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INTRODUCTION 13 1 Introduction THE TASK In the National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal year 1994, the congressional committees that authorize the activities of the Department of Defense (DOD) requested that a joint study on the Global Positioning System (GPS) be conducted by the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA).1 The National Academy of Sciences was asked to recommend technical improvements and augmentations that could enhance military, civilian, and commercial use of the system. NAPA was asked to address GPS management and funding issues, including commercialization, governance, and international participation. Specifically, the National Academy of Sciences was asked to address the following three technical questions: (1) Based on presentations by the DOD and the intelligence community on threats, countermeasures, and safeguards, what are the implications of such security-related safeguards and countermeasures for the various classes of civilian GPS users and for future management of GPS? In addition, are the Selective Availability and Anti-Spoofing capabilities of the GPS system meeting their intended purpose? (2) What augmentations and technical improvements to the GPS itself are feasible and could enhance military, civilian, and commercial use of the system? (3) In order to preserve and promote U.S. industry leadership in this field, how can communication, navigation, and computing technology be integrated to support and enhance the utility of GPS in all transportation sectors, in 1 The National Academy of Sciences carries out its studies through the National Research Council (NRC), the operating arm of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, using a committee of experts and a small staff. NAPA utilizes its own staff members and consultants to conduct its studies, which are reviewed throughout the process by an oversight panel of distinguished individuals.