Handling

Lead should be handled in the laboratory using the ''basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C. In particular, work with lead dust, molten lead, and lead salts capable of forming dusts should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If lead or lead compounds are ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of such substances are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, sweep up dry lead and its compounds, soak up solutions with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release causing significant airborne particulate levels.

Disposal

Excess lead and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: LITHIUM ALUMINUM HYDRIDE

Substance

Lithium aluminum hydride

(LAH, lithium tetrahydroaluminate)

CAS 16853-85-3

 

Formula

LiAlH4

 

Physical Properties

White to gray crystalline solid

Decomposes above 125° C

Reacts vigorously with water

 

Odor

Odorless solid

 

Autoignition Temperature

Ignites in moist or heated air

 

Toxicity Data

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

2 mg (Al)/m3

Major Hazards

Reacts violently with water, acids, and many oxygenated compounds; may ignite in moist air; corrosive to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes.

Toxicity

Lithium aluminum hydride is highly corrosive to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Contact with moisture forms lithium hydroxide, which can cause severe burns. Powdered LAH forms dusts that can pose an inhalation hazard. Ingestion of this substance may cause aching muscles, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and unconsciousness and may be fatal. Ingestion can result in gas embolism due to the formation of hydrogen.

No chronic effects of lithium aluminum hydride have been identified.

Flammability and Explosibility

Lithium aluminum hydride is a highly flammable solid and may ignite in moist or heated air. Exposure to water results in the release of hydrogen, which can be ignited by the heat from the exothermic reaction. Lithium aluminum hydride should not be used as a drying agent for solvents because fires can easily result (LAH decomposes at about 125° C, a temperature easily reached at a flask's surface in a heating mantle). The decomposition products of LAH can be quite explosive, and the products of its reaction with carbon dioxide have been reported to be explosive. Use dry chemical powder or sand to extinguish fires involving lithium aluminum hydride. Never use water or carbon dioxide extinguishers on an LAH fire.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Lithium aluminum hydride reacts violently with water, acids, oxidizers, alcohols, and many oxygenated organic compounds, including, in particular, peroxides, hydroperoxides, and peracids. LAH reacts with many metal halides to produce metal hydride products, which are flammable and toxic.

Storage and Handling

Lithium aluminum hydride should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

with flammable (Chapter 5.F) and reactive (Chapter 5.G) substances. In particular, LAH should be handled in areas free of ignition sources under an inert atmosphere. Safety glasses, impermeable gloves, and a fire-retardant laboratory coat are required. A dry powder fire extinguisher or pail of sand (and shovel) must be available in areas where LAH is to be handled or stored. Work with large quantities of powdered LAH should be conducted in a fume hood under an inert gas such as nitrogen or argon. Lithium aluminum hydride should be stored in tightly sealed containers in a cool, dry area separate from combustible materials. Dry LAH powder should never be exposed to water or moist air. Lithium aluminum hydride can be a finely powdered reagent that produces a reactive dust on handling. The older practice of grinding lithium aluminum hydride prior to use can cause explosions and should not be employed.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If lithium aluminum hydride is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of LAH dust are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, instruct others to maintain a safe distance; while wearing a face shield and goggles, laboratory coat, and butyl rubber gloves, cover the spilled material with sand. Scoop the resulting mixture into a container suitable for treatment or disposal as discussed below.

Disposal

Small amounts of excess LAH can be destroyed by forming a suspension or solution in an inert solvent such as diethyl ether or hexane, cooling in an ice bath, and slowly and carefully adding ethyl acetate dropwise with stirring. This is followed by the addition of a saturated aqueous solution of ammonium chloride.

Excess lithium aluminum hydride and the products of the treatment described above should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: MERCURY

Substance

Mercury

(Quicksilver, hydrargyrum)

CAS 7439-97-6

 

Formula

Hg

 

Physical Properties

Silvery, mobile liquid

bp 357 °C, mp -39 °C

Very slightly soluble in water (0.002 g/100 mL at 20 °C)

 

Odor

Odorless

 

Vapor Density

6.9 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

0.0012 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

Noncombustible

 

Toxicity Data

LCLO inhal (rabbit)

29 mg/m3 (30 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

0.1 mg/m3 (ceiling)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

0.025 mg/m3—skin

Major Hazards

Repeated or prolonged exposure to mercury vapor is highly toxic to the central nervous system.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of mercury varies significantly with the route of exposure. Ingestion is largely without effects. Inhalation of high concentrations of mercury causes severe respiratory irritation, digestive disturbances, and marked kidney damage. There are no warning properties for exposure to mercury vapor, which is colorless, odorless, and tasteless.

Toxicity caused by repeated or prolonged exposure to mercury vapor or liquid is characterized by emotional disturbances, inflammation of the mouth and gums, general fatigue, memory loss, headaches, tremors, anorexia, and weight loss. Skin absorption of mercury and mercury vapor adds to the toxic effects of vapor inhalation. At low levels the onset of symptoms is insidious; fine tremors of the hand, eyelids, lips, and tongue are often the presenting complaints. Mercury has been reported to be capable of causing sensitization dermatitis. Mercury has not been shown to be a human carcinogen or reproductive toxin

Flammability and Explosibility

Mercury is not combustible.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Mercury is a fairly unreactive metal that is highly resistant to corrosion. It can dissolve a number of metals, such as silver, gold, and tin, forming amalgams. Mercury can react violently with acetylene and ammonia.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Storage and Handling

Mercury should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C. In particular, precautions should be taken to prevent spills of mercury because drops of the liquid metal can easily become lodged in floor cracks, behind cabinets, and equipment, etc., with the result that the mercury vapor concentration in the laboratory may then exceed the safe and allowable limits. Containers of mercury should be kept tightly sealed and stored in secondary containers (such as a plastic pan or tray) in a well-ventilated area. When breakage of instruments or apparatus containing significant quantities of Hg is possible, the equipment should be placed in a plastic tray or pan that is large enough to contain the mercury in the event of an accident. Transfers of mercury between containers should be carried out in a fume hood over a tray or pan to confine any spills.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If mercury is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this substance are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, collect the mercury using the procedures described in Chapter 5.C, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection will be necessary in the event of a large spill, release in a confined area, or spill under conditions of higher than normal temperatures.

Disposal

Excess mercury should be collected for recycling, and waste material containing mercury should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: METHANOL

Substance

Methanol

(Methyl alcohol, wood alcohol)

CAS 67-56-1

 

Formula

CH3OH

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 65 °C, mp -98 °C

Miscible with water in all proportions

 

Odor

Faint alcohol odor detectable at 4 to 6000 ppm (mean = 160 ppm)

Vapor Density

1.1 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

96 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

11 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

385 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

5628 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

15,840 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

>145,000 ppm (1 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

200 ppm (260 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

200 ppm (260 mg/m3)—skin

 

STEL (ACGIH)

250 ppm (328 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Highly flammable liquid; low acute toxicity.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of methanol by ingestion, inhalation, and skin contact is low. Ingestion of methanol or inhalation of high concentrations can produce headache, drowsiness, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, blindness, and death. In humans, 60 to 250 mL is reported to be a lethal dose. Prolonged or repeated skin contact can cause irritation and inflammation; methanol can be absorbed through the skin in toxic amounts. Contact of methanol with the eyes can cause irritation and burns. Methanol is not considered to have adequate warning properties.

Methanol has not been found to be carcinogenic in humans. Information available is insufficient to characterize the reproductive hazard presented by methanol. In animal tests, the compound produced developmental effects only at levels that were maternally toxic; hence, it is not considered to be a highly significant hazard to the fetus. Tests in bacterial or mammalian cell cultures demonstrate no mutagenic activity.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Flammability and Explosibility

Methanol is a flammable liquid (NFPA rating = 3) that burns with an invisible flame in daylight; its vapor can travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and "flash back." Methanol-water mixtures will burn unless very dilute. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for methanol fires.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Methanol can react violently with strong oxidizing agents such as chromium trioxide, with strong mineral acids such as perchloric, sulfuric, and nitric acids, and with highly reactive metals such as potassium. Sodium and magnesium metal react vigorously with methanol.

Storage and Handling

Methanol should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for dealing with extremely flammable substances (Chapter 5.F). In particular, methanol should be used only in areas free of ignition sources, and quantities greater than 1 liter should be stored in tightly sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidizers.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If methanol is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the methanol with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess methanol and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: METHYL ETHYL KETONE

Substance

Methyl ethyl ketone

(2-Butanone, methyl acetone, MEK, butan-2-one)

CAS 78-93-3

 

Formula

CH3COCH2CH3

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 80 °C, mp -86 °C

Highly soluble in water (25.6 g/100 mL at 20 °C)

 

Odor

Sweet/sharp odor detectable at 2 to 85 ppm (mean = 16 ppm)

Vapor Density

2.5 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

71.2 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

-9 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

516 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

2737 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

6480 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

23,500 mg/m3 (8 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

200 ppm (590 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

200 ppm (590 mg/m3)

 

STEL (ACGIH)

300 ppm(885 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Highly flammable

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of methyl ethyl ketone is low. Exposure to high concentrations can cause headache, dizziness, drowsiness, vomiting, and numbness of the extremities. Irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat can also occur. Methyl ethyl ketone is considered to have adequate warning properties.

Repeated or prolonged skin exposure to methyl ethyl ketone can cause defatting of the skin, leading to cracking, secondary infection, and dermatitis. This compound has not been found to be carcinogenic or to show reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans. Methyl ethyl ketone has exhibited developmental toxicity in some animal tests.

Flammability and Explosibility

Methyl ethyl ketone is extremely flammable (NFPA rating = 3), and its vapor can travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and "flash back." MEK vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 1.9 to 11% (by volume). Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for MEK fires.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Fires and/or explosions may result from the reaction of methyl ethyl ketone with strong oxidizing agents and very strong bases.

Storage and Handling

Methyl ethyl ketone should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for dealing with extremely flammable substances (Chapter 5.F). In particular, MEK should be used only in areas free of ignition sources, and quantities greater than 1 liter should be stored in tightly sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidizers.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If methyl ethyl ketone is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the methyl ethyl ketone with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess methyl ethyl ketone and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: METHYL IODIDE

Substance

Methyl iodide

(Iodomethane)

CAS 74-88-4

 

Formula

CH3I

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid; may darken upon exposure to light

bp 42 °C, mp -66 °C

Slightly soluble in water (2 g/100 mL)

 

Odor

Sweet, ethereal odor (no threshold data available); inadequate warning properties

Vapor Density

4.9 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

400 mmHg at 25 °C

 

Flash Point

Noncombustible

 

Toxicity Data

LDLO oral (rat)

150 mg/kg

 

LDLO skin (rat)

800 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

1300 mg/m3 (4 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

5 ppm(28 mg/m3)—skin

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

2 ppm(11 mg/m3)—skin

Major Hazards

Moderately toxic, volatile substance readily absorbed through skin.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of methyl iodide is moderate by ingestion, inhalation, and skin contact. This substance is readily absorbed through the skin and may cause systemic toxicity as a result. Methyl iodide is moderately irritating upon contact with the skin and eyes. Methyl iodide is an acute neurotoxin. Symptoms of exposure (which may be delayed for several hours) can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, drowsiness, slurred speech, visual disturbances, and tremor. Massive overexposure may cause pulmonary edema, convulsions, coma, and death.

Chronic exposure to methyl iodide vapor may cause neurotoxic effects such as dizziness, drowsiness, and blurred vision. There is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of methyl iodide to experimental animals; it is not classified as an OSHA "select carcinogen."

Flammability and Explosibility

Noncombustible. High vapor pressure may cause containers to burst at elevated temperatures.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Methyl iodide may react vigorously with alkali metals and strong oxidizing agents.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Storage and Handling

Methyl iodide should be handled using the ''basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If methyl iodide is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, soak up methyl iodide with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess methyl iodide and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: NICKEL CARBONYL

Substance

Nickel carbonyl

(Tetracarbonyl nickel)

CAS 13463-39-3

 

Formula

Ni(CO)4

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 43 °C, mp -25 °C

Very slightly soluble in water (0.0018 g/100 mL at 20 °C)

 

Odor

Sooty odor detectable at 0.5 to 3 ppm

 

Vapor Density

5.89 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

321 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

< -20 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

Explodes above 60 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LC50 inhal (rat)

35 ppm (240 mg/m3; 30 min)

 

PEL (OSHA)

0.001 ppm (0.007 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

0.05 mg/m3

Major Hazards

High acute toxicity; possible human carcinogen (OSHA "select carcinogen"); highly flammable.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of nickel carbonyl by inhalation is high. Acute toxic effects occur in two stages, immediate and delayed. Headache, dizziness, shortness of breath, vomiting, and nausea are the initial symptoms of overexposure; the delayed effects (10 to 36 h) consist of chest pain, coughing, shortness of breath, bluish discoloration of the skin, and in severe cases, delirium, convulsions, and death. Recovery is protracted and characterized by fatigue on slight exertion. Nickel carbonyl is not regarded as having adequate warning properties.

Repeated or prolonged exposure to nickel carbonyl has been associated with an increased incidence of cancer of the lungs and sinuses. Nickel carbonyl is listed by IARC in Group 2B ("possible human carcinogen"), is listed by NTP as "reasonably anticipated to be a carcinogen," and is classified as a "select carcinogen'' under the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard.

Flammability and Explosibility

Nickel carbonyl is a highly flammable liquid (NFPA rating = 3) that may ignite spontaneously and explodes when heated above 60 °C. Its lower flammable limit in air is 2% by

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

volume; the upper limit has not been reported. Carbon dioxide, water, or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for nickel carbonyl fires.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

In the presence of air, nickel carbonyl forms a deposit that becomes peroxidized and may ignite. Nickel carbonyl is incompatible with mercury, nitric acid, chlorine, and other oxidizers, which may cause fires and explosions. Products of decomposition (nickel oxide and carbon monoxide) are less toxic that nickel carbonyl itself.

Storage and Handling

Because of its carcinogenicity and flammability, nickel carbonyl should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C supplemented by the additional precautions for work with compounds of high chronic toxicity (Chapter 5.D) and extremely flammable substances (Chapter 5.F). In particular, work with nickel carbonyl should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact. Nickel carbonyl should only be used in areas free of ignition sources. Containers of nickel carbonyl should be stored in secondary containers in the dark in areas separate from oxidizers.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If nickel carbonyl is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the nickel carbonyl with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection will be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess nickel carbonyl and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: NITRIC ACID

Substance

Nitric acid

CAS 7697-37-2

 

Formula

HNO3

 

Physical Properties

Colorless, yellowish, or reddish-brown fuming liquid

"Concentrated nitric acid" (68 to 70% HNO3 by wt): bp 122 °C

"White fuming nitric acid" (97.5% HNO3, 2% H2O, <0.5% NOx): bp 83 °C, mp -42 °C

"Red fuming nitric acid" contains 85% HNO3, <5% H2O, and 6 to 15% NOx

Miscible with water in all proportions

 

Odor

Suffocating fumes detectable at <5.0 ppm

 

Vapor Density

>1 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

57 mmHg at 25 °C for white fuming nitric acid

49 mmHg at 20 °C for 70% nitric acid

 

Flash Point

Not flammable

 

Toxicity Data

LC50 inhal (rat)

2500 ppm (1 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

2 ppm (5 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

2 ppm (5.2 mg/m3)

 

STEL (ACGIH)

4 ppm (10 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Highly corrosive to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes; powerful oxidizing agent that ignites on contact or reacts explosively with many organic and inorganic substances.

 

Toxicity

Concentrated nitric acid and its vapors are highly corrosive to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. Dilute solutions cause mild skin irritation and hardening of the epidermis. Contact with concentrated nitric acid stains the skin yellow and produces deep painful burns. Eye contact can cause severe burns and permanent damage. Inhalation of high concentrations can lead to severe respiratory irritation and delayed effects, including pulmonary edema, which may be fatal. Ingestion of nitric acid may result in burning and corrosion of the mouth, throat, and stomach. An oral dose of 10 mL can be fatal in humans.

Tests in animals demonstrate no carcinogenic or developmental toxicity for nitric acid. Tests for mutagenic activity or for reproductive hazards have not been performed.

 

Flammability and

Explosibility Not a combustible substance, but a strong oxidizer. Contact with easily oxidizible materials including many organic substances may result in fires or explosions.

 

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Nitric acid is a powerful oxidizing agent and ignites on contact or reacts explosively with a variety of organic substances including acetic anhydride, acetone, acetonitrile, many alcohols, thiols, and amines, dichloromethane, DMSO, and certain aromatic compounds

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

including benzene. Nitric acid also reacts violently with a wide range of inorganic substances including many bases, reducing agents, alkali metals, copper, phosphorus, and ammonia. Nitric acid corrodes steel.

Storage and Handling

Nitric acid should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C. In particular, splash goggles and rubber gloves should be worn when handling this acid, and containers of nitric acid should be stored in a well ventilated location separated from organic substances and other combustible materials.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If nitric acid is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, soak up nitric acid with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess nitric acid and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: NITROGEN DIOXIDE

Substance

Nitrogen dioxide

(Nitrogen peroxide)

CAS 10102-44-0

 

Formula

NO2

 

Physical Properties

Yellow-brown liquid to reddish brown gas; generally a mixture of NO2 and N2O4 (at - 11 °C liquid is 0.01% NO2, at 21 °C liquid is 0.1% NO2 and gas is 15.9% NO2) bp 21 °C, mp -11 °C

Miscible in all proportions with water reacting to form nitric and nitrous acids

 

Odor

Pungent, acrid odor detectable at 0.12 ppm

Vapor Density

1.58 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

720 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

Noncombustible

 

Toxicity Data

LC50 inhal (rat)

88 ppm (4 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

5 ppm (9 mg/m3; ceiling)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

3 ppm (5.6 mg/m3)

 

STEL (ACGIH)

5 ppm (9.4 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Highly toxic by inhalation; high concentrations of the gas and liquid NO2-N2O4 are corrosive to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of nitrogen dioxide by inhalation is high. Inhalation may cause shortness of breath and pulmonary edema progressing to respiratory illness, reduction in the blood's oxygen carrying capacity, chronic lung disorders and death; symptoms may be delayed for hours and may recur after several weeks. Toxic effects may occur after exposure to concentrations of 10 ppm for 10 min and include coughing, chest pain, frothy sputum, and difficulty in breathing. Brief exposure to 200 ppm can cause severe lung damage and delayed pulmonary edema, which may be fatal. Nitrogen dioxide at concentrations of 10 to 20 ppm is mildly irritating to the eyes; higher concentrations of the gas and liquid NO2-N2O4 are highly corrosive to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Nitrogen dioxide can be detected below the permissible exposure limit by its odor and irritant effects and is regarded as a substance with adequate warning properties.

Animal testing indicates that nitrogen dioxide does not have carcinogenic or reproductive effects. It does produce genetic damage in bacterial and mammalian cell cultures; however, most studies in animals indicate that it does not produce heritable genetic damage.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Flammability and Explosibility

Nitrogen dioxide is not combustible (NFPA rating = 0) but is a strong oxidizing agent and will support combustion. Cylinders of NO2 gas exposed to fire or intense heat may vent rapidly or explode.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Nitrogen dioxide-nitrogen tetroxide is a powerful oxidizer and can cause many organic substances to ignite. This substance may react violently with alcohols, aldehydes, acetonitrile, DMSO, certain hydrocarbons, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Metals react vigorously and alkali metals ignite in NO2.

Storage and Handling

Because of its high acute toxicity, nitrogen dioxide should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with compounds of high toxicity (Chapter 5.D) and compressed gases (Chapter 5.H). In particular, cylinders of nitrogen dioxide should be stored and used in a continuously ventilated gas cabinet or fume hood.

Accidents

If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, the person should be moved to fresh air and medical attention should be sought at once. In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, wash promptly with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If nitrogen dioxide is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately.

In the event of a release of nitrogen dioxide, use appropriate protective equipment and clothing. Positive pressure air-supplied respiratory protection may be required in cases involving a large release of nitrogen dioxide gas. If a cylinder is the source of the leak and the leak cannot be stopped, remove the leaking cylinder to a fume hood or a safe place, if possible, in the open air, and repair the leak or allow the cylinder to empty.

Disposal

Excess nitrogen dioxide and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: OSMIUM TETROXIDE

Substance

Osmium tetroxide

(Osmic acid, perosmic oxide, osmium(IV) oxide)

CAS 20816-12-0

 

Formula

OsO4

 

Physical Properties

Colorless to pale yellow-green crystals

bp 130 °C (but sublimes at lower temperature), mp 40 °C

Moderately soluble in water (7 g/100 mL)

 

Odor

Acrid, chlorine-like odor detectable at 2 ppm (20 mg/m3)

Vapor Density

8.8 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

7 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

14 mg/kg

 

LCLO inhal (rat)

40 ppm (4 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

0.0002 ppm (0.002 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

0.0002 ppm (0.002 mg/m3)

 

STEL (ACGIH)

0.0006 ppm (0.006 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

High acute toxicity; severe irritant of the eyes and respiratory tract; vapor can cause serious eye damage.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of osmium tetroxide is high, and it is a severe irritant of the eyes and respiratory tract. Exposure to osmium tetroxide vapor can damage the cornea of the eye. Irritation is generally the initial symptom of exposure to low concentrations of osmium tetroxide vapor, and lacrimation, a gritty feeling in the eyes, and the appearance of rings around lights may also be noted. In most cases, recovery occurs in a few days. Concentrations of vapor that do not cause immediate irritation can have an insidious cumulative effect; symptoms may not be noted until several hours after exposure. Contact of the eyes with concentrated solutions of this substance can cause severe damage and possible blindness. Inhalation can cause headache, coughing, dizziness, lung damage, and difficult breathing and may be fatal. Contact of the vapor with skin can cause dermatitis, and direct contact with the solid can lead to severe irritation and burns. Exposure to osmium tetroxide via inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion can lead to systemic toxic effects involving liver and kidney damage. Osmium tetroxide is regarded as a substance with poor warning properties.

Chronic exposure to osmium tetroxide can result in an accumulation of osmium compounds in the liver and kidney and damage to these organs. Osmium tetroxide has been reported to cause reproductive toxicity in animals; this substance has not been shown to be carcinogenic or to show reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Flammability and Explosibility

Noncombustible

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Osmium tetroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid to form chlorine gas.

Storage and Handling

Because of its high acute toxicity, osmium tetroxide should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with compounds of high toxicity (Chapter 5.D). In particular, all work with osmium tetroxide should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact. Osmium tetroxide as solid or solutions should be stored in tightly sealed containers, and these should be placed in secondary containers.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 minutes (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If osmium tetroxide is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, mix osmium tetroxide with an absorbent material such as vermiculite or dry sand (avoid raising dust), place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Evacuation and cleanup using respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess osmium tetroxide solutions can be rendered safer by reaction with sodium sulfite to produce insoluble osmium dioxide. Ethanol will also react to produce the dioxide. Corn oil or sodium sulfide may also be used to deactivate osmium tetroxide. Osmium containing waste should be placed in a tightly sealed, labeled container and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: OXYGEN

Substance

Oxygen

(GOX, gas only; LOX, liquid only)

CAS 7782-44-7

Formula

O2

Physical Properties

Colorless gas

bp -183 °C, mp -219 °C

Slightly soluble in water (0.004 g/100 mL at 25°C)

Odor

Odorless gas

Vapor Density

1.11 (air = 1.0)

Vapor Pressure

>760 mmHg at 20 °C

Toxicity Data

OSHA recommends a minimum oxygen concentration of 19.5% for human occupancy.

Major Hazards

Powerful oxidizing agent; concentrations greater than 25% greatly enhance the combustion rate of many materials.

Toxicity

Oxygen is nontoxic under the usual conditions of laboratory use. Breathing pure oxygen at one atmosphere may produce cough and chest pains within 8 to 24 h, and concentrations of 60% may produce these symptoms in several days. Liquid oxygen can cause severe "burns" and tissue damage on contact with the skin due to extreme cold.

Flammability and Explosibility

Oxygen itself is nonflammable, but at concentrations greater than 25% supports and vigorously accelerates the combustion of flammable materials. Some materials (including metals) that are noncombustible in air will burn in the presence of oxygen.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Oxygen is incompatible with combustible materials, including many lubricants and elastomers. Oil, greases, and other readily combustible substances should never be allowed to come in contact with O2 cylinders, valves, regulators, and fittings. Contact of liquid oxygen with many organic substances can lead to an explosion.

Storage and Handling

Oxygen should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the procedures for work with compressed gases found in Chapter 5.H.

Accidents

In the event of skin or eye contact with liquid oxygen, seek medical attention for cryogenic burns. Do not enter areas of high oxygen gas concentration, which can saturate clothing and increase its flammability. Ventilate area to evaporate and disperse oxygen.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Disposal

Excess liquid oxygen should be allowed to evaporate in a well-ventilated outdoor area. Vent oxygen gas to outside location. Locations should be remote from work areas, open flames, or sources of ignition and combustibles. Return empty and excess cylinders of oxygen to manufacturer. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: OZONE

Substance

Ozone

CAS 10028-15-6

 

Formula

O3

 

Physical Properties

Colorless to bluish gas

bp -112 °C, mp -193 °C

Almost insoluble in water (0.00003 g/100 mL at 20 °C)

 

Odor

Pungent odor, detectable at 0.01 to 0.04 ppm; sharp disagreeable odor at 1 ppm

Vapor Density

1.65 (air = 1.0)

 

Toxicity Data

LC50 inhal (rat)

4.8 ppm (4 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

0.1 ppm (0.2 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

0.1 ppm (0.2 mg/m3)

 

STEL (ACGIH)

0.3 ppm (0.6 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Extremely irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract; high acute toxicity. Reacts violently with many oxidizable organic and inorganic substances; may form shock-sensitive and highly explosive reaction products.

Toxicity

Ozone is a highly toxic gas that is extremely irritating to the eyes, mucous membranes, and respiratory tract. The characteristic odor of ozone can be detected below the permissible exposure limit, and this compound is therefore regarded to have adequate warning properties. However, at higher concentrations the ability to smell ozone may decrease. Inhalation of 1 ppm ozone may cause headaches and irritation of the upper and lower respiratory tract. The first symptoms of exposure include irritation of the eyes, dryness of throat, and coughing; these symptoms disappear after exposure ceases. Exposure at higher levels may lead to lacrimation, vomiting, upset stomach, labored breathing, lowering of pulse rate and blood pressure, lung congestion, tightness in the chest, and pulmonary edema, which can be fatal. Exposure to 100 ppm of ozone for 1 hour can be lethal to humans.

Animal studies indicate that chronic exposure to ozone may result in pulmonary damage, leading to chronic lung impairment. Continual daily exposure to ozone can cause premature aging.

Flammability and Explosibility

Ozone by itself is not flammable. Liquid ozone and concentrated solutions are extremely hazardous and can explode on warming or when shocked.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Ozone is a powerful oxidant and can react explosively with readily oxidizable substances and reducing agents. Explosions can occur when ozone is exposed to bromine, hydrogen bromide, hydrogen iodide, nitrogen oxides, lithium aluminum hydride, metal hydrides, hydrazine, alkyl metals, stilbene, ammonia, arsine, and phosphine. Ozone reacts with alkenes and other unsaturated organic compounds to form ozonides, many of which are

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

highly unstable and explosive. Ozone combines with many aromatic compounds and ethers to form shock-sensitive and explosive products.

Storage and Handling

Because of its high degree of acute toxicity, ozone should be handled in the laboratory using the ''basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with compounds of high toxicity (Chapter 5.D) and high reactivity (Chapter 5.G). In particular, work with ozone should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation. Ozone is usually produced in the laboratory with a ozone generator, and care should be taken to ensure adequate ventilation in the area where the ozone generation equipment is located. Because of the possibility of the generation of explosive ozonides, ozonolysis reactions should always be conducted in a fume hood behind a safety shield.

Accidents

An ozone leak can be easily detected by its characteristic pungent odor. If a large amount of ozone is inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once. In the event of eye contact, promptly wash eyes with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention.

Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of an accidental release of ozone.

Disposal

Ozone is usually produced on demand from a laboratory ozone generator, and a procedure for the treatment of excess ozone should be included in the experimental plan. Small to moderate amounts of excess ozone can be vented to the fume hood or other exhaust system. When large amounts of excess ozone are anticipated, the excess gas should be passed through a series of traps containing a 1 to 2% solution of potassium iodide or other reducing agent before venting to the fume hood.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: PALLADIUM ON CARBON

Substance

Palladium on carbon

(Pd/C)

CAS 7440-05-3 (palladium)

 

Formula

Pd/C

 

Physical Properties

Black powder

mp 1555 °C, bp 3167 °C (palladium)

Insoluble in water

 

Odor

Odorless

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

200 mg/kg (palladium chloride)

 

LC50 intratracheal (rat)

6 mg/kg (palladium chloride)

Major Hazards

May ignite on exposure to air, particularly when containing adsorbed hydrogen; readily causes ignition of flammable solvents in the presence of air.

Toxicity

Very little information is available on the toxicity of palladium and its compounds. There is some evidence that chronic exposure to palladium particles in dust can have toxic effects on the blood and respiratory systems. Finely divided carbon is irritating to mucous membranes and the upper respiratory tract.

Flammability and Explosibility

Palladium on carbon catalysts containing adsorbed hydrogen are pyrophoric, particularly when dry and at elevated temperatures. Palladium on carbon catalysts prepared by formaldehyde reduction are less pyrophoric than those reduced with hydrogen. Finely divided carbon, like most materials in powder form, is capable of creating a dust explosion.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Catalysts prepared on high surface area supports are highly active and readily cause ignition of hydrogen/air and solvent/air mixtures. Methanol is notable for easy ignition because of its high volatility. Addition of catalyst to a tetrahydroborate solution may cause ignition of liberated hydrogen.

Storage and Handling

Because of its high potential for ignition, palladium on carbon should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with reactive and explosive chemicals (Chapter 5.G). In particular, palladium on carbon should always be handled under an inert atmosphere (preferably argon), and reaction vessels should be flushed with inert gas before the catalyst is added. Dry catalyst should never be added to an organic solvent in the presence of air. Palladium on carbon recovered from catalytic hydrogenation reactions by filtration requires careful handling because it is usually saturated with hydrogen and will ignite spontaneously on exposure to air. The filter cake should never be allowed to dry, and the moist material should be added to a large quantity of water and disposed of properly.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If palladium on carbon is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of dust are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, wet the palladium on carbon with water, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess palladium on carbon and waste material containing this substance should be covered in water, placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: PERACETIC ACID (AND RELATED PERCARBOXYLIC ACIDS)

Substance

Peracetic acid

(Peroxyacetic acid; acetyl hydroperoxide)

CAS 79-21-0

Note: Although other percarboxylic acids have different physical properties, their reactivity and toxicology are similar to those of peracetic acid.

 

Formula

CH3C(O)OOH

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 105 °C (40% solution in acetic acid), mp 0.1 °C

Miscible with water

 

Odor

Acrid odor

 

Vapor Pressure

Low

 

Flash Point

40.5 °C (open cup)

 

Autoignition Temperature

Explodes when heated to 110 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

1540 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

1410 mg/kg

Major Hazards

Severely irritating to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes; can form explosive mixtures with easily oxidized substances.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of peracetic acid is low. However, peracids are extremely irritating to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. Skin or eye contact with the 40% solution in acetic acid can cause serious burns. Inhalation of high concentrations of mists of peracetic acid solutions can lead to burning sensations, coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.

Peracetic acid has not been found to be carcinogenic or to show reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans. There is some evidence that this compound is a weak carcinogen from animal studies (mice).

Data on other peracids suggest peracetic acid may show the worst chronic and acute toxicity of this class of compounds. Other commonly available peracids, such as perbenzoic acid and m-chloroperbenzoic acid (MCPBA) are less toxic, less volatile, and more easily handled than the parent substance.

Flammability and Explosibility

Peracetic acid explodes when heated to 110 °C, and the pure compound is extremely shock sensitive. Virtually all peracids are strong oxidizing agents and decompose explosively on heating. Moreover, most peracids are highly flammable and can accelerate the combustion

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

of other flammable materials if present in a fire. Fires involving peracetic acid can be fought with water, dry chemical, or halon extinguishers. Containers of peracetic acid heated in a fire may explode.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Peracids such as peracetic acid are strong oxidizing agents and react exothermically with easily oxidized substrates. In some cases the heat of reaction can be sufficient to induce ignition, at which point combustion is accelerated by the presence of the peracid. Violent reactions may potentially occur, for example, with ethers, metal chloride solutions, olefins, and some alcohols and ketones. Shock-sensitive peroxides may be generated by the action of peracids on these substances as well as on carboxylic anhydrides. Some metal ions, including iron, copper, cobalt, chromium, and manganese, may cause runaway peroxide decomposition. Peracetic acid is also reportedly sensitive to light.

Storage and Handling

Peracetic acid should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with reactive and explosive substances (Chapter 5.G). Reactions involving large quantities of peracids should be carried out behind a safety shield. Peracetic acid should be used only in areas free of ignition sources and should be stored in tightly sealed containers in areas separate from oxidizable compounds and flammable substances. Other commonly available peracids, such as perbenzoic acid and m-chloroperbenzoic acid (MCPBA), are less toxic, less volatile, and more easily handled than peracetic acid.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If peracetic acid is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the peracetic acid solution with a spill pillow or a noncombustible absorbent material such as vermiculite, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess peracetic acid and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. Peracids may be incompatible with other flammable mixed chemical waste; for example, shock-sensitive peroxides can be generated by reaction with some ethers such as THF and diethyl ether. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: PERCHLORIC ACID (AND INORGANIC PERCHLORATES)

Substance

Perchloric acid (and inorganic perchlorates)

CAS 7601-90-3

 

Formula

HClO4 (maximum concentration commercially available is an aqueous solution containing about 72% HClO4 by weight)

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

72% HClO4: bp 203 °C, mp -18 °C

Miscible with water

 

Odor

Odorless

 

Vapor Pressure

6.8 mmHg at 25 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

1100 mg/kg

 

LD50 oral (dog)

400 mg/kg

Major Hazards

Highly corrosive to all tissues; reacts violently with many oxidizable substances; anhydrous form and certain salts are highly explosive.

Toxicity

Perchloric acid is a highly corrosive substance that causes severe burns on contact with the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. The acute toxicity of perchloric acid is moderate. This substance is a severe irritant to the eyes, mucous membranes, and upper respiratory tract. Perchlorates are irritants to the body wherever they contact it.

Perchloric acid has not been shown to be carcinogenic or to show reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans

 

Flammability and Explosibility

Perchloric acid is noncombustible. The anhydrous (dehydrated) acid presents a serious explosion hazard. It is unstable and can decompose explosively at ordinary temperatures or in contact with many organic compounds.

Many heavy metal perchlorates and organic perchlorate salts are extremely sensitive explosives; the ammonium, alkali metal, and alkali earth perchlorates are somewhat less hazardous. Mixtures of perchlorates with many oxidizable substances are explosive.

 

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Cold 70% perchloric acid is a strong acid but is not considered to be a strong oxidizing agent; however, more concentrated solutions are good oxidizers. Temperature increases the oxidizing power of perchloric acid, and hot concentrated solutions are very dangerous. Evaporation of a spill of the 70% solution may lead to the formation of more dangerous concentrations. Reaction of 70% perchloric acid with cellulose materials such as wood,

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

paper, and cotton can produce fires and explosions. Oxidizable organic compounds including alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, ethers, and dialkyl sulfoxides can react violently with concentrated perchloric acid.

All perchlorates are potentially hazardous when in contact with reducing agents.

Storage and Handling

Because of their extreme reactivity, perchloric acid and all organic and inorganic perchlorates should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with reactive and explosive compounds (Chapter 5.G). In particular, splash goggles and rubber gloves should be worn when handling perchloric acid, and containers of the acid should be stored in a well-ventilated location separated from organic substances and other combustible materials. Work with >85% perchloric acid requires special precautions and should be carried out only by specially trained personnel.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If perchloric acid is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, dilute the perchloric acid with water to a concentration of <5%, absorbed with sand or vermiculite, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Organic absorbants must not be used. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess perchloric acid and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: PHENOL

Substance

Phenol

(Carbolic acid; hydroxybenzene)

CAS 108-95-2

 

Formula

C6H5OH

 

Physical Properties

White crystalline solid

bp 182 °C, mp 41 °C

Slightly soluble in water (8.4 g/100 mL)

 

Odor

Sweet, medicinal odor detectable at 0.06 ppm

Vapor Density

3.24 at bp (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

0.36 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

79 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

715 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

317 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

850 mg/m3

 

PEL (OSHA)

5 ppm (19 mg/m3)—skin

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

5 ppm (19 mg/m3)—skin

Major Hazards

Corrosive, moderately toxic substance readily absorbed through skin; can cause severe burns to the skin and eyes.

Toxicity

Phenol is a corrosive and moderately toxic substance that affects the central nervous system and can cause damage to the liver and kidneys. Phenol is irritating to the skin but has a local anesthetic effect, so that no pain may be felt on initial contact. A whitening of the area of contact generally occurs, and later severe burns may develop. Phenol is rapidly absorbed through the skin, and toxic or even fatal amounts can be absorbed through relatively small areas. Exposure to phenol vapor can cause severe irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and respiratory tract. Acute overexposure by any route may lead to nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, and coma. Contact of phenol with the eyes may cause severe damage and possibly blindness. Ingestion of phenol leads to burning of the mouth and throat and rapid development of digestive disturbances and the systemic effects described above. As little as 1 g can be fatal to humans. Phenol is regarded as a substance with good warning properties.

Chronic exposure to phenol may cause vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, difficulty in swallowing, headache, skin discoloration, and injury to the liver. Phenol has not been shown to

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

be a carcinogen in humans. There is some evidence from animal studies that phenol may be a reproductive toxin.

Flammability and Explosibility

Phenol is a combustible solid (NFPA rating = 2). When heated, phenol produces flammable vapors that are explosive at concentrations of 3 to 10% in air. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight phenol fires.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Phenol may react violently with strong oxidizing agents.

Storage and Handling

Phenol should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C. Because of its corrosivity and ability to penetrate the skin, all work with phenol and its solutions should be conducted while wearing impermeable gloves, appropriate protective clothing, and splash goggles. Operations with the potential to produce dusts or aerosols of phenol or its solutions should be carried out in a fume hood.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If phenol is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of this compound are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the phenol with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area. Care should be taken not to walk in spills of phenol or solutions of phenol because this substance can readily penetrate leather.

Disposal

Excess phenol and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: PHOSGENE

Substance

Phosgene

(Carbonyl chloride; chloroformyl chloride; carbon oxychloride)

CAS 75-44-5

 

Formula

COCl2

 

Physical Properties

Colorless gas

bp 8.2 °C, mp -128 °C

Decomposes in water with formation of HCl

 

Odor

Sweet, hay-like odor at lower levels, pungent at higher levels; detectable at 0.1 to 5.7 ppm

 

Vapor Density

3.4 at bp (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

1180 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LC50 inhal (rat)

341 ppm (1364 mg/m3; 30 min)

 

PEL (OSHA)

0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Highly toxic, irritating, and corrosive gas; inhalation can cause fatal respiratory damage.

 

Toxicity

Phosgene is severely irritating and corrosive to all body tissues. Irritation of the throat occurs immediately at 3 ppm, while 4 ppm causes immediate eye irritation. Exposure to 20 to 30 ppm for as little as 1 min may cause severe irritation of the upper and lower respiratory tract, with symptoms including burning throat, nausea, vomiting, chest pain, coughing, shortness of breath, and headache. Brief exposure to 50 ppm can be fatal within a few hours. Severe respiratory distress may not develop for 4 to 72 hours after exposure, at which point pulmonary edema progressing to pneumonia and cardiac failure may occur. Phosgene vapor is irritating to the eyes, and the liquid can cause severe burns to the eyes and skin. Phosgene is not regarded as a substance with adequate warning properties.

Phosgene has not been found to be carcinogenic or to show reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans.

 

Flammability and Explosibility

Noncombustible.

 

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Phosgene reacts with water to form HCl and carbon dioxide.

 

Storage and Handling

Because of its corrosivity and high acute toxicity, phosgene should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with compounds of high toxicity (Chapter 5.D). In particular, work with phosgene should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact. Containers of phosgene solutions should be stored in secondary containers, and phosgene cylinders should be stored in a cool, well-ventilated area separate from incompatible materials.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately wash with soap and water and remove contaminated clothing. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If phosgene is ingested, obtain medical attention immediately. If phosgene is inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In case of the accidental release of phosgene gas, such as from a leaking cylinder or associated apparatus, evacuate the area and eliminate the source of the leak if this can be done safely. Remove cylinder to a fume hood or remote area if it cannot be shut off. In the event of a spill of a phosgene solution, soak up the solution with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Full respiratory protection and protective clothing will be necessary in the event of a spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess phosgene and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: PHOSPHORUS

Substance

Phosphorus

(White phosphorus, yellow phosphorus)

CAS 7723-14-0

 

Formula

P4

 

Physical Properties

White to yellow, waxy soft solid

bp 279 °C, mp 44 °C

(Red phosphorus is an amorphous allotropic form that sublimes at 416 °C)

Insoluble in water (0.0003 g/100 mL)

 

Odor

Acrid fumes when exposed to air

 

Vapor Density

4.4 at 279 °C (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

0.03 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

White phosphorus: 30 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

White phosphorus: 29 °C

 

 

Red phosphorus: 260 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

3 mg/kg

 

PEL (OSHA)

0.1 mg/m3

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

0.02 ppm (0.1 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Spontaneously ignites in air; highly toxic by all routes of exposure.

 

Toxicity

White phosphorus is a highly toxic substance by all routes of exposure. Contact of the solid with the skin produces deep painful burns, and eye contact can cause severe damage. Ingestion of phosphorus leads (after a delay of a few hours) to symptoms including nausea, vomiting, belching, and severe abdominal pain. Apparent recovery may be followed by a recurrence of symptoms. Death may occur after ingestion of 50 to 100 mg due to circulatory, liver, and kidney effects. Phosphorus ignites and burns spontaneously when exposed to air, and the resulting vapors are highly irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract.

Red phosphorus is much less toxic than the white allotrope; however, samples of red phosphorus may contain the white form as an impurity.

Early signs of chronic systemic poisoning by phosphorus are reported to include anemia, loss of appetite, gastrointestinal distress, chronic cough, a garlic-like odor to the breath, and pallor. A common response to severe chronic poisoning is damage of the jaw (''phossy jaw") and other bones. Phosphorus has not been reported to show carcinogenic effects in humans.

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Flammability and Explosibility

White phosphorus ignites spontaneously upon contact with air, producing an irritating, dense white smoke of phosphorus oxides. Use water to extinguish phosphorus fires.

Red phosphorus is a flammable solid but does not ignite spontaneously on exposure to air. At high temperatures (-300 °C), red phosphorus is converted to the white form.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

White phosphorus reacts with a number of substances to form explosive mixtures. For example, dangerous explosion hazards are produced upon reaction of phosphorus with many oxidizing agents, including chlorates, bromates, and many nitrates, with chlorine, bromine, peracids, organic peroxides, chromium trioxide, and potassium permanganate, with alkaline metal hydroxides (phosphine gas is liberated), and with sulfur, sulfuric acid, and many metals, including the alkali metals, copper, and iron.

Red phosphorus is much less reactive than the white allotrope but may ignite or react explosively with strong oxidizing agents.

Storage and Handling

Because of its corrosivity, flammability, and high acute toxicity, white phosphorus should be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with compounds of high toxicity (Chapter 5.D) and extremely flammable substances (Chapter 5.F). In particular, work with white phosphorus should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact. Phosphorus should be stored under water in secondary containers in areas separate from oxidizing agents and other incompatible substances. The less dangerous red form of phosphorus can be handled using the "basic prudent practices" of Chapter 5.C.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, immediately flush with water and remove contaminated clothing. Wet the skin until medical attention is obtained to prevent any remaining phosphorus from igniting. In case of eye contact, promptly wash with copious amounts of water for 15 min (lifting upper and lower lids occasionally) and obtain medical attention. If phosphorus is ingested, give the person (if conscious) large quantities of water to drink and obtain medical attention immediately. If large amounts of phosphorus or smoke and fumes from burning phosphorus are inhaled, move the person to fresh air and seek medical attention at once.

In the event of a spill, douse with water and cover with wet sand or earth; collect material in a suitable container and dispose of properly. Respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a spill or release in a confined area.

Disposal

Excess phosphorus and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
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LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: POTASSIUM

Substance

Potassium

(Kalium)

CAS 7440-09-7

Formula

K

Physical Properties

Silvery white metal that loses its luster on exposure to air or moisture

bp 765.5 °C, mp 63 °C

Explodes on contact with water

Odor

Odorless

Autoignition Temperature

25 °C or below in air or oxygen

Major Hazards

Ignites in air and reacts explosively with water; highly corrosive to the skin and eyes.

Toxicity

Potassium reacts with the moisture on skin and other tissues to form highly corrosive potassium hydroxide. Contact of metallic potassium with the skin, eyes, or mucous membranes causes severe burns; thermal burns may also occur due to ignition of the metal and liberated hydrogen.

Flammability and Explosibility

Potassium metal may ignite spontaneously on contact with air at room temperature. Potassium reacts explosively with water to form potassium hydroxide; the heat liberated generally ignites the hydrogen formed and can initiate the combustion of potassium metal itself. Potassium fires must be extinguished with a class D dry chemical extinguisher or by the use of sand, ground limestone, dry clay or graphite, or "Met-L-X®" type solids. Water or CO2, extinguishers must never be used on potassium fires.

Reactivity and Incompatibility

Potassium is one of the most potent reducing reagents known. The metal reacts explosively with water, oxygen, and air to form potassium hydroxide and/or potassium oxide. Potassium reacts violently with many oxidizing agents and organic and inorganic halides and can form unstable and explosive mixtures with elemental halogens. Explosive mixtures form when potassium reacts with halogenated hydrocarbons such as carbon tetrachloride and upon reaction with carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and carbon disulfide. Potassium stored under mineral oil can form shock-sensitive peroxides if oxygen is present, so the metal must always be stored and handled under inert gases such as dry nitrogen or argon. It dissolves with such exothermicity in other metals such as mercury that the molten alloy may melt Pyrex glassware. Note that the reactivity of potassium is generally related to its surface area and the cleanliness of the surface at hand; chunks of potassium are less reactive than the very dangerous dispersions and sands.

Storage and Handling

Potassium should be handled in the laboratory using the "basic prudent practices" described in Chapter 5.C, supplemented by the additional precautions for work with flammable (Chapter 5.F) and reactive (Chapter 5.G) substances. Safety glasses, imperme-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

 

able gloves, and a fire-retardant laboratory coat should be worn at all times when working with potassium, and the metal should be handled under the surface of an inert liquid such as mineral oil, xylene, or toluene. Potassium should be used only in areas free of ignition sources and should be stored under mineral oil in tightly sealed metal containers under an inert gas such as argon. Potassium metal that has formed a yellow oxide coating should be disposed of immediately; do not attempt to cut such samples with a knife since the oxide coating may be explosive.

Accidents

In the event of skin contact, remove contaminated clothing and any metal particles and immediately wash with soap and