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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Trade: Into the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4921.
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Index

A

Accredition

  ANSI role, 4, 35, 40, 60-61, 159-160

  in conformity assessment system, 17, 68, 80

  of consortia-developed standards, 39

  criteria, 81

  definition, 80, 206

  European Union-U.S. negotiations, 132-133

  government recognition, 81, 97-99

  industry cooperation in, 81

  international trends, 118

  for ISO 9000 quality system registrars, 81

  laboratory, 51, 54, 80-87, 96, 118-119, 132-133

  National Conformity Assessment System Recognition for, 2-3, 155, 156

  number of programs, 81

  professional certification, 28

  recommendations, 2-3, 4, 155-157, 159-160

  role of, 80-81

  standardization of criteria, 3, 5, 156-157

  system redundancy, 87, 96-97, 154

Agriculture, Department of, 16, 51, 76, 122-123

American Association for Laboratory Accreditation, 87

American Council of Independent Laboratories, 72, 74

American Dental Association, 75

American Gas Association, 36, 70, 74

American National Standards Institute, 73

  evolution, 39

  finances, 39, 49, 64 n.107

  government members, 60, 159

  government relations, 45-46

  international activities, 46, 119, 178

  membership, 39

  in public-private standardization effort, 59-60

  publishing activity, 40-44

  recommendations for, 4, 159-160

  role of, 23-24, 35, 39, 40, 60-61, 179

  standards development procedures, 33-34, 45

  structure, 39-40

American Society for Testing and Materials, 34, 38, 47, 55-56, 96

American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 28, 29, 37, 47, 75

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Trade: Into the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4921.
×

American Society of Mechanical Engineers v. Hydrolevel Corporation , 35

Anticipatory standards, 44

Antitrust law, 35

Asbestos testing, 87

Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum

  importance of, 117

  mutual recognition agreements, 134-140, 147, 161

  recommendations for, 5, 161

  trade opportunities, 4-5

Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, 38, 47

Audit of production, 16

Automotive industry, 10, 32

  certification in, 76

  international standards development, 145, 146

  mass production, 14, 15, 30

B

Bandwagon effects, 32, 44-45

Battery sizes, 11

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 28, 29, 37, 74-75

Building codes, 16, 39, 51, 75

Building Officials and Code Administrators International, 75

C

Canvass method, 42-44

Certification

  in conformity assessment system, 17, 66

  definition, 66, 206

  European Union-U.S. agreements, 130-132

  function, 72-73

  government programs, 51, 75-77

  intensity of, 73

  international harmonization, 106, 118-119

  opportunities for improvement, 76-77

  organizations for, 36

  private-sector programs, 73-75

  revenue, 73

  testing and, 73-74

Certification mark, 17, 73, 207

Commerce, Department of, 10, 16, 51, 123

Commercial transactions

  differentiation vs. standardization, 15

  quality system registration in, 77

  role of conformity assessment, 17, 66, 68-70

  role of standards, 11, 14-15, 19

Communications and information technology industry, 31-32, 181-183

  challenges to consensus standardization, 44-45

  federal standards development, 51

  international standardization, 46, 47

  role of compatibility standards, 15, 18

Compatibility standards, 18

  challenges to development, 44-45

  definition, 205

  incentives for adoption, 15, 31-32

Competition

  in development of de facto standards, 24, 31-32

  global, 1-2

  standards development and, 14-15

Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association, 34, 37-38

Conformity assessment

  accreditation services in, 17, 68, 80

  Asian-U.S. mutual recognition, 137-140

  certification system, 72-77

  current status, 2, 99, 153-154

  definition, 17, 65, 206

  elements of, 17-18, 66, 154

  European Union mechanisms, 129-130

  evolution of U.S. system, 65-66

  framework, 68-70

  independent laboratory testing services in, 71-72

  international trade and, 106

  as international trade barrier, 109-111, 120-121

  international trends, 118-119

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Trade: Into the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4921.
×

  NIST role, 54

  ongoing review, 6-7, 163-164

  private-sector organizations for, 2-3, 70, 155

  quality system registration in, 17, 77, 78, 80

  recognition in, 97-99

  recommendations, 2-3, 154-157

  role of, 17, 66

  state government role in, 51

  third-party, 69-70, 155

  trade barriers in U.S. system, 133-134

  See also Mutual recognition agreements;

  Standards and conformity assessment system

Construction materials standards, 75

Corporation for Open Systems, 39

Cost savings

  as benefit of standards, 11, 14, 30

  conformity assessment reform for, 154, 155

  in consensus standards development process, 33

  in coordination of accreditation activities, 96-97

  in coordination of certification programs, 76-77

  estimating role of standards in, 19

  in federal standards development, 55

  in federal use of consensus standards, 55-56

  as goal of government standards, 20

  in quality system registration programs, 78, 79

D

Data gathering and analysis

  government certification programs, 76

  independent laboratory testing trends, 71-72

  international trade practices, 109-111, 147

  NIST activity, 6-7, 54, 163

  OMB circular A-119 reporting requirements, 57

  recommendations for, 6-7, 163-164

De facto standards

  competition and, 24, 31

  definition, 19, 24, 29, 61, 205

Defense, Department of

  number of standards, 19, 26, 49

  procurement standards, 55, 176-177

  Qualified Manufacturers List, 78-79

  Qualified Products List, 76

  quality system registration, 78-79, 80

  trends in standard development, 26, 57

Deming, W. Edwards, 16, 77

Documentation

  international assistance programs, 146-147

  quality assurance, 78

Drinking water quality, 74

Due process, 35, 44, 45

E

Economies of scale, 14, 15, 30, 105, 106

Employment rate, international trade and, 20, 105

Engineering services, 72

Environmental Protection Agency, 49-51, 96

Environmental standards, 10, 16-17, 208

  conformity assessment framework for, 69

  government certification programs, 76

  international efforts, 164

ETL Testing Laboratories, 74

European Commission for Electrotechnical Standardization, 127-129

European Commission for Standardization, 127-129

European Telecommunications Standards Institute, 127-129

European Union

  mutual recognition agreement negotiations, 130-134, 147, 160-161

  quality system registration trends, 77, 80

  recommendations, 5, 161

  standards and conformity assessment mechanisms, 32, 127-130, 171-172, 175-176

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Trade: Into the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4921.
×

  trade barriers in, 4, 107, 109, 111-112, 118, 126-127, 130, 160

  U.S. export volume, 111, 126

F

Factory Mutual Research Corporation, 74

Fastener Quality Act, 97, 98, 156

Federal Aviation Administration, 76

Federal Communications Commission, 51, 57, 87

Federal government

  accreditation programs, 81

  ANSI and, 4, 45-46, 159-160

  certification programs, 75-77

  conformity assessment role, 155, 177-181

  consumption of testing services, 72

  in European standards development, 32

  export promotion activities, 140

  funding for voluntary standards organizations, 60

  international trade policymaking apparatus, 121-124

  mandatory standards, 25, 48

  multiple accreditations, 87, 96

  number of standards in, 19, 26, 27

  obsolete standards, 29

  process standards enforcement, 16

  protection of public welfare, 16

  public-private cooperation for standards development, 57-60, 61, 157-159

  quality system registration, 78-80

  recognition of accreditation services, 97-99

  role of standards in, 20

  sources of standards in, 26, 49-51

  standards development process, 55

  standards development trends, 57

  use of private-sector standards, 25, 48-49, 54-57, 157-158

  See also Regulatory control

Federal Trade Commission, 68

Fire fighting technology, 30, 38-39

Food and Drug Administration, 179-180

Food products

  barriers to international trade, 109

  safety, 76

Ford, Henry, 14, 15

France, 32

G

GATT. See General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

  accomplishments of, 103, 107

  compliance in developing countries, 141

  conformity assessment agreements, 118-119

  coverage of nongovernmental organizations, 119-120

  dispute resolution, 109, 120-121, 172-173

  recommendations for, 6, 7, 162, 164

  responsibilities of signatories, 54

  scope and coverage, 113, 117-118

  trade barrier agreements, 107, 171, 172

  Uruguay Round Agreements, 4, 20-21, 112-113, 160

  U.S. policy goals, 21, 147-148

  U.S. representation, 122

General Services Administration, 49, 80

Germany, 32

Great Britain, 32

Growth hormone regulation, 109

H

Health and safety standards

  conformity assessment framework for, 69-70

  drinking water treatment, 74

  government certification programs, 76

  government production, 49

  historical development, 29-30

  role of, 10, 16

  role of government, 20

  voluntary consensus development, 56-57

Health care industry, 38

  international standardization, 47, 179-180

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Trade: Into the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4921.
×

I

IBM Corporation, 24, 32, 79

Indonesia, 141-144

Industry standards, 24

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 34, 36, 40

Interagency Committee on Standards Policy, 53, 57, 158

International Conference of Building Officials, 75

International Electrotechnical Commission, 36, 45, 46-47, 48

International Organization for Standardization, 45

  9000 quality system standards, 10, 16, 54, 57, 77-80, 81, 143, 164

  role of, 48

  Technical Committee 207, 80

  testing services, 72

  U.S. participation, 46-47, 54

International standardization

  benefits of, 106

  conformity assessment acceptance, 97-98

  GATT agreements, 112-113, 117-118

  organizations for, 46

  process, 46

  public-private cooperation for, 60, 179-180

  quality system registration, 77-78, 80

  recognition of nongovernmental organizations, 119-120, 173

  technical assistance for, 5-6, 21, 104, 141, 143-147, 162

  U.S. participation in, 46-47, 170-171

  U.S. policy goals, 103-104

International Telecommunications Union, 46, 49

International trade

  barriers in U.S. export markets, 108-112

  benefits, 169-171

  cost of trade barriers, 107-108

  dispute resolution mechanisms, 120-121

  GATT agreements, 112-113, 117-121

  Indonesian policy development, 141-144

  intellectual property rights and, 151 n.57

  mutual recognition agreements in, 126

  ongoing analytical activities, 6-7, 163-164

  recommendations, 4-6, 160-162

  regulatory trends, 103, 107

  retaliatory actions, 5, 124-125, 161

  role of standards and conformity assessment in, 1-2, 18, 20, 47, 105, 106

  Section 301 provisions, 124-125, 148

  standards and conformity assessment as barriers to, 108, 120-121, 171-174

  trends, 147, 174-175

  U.S. competitiveness in, 1-2

  U.S. domestic economy and, 20, 103, 104-105, 160

  U.S. export promotion, 140-141

  U.S. policy formation process, 121-124

  U.S. policy goals, 103-104, 112, 147-148, 160

  wage rates and, 170

  See also General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

Internet, 15

ISO. See International Organization for Standardization

ISONET, 54

J

Japan, 125

Joint Technical Committee on Information Technology, 36, 45

Just-in-time manufacturing, 69

L

Laboratory accreditation, 51, 80-87

  European Union-U.S. negotiations, 132-133

  international agreements, 118-119

  multiple accreditation, 96

  NIST role in, 54, 87

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Trade: Into the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4921.
×

Latin America, 134-137

Legal issues, 35

  basis for retaliatory trade action, 124-125

  delay of regulatory standards development, 56

  manufacturers' declaration of conformity, 68

  truth in advertising, 68

  voluntary consensus safety standards, 56

Lock-in effects, 44-45

M

Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, 10, 16, 78, 101 n.51

Mandatory standards

  definition, 25, 48, 206

  voluntary consensus standards overlap, 25, 48-49, 54-57

Manufacturer's declaration of conformity

  application, 68-69

  in conformity assessment system, 17, 66

  definition, 66, 207

Manufacturing Automation Protocol user group, 39

Manufacturing sector

  conformity assessment needs, 68-69

  historical development of standards, 30

  independent third-party assessment, 70, 72

  mass production, 14, 15, 30

  process standards, 15-16

  rationale for consensus standardization, 30-33

Market development

  foreign acceptance of U.S. conformity assessment, 97-98

  in Indonesia, 141-144

  recommendations for, 5-6, 162

  U.S. export promotion policy, 140-144

Memorandum of understanding, 59-60

MET Electrical Testing Company, 74

Microsoft Corporation, 31, 32

Model T, 15

MS-DOS operating system, 31, 32

Multinational firms, 105

Mutual recognition agreements

  benefits, 4-5, 119

  definition, 207

  European Union negotiations, 130-134, 147, 160-161

  national network, 5, 156-157

  priority regions, 134-140, 147, 161

  recommendations for, 5, 161

  role of, 98, 134, 161

N

National Aerospace and Defense Contractors Accreditation Program, 81

National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors, 74

National Center for Standards and Certification Information, 54

National Conference on Weights and Measures, 54, 75

National Conformity Assessment System Recognition, 2-3, 155, 156

National Economic Council, 122

National Electrical Code, 25, 39, 40

National Fire Prevention Association, 25, 38-39, 40

National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration, 16, 76

National Institute of Standards and Technology, 10, 45

  data collection and management, 6-7, 54, 163-164

  in dissemination of standards and conformity assessment, 6, 163

  Fastener Quality Act, 97, 98

  finances, 52, 53

  international technical assistance efforts, 5-6, 144-147, 162

  National Conference on Weights and Measures, 75

  recognition programs, 97-98

  recommendations for, 2-4, 5-7, 155-156, 157, 158-159, 162, 163-164

  role of, 51, 52, 57-59, 178

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Trade: Into the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4921.
×

  United States Trade Representative and, 54, 123

  in voluntary consensus standardization, 52-54

National Standards Systems Network, 45

National Trade Data Bank, 123

National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers, 108-109

National Voluntary Conformity Assessment System Evaluation, 97-98, 132-133, 156

National Volunteer Laboratory Accreditation Program, 81-87, 96, 178

Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory program, 96, 157

Naval Facilities Engineering Command, 55-56

Network compatibility standards, 31-32

North American Free Trade Agreement, 126, 170

NSF International, 36, 74

Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 79

O

Obsolete standards, 28-29

Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 16, 72, 81, 157

OMB Circular A-119

  effectiveness, 57, 158

  policy, 55, 56

  recommendations, 3, 158

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 108

Organizations for standards development

  consortia for, 36, 39, 45, 182-183

  government funding, 60

  industry associations, 37-38

  international, 46-47

  membership organizations, 38-39

  number of standards produced by, 26

  private U.S., number of, 33, 36

  professional societies for, 36-37

  structure and process, 33-35, 60-61

  types of, 26, 33, 36

  voluntary consensus-building, 23

  See also specific organizations

P

Patents

  certification marks, 73

  development of consensus standards and, 32-33

  international agreements, 151 n.57

  technology diffusion and, 14

Performance standards

  definition, 206

  in OMB Circular A-119, 55

Pharmaceutical industry, 69

Private sector

  accreditation programs, 81, 87

  certification programs, 73-75

  in conformity assessment, recommendations for, 2-3, 4, 155, 158-160

  consumption of independent testing services, 72

  economic rationale for consensus standardization, 30-33

  government recognition of accreditation services, 97-99

  government standards development in, 16

  international recognition of accreditation services, 119-120, 173

  in international technical assistance, 5-6, 146, 162

  number of standards in, 19, 26-28

  obsolete standards, 29

  public-private cooperation in standards development, 57-60, 61, 157 -159, 178-179

  standards development mechanisms, 23-24, 25-26

  in U.S. international trade policy formulation, 124

  See also Voluntary consensus standards

Process management, 15-16

Process-oriented regulations, 16

Procurement

  consensus standards for, 55-56

  Defense Department, 55, 176-177

  federal certification programs for, 76

  standards for, 11, 20, 25, 48

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Trade: Into the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4921.
×

Product-oriented regulations, 16

Professional certification, 28

Q

Quality assurance

  definition, 208

  process standards, 16

  role of, 77

Quality system registration

  accreditation, 80-81

  application, 78-79

  in conformity assessment system, 17, 77, 78, 80

  definition, 66, 77, 208

  European-U.S. negotiations, 132-133

  ISO 9000 and, 77-80, 164, 208

  problems, 79-80

  registration function, 78

  trends, 77, 80

R

Recognition

  in conformity assessment system, 68, 97

  current activities, 97-98

  definition, 97, 207

  European-U.S. negotiations, 132-133

  international trade and, 97-98

  National Conformity Assessment System Recognition program, 2-3, 155 -156

Reference standards, 51

Regulatory control

  accreditation services in, 81

  conformity assessment in, 17

  independent testing services in, 72

  mandatory standards in, 25

  role of, 16

  sources of standards for, 16

  standards development process, 56

  standards for, 48, 61

  third-party conformity assessment in, 69-70

  U.S. competitiveness and, 1, 2

Retaliatory action

  indications for, 134

  recommendations, 5, 161

  U.S. law, 124-125

S

Safety. See Health and safety standards

Saudi Arabia, 144-147

Self-certification, 73

Society of Automotive Engineers, 10, 30, 32

Southern Building Code Congress International, 75

Standards

  in certification vs. testing, 73

  definition, 9, 27, 205

  estimated number, 19, 26-28

  evaluation of effectiveness of, 10-11, 18-19

  excess of, 15

  function, 9, 10, 11-17, 65

  obsolete, 28-29

  for professional certification, 28

  quality system registration and, 78

  variability in influence of, 28

Standards and conformity assessment system

  data collection and analysis, 54

  European mechanisms, 32, 127-130, 171-172, 175-176

  evaluation criteria, 18-19, 29

  GATT agreements, 112-113, 117-121

  in Indonesia, 141-144

  international trade and, 20-21, 105, 147, 153

  international trends, 174-175

  as non-tariff trade barrier, 108, 120-121, 171-174

  role in government, 20

  role of government, 179-181

  U.S. economic performance and, 1-2

  See also Conformity assessment;

  Standards;

  Standards development

Standards development

  accreditation, 40

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Trade: Into the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4921.
×

  canvass method, 42-44

  conformity assessment and, 17, 65

  current inadequacies, 3, 157-158

  economic influence, 18-19

  federal government in, 55

good qualities, 3, 61, 157

  historical evolution, 29-30

  international forums for, 46-47

  international technical assistance, 5-6, 21, 104, 141, 143-147, 162

  market forces in, 30-33

  mechanisms, 9-10, 23-26, 60-61

  opportunities for improvement, 61

  as public good, 16-17, 31

  public-private cooperation, 3-4, 57-60, 61, 157-160

  recommendations, 3-4, 157-160

  sector diversity, 18, 25, 45

  technology for, 45

  See also Organizations for standards development

State, Department of, 123

State and local government

  accreditation programs, 81

  consumption of testing services, 72

  multiple accreditations, 87, 96, 98-99, 154

  number of standards, 29

  product certification, 75

  for protection of public welfare, 16-17

  recommendations for, 3, 156-157

  standards development, 25, 51-52

Strategic standardization management, 14

T

Technical advisory groups, 36, 46

Technology diffusion

  challenges to standardization, 44-45

  role of standards in, 11-14

Telecommunications industry, 15, 31, 46, 47, 51, 181-182

Testing

  accreditation, 80-81

  certification and, 73-74

  in conformity assessment system, 17, 66

  consumers of services, 72

  definition, 72

  European-U.S. agreements, 130-132

  industry revenue, 118

  international harmonization, 106, 118-119

  national trends, 71-72

  organizations for, 36

  potential savings in reform of, 154-155

Timeline

  European Union mutual recognition agreement, 161-162

  private-sector conformity assessment, 3, 155, 156

  standardization of accreditation criteria, 3, 156, 157

Total quality management, 78

Trade Act of 1974, 5, 122, 124-125, 161

Treasury, Department of, 123

Truth in advertising, 68

Typewriter keyboard, 24

U

Underwriters Laboratories, 17, 36, 66, 70, 74

United States

  consensus standards development in, 32, 33

  economic performance, 1-2

  evolution of conformity assessment system, 65-66

  evolution of standards development, 29-30

  export promotion policy, 140-144

  international standardization activities, 46-47

  international technical assistance efforts, 5-6, 21, 104, 141, 143 -147, 162

  international trade and domestic economy, 20, 103, 104-105, 133-134, 160, 169-171

  priority trading partners, 134-140

  standards and conformity assessment system, evaluation of, 18-19

  trade barriers in, 133-134

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Trade: Into the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4921.
×

  trade barriers to, 108-112

  trade policy goals, 147-148

  trade policy mechanisms, 121-124

  See also Federal government;

  State and local government

United States Testing Company, 74

United States Trade Representative

  interagency coordination, 123-124

  NIST and, 54, 123

  organizational structure, 122-123

  private-sector advisory mechanisms, 124

  recommendations for, 5, 6-7, 160, 161, 163, 164

  responsibility and authority, 121-122

  Section 301 authority, 5, 124-125, 161

V

Voluntary consensus standards

  ANSI role, 39

  challenges to development, 44-45

  definition, 23, 206

  development processes, 33-35

  due process in development of, 35, 44, 45

  economic rationale, 30-33

  federal use of, 54-57, 157-158

  influence of, 28

  mandatory standards overlap, 9-10, 25, 48-49

  NIST in development of, 52-54

  number of, 26

  public-private cooperation in, 57-60, 61

  role of consensus in, 34

  for safety, 56-57

  sources of, 23, 33

  technology development and response time of, 44-45

W

Weights and measures, 51, 75, 157

Whitney, Eli, 14

Wood products, 125

World Trade Organization, 7, 21, 103, 113, 164

  standing of nongovernmental organizations, 119-120

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Trade: Into the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4921.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Trade: Into the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4921.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Trade: Into the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4921.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Trade: Into the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4921.
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Page 237
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Trade: Into the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4921.
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Page 238
Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Trade: Into the 21st Century Get This Book
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Mandated standards used for vehicle airbags, International Organization for Standards (ISO) standards adopted for photographic film, de facto standards for computer software--however they arise, standards play a fundamental role in the global marketplace.

Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Trade provides a comprehensive, up-to-date analysis of the link between standards, product testing and certification, and U.S. economic performance. The book includes recommendations for streamlining standards development, increasing the efficiency of product testing and certification, and promoting the success of U.S. exports in world markets.

The volume offers a critical examination of organizations involved in standards and identifies the urgent improvements needed in the U.S. system for conformity assessment, in which adherence to standards is assessed and certified. Among other key issues, the book explores the role of government regulation, laboratory accreditation, and the overlapping of multiple quality standards in product development and manufacturing.

In one of the first treatments of this subject, Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Trade offers a unique and highly valuable analysis of the impact of standards and conformity assessment on global trade.

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