National Academies Press: OpenBook

The Global Positioning System: A Shared National Asset (1995)

Chapter: Appendix H Signal Structure Options

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix H Signal Structure Options." National Research Council. 1995. The Global Positioning System: A Shared National Asset. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4920.
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Page 215
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H Signal Structure Options." National Research Council. 1995. The Global Positioning System: A Shared National Asset. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4920.
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Page 216
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H Signal Structure Options." National Research Council. 1995. The Global Positioning System: A Shared National Asset. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4920.
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Page 217

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APPENDIX H 215 Appendix H Signal Structure Options Ten signal structure enhancement options were considered by the committee, as shown in Table H-1. Each involves possible changes to L1 or L2, as well as a possible signal transmission on a new frequency. The options are listed in priority order.

Table H-1 Signal Structure Options Option L1 L2 L4 Advantages Relative to the Disadvantages Relative to the Earliest Possible Implementation Current Configuration Current Configuration APPENDIX H 1 Y C/A Y Pa-like code wide-band signal Ionospheric correction; improved Must jam two bands; satellite and IIR accuracy; anti-jam; 10-dB receiver costs increase; satellite improvement over narrow- band in power requirements increase; interference rejection; faster cycle frequency allocation considerations ambiguity; fast acquisition; easier direct Y- code acquisition; can track to lower elevation angles than codeless receivers 2a Y C/A Y C/A-like code narrow -band Ionospheric correction; improved Must jam two bands; satellite and IIR signal accuracy, anti-jam; 10-dB receiver costs increase; satellite improvement over narrow- band in power requirements increase; interference rejection; faster cycle frequency allocation considerations ambiguity; fast acquisition; easier direct Y- code acquisition; can track to lower elevation angles than codeless receivers 2b Y C/A Y with C/A-like code added to null of L2 Ionospheric correction; improved Must jam two bands; satellite and IIR narrow-band signal accuracy; anti-jam; 10-dB receiver costs increase; satellite improvement over narrow- band in power requirements increase; interference rejection; faster cycle frequency allocation considerations ambiguity; fast acquisition; easier direct Y- code acquisition; can track to lower elevation angles than codeless receivers 3 Y C/A Y C/A C/A- or P-like code narrow Improved accuracy, improved anti- More difficult to deny signal by IIF or wide band signal jam for civilians; ionospheric jamming; more satellite power correction; cycle ambiguity required 4 Y C/A Y C/A Y-like code(military only) Improved anti-jam for the military Military receiver costs may IIF wide-band signal ionospheric correction for increase; must jam two bands; civilians; improved cycle may require more satellite power; ambiguity; improved direct frequency allocation considerations acquisition of Y-code 216

5 Y C/A Y — Baseline Baseline Baseline 6 Pa C/A Y — Improved accuracy, improved anti-jam; current military dual-frequency receivers IIF some codeless receivers will have won't work; some current civilian codeless APPENDIX H improved performance receivers won't work; must make changes to satellite 7 Y C/A Pa — Improved accuracy, anti-jam; civil More difficult to deny signal by jamming, IIF ionospheric; correction cycle ambiguity current military dualfrequency receivers won't work; must make changes to satellite 8 Y C/A C/A — Civil ionospheric correction; improved Military receiver costs increase; must jam (Current) II/IIA cycle ambiguity, some jam resistance two bands; satellite power may increase; no dual-frequency military ionospheric correction 9 Pa C/A Pa Y-like code(military only) wide-band Precision; improved anti-jam; provides Military receiver costs increase; must jam IIF signal ionospheric correction for civilian users; two bands; satellite power may increase; improved cycle ambiguity possible frequency allocation difficulties; no dual-frequency military-only ionospheric correction a. "P" refers to the unencrypted code 217

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The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system that was originally designed for the U.S. military. However, the number of civilian GPS users now exceeds the military users, and many commercial markets have emerged. This book identifies technical improvements that would enhance military, civilian, and commercial use of the GPS. Several technical improvements are recommended that could be made to enhance the overall system performance.

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