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Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise (1995)

Chapter: Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends

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Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
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The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends

Charles H. Dickens

The purpose of this paper is to describe the status of U.S. academic engineering research universities and several major trends affecting them. The paper provides summary descriptive text and an appendix with tabulations selected from a variety of data sources.

"Engineering research universities" are those institutions that reported research and development (R&D) expenditures for engineering or computer science in the 1991 National Science Foundation survey of R&D expenditures of universities and colleges. There are 219 such institutions.1 For the purposes of this paper, the term "engineering" includes computer science.

The paper is divided into four major sections and a data appendix. The first section describes the recent history and current status of the U.S. academic engineering research structure. Some major characteristics of the 219 engineering research universities are presented, including activities of organized engineering research centers and laboratories and federal programs that support engineering research centers. Characteristics of faculty and other engineers employed by academic institutions are described. Postdoctoral fellows are discussed in terms of their distribution by field, gender, and sources of support. Information on student enrollments is presented for undergraduate and graduate students by field, gender, and minority status. Trends in bachelor's, master's, and doctor's degrees awarded are presented by field and gender.

The second major section presents funding of academic engineering research. Government sources of support for academic research by field and category of research are described. Trends in research and development

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

expenditures at engineering research universities are presented by field and source of funds. Support sources for graduate students as research assistants and for postdoctoral appointees are described. Information is presented on the mission basis for government research support. Support for academic engineering research from industry, universities' own funds, and from foreign sources is described.

The third section addresses the nature and scope of relationships between engineering research and education. Topics covered include participation in research by undergraduate students, graduate engineering students, and engineering faculty, postdoctorates, and other academic engineers.

The fourth section includes definitions, limitations, and principal data sources used in this paper. Significant gaps in currently available data are discussed.

RECENT HISTORY AND CURRENT STATUS OF THE U.S. ACADEMIC RESEARCH STRUCTURE

This section describes U.S. engineering research universities, organized engineering research units, and major human resources for engineering, including faculty and other engineering employees, postdoctoral appointments, student enrollments, and degrees awarded.

Engineering Research Universities

In 1991 there were 219 universities and colleges that reported research and development expenditures for engineering and computer science. (See Table 1, Dickens Appendix.) Of these institutions, 168 reported R&D expenditures for both engineering and computer science, 37 reported expenditures for engineering only, and 18 reported expenditures for computer science only. The majority of the 219 institutions were public (158), and 61 were private.

Since these 219 institutions were selected on the basis of their R&D expenditures for engineering and computer science, they include a variety of universities and colleges when viewed in terms of other classification systems. For example, the 1994 Carnegie Classification for these 219 institutions is as follows: Research Universities I-83; Research Universities II - 36; Doctoral Universities I-30; Doctoral Universities II - 32; Master's Universities and Colleges I - 29; Baccalaureate Colleges I - 3; and Professional Schools and Specialized Institutions - 6. The Research I Universities accounted for 70 percent of the R&D expenditures for engineering and computer science in 1991.

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

The 1991 National Science Foundation survey of graduate enrollments reported 1,464 graduate engineering departments, of which 1,260, or 86 percent, were at doctorate-granting institutions. There were 274 computer science departments with graduate enrollments, with 187, or 68 percent, of these departments at doctorate-granting universities.

Engineering Research Centers and Laboratories

There is great variety in the internal organization of engineering research universities. In addition to departments, there are a large number of engineering research centers and laboratories, which may or may not be within departments or even within engineering colleges.

In an NSF-funded study currently under way, Robert P. Morgan and his colleagues identified 1,030 organized, university-based engineering research units at 154 universities within the study population; there may be others. These research units were defined "very broadly to include units that either are totally within engineering schools or that may not be within engineering schools but involve engineering faculty and staff."2 Morgan and colleagues found that these organized research units were relatively recent organizations, with one-half being founded since 1983. Many of these units were created "to provide a focal point for certain research activities and to attract funding and facilities."3

The research activities of the units surveyed by Morgan and colleagues included a broad range of engineering disciplines. The overall distribution of research effort as described by the responding unit directors was about equally divided among basic research, applied research, and development. In addition, Morgan and coauthors reported that, when asked into which of six broad critical technology areas the work of the units fell, the directors indicated the following divisions:

Materials

45%

Energy and environment

42%

Manufacturing

29%

Information and communications

27%

Aeronautics and surface transportation

17%

Biotechnology and life sciences

13%4

Federally Sponsored University Center Programs. Six federal departments and independent agencies sponsor university research centers, many of which have an engineering focus. A 1993 report of the National Research Council's Transportation Research Board reported 281 centers being funded through nine federal programs:5

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

 

No. of Centers

U.S. Department of Transportation

 

University Transportation Centers Program

13

National Science Foundation

 

Engineering Research Centers Program

18

Science and Technology Centers Program

25

Materials Research Laboratories

10

Industry-University Cooperative Research Centers Program

50

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

 

Manufacturing Technology Centers Program

7

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

 

University Space Engineering Research Centers

8

Department of Defense

 

University Research Initiative

113

Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines

 

Mineral Institute Program

37

NSF-Funded Engineering Research Centers. In 1985 the National Science Foundation established the Engineering Research Centers (ERC) Program in accordance with a model envisioned by the National Academy of Engineering. The program was motivated by three major concerns: To restore U.S. industrial prowess in turning research discoveries into high-quality, competitive products; to give greater emphasis to the design of manufacturing processes and products; and to better prepare engineering graduates to meet the needs of U.S. industry. Each ERC is established as a three-way partnership involving academia, industry, and the National Science Foundation. Annual funding for an ERC ranges from $2.5 million to $8.0 million, with the NSF contribution ranging from $1.8 million to $3.3 million a year. The fiscal year 1995 budget requests $51.5 million for the ERC program. The distribution of the 18 current NSF ERCs by major technological area of focus is as follows:6

Design and manufacturing

5

Materials processing for manufacturing

3

Optoelectronics/microelectronics/telecommunications

4

Biotechnology/bioengineering

3

Energy and resource recovery

2

Infrastructure

1

Faculty and Other Engineers Employed by Academic Institutions

The engineering R&D activities of research universities rely heavily on faculty, nonfaculty research staff, postdoctoral appointees, and graduate research assistants.

Doctorate-holders employed by academic institutions. Over the period 1979 to 1989, the overall employment of doctoral engineers and computer

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

specialists increased by 72 percent. (See Table 2, Dickens Appendix, for data on academic employment of doctorates.) All fields experienced growth, ranging from 23 percent for materials engineering to 178 percent for computer science. The large percentage increase for computer specialists reflects the small number in the base year. The proportion of doctoral engineers and computer specialists who were active in research and development increased from 76 percent in 1979 to 79 percent in 1989. There were variations by field in the staff active in research and development. Increases were noted except for aerospace and civil engineers and computer specialists. The proportion of chemical engineers active in research and development had the largest gain, increasing from 73 percent in 1979 to 92 percent in 1989.

Faculty and nonfaculty research staff. Compared with other aspects of the academic engineering research enterprise, there is sparse information on faculty in universities and colleges.7 In academic year 1992–93, there were more than 21,000 engineering faculty at U.S. universities and colleges.8

The U.S. Department of Education, with the cosponsorship of the National Science Foundation, is conducting the ''1993 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty." When completed, this study should provide substantially more information than has been available on the characteristics and activities of faculty in engineering, computer science, and other fields. The coverage of separate engineering fields, however, is limited to the following: general engineering; civil engineering; electrical, electronics, and communications engineering; mechanical engineering; chemical engineering; other engineering; and engineering-related technologies.

According to a similar, but less-detailed, U.S. Department of Education survey for academic year 1987–88, the full-time regular instructional engineering faculty (including engineering-related technologies) in postsecondary education were predominately male (98 percent) and predominately white, non-Hispanic (87 percent). The majority (64 percent) of the engineering faculty held doctorates. The distributions of engineering faculty by age and academic rank were somewhat like those for the natural sciences, except that a higher proportion of engineers were in the oldest category and there was a higher proportion of assistant professors in engineering.9

 

Age

Academic rank

 

Less than 40

60 and older

Prof.

Assoc. prof.

Asst. prof.

Engineering

23%

14%

41%

24%

23%

Natural sciences

23%

9%

38%

23%

18%

The numbers of engineering faculty have increased over the years since a 1980 NSF-sponsored survey found that there were 16,200 permanent, full-

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

time engineering faculty positions.10 According to a 1986 National Science Foundation survey of doctorate-level departments in six engineering fields—aeronautical, chemical, civil, electrical, industrial, and mechanical—there were approximately 9,800 full-time faculty in these departments. About 70 percent of these faculty were tenured. These departments also reported 615 nonfaculty doctoral personnel who were employed full-time as professional researchers.11

The engineering departments surveyed in 1986 by the National Science Foundation reported that the full-time faculty had submitted more than 14,200 research proposals during the previous year (defined as July 1, 1984, to June 30, 1985). In contrast, members of the nonfaculty doctoral research staff were much less likely than faculty members to submit research proposals on which they would be the principal investigator; for this group the number of proposals submitted was about 240.12

Postdoctorates. Postdoctoral fellows and associates form a substantial part of the research staff at doctorate-granting academic institutions. (See Table 3, Dickens Appendix, for data on postdoctorates by field, citizenship, and gender.) In 1991 there were 2,406 postdoctoral appointees in engineering and computer science departments, almost all of whom (2,394 or 99.5 percent) were at doctorate-granting universities. Over two-thirds (68 percent) of the postdoctorates were in four fields:

Chemical engineering

25%

Materials engineering

17%

Mechanical engineering

14%

Electrical engineering

13%

Non-U.S. citizens held the majority of postdoctoral appointments in all fields of engineering. The overall proportion of non-U.S. citizens in 1991 was 70 percent; by field, this proportion ranged from 30 percent for computer science to 80 percent for materials engineering.

The number of postdoctoral appointees in engineering and computer science departments grew dramatically between 1980 and 1991, increasing 136 percent. By field, the increases ranged from 52 percent in civil engineering to 285 percent in aerospace engineering. Chemical engineering, which had the largest number of postdoctoral appointees in 1991, had an increase of 215 percent over this period.

Women increased their overall representation among postdoctoral appointees in engineering and computer science from 7 percent in 1980 to 11 percent in 1991. Chemical engineering had the largest share of the female postdoctorates in 1991, 35 percent. (Chemical engineering had 23 percent of the male postdoctorates in 1991. See Table 4, Dickens Appendix, for data on postdoctoral appointees by field and source of support.) The num-

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

ber of female postdoctorates in computer science departments grew from 2 in 1980 to 27 in 1991, but the large variations in their numbers over this period made it difficult to give a precise sense of their share of the total. In 1990, for example, 13 percent of the computer science postdoctorates were women, compared with 18 percent in 1989 and 17 percent in 1991.

Overall, federal sources provided the support for two-thirds (67 percent) of the postdoctoral appointees in engineering and computer science departments at doctorate-granting universities in 1991. The principal mechanism of federal support was through research grants, which accounted for 94 percent of the federally supported postdoctorates. Except for industrial engineering, the majority of postdoctoral appointees were supported by federal sources. In industrial engineering departments, 17 of the 27 postdoctoral appointees (63 percent) were supported by nonfederal sources.

Other nonfaculty research staff with doctorates. Engineering and computer science departments reported 731 nonfaculty research staff with doctorates in 1991, all but one of whom were at doctorate-granting institutions. Women represented 10 percent of these nonfaculty doctoral research staff. In general, there was less than one such staff member per engineering department at doctorate-granting institutions, the exception being departments of materials engineering. (See Table 5, Dickens Appendix, for the 1991 distribution of nonfaculty doctoral research staff.)

Student Enrollments in Engineering

Undergraduate students. One indicator of student awareness of career opportunities is changes in the preferences for majors and careers shown by first-year college students. According to data from an annual survey of incoming college students conducted since 1966, interest in engineering as a career has fluctuated, falling from 8.9 percent in 1966 to a low of 4.7 percent, then rising to a peak of 12.0 percent in 1982, followed by another decline to 8.1 percent in 1990. Women's interest in engineering careers rose from 0.2 percent in 1966 to a peak of 3.6 percent in 1982 then declined to 2.4 percent by 1990.13 The proportion of underrepresented minority students—African Americans, Native Americans, and Hispanics—intending to major in engineering increased strongly over the past 20 years, rising from 7.3 percent in 1972 to 17.7 percent in 1992.14 (See Table 6, Dickens Appendix, for data on career preferences of first-year college students.)

According to the Engineering Workforce Commission, full-time undergraduate engineering enrollment in the fall of 1992 was 344,126, an increase of 1.4 percent over the fall of 1991. (See Table 7, Dickens Appendix, for data on undergraduate engineering enrollment.) The enrollment of part-time undergraduates decreased by more than 5.4 percent to 38,399.

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

Total undergraduate engineering enrollment in 1992 was 382,525, an increase of more than 2,500 over 1991. Although the fall 1992 undergraduate enrollment in engineering was substantially below the fall 1983 level of 441,451, the mix of students was different. In 1983 there were 406,144 full-time students and 35,061 part-time students. For full-time students, the 1983 figure was the largest on record. For part-time students, however, the peak enrollment figure was the 41,445 recorded in the fall of 1990.15

The enrollment of women and underrepresented minorities continued to increase. In the fall of 1992, women represented over 19 percent of first-year students and over 17 percent of all full-time undergraduates. Underrepresented minorities (African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans) increased their representation among first-year students to 17 percent and among all full-time undergraduates to over 13 percent. The representation of women and these minorities in 1992 were historically high levels.16

Graduate students. There are three sources of information on graduate engineering enrollments—the American Society for Engineering Education, the Engineering Workforce Commission, and the National Science Foundation. The NSF data are used for this section because they also provide information on graduate enrollment in computer science departments. It should be noted, however, that the NSF data include all computer science departments, not just those within engineering colleges.

In the fall of 1991, the NSF survey of graduate departments reported 149,135 graduate students in engineering and computer science, a record high level. (See Table 8, Dickens Appendix, for information on total graduate enrollment.) Between 1972 and 1991, total graduate enrollment in engineering departments increased by 171 percent. Departments in all fields experienced growth in graduate enrollment over this period, ranging from 65 percent for chemical engineering to 685 percent for computer science.

In the 1970s, the growth of part-time graduate enrollment was 89 percent, compared with 31 percent for full-time enrollment. All fields except aerospace engineering experienced growth. The increases ranged from 25 percent for materials engineering to 164 percent for computer science. Enrollment in aerospace engineering decreased by 26 percent overall, with declines in both full-time and part-time graduate students. (NSF did not collect data on graduate enrollment by gender during most of the 1970s.)

The graduate enrollment picture was different during the period 1980 to 1991. All fields experienced growth in enrollment, with increases of full-time students accounting for the larger part of the gain. Part-time graduate enrollment decreased, however, in chemical engineering departments over this period.

Between 1980 and 1991, overall engineering graduate enrollment increased by a much greater percentage for women than for men, but in 1991

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

men still accounted for a substantial majority (84 percent) of engineering graduate students in all fields.

The computer science departments had a somewhat different pattern of graduate enrollment growth over the 1980–1991 period. The overall increase in enrollment was 156 percent, with the growth in part-time enrollment exceeding that for full-time students. There was relatively little difference in the increase in full-time enrollments for women and men, but the increase in part-time enrollment for women was substantially greater than that for men. Over the 1980–1991 period, the proportion of graduate computer science enrollment represented by women increased slightly from 23 percent to 24 percent. (See Table 9, Dickens Appendix, for information on full-time and part-time graduate students.)

Degrees Awarded in Engineering and Computer Science

Bachelor's degrees. From 1966, when computer science degree data were first reported by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), the numbers of baccalaureates awarded in engineering and computer science increased each year until 1986, growing from 35,904 to 119,015 (an increase of 231 percent). Much of this growth resulted from the rapid rise in degrees in computer science and from the strong increases in the numbers of engineering degrees awarded to women. After 1986, however, the numbers of baccalaureates awarded each year in both engineering and computer science declined, with computer science having the sharper decrease.

When viewed by gender and field, the patterns were somewhat different. For women, engineering bachelor's degrees grew very rapidly until 1985, leveled off, and then began to decline. (Table 10, Dickens Appendix, presents data on bachelor's degrees by field and gender.) The peak year for engineering baccalaureates awarded to women was 1987 at 11,404, which was more than 78 times greater that the 146 degrees women earned in 1966. By 1990 baccalaureates awarded to women had decreased to 9,973, a decline of 13 percent from 1987. For men, there was a smaller overall rise, followed by a larger decline in the numbers of engineering bachelor's degrees. The growth in degrees awarded to men ended in 1985, two years earlier than for women. The 66,326 engineering baccalaureates awarded to men in 1985 was 86 percent above the figure for 1966. By 1990 the number of these degrees awarded to men had declined from the 1985 peak to 54,732, a decrease of 17 percent.

For computer science, the numbers of bachelor's degrees awarded to both men and women increased rapidly from 1966. For men, baccalaureates in computer science rose from 76 in 1966 to a peak of 27,069 in 1986 and then declined to 19,321 in 1990, a drop of 29 percent. The growth in women's baccalaureates in computer science was also very large, rising

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

from 13 in 1966 to a peak of 15,126 in 1986. By 1990 the number of computer science bachelor's degrees awarded to women had dropped to 8,374, a decline of 45 percent from the 1986 figure. (Table 11, Dickens Appendix, presents data on master's degrees awarded by field and gender.)

The 219 engineering research universities awarded almost two-thirds (65 percent) of the engineering baccalaureates in 1990. There was considerable difference in this proportion by field of engineering, ranging from 49 percent for aeronautical engineering to 74 for materials engineering. In contrast, the engineering research universities awarded only about one-third (32.0 percent) of the bachelor's degrees in computer science. (See Table 1.)

Master's degrees. The number of master's degrees awarded in engineering and computer science fields grew dramatically over the 1966–1990 period, increasing from 13,916 to 33,638, a gain of 142 percent. The contribution of women to this increase is seen in their share of master's degrees, which rose from 0.7 percent in 1966 to 18 percent in 1990. Women earned 93 master's degrees in these fields in 1966 and 5,944 in 1990. For both men and women, the number of master's degrees awarded in these fields in 1990 was the largest over this period.

During the 1970s, the number of master's degrees awarded in many engineering fields declined. There followed a period of growth in the 1980s. Civil and chemical engineering reached their maximum numbers in 1984 and 1985, respectively. From their mid-decade peaks, the number of master's degrees in these fields declined by 10 percent for civil engineering and 34 percent for chemical engineering. Mechanical and materials engineering had their largest number of master's degrees in 1989 and had small decreases in 1990. In contrast, the number of master's degrees awarded in computer science increased throughout the 1966–1990 period.

Doctor's degrees. The 1966–1991 period may be divided into three distinct phases in terms of the number of doctorates awarded in engineering and computer science: (1) From 1966 to 1972 there was a large increase in these degrees, rising from 2,301 to 3,509; (2) between 1972 and 1978 a decline to 2,546 in the number of these doctorates erased most of the Phase One increase; and (3) from 1978 to 1991 there was a new period of growth, slow at first and then rapid after 1985. The total of 6,009 doctorates awarded in 1991 represents a new high record. The decline during the 1970s was accounted for by the drop in doctorates awarded to U.S. citizen and permanent resident males. Although their numbers continued to decline until 1982, the effect was offset by the strong growth in the number of doctorates awarded to foreign citizen males who were temporary residents of the United States. After 1982 doctorates awarded to U.S. citizen and permanent resident males began to increase again, helping fuel the growth in engineering and computer science degrees at this level. All fields of engineering shared

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

in the growth. (See Table 12, Dickens Appendix, for data on doctorates awarded in engineering and computer science by citizenship and gender.)

Much of the growth in the number of engineering doctorates was accounted for by foreign students with temporary resident status; and, in 1991, for the first time, the number of doctorates awarded to temporary residents exceeded the number awarded to U.S. citizens and permanent residents. By field, the greatest increases in the number of doctorates awarded to temporary residents were in electrical engineering and mechanical engineering. In computer science, as well, foreign citizen temporary residents received an increasing share of doctor's degrees. In 1991 they received 42 percent of computer science doctorates, up from 20 percent in 1980.

The increasing number of foreign citizens among recipients of engineering and computer science doctorates from U.S. universities is also reflected in the nationality of the baccalaureate-origin institutions. In a special analysis, the National Science Foundation compared U.S. with foreign baccalaureate-origin institutions for doctorate recipients during the period from 1985 to 1990. The data are presented in Table 2.

Women were major contributors to the growth in doctorates in engineering and computer science between 1980 and 1991. The number of women receiving doctorates in engineering increased 402 percent from 1980 to 1991, with temporary residents gaining 813 percent, compared with 309 percent for U.S. citizens and permanent residents. As a result of this growth, the share of all engineering doctorates awarded to women increased from 4 percent in 1980 to 9 percent in 1991. By field, the largest number of doctorates awarded in 1991 to female temporary residents were in electrical engineering (30 or 22 percent); the leading fields for U.S. citizen and permanent resident females were other engineering (72 or 24 percent) and chemical engineering (60 or 20 percent). The number of computer science doctorates awarded to women grew by 452 percent between 1980 and 1991, compared with 242 percent for men. Women's share of computer science doctorates rose from 10 percent in 1980 to 15 percent in 1991.

FUNDING OF ACADEMIC ENGINEERING RESEARCH

Government Sources of Support for Academic Research by Field and Category of Research

All fields. In 1991, U.S. academic institutions reported overall R&D expenditures of approximately $17.2 billion for all fields, including engineering and computer science. (See Table 1 for a listing of these 219 institutions in rank order by R&D expenditures for 1991.) The activity distribution for these expenditures was basic research, 65.5 percent, applied

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

research, 25.9 percent, and development, 8.6 percent. The sources of these funds are shown in Table 3.

R&D expenditures at engineering research universities. Table 4 summarizes data on sources of funding for the 219 universities and colleges that reported research and development expenditures for engineering and computer science in 1991. Of the total $3.1 billion in R&D expenditures, $2.64 billion (85 percent) was reported as engineering and $460 million (15 percent) was reported as computer science. These R&D expenditures were concentrated in a relatively small number of institutions, with 22 universities accounting for one-half of the total. Five universities reported R&D expenditures in engineering and computer science exceeding $100 million each; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology reported the largest such expenditure, $146 million.

The federal government provided about $1.7 billion, or 55 percent, of the R&D expenditures of engineering research universities in 1991. (See Table 5.) Federal sources provided 63 percent of the R&D expenditures for computer science, compared with 53 percent for engineering. Among the fields of engineering, the proportion of R&D expenditures that came from federal sources ranged from 39 percent for civil engineering to 72 percent for aerospace engineering.

Trends in R&D expenditures. From 1973 to 1991, R&D expenditures at engineering research universities increased, in constant 1989 dollars, by 264 percent for engineering and computer science. (See Table 13, Dickens Appendix, for data on R&D expenditures of academic institutions by field and source of funds.) Although the federal government provided the larger share of these funds over this period, their growth was much less than that for nonfederal sources, 198 percent and 430 percent, respectively.

Data by field of engineering for academic R&D expenditures, which became available beginning in 1980, reveal that there were increases in constant dollar terms for all fields of engineering from 1980 to 1991, ranging from 101 percent for mechanical engineering to 166 percent for chemical engineering. The increase for computer science was 197 percent.

Although federally funded R&D expenditures by engineering research universities grew between 1980 and 1991, in constant dollars, the increases were less than for total expenditures in all engineering fields and computer science. For engineering and computer science overall, the increase for federally funded R&D expenditures was 99 percent. For fields of engineering, the growth in federally funded R&D expenditures ranged from 57 percent for civil engineering to 114 percent for electrical engineering. The increase for computer science was 184 percent.

From 1980 to 1991, R&D expenditures funded by nonfederal sources at engineering research universities grew by an overall 218 percent, in constant

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

dollars, for engineering and computer science. The increases for engineering fields ranged from 152 percent for mechanical engineering to 336 percent for civil engineering. The increase for computer science was 229 percent.

Support for graduate students as research assistants. Graduate research assistants provide a substantial part of the human resources that support R&D activities at universities in engineering and computer science. (See Table 14, Dickens Appendix, for data on sources of support for full-time graduate assistants by field.) Nonfederal sources have become increasingly important as the source of support for full-time graduate students who hold research assistantships in these fields. In 1972 the federal government supported almost two-thirds (62 percent) of the graduate research assistants in engineering and computer science. (See Table 6.) By 1991 less than one-half (46 percent) of the graduate research assistants were supported by federal sources. Nonfederal funding of graduate research assistants comes from many sources including the own funds of universities. See Table 4 for data on mechanisms of support for postdoctoral appointees, by field.

Support for postdoctoral appointees. In 1991 federal sources provided the support for 67 percent of the postdoctoral appointees in engineering departments and for 75 percent of those in computer science departments. The principal mechanism of federal support was through research grants, 94 percent for postdoctorates in engineering departments and 97 percent in computer science departments. In all engineering departments except industrial engineering, the majority of postdoctoral appointees were supported by federal sources. In industrial engineering departments, 17 of the 27 postdoctoral appointees (63 percent) were supported by nonfederal sources.

Engineering research centers and laboratories. In the NSF-funded study of organized engineering research units, Robert P. Morgan and coworkers made the following finding:

The research units varied widely in size and research funding. About half of the units had annual engineering research expenditures of less than $1,000,000 while 5% had expenditures of $10 million or more. Individual units also differed widely in the sources of the support they received. Across all units, during FY 1992 the funding breakdown by source was as follows: U.S. federal government, 44.9%; U.S. business an industry, 22.6%; U.S. state and local government, 13.6%; internal university funds, 12.0%; foreign business, industry or government, 3.1%: other, (including private non-profit organizations, gifts, sales, etc.) 3.8%. Some 40% of those responding indicated that they received no internal university budget support during FY 1992.17

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×
Mission Basis for Government Research Support

Government agencies support research and development activities as part of the fulfillment of their missions. A substantial part of the research and development work by universities is linked to the fulfillment of government agency missions. The annual budget proposal of the President requests budget authority from the Congress. The congressional appropriations determine what the budget authority will be. Support for research and development at universities in the fields of engineering and computer science comes from many budget function categories and federal agencies.

The fiscal year 1995 budget submitted by the President to the Congress in early February gives a clear indication of the Clinton/Gore administration's priorities for federal research and development investments. The most recently published figures on federal R&D budget authority are presented in Table 7. These data reflect the priorities of the Clinton/Gore administration in fiscal years 1994 and 1995 and those of the Bush administration in fiscal year 1993.

According to President Clinton's fiscal year 1995 budget,

The administration is proposing $71 billion in R&D investments (excluding facilities) in 1995, a $2.5 billion, or 4 percent, increase over 1994. Civilian R&D will increase by more than $1 billion, or 4 percent, to $32 billion. The combination of continued annual growth for civilian R&D, anticipated decreases in defense R&D after 1995, and the inclusion of dual-use defense R&D is likely to cause the civilian share of the R&D budget to exceed 50 percent earlier than the 1998 date predicted in the 1994 budget. Much of this increase will be focused on cost-shared and competitively selected projects that are industry-defined and industry-led (i.e., consortia, cooperative R&D, etc.). In 1995 university-based research will increase to $12 billion, a $437 million, or 4 percent, increase over 1994. University-based research continues to provide an important contribution to the creation of knowledge, technological innovation, and the training of scientists and engineers.18

Industry Support for Academic Engineering Research

According to NSF data, in 1991 industry provided $1.2 billion, or about 7 percent, of the $17.6 billion spent by academic institutions on research and development activities. These data were not disaggregated by field, but other data indicated the proportion of industrial funding for engineering R&D was substantially greater than the overall average for all fields. Morgan and coworkers found that organized engineering research units at academic institutions received almost 23 percent of their funds from U.S. business and industry.19 A National Research Council special study of chemical engineering noted that between 1980 and 1986, industrial support of aca-

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

demic research in that field nearly quadrupled and were the main force for funding growth in academic chemical engineering.20

Foreign Support of Academic Engineering Research

According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), foreign sources financed about 11 percent of the industrial R&D performance in the United States in 1991. Available data suggest that foreign sources provided a smaller share of R&D performance at U.S. academic institutions. The data collected by Morgan and others showed that foreign business, industry, or governments provided about 3 percent of the funding of organized engineering research units in U.S. universities.21

University Support of Academic Engineering Research with Own Funds

In 1991, according to NSF estimates, universities and colleges provided $4.9 billion for overall R&D activities and had expenditures of $17.6 billion for these purposes. Funds provided by universities and colleges represented 28 percent of their R&D expenditures. The NSF data included state and local government funds to the university and college sector. The study by Morgan and others found that in fiscal year 1992 the organized engineering research units received 12 percent of their support from internal university funds, and an additional 14 percent from state and local governments.22 The sum of these two sources of funding in the Morgan study—about 26 percent—is roughly comparable to the figure reported in the NSF data.

NATURE AND SCOPE OF RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND EDUCATION

Undergraduate Students Participating in Research Programs

Early exposure to research is widely recognized as an important element in the development of future researchers. Many federal agencies provide support through special training programs, such as the National Science Foundation's Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU), or through supplements to research grants for the addition of undergraduate students to the research team.

Organized research units at universities provide research experiences and employment to undergraduate engineering students. Morgan and coworkers found that 18 percent of the units reported a great extent of involvement of undergraduate students, and another 48 percent reported some involvement of these students. ''Undergraduates most frequently were used as assistants to others in research

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

followed by general 'go-fors' and by 'technicians'.''23 On average, each unit had 35 undergraduate students working, but a small number of centers with large expenditures tended to skew the data. If the 31 centers with annual research expenditures of more than $10 million were excluded, the average number of undergraduate students per center dropped from 35 to 22.24

Graduate Students Participating in Research Activities

In 1991, 35 percent of the full-time graduate students in engineering fields and computer science held research assistantships. (See Table 8.) The comparable proportion in 1972 was 19 percent. There were wide differences by field in the proportion of full-time graduate students who were supported by research assistantships. In 1972 only three fields supported more than one-fourth of their full-time graduate students as research assistants: materials engineering (44 percent), electrical engineering (27 percent), and chemical engineering (27 percent). In 1991 two fields had one-half or more of their full-time graduate students holding research assistantships (62 percent for materials engineering and 50 percent for chemical engineering).

Organized engineering research units at universities offer opportunities for research to graduate students. According to the study by Morgan and coworkers, the directors of 87 percent of the research units reported that there was a great extent of graduate student involvement, and another 10 percent of the directors reported some involvement. On average, each unit had 36 graduate students, but this figure is skewed by the small number of centers with large expenditures. If these 31 large centers with annual research expenditures of more than $10 million were excluded, the average number of graduate students per center dropped from 36 to 27.25 "The most frequent roles for graduate students in research units were as 'associate researchers' followed next by the role of 'independent researcher.' . . . Approximately 87% of the graduate students working in research units are working on unit projects or problems that constitute their master's theses or doctoral dissertations."26

The Morgan study made the following observation about the contributions to graduate engineering education from student work in research units:

Directors in our survey said that the most important ways that work in their research units adds to the education of graduate students and development of their engineering skills were as follows (in order of decreasing frequency): leads to easier entry into industry, provides cross-disciplinary research experience, leads to easier entry into academia, provides more focus on the problems of industry, and provides a better understanding of engineering's role in industry.27

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×
Faculty, Postdoctorates, and Other Academic Engineers Participating in Research

University faculty are expected to maintain active participation in research as one of their primary duties. During the 1980s the structure of research support has changed, in part because of the increasing emphasis given by federal sponsoring agencies to interdisciplinary research. The traditional model for university research in many fields has been that of the individual investigator working with a small group of graduate students and postdoctoral students. A special study by the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology found that the share of research funds going to individual investigators declined over the decade of the 1980s from 56 percent to 51 percent, while the shares for research teams and major facilities increased. Funding for research centers decreased slightly because of a slower growth rate in centers at the National Institutes of Health and the U.S. Department of Agriculture.28

The Morgan study reports similar findings. Organized engineering research units, on average, involved 28 faculty, research associates, postdoctoral students, and technical support personnel. The study concluded that

There appears to be a shift taking place in university-based engineering research away from the individual investigator model towards more applied, team research of a cross-disciplinary nature. . . . Although changes in the nature and dimensions of university-based engineering research have occurred, the traditionally valued outputs of this research still predominate. In particular, when asked about the importance of a variety of research outputs, the research unit Directors specified that papers for publication, conference reports and presentations, and technical reports were of much greater importance than pieces of hardware, commercial or military products, and patents or invention disclosures. Thus, the more traditional academic outputs continue to predominate, even in an organized research setting in which more practical, applied research is being conducted.29

DATA CONSIDERATIONS

This section presents technical items related to the data used in the paper and raises points for consideration in planning future studies of this kind.

Definitions. "Engineering research universities" are those institutions that reported research and development expenditures for engineering or computer science in the 1991 National Science Foundation Survey of R&D Expenditures of Universities and Colleges. There are 219 such institutions.

For the purposes of this paper, the term engineering includes computer

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

science. In most databases, computer science is reported separately from engineering.

Limitations. A long-term description of engineering research universities is hampered by the fact that prior to approximately 1980, the major federal sources for data on R&D funding did not provide disaggregated data for engineering fields. In contrast, data on degrees and enrollment by field of engineering are available for a longer period of time. Recently some of the data collected by the American Society for Engineering Education has been developed into a database.30

At the time the statistical tabulations were created for this paper, the most recent year for which federal data were generally available was 1991. Therefore, that year has been used for identification and characterization of engineering research universities.

Annual data are available for a number of major topics covered in the paper, including R&D expenditures of engineering research universities, obligations of federal agencies for research and development, engineering degrees awarded, and engineering enrollments. In contrast, data on engineering faculty are available only for certain years and only as aggregated tabulations.

Principal data sources. Much of the data presented in this paper was tabulated from the Computer Aided Science Policy Analysis and Research (CASPAR) Database System, developed by Quantum Research Corporation for the National Science Foundation (NSF). The most recently available version of CASPAR was released in June 1993 and includes data through 1991. CASPAR includes data from surveys of the NSF and the U.S. Department of Education (ED), as well as the National Research Council's Doctorate Records File. In addition, the report includes information from other NSF sources, including published reports and unpublished tabulations, the Engineering Workforce Commission, the Higher Education Research Institute of the University of California at Los Angeles, and a special study by Robert P. Morgan and others of the Washington University in St. Louis.

Data considerations for future studies. There is a need for the principal federal and nonfederal data collection organizations to increase the coverage and availability of data on engineering. Further questions that should be addressed include, but are not limited to, the following:

1. Identifying a core set of data that is generally needed for policy studies in engineering.

Most policy studies in a given sector, for example academia, use certain data sets to set the context. For the academic sector, there is usually concern about enrollments, degrees awarded, income and expenditures, faculty and other engineers, numbers of institutions, and numbers of departments in each

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

engineering field. Of these familiar categories, there is a relative dearth of information on engineering faculty and other engineers employed in academia.

The core data set should also include information about the research activities of engineers in academia and about the organizational structures in which they perform this research. The current study being conducted by Robert Morgan and his associates may help illuminate these topics. What plans should be made to update some of this information on a regular basis?

In terms of resources for data collection, the core data set should not be allocated all the funds. There should be support for special studies that will address engineering issues not covered by the core data.

2. Coordinating and setting priorities for data collection activities related to engineering.

Data collection organizations would probably find it helpful to be able to discuss their current and planned activities with an identified, continuing body that could represent the interests and concerns of the engineering community. In the absence of such a group, there is the risk that decisions about engineering data collection will be overly influenced by the needs of some current topic or the views of just a few individuals, who may not represent the full scope of engineering concerns.

There is a need to form such a coordinating body to address the data collection activities of nonfederal as well as federal organizations. Because data collection is expensive and money is often tight, there is a need to set priorities in data collection activities. Moreover, the staffing reductions of industrial firms pose an added constraint on data collection from that sector. The views and recommendations of a coordinating body would be of great value in making decisions about what are the highest-priority data collection activities.

3. Considering the unique problems of data for engineering policy studies.

Engineering is a transcendent activity. Increasingly, its research activities are of an interdisciplinary or a multidisciplinary character, and the boundaries between academia, industry, and government are less and less distinct.

Any discussion of data needs for policy studies in engineering should consider the coordination of information collection activities across sectors. The coordinating body could help sector-specific data collection organizations develop ways to make their activities more useful for policy analyses that cut across sectors.

NOTES

1.  

It should be noted that the terminology in this paper is different from that of some widely used classifications in which, for example, the term "research universities" designates a subset of all universities that do research.

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

2.  

Robert P. Morgan, Donald E. Strickland, Nirmala Kannankutty, and Carol Spelman, "Engineering Research in U.S. Universities: How University-Based Research Directors See It," IEEE-ASEE Frontiers in Education Conference, November 7, 1993, p. 1.

3.  

Ibid., p. 1.

4.  

Ibid., p. 1.

5.  

National Research Council Transportation Research Board, "Measuring Quality: A Review Process for the University Transportation Centers Program," National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1993, Table A-1.

6.  

National Science Foundation, "Engineering Research Centers: A Partnership for Competitiveness," NSF 92-48i, Arlington, VA 22230.

7.  

Richard W. Heckel, Professor of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan, has developed a database from the annual compilation by the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) of statistical information contributed by individual engineering programs. The ASEE data include degrees, enrollment, faculty, and research expenditures. The results of Professor Heckel's analyses are presented in two papers which have been submitted to Engineering Education. The titles of the draft papers are "Current and Emerging Statistical Trends in Engineering Education" and "Degrees and Research Funding in Various Engineering Disciplines Over the Last Two Decades."

8.  

A study on engineering faculty with disabilities conducted for the Society of Women in Engineering provided a total for engineering faculty in academic year 1992–93 of 21,374. According to a personal communication from Betty Vetter, Executive Director of the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology, on December 15, 1993, the study did not provide data on total faculty by field of engineering.

9.  

U.S. Department of Education, National Survey of Postsecondary Faculty, 1987–88, as cited in National Center for Education Statistics Digest of Education Statistics, 1991, NCES 91–697,221.

10.  

Frank J. Atelsek and Irene L. Gomberg, "Recruitment and Retention of Full-time Engineering Faculty, Fall 1980," Higher Education Panel Reports, American Council on Education, Washington, DC, October, 1981, p. 3.

11.  

National Science Foundation, "Survey of Research Participation and Characteristics of Science and Engineering Faculty, 1985–1986," Arlington, VA 22230, unpublished tabulations.

12.  

Ibid.

13.  

E. L. Dey, A. W. Astin, and W. S. Korn, The American Freshman: Twenty-Five Year trends, 1966–1990, Higher Education Research Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, 1991.

14.  

Higher Education Research Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, Survey of the American Freshman: National Norms, Los Angeles, 1992, unpublished tabulations.

15.  

Engineering Workforce Commission, "Engineering Workforce Bulletin," American Association of Engineering Societies, Washington, DC, April 1993 and Engineering Manpower Commission, "Engineering Manpower Bulletin," American Association of Engineering Societies, April 1991, and April 1992.

16.  

Engineering Workforce Commission, "Engineering Workforce Bulletin," American Association of Engineering Societies, Washington, DC, April 1993.

17.  

Morgan, op.cit., p. 1.

18.  

Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 1995, "Chapter 3B. Investing for Productivity and Prosperity–Investing in Know How," Washington, DC 20506.

19.  

Morgan, op. cit., p.1.

20.  

National Research Council, Frontiers in Chemical Engineering: Research Needs and Opportunities, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1988, p. 185.

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

21.  

Morgan, op. cit., p. 1.

22.  

Ibid.

23.  

Ibid., p. 4.

24.  

Robert P. Morgan, comments on the draft version of the Background Paper, February 14, 1994.

25.  

Robert P. Morgan, ibid.

26.  

Ibid., p. 4.

27.  

Ibid., p. 4.

28.  

Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology, Trends in the Structure of Federal Science Support, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC, 1992, p. 2–7.

29.  

Morgan, op.cit., p. 5.

30.  

An alternative source of data has been developed from the annual statistical information provided by individual engineering programs to the American Society for Engineering Education by Professor Richard W. Heckel, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Michigan Technological University for the period Academic Year 1970 to Academic Year 1990. Professor Heckel has submitted his analyses of these data for publication by Engineering Education.

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

Appendix

TABLE 1 Total Research and Development Expenditures for Engineering and Computer Science by Academic Institution, 1991 (in thousands of dollars)

 

Academic institution

Total

Engineering

Computer science

 

All academic institutions

3,437,214

2,892,750

544,464

1

Massachusetts Institute of Technology *

146,038

132,421

13,617

2

Georgia Institute of Technology, All Campuses

141,785

124,708

17,077

3

Pennsylvania State U, All Campuses

121,744

121,336

1,408

4

Stanford University *

101,064

92,089

8,975

5

University of Texas at Austin

100,981

86,521

14,460

6

University of Michigan, All Campuses

74,294

63,841

10,453

7

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

72,761

54,694

18,067

8

Texas A&M University, All Campuses

70,674

65,627

5,047

9

Carnegie Mellon University *

69,705

24,615

45,090

10

Cornell University *, All Campuses

64,923

43,632

21,291

 

First 10 institutions

963,969

808,484

155,485

11

University of California-Berkeley

59,132

57,481

1,651

12

University of Southern California *

56,826

24,010

32,816

13

University of Minnesota, All Campuses

52,646

27,460

25,186

14

New Mexico State University, All Campuses

52,448

44,091

8,357

15

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ

49,143

48,407

736

16

North Carolina State University at Raleigh

48,201

46,343

1,858

17

University of Wisconsin-Madison

47,795

43,341

4,454

18

Iowa State University

46,013

36,768

9,245

19

Utah State University

45,156

44,842

314

20

Ohio State University, All Campuses

44,305

42,950

1,355

 

First 20 institutions

1,465,634

1,224,177

241,457

21

University of Maryland at College Park

43,437

36,868

6,569

22

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute *

39,520

37,927

1,593

23

Purdue University, All Campuses

38,483

35,130

3,353

24

University of Tennessee Central Office

36,947

30,817

6,130

25

University of Dayton *

34,108

33,660

448

26

Louisiana State University, All Campuses

32,048

31,768

280

27

University of Florida

31,832

29,445

2,387

28

University of California-Los Angeles

29,323

25,715

3,608

29

Rutgers, the State University, All Campuses

28,889

24,591

4,298

30

SUNY at Buffalo, All Campuses

27,080

22,881

4,199

 

First 30 institutions

1,807,301

1,532,979

274,322

31

University of Colorado, All Campuses

25,577

21,550

4,027

32

Princeton University *

23,893

20,134

3,759

33

University of Rochester *

23,825

22,304

1,521

34

Case Western Reserve University *

23,770

23,770

0

35

Clemson University

23,406

18,715

4,691

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

 

Academic institution

Total

Engineering

Computer Science

36

University of Connecticut, All Campuses

23,280

21,575

1,705

37

University of California-Santa Barbara

23,206

20,648

2,558

38

Northwestern University *

22,977

19,603

3,374

39

Auburn University, All Campuses

22,855

22,182

673

40

University of Washington

22,747

20,497

2,250

 

First 40 institutions

2,042,837

1,743,957

298,880

41

California Institute of Technology *

22,724

17,931

4,793

42

University of New Mexico, All Campuses

22,477

22,083

394

43

Arizona State University

21,262

20,129

1,133

44

University of Arizona

20,999

18,080

2,919

45

Columbia University *, Main Campus

20,721

16,785

3,936

46

Lehigh University *

20,576

20,185

391

47

University of Virginia, All Campuses

20,517

17,748

2,769

48

University of Utah

18,616

15,116

3,500

49

University of Pennsylvania *

17,524

10,620

6,904

50

University of Massachusetts, All Campuses

17,305

9,717

7,588

 

First 50 institutions

2,245,558

1,912,351

333,207

51

University of South Florida

16,945

16,945

0

52

West Virginia University

16,834

7,005

9,829

53

Colorado State University

16,819

16,406

413

54

University of Cincinnati, All Campuses

16,129

15,961

168

55

University of Oklahoma, All Campuses

15,964

13,724

2,240

56

University of Alabama in Huntsville

15,570

12,781

2,789

57

Mississippi State University

15,460

15,360

100

58

Michigan State University

15,340

5,340

0

59

University of South Carolina, All Campuses

15,062

14,260

802

60

University of Kentucky, All Campuses

14,863

14,610

253

 

First 60 institutions

2,404,544

2,054,743

349,801

61

Syracuse University *, All Campuses

14,634

5,255

9,379

62

University of Houston-University Park

14,544

14,396

148

63

University of Delaware

13,976

12,528

1,448

64

University of California-San Diego

13,794

5,624

8,170

65

Oklahoma State University, All Campuses

13,737

13,203

534

66

Brown University *

13,622

9,936

3,686

67

University of Nebraska at Lincoln

13,554

12,377

1,177

68

Rice University *

13,057

4,304

8,753

69

Drexel University *

12,675

12,506

169

70

Michigan Technological University

12,455

12,326

129

 

First 70 institutions

2,540,592

2,157,198

383,394

71

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institutions *

12,165

12,165

0

72

University of Iowa

12,027

10,805

1,222

73

Johns Hopkins University *

11,311

10,800

511

74

New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology

11,302

11,239

63

75

Yale University *

10,731

7,329

3,402

76

University of Missouri, Rolla

10,626

10,286

340

77

University of California-Davis

10,269

9,634

635

78

University of Missouri, Columbia

9,952

9,937

15

79

Texas Tech University

9,429

8,902

527

80

Oregon State University

9,163

8,226

937

 

First 80 institutions

2,647,567

2,256,521

391,046

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

 

Academic institution

Total

Engineering

Computer Science

81

Colorado School of Mines

9,128

8,648

480

82

University of Texas at Arlington

9,090

8,240

850

83

Vanderbilt University *

9,008

8,554

454

84

University of Californa-Irvine

8,991

5,171

3,820

85

University of North Dakota, All Campuses

8,361

8,361

0

86

Duke University *

8,272

6,512

1,760

87

Tennessee Technological University

8,267

8,242

25

88

University of Georgia

8,220

4,312

3,908

89

University of Idaho

8,082

8,031

51

90

University of Illinois at Chicago

7,940

7,940

0

 

First 90 institutions

2,732,926

2,330,532

402,394

91

Washington University *

7,786

2,953

4,833

92

University of Pittsburgh, All Campuses

7,569

6,514

1,055

93

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

7,569

0

7,569

94

Stevens Institute of Technology *

7,469

7,469

0

95

SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

7,432

7,139

293

96

Southern Illinois University-Carbondale

7,348

5,134

2,214

97

University of Alabama

7,327

5,996

1,331

98

Northeastern University *

7,243

5,925

1,318

99

Mercer University *, All Campuses

7,184

7,184

0

100

New Jersey Institute Technology

7,093

6,614

479

 

First 100 institutions

2,806,946

2,385,460

421,486

101

New York University *

7,029

0

7,029

102

Washington State University

6,809

6,792

17

103

Kansas State University of Agriculture and App Sci

6,760

6,635

125

104

Polytechnc University *

6,683

6,683

0

105

Ohio University, All Campuses

6,678

6,678

0

106

University of Notre Dame *

6,583

6,583

0

107

Wayne State University

6,475

5,624

851

108

Clarkson University *

6,370

6,370

0

109

Howard University *

6,240

3,871

2,369

110

North Carolina Agricultural and Technical St Univ

6,230

5,753

477

 

First 110 institutions

2,872,803

2,440,449

432,354

111

University of Central Florida

6,142

5,418

724

112

University of Arkansas, Main Campus

5,986

5,710

276

113

San Diego State University

5,915

4,466

1,449

114

Brigham Young University *, All Campuses

5,531

5,358

173

115

George Mason University

5,355

5,109

246

116

Illinois Institute of Technology *

5,309

5,093

216

117

University of Akron, All Campuses

5,197

5,197

0

118

Institute of Paper Science and Technology *

5,161

4,595

566

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

 

Academic institution

Total

Engineering

Computer science

119

George Washington University *

5,123

5,123

0

120

Boston University *

5,096

4,677

419

 

First 120 institutions

2,927,618

2,491,195

436,423

121

Dartmouth College *

5,078

5,078

0

122

University of Rhode Island

4,930

4,708

222

123

CUNY City College

4,921

4,834

87

124

University of Alabama at Birmingham

4,874

4,711

163

125

Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science & Technology *

4,836

2,948

1,888

126

Tulane University of Louisiana *

4,749

4,317

432

127

Worcester Polytechnic Institute

4,686

4,397

289

128

University of Lowell

4,602

3,925

677

129

Old Dominion University

4,513

3,758

755

130

Cleveland State University

4,452

4,410

42

 

First 130 institutions

2,975,259

2,534,281

440,978

131

University of Kansas, All Campuses

4,401

4,365

36

132

University of Texas at El Paso

4,349

3,922

427

133

Montana State University

4,340

4,330

10

134

Wichita State University

4,252

4,149

103

135

SUNY at Stony Brook, All Campuses

4,210

2,640

1,570

136

Florida Atlantic University

3,850

3,074

776

137

University of Tulsa *

3,767

3,570

197

138

University of Maine at Orono

3,763

3,724

39

139

Harvard University *

3,701

2,346

1,355

140

University of Alaska Fairbanks, All Campuses

3,622

3,616

6

 

First 140 institutions

3,015,514

2,570,017

445,497

141

University of Nevada-Reno

3,465

3,465

0

142

University of New Hampshire, Main Campus

3,415

3,098

317

143

Wright State University, All Campuses

3,383

2,408

975

144

San Jose State University

3,114

3,114

0

145

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

3,078

2,998

80

146

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

2,832

2,797

35

147

University of Mississippi, All Campuses

2,762

2,762

0

148

University of Wyoming

2,650

2,603

47

149

Tufts University *

2,321

2,307

14

150

University of Toledo

2,282

2,230

52

 

First 150 institutions

3,044,816

2,597,799

447,017

151

Lamar University-Beaumont

2,252

2,148

104

152

North Dakota State University, All Campuses

2,230

1,902

328

153

California Polytechnic State Univ-San Luis Obispo

2,083

1,844

239

154

Louisiana Tech University

2,015

2,015

0

155

University of North Carolina at Charlotte

1,985

1,799

186

156

Indiana University, All Campuses

1,915

656

1,259

157

University of North Texas

1,906

502

1,404

158

Florida Institute of Technology *

1,849

1,696

153

159

Jackson State University

1,826

1,345

481

160

University of Miami *

1,816

1,643

173

 

First 160 institutions

3,064,693

2,613,349

451,344

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

 

Academic institution

Total

Engineering

Computer science

161

University of Hawaii at Manoa

1,805

1,607

198

162

Western Michigan University

1,779

1,631

148

163

University of Puerto Rico Mayaguez

1,682

1,673

9

164

Memphis State University

1,603

1,397

206

165

University of Maryland Baltimore County

1,547

1,384

163

166

University of Oregon

1,457

939

518

167

Catholic University of America *

1,443

1,443

0

168

Marquette University *

1,375

1,375

0

169

University of Missouri, Kansas City

1,289

0

1,289

170

Southern University and A & M Col, All Campuses

1,272

423

849

 

First 170 institutions

3,079,945

2,625,221

454,724

171

Southern Methodist University *

1,243

922

321

172

SUNY at Binghamton

1,234

1,014

220

173

University of Louisville

1,234

1,207

27

174

Florida State University

1,210

846

364

175

University of California-Santa Cruz

1,085

373

712

176

University of Texas at Dallas

1,064

738

326

177

University of Vermont

997

997

0

178

University of Chicago *

985

0

985

179

Georgetown University *

980

0

980

180

Portland State University

957

804

153

 

First 180 institutions

3,090,934

2,632,122

458,812

181

South Dakota School of Mines & Technology

899

899

0

182

Santa Clara University *

829

644

185

183

Oakland University

736

673

63

184

South Dakota State University

674

674

0

185

Kent State University, All Campuses

670

150

520

186

SUNY at Albany

650

0

650

187

Tuskegee University *

644

644

0

188

College of William and Mary, All Campuses

631

0

631

189

Northern Illinois University

625

600

25

190

Tennessee State University

483

483

0

 

First 190 institutions

3,097,775

2,636,889

460,886

191

Milwaukee School of Engineering *

432

432

0

192

Temple University

429

282

147

193

Ball State University

398

187

211

194

Central State University

386

347

39

195

Hampton University *

334

259

75

196

Northern Arizona University

331

331

0

197

Brandeis University *

331

0

331

198

Georgia State University

287

0

287

199

Morgan State University

244

244

0

200

University of Denver *

240

240

0

 

First 200 institutions

3,101,187

2,639,211

461,976

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

 

Academic institution

Total

Engineering

Computer science

201

Hofstra University *

214

214

0

202

Indiana State University, All Campuses

175

150

25

203

West Virginia State College

170

170

0

204

Prairie View A&M University

157

157

0

205

Virginia Commonwealth University

129

120

9

206

Eastern Washington University

128

0

128

207

University of South Alabama

126

120

6

208

University of the District of Columbia

104

104

0

209

Miami University, All Campuses

79

79

0

210

Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University

67

67

0

 

First 210 institutions

3,102,536

2,640,392

462,144

211

American University *

61

0

61

212

Canisius College *

43

0

43

213

University of California-Riverside

40

40

0

214

Boston College *

34

0

34

215

Texas, Southern University

34

0

34

216

Northeast Louisiana University

15

0

15

217

Stephen F Austin State University

12

0

12

218

CUNY Queens College

6

0

6

219

University of South Dakota

5

0

5

 

First 219 institutions

3,102,786

2,640,432

462,354

* Privately controlled institutions.

SOURCE: NSF CASPAR Database System.

TABLE 2 Science and Engineering Doctorate-Holders Employed by Academic Institutions and Those Active in Research and Development (R&D), 1979 and 1989

 

 

 

Total in R&D

 

 

Field

Total employment

Number

Percent

 

1979

1989

1979

1989

1979

1989

Engineering and computer science

16,031

27,607

12,150

21,871

75.8

79.2

Engineering, total

13,839

21,517

10,659

17,749

77.0

82.5

Aerospace

598

1,031

556

893

93.0

86.6

Chemical

1,060

2,051

777

1,886

73.3

92.0

Civil

2,165

3,278

1,822

2,529

84.2

77.2

Electrical

2,490

4,402

1,830

3,442

73.5

78.2

Materials

1,300

1,595

1,044

1,421

80.3

89.1

Mechanical

2,374

3,988

1,675

3,295

70.6

83.4

Other

3,852

5,222

2,955

4,283

76.7

82.2

Computer science

2,192

6,090

1,491

4,122

68.0

67.7

 

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators-1991, Appendix table 5-20, Washington, DC, p. 375.

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

TABLE 3 Postdoctorates in Graduate Engineering and Computer Science Departments by Field, Citizenship, and Gender, 1980–1991

Field

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

Total postdoctorates

Engineering and computer science

1,021

1,072

1,025

1,187

1,261

1,425

1,476

1,547

1,784

1,998

2,018

2,406

Engineering, total

978

1,037

978

1,105

1,197

1,349

1,399

1,443

1,688

1,914

1,947

2,249

Aerospace

20

14

25

32

42

51

48

43

48

38

67

77

Chemical

189

173

179

199

249

279

296

319

431

475

563

596

Civil

122

103

103

131

146

122

140

175

203

182

168

186

Electrical

123

191

178

178

173

177

173

176

187

193

242

307

Mechanical

137

130

130

182

196

207

240

216

218

304

220

331

Materials

172

194

168

204

168

245

250

283

325

323

370

401

Industrial

16

13

9

13

21

18

25

26

32

32

6

27

Other

199

219

186

166

202

250

227

205

244

367

311

324

Computer science

43

35

47

82

64

76

77

104

96

84

71

157

Total U.S. citizen postdoctorates

Engineering and computer science

332

349

358

450

480

488

507

566

644

699

643

722

Engineering, total

302

331

323

413

437

441

459

497

587

652

603

612

Aerospace

6

8

6

8

10

10

15

13

20

14

21

29

Chemical

47

43

44

56

66

56

63

68

100

119

161

132

Civil

59

33

37

52

53

49

46

57

91

80

77

69

Electrical

39

104

82

70

63

77

60

104

71

58

78

71

Mechanical

43

24

30

69

82

61

94

69

77

101

66

102

Materials

27

26

30

53

52

47

56

71

72

86

89

80

Industrial

8

6

4

6

12

16

19

19

23

17

3

9

Other

73

87

90

99

99

125

106

96

133

177

108

120

Computer science

30

18

35

37

43

47

48

69

57

47

40

110

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

Field

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

Total foreign citizen postdoctorates

Engineering and computer science

689

723

667

737

781

937

969

981

1,140

1,299

1,375

1,684

Engineering, total

676

706

655

692

760

908

940

946

1,101

1,262

1,344

1,637

Aerospace

14

6

19

24

32

41

33

30

28

24

46

48

Chemical

142

130

135

143

183

223

233

251

331

356

402

464

Civil

63

70

66

79

93

73

94

118

112

102

91

117

Electrical

84

87

96

108

110

100

113

72

116

135

164

236

Mechanical

94

106

100

113

114

146

146

147

141

203

154

229

Materials

145

168

138

151

116

198

194

212

253

237

281

321

Industrial

8

7

5

7

9

2

6

7

9

15

3

18

Other

126

132

96

67

103

125

121

109

111

190

203

204

Computer science

13

17

12

45

21

29

29

35

39

37

31

47

Total female postdoctorates

Engineering and computer science

67

88

93

98

93

111

142

162

184

192

218

269

Engineering, total

65

82

84

88

83

101

131

148

172

177

209

242

Aerospace

0

2

0

0

0

1

2

4

3

3

4

4

Chemical

21

11

22

27

31

28

38

35

53

46

82

94

Civil

10

8

6

6

10

3

7

12

19

29

14

23

Electrical

5

10

17

12

11

11

13

16

16

13

15

18

Mechanical

3

10

5

6

7

14

21

11

19

15

16

22

Materials

12

16

16

24

14

23

23

45

36

36

44

43

Industrial

0

3

1

2

1

3

4

1

4

6

1

2

Other

14

22

17

11

9

18

23

24

22

29

33

36

Computer science

2

6

9

10

10

10

11

14

12

15

9

27

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

Field

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

Female U.S. citizen postdoctorates

Engineering and computer science

34

42

55

54

53

50

72

84

75

80

82

87

Engineering, total

32

38

47

51

46

43

67

71

65

67

75

74

Aerospace

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

4

2

1

1

2

Chemical

11

5

11

10

14

9

17

11

13

12

20

21

Civil

5

2

5

6

7

3

4

4

9

12

7

12

Electrical

2

5

8

6

6

6

7

14

10

5

9

4

Mechanical

0

4

4

5

5

6

13

5

5

8

6

9

Materials

5

7

8

15

8

7

8

17

10

11

18

11

Industrial

0

3

1

1

1

2

3

1

4

5

1

2

Other

9

12

10

8

5

10

13

15

12

13

13

13

Computer science

2

4

8

3

7

7

5

13

10

13

7

13

Female foreign citizen postdoctorates

Engineering and computer science

33

46

38

44

40

61

70

78

109

112

136

182

Engineering, total

33

44

37

37

37

58

64

77

107

110

134

168

Aerospace

0

2

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

2

3

2

Chemical

10

6

11

17

17

19

21

24

40

34

62

73

Civil

5

6

1

0

3

0

3

8

10

17

7

11

Electrical

3

5

9

6

5

5

6

2

6

8

6

14

Mechanical

3

6

1

1

2

8

8

6

14

7

10

13

Materials

7

9

8

9

6

16

15

28

26

25

26

32

Industrial

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

Other

5

10

7

3

4

8

10

9

10

16

20

23

Computer science

0

2

1

7

3

3

6

1

2

2

2

14

 

SOURCE: NSF CASPAR Database System.

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

TABLE 4 Postdoctoral Appointees in Doctorate-Granting Institutions by Field and Source of Support: 1991

 

 

Source of support

 

 

 

 

Total

Federal

 

 

 

Nonfederal

Field

 

Total

Fellowships

Traineeships

Research grants

Engineering and computer science

2,394

1,605

69

25

1,511

789

Engineering, total

2,237

1,488

65

25

1,398

749

Aerospace

77

55

0

0

55

22

Agriculture *

33

18

1

0

17

15

Biomedical *

66

53

10

8

35

13

Chemical

578

323

7

3

313

255

Civil

185

131

6

0

125

54

Electrical

300

202

6

3

193

98

Engineering science *

117

93

9

0

84

24

Industrial

27

10

1

0

9

17

Mechanical

329

237

23

7

207

92

Materials

401

273

2

2

269

128

Mining *

11

8

0

0

8

3

Nuclear *

29

22

0

0

22

7

Petroleum *

18

16

0

0

16

2

Engineering, n.e.c. *

66

47

0

2

45

19

Computer science

157

117

4

0

113

40

KEY: * indicates fields included in ''other engineering'' in other tables. n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies.

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

TABLE 5 Nonfaculty Doctoral Research Staff at Doctorate-Granting Institutions by Field and Gender, 1991

Field

Number of departments

Non-faculty doctoral research staff

 

 

Total

Women

Engineering and computer science

1,494

731

71

Engineering, subtotal

1,260

682

59

Aerospace

44

26

1

Chemical

157

74

15

Civil

192

54

3

Electrical

199

120

7

Industrial

134

20

8

Mechanical

177

139

5

Materials

95

146

10

Other

262

103

10

Computer science

234

49

12

 

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies.

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

TABLE 6 Percent of U.S. College Freshmen Choosing Engineering as a Career, by Sex: 1966–1990

Year

All

Male

Female

1966

8.9

16.3

.2

1967

8.4

15.0

.2

1968

8.3

14.6

.2

1969

8.3

14.5

.3

1970

7.5

13.3

.4

1971

5.3

9.7

.2

1972

5.3

9.6

.3

1973

5.3

9.4

.7

1974

4.7

8.5

.8

1975

5.9

10.2

1.1

1976

7.8

13.7

1.5

1977

8.3

15.1

1.5

1978

9.1

16.5

2.2

1979

9.3

6.8

2.3

1980

10.7

19.1

2.9

1981

10.9

19.5

2.9

1982

12.0

20.6

3.6

1983

10.8

18.8

3.3

1984

10.4

18.5

2.9

1985

10.0

17.7

2.9

1986

9.7

17.4

2.8

1987

8.5

15.2

2.6

1988

8.6

15.7

2.5

1989

9.0

16.5

2.6

1990

8.1

14.9

2.4

 

SOURCE: E. L. Day, A. W. Astin, and W. S. Korn, The American Freshman: Twenty-Five Year Trends, 1966–1990, Los Angeles: Higher Education Research Institute, UCLA, 1991.

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

TABLE 7 Fall Engineering Enrollments of Undergraduates by Status and Class Year, 1980–1992

 

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

Total

397,344

420,402

435,330

441,205

429,499

420,864

407,657

392,198

385,412

378,277

380,287

379,977

382,525

Full-time, subtotal

365,117

387,577

403,390

406,144

394,635

384,191

369,520

356,998

346,169

338,529

338,842

339,397

344,126

First year

110,149

115,280

115,303

109,638

105,249

103,225

99,238

95,453

98,009

95,420

94,346

93,002

93,427

Second year

84,982

87,519

89,785

89,515

83,946

79,627

76,195

73,317

71,030

71,267

72,204

71,257

71,644

Third year

80,024

86,633

90,541

91,233

89,509

84,875

80,386

77,085

73,761

70,483

72,666

73,516

74,871

Fourth year

84,442

92,414

102,055

109,036

109,695

110,305

107,773

104,003

97,614

94,465

92,989

94,683

98,235

Fifth year

5,520

5,731

5,706

6,722

6,236

6,159

5,928

7,140

5,755

6,894

6,637

6,939

5,949

Part-time, subtotal

32,227

32,825

31,940

35,061

34,864

36,673

38,137

35,200

39,243

39,748

41,445

40,580

38,399

Gender

Male

345,482

361,133

368,750

372,374

362,800

354,612

344,999

331,917

325,024

318,067

318,471

316,441

316,460

Female

51,862

59,269

66,580

68,831

66,699

66,252

62,658

60,281

60,388

60,210

61,816

63,536

66,065

Race/ethnicity

White

326,913

343,649

356,750

354,329

340,374

323,899

315,861

296,749

288,415

281,948

288,732

271,906

270,942

Asian

12,772

15,815

17,570

23,007

25,449

28,767

30,201

32,795

34,051

33,360

30,898

37,803

38,480

Underrep. minorities

31,531

34,353

35,960

37,432

37,557

39,657

37,240

38,640

40,389

41,338

41,169

48,692

51,517

Black

17,606

18,911

19,400

19,698

19,204

19,819

18,459

19,142

20,405

21,013

20,833

24,563

25,722

Hispanic

12,905

14,359

15,320

16,462

17,075

18,598

17,586

18,253

18,700

19,007

18,873

22,441

23,863

American Indian

1,020

1,083

1,240

1,272

1,278

1,240

1,195

1,245

1,284

1,318

1,463

1,688

1,932

Temporary resident

26,128

26,585

25,050

26,437

26,119

28,541

24,355

24,014

22,557

21,631

19,488

21,576

21,586

 

SOURCES: American Society of Engineering Societies, Manpower Comments , April 1991 and April 1992: Engineering Workforce Bulletin, April 1993.

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

TABLE 8 Graduate Enrollment in Engineering and Computer Science Departments by Field, Enrollment Status, and Gender, 1972–1991

Field

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

All students

Engineering and computer science

55,027

56,385

63,422

76,775

75,377

77,890

72,144

83,497

Engineering, subtotal

50,602

51,233

56,977

68,360

66,750

68,782

63,815

71,807

Aerospace

2,014

1,816

1,654

1,670

1,477

1,518

1,450

1,481

Chemical

4,740

4,718

5,011

5,336

5,581

5,580

5,611

6,029

Civil

7,954

8,673

10,115

12,560

11,995

12,352

11,565

12,836

Electrical

13,325

13,713

15,530

16,320

15,926

17,406

16,379

17,715

Mechanical

6,309

7,293

8,107

8,601

8,313

8,722

8,122

9,251

Materials

2,211

2,030

2,156

2,352

2,375

2,559

2,487

2,756

Industrial

5,507

5,208

6,141

11,663

10,687

10,438

8,967

10,714

Other

8,542

7,782

8,263

9,858

10,396

10,207

9,234

11,025

Computer science

4,425

5,152

6,445

8,415

8,627

9,108

8,329

11,690

All full-time students

Engineering and computer science

35,092

34,164

37,483

42,286

41,698

41,829

41,147

45,870

Engineering, subtotal

32,191

31,226

33,737

37,81

36,950

37,225

36,721

40,017

Aerospace

1,538

1,362

1,245

1,245

1,165

1,187

1,135

1,152

Chemical

3,435

3,442

3,569

3,743

4,014

4,174

4,226

4,555

Civil

5,267

5,367

5,939

7,363

7,025

7,111

7,123

7,637

Electrical

7,612

7,462

7,769

8,278

8,147

8,528

8,334

9,039

Mechanical

3,978

4,405

4,712

4,931

4,919

4,883

4,868

5,428

Materials

1,720

1,619

1,638

1,787

1,860

1,951

1,961

2,135

Industrial

3,047

2.5

183,108

4,152

3,578

3,343

3,140

3,743

Other

5,594

5,051

5,757

6,314

6,242

6,048

5,934

6,328

Computer science

2,901

2,938

3,746

4,473

4,748

4,604

4,426

5,853

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

Field

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

All part-time students

Engineering and computer science

19,935

22,221

25,939

34,489

33,679

36,061

30,997

37,627

Engineering, subtotal

18,411

20,007

23,240

30,547

29,800

31,557

27,094

31,790

Aerospace

476

454

409

425

312

331

315

329

Chemical

1,305

1,276

1,442

1,593

1,567

1,406

1,385

1,474

Civil

2,687

3,306

4,176

5,197

4,970

5,241

4,442

5,199

Electrical

5,713

6,251

7,761

8,042

7,779

8,878

8,045

8,676

Mechanical

2,331

2,888

3,395

3,670

3,394

3,839

3,254

3,823

Materials

491

411

518

565

515

608

526

621

Industrial

2,460

2,690

3,033

7,511

7,109

7,095

5,827

6,971

Other

2,948

2,731

2,506

3,544

4,154

4,159

3,300

4,697

Computer science

1,524

2,214

2,699

3,942

3,879

4,504

3,903

5,837

All female students

Engineering and computer science

1,221

1,337

1,864

2,461

2,768

5,264

0

8,208

Engineering, subtotal

851

918

1,359

1,870

2,026

3,705

0

5,885

Aerospace

16

14

15

20

23

33

0

49

Chemical

95

98

119

166

243

388

0

645

Civil

131

160

303

434

513

830

0

1,323

Electrical

142

187

221

228

297

710

0

933

Mechanical

39

54

81

112

122

273

0

469

Materials

46

52

70

99

109

183

0

288

Industrial

131

117

237

478

379

755

0

1,251

Other

251

236

313

333

340

533

0

927

Computer science

370

419

505

591

742

1,559

0

2,323

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

Field

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

 

 

 

 

Female full-time students

Engineering and computer science

1,221

1,337

1,864

2,461

2,768

3,020

0

4,488

 

 

 

 

Engineering, subtotal

851

918

1,359

1,870

2,026

2,261

0

3,438

 

 

 

 

Aerospace

16

14

15

20

23

27

0

36

 

 

 

 

Chemical

95

98

119

166

243

289

0

458

 

 

 

 

Civil

131

160

303

434

513

543

0

898

 

 

 

 

Electrical

142

187

221

228

297

382

0

454

 

 

 

 

Mechanical

39

54

81

112

122

141

0

258

 

 

 

 

Materials

46

52

70

99

109

142

0

213

 

 

 

 

Industrial

131

117

237

478

379

376

0

579

 

 

 

 

Other

251

236

313

333

340

361

0

542

 

 

 

 

Computer science

370

419

505

591

742

759

0

1,050

 

 

 

 

 

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

All students

Engineering and computer science

88,043

96,195

103,710

114,727

118,590

126,004

133,537

136,026

135,713

136,917

141,702

149,135

Engineering, subtotal

74,465

79,758

83,898

91,111

92,780

96,160

102,140

103,889

103,159

104,319

107,329

114,407

Aerospace

1,737

1,883

1,941

2,305

2,340

2,538

2,804

3,015

3,223

3,454

3,866

4,041

Chemical

6,518

7,017

7,775

8,300

8,117

7,932

7,759

7,844

7,360

7,125

7,327

7,838

Civil

13,111

14,103

14,146

14,921

15,203

14,916

14,987

14,718

14,822

14,919

15,454

17,265

Electrical

19,132

20,113

21,927

25,116

26,198

28,026

29,799

31,214

31,837

33,055

33,583

35,272

Mechanical

9,888

10,618

11,467

12,911

13,855

14,157

15,713

16,278

16,207

16,239

16,455

17,820

Materials

2,910

3,125

3,124

3,447

3,657

3,943

4,208

4,366

4,335

4,589

4,921

5,149

Industrial

9,737

9,797

9,641

9,373

9,535

10,841

11,888

12,457

11,731

11,458

11,611

13,333

Other

11,432

13,102

13,877

14,738

13,875

13,807

14,982

13,997

13,644

13,480

14,112

13,689

Computer science

13,578

16,437

19,812

23,616

25,810

29,844

31,397

32,137

32,554

32,598

34,373

34,728

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

 

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

All full-time students

Engineering and computer science

49,307

53,296

59,036

64,618

66,744

70,039

75,537

77,457

78,580

80,343

82,551

87,782

Engineering, subtotal

42,720

45,851

49,865

53,931

55,157

55,938

60,227

61,885

63,187

64,546

65,692

71,230

Aerospace

1,327

1,483

1,522

1,840

1,854

1,994

2,154

2,372

2,533

2,772

3,010

3,314

Chemical

4,863

5,382

6,084

6,489

6,348

6,123

6,166

6,264

5,958

5,788

5,853

6,309

Civil

7,964

8,805

9,398

9,807

10,089

9,760

9,982

9,651

9,957

9,974

10,074

11,214

Electrical

9,963

10,450

11,533

13,203

13,857

14,752

16,222

17,040

17,653

18,396

18,567

19,988

Mechanical

5,841

6,422

7,267

8,330

8,698

8,875

9,789

10,164

10,426

10,464

10,662

11,654

Materials

2,254

2,454

2,478

2,704

2,872

3,093

3,370

3,436

3,464

3,715

3,922

4,059

Industrial

3,764

3,639

3,827

3,322

3,433

3,517

3,875

4,233

4,398

4,761

4,863

5,705

Other

6,744

7,216

7,756

8,236

8,006

7,824

8,669

8,725

8,798

8,676

8,741

8,987

Computer science

6,587

7,445

9,171

10,687

11,587

14,101

15,310

15,572

15,393

15,797

16,859

16,552

All part-time students

Engineering and computer science

38,736

42,899

44,674

50,109

51,846

55,965

58,000

58,569

57,133

56,574

59,151

61,353

Engineering, subtotal

31,745

33,907

34,033

37,180

37,623

40,222

41,913

42,004

39,972

39,773

41,637

43,177

Aerospace

410

400

419

465

486

544

650

643

690

682

856

727

Chemical

1,655

1,635

1,691

1,811

1,769

1,809

1,593

1,580

1,402

1,337

1,474

1,529

Civil

5,147

5,298

4,748

5,114

5,114

5,156

5,005

5,067

4,865

4,945

5,380

6,051

Electrical

9,169

9,663

10,394

11,913

12,341

13,274

13,577

14,174

14,184

14,659

15,016

15,284

Mechanical

4,047

4,196

4,200

4,581

5,157

5,282

5,924

6,114

5,781

5,775

5,793

6,166

Materials

656

671

646

743

785

850

838

930

871

874

999

1,090

Industrial

5,973

6,158

5,814

6,051

6,102

7,324

8,013

8,224

7,333

6,697

6,748

7,628

Other

4,688

5,886

6,121

6,502

5,869

5,983

6,313

5,272

4,846

4,804

5,371

4,702

Computer science

6,991

8,992

10,641

12,929

14,223

15,743

16,087

16,565

17,161

16,801

17,514

18,176

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

 

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

All female students

Engineering and computer science

9,427

11,963

14,239

16,439

17,246

18,659

20,249

20,908

21,411

21,610

22,871

24,132

Engineering, subtotal

6,340

7,754

8,793

9,791

10,341

11,160

12,465

12,962

13,207

13,675

14,704

15,856

Aerospace

74

67

110

123

132

163

200

224

227

240

287

325

Chemical

720

830

943

1,088

1,032

1,070

1,087

1,194

1,124

1,057

1,175

1,312

Civil

1,366

1,576

1,752

1,860

2,028

2,149

2,151

2,113

2,297

2,438

2,684

3,164

Electrical

983

1,276

1,551

2,045

2,188

2,409

2,890

3,076

3,255

3,491

3,698

3,875

Mechanical

534

631

719

805

956

1,011

1,159

1,283

1,415

1,403

1,426

1,527

Materials

303

390

420

448

468

603

675

729

756

809

895

985

Industrial

1,350

1,544

1,631

1,544

1,691

1,903

2,224

2,300

2,190

2,188

2,216

2,402

Other

1,010

1,440

1,667

1,878

1,846

1,852

2,079

2,043

1,943

2,049

2,323

2,266

Computer science

3,087

4,209

5,446

6,648

6,905

7,499

7,784

7,946

8,204

7,935

8,167

8,276

Female full-time students

Engineering and computer science

5,263

6,353

7,567

8,260

8,806

9,376

10,352

10,653

11,028

11,457

12,197

13,287

Engineering, subtotal

3,860

4,626

5,256

5,611

6,044

6,284

6,973

7,284

7,644

8,176

8,690

9,751

Aerospace

54

51

73

80

86

126

148

167

168

180

199

254

Chemical

492

567

705

832

784

801

826

913

823

816

916

1,026

Civil

900

1,127

1,243

1,295

1,438

1,494

1,491

1,404

1,568

1,652

1,780

2,041

Electrical

558

711

818

955

1,146

1,199

1,457

1,542

1,674

1,814

1,945

2,172

Mechanical

316

347

433

483

561

559

627

724

835

855

838

946

Materials

231

287

308

324

354

439

521

569

579

638

693

744

Industrial

667

695

771

619

630

647

748

753

756

926

929

1,059

Other

642

841

905

1,023

1,045

1,019

1,155

1,212

1,241

1,295

1,390

1,509

Computer science

1,403

1,727

2,311

2,649

2,762

3,092

3,379

3,369

3,384

3,281

3,507

3,536

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

 

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

Female part-time students

Engineering and computer science

4,164

5,610

6,672

8,179

8,440

9,283

9,897

10,255

10,383

10,153

10,674

10,845

Engineering, subtotal

2,480

3,128

3,537

4,180

4,297

4,876

5,492

5,678

5,563

5,499

6,014

6,105

Aerospace

20

16

37

43

46

37

52

57

59

60

88

71

Chemical

228

263

238

256

248

269

261

281

301

241

259

286

Civil

466

449

509

565

590

655

660

709

729

786

904

1,123

Electrical

425

565

733

1,090

1,042

1,210

1,433

1,534

1,581

1,677

1,753

1,703

Mechanical

218

284

286

322

395

452

532

559

580

548

588

581

Materials

72

103

112

124

114

164

154

160

177

171

202

241

Industrial

683

849

860

925

1,061

1,256

1,476

1,547

1,434

1,262

1,287

1,343

Other

368

599

762

855

801

833

924

831

702

754

933

757

Computer science

1,684

2,482

3,135

3,999

4,143

4,407

4,405

4,577

4,820

4,654

4,660

4,740

 

SOURCE: NSF CASPAR Database System.

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

TABLE 9 Change in Graduate Enrollment in Engineering and Computer Science Departments by Full-Time and Part-Time Status and by Gender, 1980–1991

 

Change in enrollment (percent)

 

 

 

Field

Total

Full-time

Part-time

Women

Men

Engineering and computer science

69.4

78.0

58.4

156.0

59.0

Engineering, subtotal

53.6

66.7

36.0

150.0

44.7

Aeronautical

132.6

149.7

77.3

339.2

123.5

Chemical

20.3

29.7

-7.6

82.2

12.5

Civil

31.7

40.8

17.6

131.6

20.1

Electrical

84.4

100.6

66.7

73.0

294.2

Mechanical

80.2

99.5

52.4

186.0

74.2

Materials

76.9

80.1

66.2

225.1

59.7

Industrial

36.9

51.6

27.7

77.9

30.3

Other

19.7

33.2

0.3

224.4

9.6

Computer science

155.8

151.3

160.0

168.1

152.1

 

SOURCE: NSF CASPAR Database System.

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

TABLE 10 Bachelor's Degrees Awarded in Engineering and Computer Science by Field and Gender, 1966–1990

Field

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

Total bachelor's degrees

Engineering and computer science

35,915

36,419

38,139

42,515

46,314

47,636

49,113

51,084

48,005

44,863

44,454

47,783

54,475

62,238

Engineering, total

35,826

36,197

37,680

41,582

44,770

45,248

45,711

46,779

43,248

39,824

38,790

41,357

47,251

53,469

Aerospace

1,683

1,914

2,072

2,625

2,756

2,443

2,180

1,738

1,210

1,174

1,009

1,078

1,186

1,386

Chemical

2,981

2,997

3,395

3,768

3,995

3,907

3,967

3,968

3,826

3,420

3,543

3,986

5,205

6,442

Civil

5,611

5,439

5,796

6,282

6,800

6,939

7,258

8,013

8,633

8,289

8,493

8,898

9,900

10,583

Electrical

11,007

10,843

10,725

11,695

12,288

12,288

12,181

12,377

11,419

10,246

9,874

10,018

11,213

12,440

Mechanical

7,811

7,890

7,930

8,514

9,310

9,177

8,784

8,795

7,883

7,089

6,984

7,927

9,100

10,360

Materials

792

836

881

952

977

916

909

885

821

711

704

738

835

1,045

Industrial

2,335

2,366

2,727

3,000

3,199

3,210

3,713

3,508

2,921

2,583

2,241

2,264

2,712

2,804

Other

3,606

3,912

4,154

4,746

5,445

6,368

6,719

7,495

6,535

6,312

5,942

6,448

7,100

8,409

Computer science

89

222

459

933

1,544

2,388

3,402

4,305

4,757

5,039

5,664

6,426

7,224

8,769

Field

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

Women

Engineering and computer science

159

208

271

433

536

685

953

1,216

1,478

1,801

2,441

3,583

5,346

7,344

Engineering, total

146

184

216

312

337

361

492

576

698

845

1,317

2,044

3,482

4,881

Aerospace

5

14

12

19

20

17

20

18

18

24

29

28

61

66

Chemical

23

28

30

53

57

64

80

94

120

147

289

452

752

1,055

Civil

23

28

31

47

53

60

77

89

145

173

279

485

759

1,049

Electrical

29

42

43

66

68

76

82

158

117

130

193

268

435

659

Mechanical

19

20

32

40

39

43

49

63

66

84

150

242

472

620

Materials

7

8

18

10

10

13

16

15

32

35

43

59

107

183

Industrial

10

9

15

16

21

20

40

31

44

59

87

149

323

428

Other

30

35

35

61

69

68

128

108

156

193

247

361

573

821

Computer science

13

24

55

121

199

324

461

640

780

956

1,124

1,539

1,864

2,463

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

Field

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

Total bachelor's degrees

Engineering and computer science

70,023

78,950

87,891

97,352

108,588

116,693

119,015

114,352

105,050

97,910

92,400

Engineering, total

58,810

63,717

67,460

72,670

76,153

77,572

76,820

74,425

70,154

66,947

64,705

Aerospace

1,424

1,809

2,120

2,127

2,534

2,854

2,902

2,989

3,092

2,944

3,048

Chemical

7,276

7,639

8,059

8,550

9,192

8,941

7,411

6,114

4,654

4,187

3,834

Civil

11,046

11,331

11,280

10,747

10,351

9,730

9,223

8,746

8,131

8,015

7,992

Electrical

13,902

15,040

16,553

19,205

21,541

23,668

26,112

26,791

25,942

24,318

23,015

Mechanical

12,020

13,573

14,315

16,031

17,040

17,200

16,586

15,723

15,331

15,217

14,693

Materials

1,303

1,434

1,696

1,392

1,355

1,276

1,259

1,152

1,211

1,114

1,166

Industrial

3,217

3,878

4,044

3,824

4,020

4,009

4,255

4,313

4,259

4,121

4,041

Other

8,622

9,013

9,393

10,794

10,120

9,894

9,072

8,597

7,534

7,031

6,916

Computer science

11,213

15,233

20,431

24,682

32,435

39,121

42,195

39,927

34,896

30,963

27,695

Women

Engineering and computer science

9,351

12,016

15,390

18,644

22,795

25,677

26,264

25,293

22,132

19,733

18,347

Engineering, total

5,952

7,063

8,275

9,652

10,729

11,246

11,138

11,404

10,779

10,188

9,973

Aerospace

82

129

171

172

175

241

248

248

298

301

343

Chemical

1,287

1,365

1,612

1,789

2,077

2,093

1,606

1,540

1,132

1,170

1,089

Civil

1,087

1,231

1,318

1,484

1,423

1,342

1,229

1,196

1,171

1,174

1,262

Electrical

902

1,100

1,411

1,922

2,289

2,732

3,227

3,564

3,524

3,188

2,867

Mechanical

893

1,151

1,266

1,485

1,812

1,801

1,710

1,727

1,764

1,680

1,715

Materials

227

270

324

288

322

286

335

298

320

261

271

Industrial

545

767

952

1,000

1,071

1,167

1,281

1,384

1,245

1,261

1,206

Other

929

1,050

1,221

1,512

1,560

1,584

1,502

1,447

1,325

1,153

1,220

Computer science

3,399

4,953

7,115

8,992

12,066

14,431

15,126

13,889

11,353

9,545

8,374

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

Field

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

Men

Engineering and computer science

60,672

66,934

72,501

78,708

85,793

91,016

92,751

89,059

82,918

78,177

74,053

Engineering, total

52,858

56,654

59,185

63,018

65,424

66,326

65,682

63,021

59,375

56,759

54,732

Aerospace

1,342

1,680

1,949

1,955

2,359

2,613

2,654

2,741

2,794

2,643

2,705

Chemical

5,989

6,274

6,447

6,761

7,115

6,848

5,805

4,574

3,522

3,017

2,745

Civil

9,959

10,100

9,962

9,263

8,928

8,388

7,994

7,550

6,960

6,841

6,730

Electrical

13,000

13,940

15,142

17,283

19,252

20,936

22,885

23,227

22,418

21,130

20,148

Mechanical

11,127

12,422

13,049

14,546

15,228

15,399

14,876

13,996

13,567

13,537

12,978

Materials

1,076

1,164

1,372

1,104

1,033

990

924

854

891

853

895

Industrial

2,672

3,111

3,092

2,824

2,949

2,842

2,974

2,929

3,014

2,860

2,835

Other

7,693

7,963

8,172

9,282

8,560

8,310

7,570

7,150

6,209

5,878

5,696

Computer science

7,814

10,280

13,316

15,690

20,369

24,690

27,069

26,038

23,543

21,418

19,321

 

SOURCE: NSF CASPAR Database System.

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

TABLE 11 Master's Degrees Awarded in Engineering and Computer Science by Field and Gender, 1966–1990

Field

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

Total master's degrees

Engineering and computer science

13,943

14,370

15,780

16,260

17,056

17,955

18,741

18,658

17,481

17,466

18,648

18,810

19,118

18,334

Engineering, total

13,705

13,921

15,232

15,248

15,597

16,367

16,764

16,545

15,205

15,167

16,045

16,012

16,080

15,279

Aerospace

798

802

841

835

749

717

687

563

557

477

479

385

411

372

Chemical

1,072

1,028

1,251

1,227

1,127

1,200

1,259

1,139

1,111

1,078

1,129

1,179

1,335

1,276

Civil

2,218

2,225

2,435

2,426

2,503

2,700

2,869

3,195

3,247

3,268

3,605

3,606

3,226

3,165

Electrical

3,872

3,953

4,226

4,033

4,138

4,282

4,209

3,899

3,499

3,471

3,774

3,788

3,742

3,596

Mechanical

2,154

2,176

2,136

2,299

2,298

2,502

2,552

2,396

2,058

2,032

2,088

2,094

2,095

2,012

Materials

400

444

460

441

429

480

524

582

521

500

475

504

506

529

Industrial

1,200

1,341

1,512

1,453

1,763

1,921

1,731

1,595

1,734

1,687

1,751

1,609

1,722

1,502

Other

1,991

1,952

2,371

2,534

2,590

2,565

2,933

3,176

2,478

2,654

2,744

2,847

3,043

2,827

Computer science

238

449

548

1,012

1,459

1,588

1,977

2,113

2,276

2,299

2,603

2,798

3,038

3,055

Women

Engineering and computer science

93

104

129

186

304

350

496

503

640

710

945

1,164

1,410

1,512

Engineering, total

76

78

99

113

169

186

271

278

347

372

568

698

843

937

Aerospace

6

2

6

7

3

6

7

2

9

7

10

8

11

17

Chemical

7

7

14

11

18

27

29

22

31

27

41

69

90

120

Civil

9

21

17

20

30

44

48

60

83

107

151

185

196

214

Electrical

22

11

22

22

29

30

52

49

55

58

104

134

142

143

Mechanical

7

7

6

4

12

7

25

22

27

20

32

55

66

73

Materials

3

1

2

6

6

8

11

13

13

17

28

23

38

54

Industrial

6

10

9

8

17

23

25

29

45

56

81

75

138

128

Other

16

19

23

35

54

41

74

81

84

80

121

149

162

188

Computer science

17

26

30

73

135

164

225

225

293

338

377

466

567

575

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

Field

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

Total master's degrees

Engineering and computer science

19,590

20,669

22,492

24,207

26,335

28,073

29,166

30,551

31,892

33,142

33,638

Engineering, total

15,943

16,451

17,557

18,886

20,145

20,972

21,096

22,070

22,726

23,743

23,995

Aerospace

382

408

521

491

562

605

621

737

797

855

1,029

Chemical

1,393

1,406

1,409

1,545

1,798

1,814

1,641

1,386

1,322

1,321

1,205

Civil

3,198

3,428

3,456

3,504

3,551

3,542

3,281

3,267

3,134

3,296

3,213

Electrical

3,842

3,902

4,465

4,819

5,519

5,649

6,147

6,895

7,455

7,849

8,009

Mechanical

2,194

2,419

2,539

2,683

2,964

3,272

3,256

3,380

3,513

3,703

3,630

Materials

598

666

632

672

726

713

810

765

749

815

802

Industrial

1,313

1,631

1,656

1,432

1,557

1,463

1,653

1,728

1,816

1,823

1,834

Other

3,023

2,591

2,879

3,740

3,468

3,914

3,687

3,912

3,940

4,081

4,273

Computer science

3,647

4,218

4,935

5,321

6,190

7,101

8,070

8,481

9,166

9,399

9,643

Women

Engineering and computer science

1,887

2,300

2,885

3,263

3,911

4,281

4,812

5,266

5,272

5,708

5,944

Engineering, total

1,123

1,329

1,575

1,755

2,100

2,244

2,400

2,770

2,808

3,082

3,269

Aerospace

9

20

39

37

27

31

43

55

63

64

82

Chemical

144

176

187

176

208

285

240

243

215

229

192

Civil

265

316

352

382

415

414

373

475

413

445

520

Electrical

184

221

288

335

438

495

639

717

813

916

991

Mechanical

107

127

151

166

199

228

254

247

295

326

354

Materials

59

79

72

105

121

113

137

165

152

181

152

Industrial

133

166

210

206

278

227

279

319

324

358

341

Other

222

224

276

348

414

451

435

549

533

563

637

Computer science

764

971

1,310

1,508

1,811

2,037

2,412

2,496

2,464

2,626

2,675

 

SOURCE: NSF CASPAR Database System.

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

TABLE 12 Doctorates Awarded in Engineering and Computer Science by Field, Citizenship, and Gender, 1966–1991

Field

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

Total doctorates

Engineering and computer science

2,301

2,607

2,864

3,276

3,446

3,514

3,509

3,375

3,161

3,011

2,868

2,679

2,546

2,704

Engineering, total

2,301

2,607

2,864

3,276

3,446

3,514

3,509

3,374

3,161

3,011

2,838

2,648

2,425

2,494

Aerospace

109

142

166

197

204

198

181

167

148

141

122

115

103

81

Chemical

367

330

377

422

457

407

391

424

418

396

335

329

282

315

Civil

293

307

368

364

366

427

437

435

390

361

388

336

303

302

Electrical

569

675

741

829

857

862

815

787

678

714

711

667

539

611

Mechanical

457

537

597

646

635

611

616

541

544

487

417

372

377

366

Materials

211

267

215

280

303

306

294

299

280

272

252

248

247

236

Industrial

46

61

74

111

117

134

142

109

92

92

67

73

51

82

Other

249

288

326

427

507

569

633

612

611

548

546

508

523

501

Computer science

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

31

121

210

U.S. citizens and permanent residents

Engineering and computer science

1,834

2,157

2,384

2,742

2,952

2,960

2,958

2,707

2,271

2,137

1,949

1,824

1,676

1,792

Engineering, total

1,834

2,157

2,384

2,742

2,952

2,960

2,958

2,706

2,271

2,137

1,949

1,799

1,586

1,617

Aerospace

84

125

143

171

181

171

157

138

118

112

92

68

62

45

Chemical

308

284

311

357

400

340

332

326

282

268

212

215

179

193

Civil

195

224

268

255

270

315

343

312

242

231

229

210

170

178

Electrical

451

570

641

723

760

754

706

637

500

497

500

475

356

421

Mechanical

377

451

510

547

557

530

534

449

424

359

303

251

248

242

Materials

166

223

192

234

266

252

237

234

192

201

165

172

177

150

Industrial

41

44

60

102

88

121

124

96

61

72

40

48

40

54

Other

212

236

259

353

430

477

525

514

452

397

408

360

354

334

Computer science

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

25

90

175

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

Field

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

Total doctorates to females

Engineering and computer science

8

9

12

10

16

16

22

47

34

52

55

79

64

89

Engineering, total

8

9

12

10

16

16

22

46

34

52

55

74

53

62

Aerospace

0

0

1

0

2

3

0

2

3

2

0

3

1

0

Chemical

2

3

3

3

 

3

4

2

4

9

5

8

10

5

Civil

0

1

0

1

1

1

2

9

3

5

6

8

8

4

Electrical

2

0

0

3

3

4

5

7

3

16

15

21

17

11

Mechanical

1

2

2

0

2

0

2

7

7

4

4

6

3

5

Materials

2

1

2

1

1

1

3

7

3

5

8

10

5

8

Industrial

0

2

1

1

0

2

0

2

1

2

2

5

2

5

Other

1

0

3

1

4

1

8

8

5

13

12

11

12

20

Computer science

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

5

11

27

Female U.S. citizens and permanent residents

Engineering and computer science

5

8

6

7

16

11

21

31

24

39

42

61

43

71

Engineering, total

5

8

6

7

16

11

21

30

24

39

42

57

36

44

Aerospace

0

0

1

0

2

2

0

2

3

1

0

1

1

0

Chemical

1

2

2

2

3

3

2

2

4

3

6

6

2

6

Civil

0

1

0

0

1

0

2

5

2

5

5

8

6

1

Electrical

0

0

0

3

3

3

4

3

1

10

12

16

12

8

Mechanical

1

2

0

0

2

0

2

5

6

2

3

5

1

5

Materials

2

1

1

1

1

1

3

4

2

4

6

8

3

5

Industrial

0

2

0

1

0

1

0

2

1

1

2

3

2

4

Other

1

0

2

0

4

1

8

7

5

13

8

10

9

15

Computer science

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

4

7

27

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

Field

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

Total doctorates

Engineering and computer science

2,697

2,760

2,866

3,067

3,208

3,476

3,775

4,162

4,703

5,156

5,598

6,009

Engineering, total

2,479

2,528

2,646

2,781

2,913

3,166

3,376

3,712

4,188

4,544

4,893

5,212

Aerospace

81

97

86

106

119

124

118

142

150

178

192

207

Chemical

316

317

333

392

409

504

531

584

685

712

658

690

Civil

306

358

368

397

408

391

429

477

532

539

553

573

Electrical

540

549

616

625

660

716

806

779

1,010

1,137

1,276

1,405

Mechanical

384

360

437

379

427

513

536

657

715

760

883

874

Materials

273

234

255

268

271

303

305

392

374

380

440

490

Industrial

77

66

79

86

84

92

101

120

127

162

151

163

Other

502

547

472

528

535

523

550

561

595

676

740

810

Computer science

218

232

220

286

295

310

399

450

515

612

705

797

U.S. citizens and permanent residents

Engineering and computer science

1,723

1,659

1,620

1,689

1,708

1,807

1,975

2,188

2,473

2,625

2,743

2,799

Engineering, total

1,554

1,471

1,465

1,482

1,513

1,594

1,726

1,913

2,147

2,229

2,340

2,358

Aerospace

44

56

44

53

57

70

45

72

81

82

90

107

Chemical

179

177

188

215

217

292

298

350

408

444

391

392

Civil

179

192

180

187

201

170

192

203

234

247

241

203

Electrical

359

350

335

349

356

353

410

393

503

539

597

657

Mechanical

243

202

263

192

202

251

267

308

327

325

367

338

Materials

175

135

131

145

150

165

152

214

199

194

215

235

Industrial

44

42

49

45

36

38

47

57

51

59

69

63

Other

331

317

275

296

294

255

315

316

344

339

370

363

Computer science

169

188

155

207

195

213

249

275

326

396

403

441

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

Field

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

Total doctorates to females

Engineering and computer science

111

125

144

160

188

231

273

307

342

483

525

568

Engineering, total

90

99

124

124

151

198

225

242

286

375

415

452

Aerospace

1

0

1

2

2

5

1

10

9

8

4

7

Chemical

14

11

19

23

27

41

61

60

65

80

78

80

Civil

11

10

17

13

25

20

21

18

30

54

49

39

Electrical

17

22

22

13

15

35

38

32

48

67

84

77

Mechanical

7

6

17

8

15

26

18

17

29

29

38

57

Materials

14

17

17

30

26

32

24

45

33

45

49

74

Industrial

7

6

6

6

16

6

14

13

19

18

25

17

Other

19

27

25

29

25

33

48

47

53

74

88

101

Computer science

21

26

20

36

37

33

48

65

56

108

110

116

Female U.S. citizens and permanent residents

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

Field

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

Engineering and computer science

94

92

105

121

128

160

205

228

242

359

366

395

Engineering, total

74

68

88

91

101

136

162

174

196

275

276

303

Aerospace

1

0

0

2

1

5

1

6

6

5

1

4

Chemical

9

9

13

16

18

31

42

52

53

69

62

60

Civil

10

7

11

11

15

11

15

11

15

40

34

24

Electrical

15

16

14

12

9

22

25

15

33

36

47

42

Mechanical

5

4

15

6

12

18

13

11

17

19

24

36

Materials

10

11

9

20

16

22

18

36

19

36

35

53

Industrial

6

6

5

4

11

4

10

10

13

12

20

12

Other

18

15

21

20

19

23

38

33

40

58

53

72

Computer science

20

24

17

30

27

24

43

54

46

84

90

92

NOTE: The 1991 total includes records of 177 individuals for whom gender was not available. The distribution by field is as follows: engineering total, 170; aerospace, 10; chemical, 10; civil, 18; electrical, 37; mechanical, 35; materials, 7; industrial, 7; other engineering, 46; and computer science, 7.

SOURCE: NSF CASPAR Database System.

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

TABLE 13 Research and Development Expenditures of Academic Institutions by Field and Source of Funds, 1973–1991

Field

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

All Sources

(Current dollars in thousands)

Engineering and computer science

368,786

386,107

426,505

476,230

554,036

656,295

873,254

Engineering, subtotal

333,129

346,905

380,912

431,727

498,473

591,962

775,553

Computer science

35,657

39,202

45,593

44,503

55,563

64,333

97,701

(Constant 1989 dollar in thousands)

Engineering and computer science

941,021

902,963

908,424

953,222

1,039,662

1,147,971

1,403,269

Engineering, subtotal

850,036

811,284

811,314

864,145

935,397

1,035,442

1,246,269

Computer science

90,985

91,679

97,110

89,077

104,265

112,529

157,000

Federal sources

(Current dollars in thousands)

Engineering and computer science

263,068

268,057

293,228

323,443

374,271

442,107

602,053

Engineering, subtotal

238,139

239,346

259,353

290,518

336,725

402,102

532,763

Computer science

24,929

28,711

33,875

32,925

37,546

40,005

69,290

(Constant 1989 dollars in thousands)

Engineering and computer science

671,263

626,888

624,554

647,404

702,329

773,320

967,464

Engineering, subtotal

607,652

559,743

552,403

581,501

631,873

703,344

856,119

Computer science

63,611

67,145

72,151

65,903

70,456

69,976

111,345

Nonfederal sources

(Current dollars in thousands)

Engineering and computer science

105,718

118,050

133,277

152,787

179,765

214,188

271,201

Engineering, subtotal

94,990

107,559

121,559

141,209

161,748

189,860

242,790

Computer science

10,728

10,491

11,718

11,578

18,017

24,328

28,411

(Constant 1989 dollars in thousands)

Engineering and computer science

269,758

276,075

283,870

305,818

337,333

374,651

435,805

Engineering, subtotal

242,384

251,541

258,911

282,644

302,524

332,098

390,150

Computer science

27,374

24,534

24,959

23,174

33,809

42,553

45,65

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

Field

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

All sources

(Current dollars in thousands)

Engineering and computer science

986,587

1,110,884

1,191,718

1,308,643

1,456,082

1,698,684

1,962,463

Engineering, subtotal

862,351

966,996

1,028,024

1,122,372

1,231,950

1,417,876

1,641,081

Aerospace

53,096

54,397

62,386

68,473

69,757

80,525

94,422

Chemical

60,762

85,946

89,132

95,989

101,513

116,210

132,260

Civil

83,202

108,611

115,893

126,513

139,714

153,156

178,090

Electrical

183,146

193,292

218,459

261,960

295,159

337,403

394,984

Mechanical

140,378

140,773

142,743

149,388

178,975

207,751

228,117

Materials

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Other

341,767

383,977

399,411

420,049

446,832

522,831

613,208

Computer science

124,236

143,888

163,694

186,271

224,132

280,808

321,382

(Constant 1989 dollars in thousands)

Engineering and computer science

1,454,071

1,492,522

1,505,074

1,590,862

1,707,613

1,934,500

2,178,094

Engineering, subtotal

1,270,967

1,299,202

1,298,338

1,364,420

1,444,764

1,614,709

1,821,400

Aerospace

78,255

73,085

78,790

83,240

81,807

91,704

104,797

Chemical

89,553

115,472

112,569

116,690

119,049

132,343

146,792

Civil

122,626

145,924

146,367

153,796

163,849

174,417

197,658

Electrical

269,928

259,696

275,902

318,454

346,146

384,242

438,384

Mechanical

206,895

189,135

180,277

181,605

209,892

236,592

253,182

Materials

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Other

503,710

515,890

504,434

510,636

524,020

595,412

680,586

Computer science

183,104

193,320

206,737

226,442

262,850

319,790

356,695

Nonfederal structures

(Current dollars in thousands)

Engineering and computer science

307,161

344,069

379,348

434,790

504,483

635,862

752,224

Engineering, subtotal

270,395

304,376

337,097

387,458

443,271

550,771

663,503

Aerospace

10,877

10,868

13,029

14,590

15,202

19,006

21,751

Chemical

21,604

28,479

33,838

38,896

41,560

51,591

58,976

Civil

29,932

46,972

56,246

62,803

67,293

74,322

89,718

Electrical

44,507

46,529

50,102

68,645

85,507

108,854

134,644

Mechanical

46,339

45,783

45,219

49,079

60,014

73,620

80,112

Materials

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Other

117,136

125,745

138,663

153,445

173,695

223,378

278,302

Computer science

36,766

39,693

42,251

47,332

61,212

85,091

88,721

(Constant 1989 dollars in thousands)

Engineering and computer science

452,706

462,272

479,095

528,556

591,630

724,134

834,876

Engineering, subtotal

398,519

408,943

425,735

471,016

519,844

627,230

736,407

Aerospace

16,031

14,602

16,455

17,736

17,828

21,644

24,141

Chemical

31,841

38,263

42,736

47,284

48,739

58,753

65,456

Civil

44,115

63,109

71,036

76,347

78,918

84,640

99,576

Electrical

65,596

62,514

63,276

83,449

100,278

123,965

149,438

Mechanical

68,296

61,511

57,109

59,663

70,381

83,840

88,915

Materials

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Other

172,640

168,944

175,124

186,537

203,700

254,388

308,881

Computer science

54,187

53,329

53,361

57,540

71,786

96,904

98,469

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

Field

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

Federal sources

(Current dollars in thousands)

Engineering and computer science

679,426

766,815

812,370

873,853

951,599

1,062,822

1,210,239

Engineering, subtotal

591,956

662,620

690,927

734,914

788,679

867,105

977,578

Aerospace

42,219

43,529

49,357

53,883

54,555

61,519

73,284

Chemical

39,158

57,467

55,294

57,093

59,953

64,619

73,284

Civil

53,270

61,639

59,647

63,710

72,421

78,834

88,372

Electrical

138,639

146,763

168,357

193,315

209,652

228,549

260,340

Mechanical

94,039

94,990

97,524

100,309

118,961

134,131

148,005

Materials

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Other

224,631

258,232

260,748

266,604

273,137

299,453

334,906

Computer science

87,470

104,195

121,443

138,939

162,920

195,717

232,661

 

679,426

766,815

812,370

873,853

951,599

1,062,822

1,210,239

(Constant 1989 dollars in thousands)

Engineering and computer science

1,001,365

1,030,250

1,025,979

1,062,306

1,115,983

1,210,366

1,343,218

Engineering, subtotal

872,448

890,259

872,603

893,404

924,920

987,479

1,084,992

Aerospace

62,224

58,483

62,335

65,503

63,979

70,059

80,656

Chemical

57,713

77,209

69,833

69,406

70,310

73,590

81,336

Civil

78,511

82,815

75,331

77,450

84,931

89,778

98,082

Electrical

204,332

197,183

212,626

235,005

245,868

260,277

288,946

Mechanical

138,598

127,623

123,167

121,941

139,511

152,751

164,267

Materials

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Other

331,070

346,946

329,310

324,099

320,320

341,024

371,705

Computer science

128,917

139,991

153,376

168,902

191,064

222,887

258,225

Field

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

 

 

All sources

(Current dollars in thousands)

Engineering and computer science

2,264,944

2,505,849

2,870,919

3,171,832

3,437,214

 

 

Engineering, subtotal

1,892,452

2,097,242

2,398,738

2,662,616

2,892,750

 

 

Aerospace

108,150

122,814

145,077

159,320

174,321

 

 

Chemical

148,362

162,559

194,060

214,887

238,553

 

 

Civil

190,873

225,265

246,509

285,113

315,134

 

 

Electrical

451,095

509,597

600,395

667,747

682,213

 

 

Mechanical

275,135

303,812

344,140

392,518

415,071

 

 

Materials

0

0

0

275,238

301,992

 

 

Other

718,837

773,195

868,557

667,793

765,466

 

 

Computer science

372,492

408,607

472,181

509,216

544,464

 

 

(Constant 1989 dollars in thousands)

Engineering and computer science

2,436,734

2,609,172

2,870,919

3,046,323

3,427,211

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

Field

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

Engineering, subtotal

2,035,989

2,183,717

2,398,738

2,557,257

2,892,747

Aerospace

116,353

127,878

145,077

153,016

174,321

Chemical

159,615

169,262

194,060

206,384

238,553

Civil

205,350

234,553

246,509

273,831

315,134

Electrical

485,309

530,609

600,395

641,324

682,212

Mechanical

296,003

316,339

344,140

376,986

415,071

Materials

0

0

0

264,347

301,992

Other

773,359

805,076

868,557

641,369

765,465

Computer science

400,744

425,455

472,181

489,066

544,463

Federal sources

(Current dollars in thousands)

Engineering and computer science

1,369,988

1,518,949

1,705,601

1,864,247

1,996,954

Engineering, subtotal

1,112,663

1,229,753

1,383,162

1,524,287

1,630,945

Aerospace

80,168

93,681

111,737

122,968

131,708

Chemical

76,652

85,506

101,187

107,682

114,310

Civil

89,711

103,144

101,688

116,000

122,874

Electrical

292,216

330,387

389,773

435,125

437,494

Mechanical

178,487

192,614

213,864

238,744

243,182

Materials

0

0

0

141,654

155,051

Other

395,429

424,421

464,913

362,114

426,326

Computer science

257,325

289,196

322,439

339,960

366,009

 

1,369,988

1,518,949

1,705,601

1,864,247

1,996,954

(Constant 1989 dollars in thousands)

Engineering and computer science

1,473,898

1,581,580

1,705,601

1,790,479

1,996,952

Engineering, subtotal

1,197,055

1,280,459

1,383,162

1,463,971

1,630,943

Aerospace

86,249

97,544

111,737

118,102

131,708

Chemical

82,466

89,032

101,187

103,421

114,310

Civil

96,515

107,397

101,688

111,410

122,874

Electrical

314,380

344,010

389,773

417,907

437,494

Mechanical

192,025

200,556

213,864

229,297

243,182

Materials

0

0

0

136,049

155,051

Other

425,421

441,921

464,913

347,785

426,326

Computer science

276,842

301,120

322,439

326,508

366,009

Nonfederal sources

(Current dollars in thousands)

Engineering and computer science

894,956

986,900

1,165,318

1,307,585

1,440,260

Engineering, subtotal

779,789

867,489

1,015,576

1,138,329

1,261,805

Aerospace

27,982

29,133

33,340

36,352

42,613

Chemical

71,710

77,053

92,873

107,205

124,243

Civil

101,162

122,121

144,821

169,113

192,260

Electrical

158,879

179,210

210,622

232,622

244,719

Mechanical

96,648

111,198

130,276

153,774

171,889

Materials

0

0

0

133,584

146,941

Other

323,408

348,774

403,644

305,679

339,140

Computer science

115,167

119,411

149,742

169,256

178,455

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

Field

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

(Constant 1989 dollars in thousands)

Engineering and computer science

962,836

1,027,592

1,165,318

1,255,844

1,430,259

Engineering, subtotal

838,934

903,258

1,015,576

1,093,286

1,261,804

Aerospace

30,104

30,334

33,340

34,914

42,613

Chemical

77,149

80,230

92,873

102,963

124,243

Civil

108,835

127,156

114,821

162,421

192,260

Electrical

171,930

186,599

210,622

223,417

244,719

Mechanical

103,978

115,783

130,276

147,689

171,889

Materials

0

0

0

128,298

146,941

Other

347,938

363,155

403,644

293,583

339,140

Computer science

123,912

124,335

149,742

162,559

178,455

NOTE: Before 1980, NSF did not collect data by field of engineering.

SOURCE: NSF CASPAR Database System.

Suggested Citation:"Background Paper: The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends." National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4933.
×

TABLE 14 Full-Time Graduate Research Assistants by Field and Source of Support, 1972–1991

Field

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

All sources of support

Engineering and computer science

10,369

11,033

11,850

11,733

12,059

12,543

0

13,634

Engineering, subtotal

9,731

10,380

11,103

10,987

11,328

11,819

0

12,817

Aerospace

598

544

534

512

484

497

0

503

Chemical

1,326