Appendix D Glossary and Acronyms
A prescribed set of conditions or requirements concerning definitions of terms; specification of performance, operation, or construction; delineation of procedures; or measurement of quantity and/or quality in describing features of products, processes, systems, interfaces, or materials.
A standard that defines the interface between components of a system or network, allowing them to function or communicate with one another.
De Facto Standard
A standard arising from uncoordinated processes in the competitive marketplace. When a particular set of product or process specifications gains market share such that it acquires authority or influence, that set of specifications is then considered a de facto standard.
A standard that defines a product's characteristics in terms of how it is to be constructed.
A standard set by government. A procurement standard specifies requirements that must be met by suppliers to government. A regulatory standard may set safety, health, environmental, or related criteria. Voluntary standards developed for private use often become mandatory when referenced within government regulation or procurement.
A standard that defines a product's characteristics in terms of how it is to function. Because this type of standard leaves open to the designer the issue of how the product achieves the desired functionality, performance standards are considered less restrictive of innovation than design standards.
Voluntary Consensus Standard
A standard arising from a formal, coordinated process in which key participants in a market seek consensus. Use of the resulting standard is voluntary. Key participants may include not only designers and producers, but also consumers, corporate and government purchasing officials, and regulatory authorities.
The determination of whether a product or process conforms to particular standards or specifications. Activities associated with conformity assessment may include testing, certification, accreditation, and quality assurance system registration.
The process of evaluating testing facilities for competence to perform specific tests using standard test methods. The test methods for which a facility seeks accreditation may or may not be associated with a particular certification program.
The process of providing assurance that a product or service conforms to one or more standards or specifications. Some, but not all, certification programs require that an accredited laboratory perform any required testing.
A sign or symbol that is used exclusively by the operator of a third-party certification program to identify products or services as being certified. In the United States, certification marks are registered with the U.S. Patent Office. A well-known example is the Underwriters Laboratories' "UL" mark.
Manufacturer's Declaration of Conformity
A form of certification in which a manufacturer or supplier declares that his or her product meets one or more standards based on (1) confidence in the manufacturer's own quality assurance program, and/or (2) the results of testing the manufacturer performs or has performed on his or her behalf.
Mutual Recognition Agreement
Agreement between conformity assessment entities to accept some or all aspects of one another's work. Both public- and private-sector parties may be involved.
New Approach Directives
Directives produced by the Commission of the European Union specifying "essential requirements" for safety that regulated goods must meet in order to be placed on the market anywhere within the European Union. Producers may demonstrate conformity to the directives via a choice among eight Commission-specified assessment modules, three of which involve quality system registration to portions of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 series. As of 1994, new approach directives exist for toys, simple pressure vessels, construction products, electromagnetic compatibility, gas appliances, personal protective equipment, machinery, weighing instruments, certain medical devices, and telecommunications terminal equipment.
The process of evaluation and designation, by a government entity, that an accreditation program is competent to carry out its activities.
A form of certification in which the producer's claim of conformity is validated in a third-party certification program by a competent body other than one controlled by the producer.
The procedures and resources a manufacturer uses to control variables in product design, production, and handling in order to produce a product of consistent quality that meets defined specifications or standards.
Environmental Management System
The procedures and resources an organization uses to implement its policies regarding the impact of its activities, products, and services on the environment.
ISO 9000 Standard Series
A series of five international standards for quality assurance management systems (ISO 9000, 9001, 9002, 9003, and 9004) published in 1987 by the International Organization for Standardization and revised in 1994. The standards are being applied worldwide in an increasingly broad range of circumstances, including government regulations and public- and private-sector purchasing specifications.
Quality System Registration
Assessment and periodic audit of the adequacy of a producer's quality assurance system by a third party known as a quality system registrar. ISO 9000 quality system registration, for example, certifies that a producer's system conforms to the registrar's interpretation of one or more of the ISO 9000 standards; interpretations may vary among registrars.
American Association for Laboratory Accreditation
Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation
American Council of Independent Laboratories
Association Francaise de Normalisation (French Standardization Association)
American Gas Association
American National Standards Institute
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Council
Accredited Standards Committee T1—Telecommunications
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
American Society for Quality Control
American Society for Testing and Materials
Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (formerly, the Exchange Carriers Standards Association, ECSA)
Advanced Technology Program, NIST
British Standards Institution
ISO Council Committee on Conformity Assessment
Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association
ITU International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee (recently reorganized as the ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector, ITU-T)
European Committee for Standardization
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Committee on National Accreditation of Environmental Laboratories
Pan American Standards Commission
Corporation for Open Systems
U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission
Canadian Standards Association
Deutsches Institut fur Normung (German Institute for Standardization)
U.S. Department of Commerce
U.S. Department of Defense
Dewan Standardisasi Nasional (National Standardization Council of Indonesia)
European Free Trade Association
European Organization for Testing and Certification
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
European Telecommunications Standards Institute
European Union (formerly, the European Community)
Federal Communications Commission
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Gas Appliance Manufacturers Association
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
gross domestic product
U.S. General Services Administration
Interagency Committee on Standards Policy
International Electrotechnical Commission
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Industry Functional Advisory Committee, U.S. Department of Commerce
Institute for International Economics
intellectual property rights
Industry Sectoral Advisory Committee, U.S. Department of Commerce
International Organization for Standardization
International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce
International Telecommunication Union, United Nations
ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector
Japan Industrial Standards Committee
Japan Standards Association
ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1—Information Technology
Manufacturing Automation Protocol
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
Japanese Ministry for International Trade and Industry
memorandum of understanding
mutual recognition agreement
National Aerospace and Defense Contractors Accreditation Program
North American Free Trade Agreement
National Association of Manufacturers
Naval Facilities Engineering Command
National Conformity Assessment System Recognition Program (proposed)
National Center for Standards and Certification Information, NIST
National Conference on Weights and Measures
National Electrical Manufacturers Association
National Fire Protection Association
National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration
National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce
Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory Program, OSHA
National Standards Systems Network
nontariff trade barrier
National Trade Estimate
National Voluntary Conformity Assessment Systems Evaluation Program, NIST
National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program, NIST
Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President, U.S.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Open Systems Interconnection
Pacific Area Standards Congress
Process Action Team on Military Specifications and Standards, U.S. Department of Defense
Qualified Manufacturers List
Qualified Product List
research and development
Registrar Accreditation Board
Raad voor de Certificatie (Dutch Council for Certification)
Society of Automotive Engineers
Saudi Arabian Standards Organization
Standards Council of Canada
Standards Code and Information Program, NIST
standards developing organization
sanitary and phytosanitary
technical advisory group
technical barrier to trade
total quality management
Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
U. S. and Foreign Commercial Service, U.S. Department of Commerce
U.S. Department of Agriculture
U.S. National Committee of the IEC
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
United States Trade Representative, Executive Office of the President
World Trade Organization