National Academies Press: OpenBook

Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers (1995)

Chapter: C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES

« Previous: B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 139

C
EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES

Michael McGeary
Study Director, Committee on Science,
Engineering, and Public Policy

Contents

OVERVIEW

142

EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG RECENT COHORTS OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING DOCTORATES

142

Employment Status: Full-Time, Part-Time, and Not Employed

143

Employment Sector: Academe, Industry, Government

144

Tenure Status

145

Impact of Employment Choices of Recent PhDs

146

Conclusions

146

Box:

C-1

Methodological Note

148

Tables:

C-1

Scientists and Engineers 1-4 Years After Receiving PhD from US Institutions, by Field, Employment Status, and Sector of Employment, 1973-1991

149

C-2

Science and Engineering 5-8 Years After Receiving PhD from US Institutions, by Field, Employment Status, and Sector of Employment, 1973-1991

151

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 140

C-3A

Employed Doctoral Scientists and Engineers, by Field, 1973-1991

153

C-3B

Employed Doctoral Scientists and Engineers, by Employment-Related Characteristics, 1973-1991 (percentage distribution)

154

Figures:

C-1

Employment of All Science and Engineering 1-4 Years After US PhD

155

C-2

Employment of All Science and Engineering 5-8 Years After US PhD

 

C-3

1969-1972 Science and Engineering PhD Recipients 1-4 and 5-8 Years Later

156

C-4

1977-1980 Science and Engineering PhD Recipients 1-4 and 5-8 Years Later

 

C-5

1983-1986 Science and Engineering PhD Recipients 1-4 and 5-8 Years Later

 

C-6

Employment of Physical Scientists 1-4 Years After US PhD

158

C-7

Employment of Mathematicians 1-4 Years After US PhD

 

C-8

Employment of Computer Scientists 1-4 Years After US PhD

 

C-9

Employment of Physicists/Astronomers 1-4 Years After US PhD

 

C-10

Employment of Chemists 1-4 Years After US PhD

 

C-11

Employment of Environmental Scientists 1-4 Years After US PhD

 

C-12

Employment of Life Scientists 1-4 Years After US PhD

159

C-13

Employment of Agricultural Scientists 1-4 Years After US PhD

 

C-14

Employment of Medical Scientists 1-4 Years After US PhD

 

C-15

Employment of Biological Scientists 1-4 Years After US PhD

 

C-16

Employment of Social Scientists 1-4 Years After US PhD

160

C-17

Employment of Psychologists 14 Years After US PhD

 

C-18

Employment of Engineers 1-4 Years After US PhD

161

C-19

Employment of Physical Scientists 5-8 Years After US PhD

162

C-20

Employment of Mathematicians 5-8 Years After US PhD

 

C-21

Employment of Computer Scientists 5-8 Years After US PhD

 

C-22

Employment of Physicists/Astronomers 5-8 Years After US PhD

 

C-23

Employment of Chemists 5-8 Years After US PhD

 

C-24

Employment of Environmental Scientists 5-8 Years After US PhD

 

C-25

Employment of Life Scientists 5-8 Years After US PhD

163

C-26

Employment of Agricultural Scientists 5-8 Years After US PhD

 

C-27

Employment of Medical Scientists 5-8 Years After US PhD

 

C-28

Employment of Biological Scientists 5-8 Years After US PhD

 
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 141

C-29

Employment of Social Scientists 5-8 Years After US PhD

164

C-30

Employment of Psychologists 5-8 Years After US PhD

 

C-31

Employment of Engineers 5-8 Years After US PhD

165

EMPLOYMENT OF RECENT SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING MASTER'S DEGREE RECIPIENTS

166

Tables:

C-4

Graduate School Status One Year Later of Recipients of Master's Degrees in Science and Engineering, 1982-1990

167

C-5

Science and Engineering Master's Recipients Continuing in Graduate School the Next Year, 1982 and 1990

168

C-6

Unemployment One Year Later Among Recipients of Master's Degrees in Science and Engineering, 1982-1990

169

C-7

Employed New Science and Engineering Master's Recipients Working in Field of Degree or in an Science and Engineering Occupation, 1990

170

C-8

Type of Employer One Year Later of Recipients of Master's Degrees in Science and Engineering, 1982-1990

171

C-9

Type of Employer of New Recipients of Master's Degrees, by Field of Science and Engineering, 1990

172

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 142

OVERVIEW

This appendix has two parts: an original "cohort" analysis of data on the employment of recent science and engineering (S&E) PhDs since 1973 and a review of data on the employment of new science and engineering master's-degree recipients.

EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG RECENT COHORTS OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING DOCTORATES

To understand better the career prospects of recipients of advanced degrees in science and engineering, a thorough knowledge of trends in the recent employment-related histories of new graduates is helpful. A rich database for such an analysis exists, and a preliminary study is reported in this appendix. The database is the Survey of Doctorate Recipients (see Box C-1 on page 148 for a description of the SDR database and its potential uses and limitations).

NSF publishes tables of data from the SDR on the entire population of U.S. scientists and engineers (the most recent was of the 1991 survey; see NSF, 1994d). The tables are examined below, but they do not provide information about recent science and engineering PhDs. For this study, OSEP was asked to produce two series of data tables: (1) tables on the employment activities of scientists and engineers who had received science and engineering PhDs in the 1-4 years before each survey, and (2) tables on the employment activities of those receiving science and engineering PhDs 5-8 years before each survey. This type of cohort analysis was apparently last done in response to the "new depression" in academic employment of the middle 1970s (see, e.g., NRC, 1983).

In this appendix, 4-year "classes" or cohorts are used to ensure minimal sample size when looking at specific fields, such as mathematics, chemistry, and biology. For example, the first set of tables gives information on those getting PhDs in 1969-1972 at the time of the 1973 survey, those getting PhDs in 1971-1974 at the time of the 1975 survey, and so on, through those who earned PhDs in 1987-1990 at the time of the 1991 survey.

The tables present data on workforce status (full-time, part-time, or unemployed), employment sector (academe, other education, business and industry, government, etc.), and tenure status of those employed in academe (4-year colleges, universities, and medical schools). There are tables and/or figures for the following:

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 143

All scientists and engineers (excluding psychologists)

Physical scientists

Mathematicians
Computer scientists
Physicists/astronomers
Chemists
Earth/atmospheric/ocean scientists

Life scientists

Agricultural scientists
Medical scientists
Biological scientists

Engineers
Social scientists
Psychologists

Employment Status: Full-Time, Part-Time, and Not Employed

1-4 Years Out For those 1-4 years after receipt of PhD at the time of each survey since 1973, the SDR data (not reproduced here) show that unemployment rates and part-time employment rates have been low in all fields. Overall, the percentage of unemployed (defined as not working and looking for work) has varied between 1.2% and 1.6%. It was 1.5% in 1991 among those getting PhDs in 1987-1990. This trend, or lack of a trend, holds for each field. It does not rule out, however, substantial increases in unemployment since 1991.

The percentage not employed for all reasons (e.g., not looking, retired, or unemployed) has also been low and steady since 1973, about 3%.

The proportion of new PhDs employed part-time has increased by about 50%—from 2% in 1973 to 3.1% in 1991 (totaling about 1,100 of 58,000 in 1973 and 2,000 of 63,000 in 1991). This trend was shown in all science fields, except that part-time employment tripled among new social scientists, from 2% to 6%. Part-time employment did not increase among new engineering PhDs (it has been about 1% since 1973).

The category with the most significant change has been the proportion of recent doctorates employed in postdoctoral appointments. Just 8% of the 1969-1972 PhDs were postdoctorates in 1973, a percentage that increased steadily to 19% of the 1985-1988 PhDs in 1989 (the 1991 survey was delayed six months, so the postdoctorate percentage is lower—14%). Most postdoctorates were among new biology PhDs (2,000 in 1973 and 6,300 in 1989), and most of the rest were in physics/astronomy and chemistry (1,900 in 1973 and 2,800 in 1989).

5-8 Years Out For those 5-8 years out at the time of each survey, the pattern is similar except that few are in postdoctoral appointments. The percentage of unemployed is generally lower than for those 1-4 years out—between 0.7% and 1.3%—but it increased to 1.9% in 1991.

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 144

The percentage not employed for other reasons was up a little in 1991, but 97% were still employed. The proportion employed part-time doubled to 3.2% in 1991 but was still low.

Conclusion If there are major employment changes or problems, they have arisen mostly since 1991. The employment statistics are all relatively good, but some were slightly worse in 1991 than in 1987 or 1989. Even that is difficult to interpret, because the survey procedures were changed in 1991 and the response rate was much higher.1

Employment Sector: Academe, Industry, Government

Figure C-1 shows where all science and engineering PhDs were employed 1-4 years after receiving their doctorates, and Figure C-2 shows where they were 4 years later (5-8 years after receiving their doctorates.); Tables C-1 and C-2 give the numbers and percentages on which the figures are based. Figure C-1 confirms the steadily growing proportion going into postdoctoral positions during the 1970s and 1980s (8% in 1973 and 19% in 1989, as noted above)2as well as the growing proportion going into business and industry (22% in 1973 and 29% in 1991). A smaller proportion went directly into academic employment (49% in 1973 and 40% in 1991)(presumably, some were going into postdoctoral positions instead).

Figure C-2 shows where science and engineering are 5-8 years after receiving their doctorates. Not surprisingly, few are in postdoctoral appointments, although the percentage increased from 2% to 3% over the period (but it increased from 4.8% in 1973 to 9.2% in 1989 among biologists 5-8 years out). The proportion employed in academe fell. More than half the 1969-1972 PhDs were employed in academe 5-8 years later, compared with 45% of the 19831986 graduates in 1991. This trend is the basis of a major conclusion of the report—that most new PhDs are employed outside academe.

Another way of looking at the trend is to compare the same "class" 1-4 years and 5-8 years out (Figures C-3 to C-5). Over the period, there is an increasing falloff from the number of those on postdoctorates and employed in academe in the first 1-4 years to the number employed in academe plus postdoctorates after 5-8 years (this is true, although to different degrees, across fields).

The growth sector was business and industry. After 5-8 years, 26% of science and engineering PhDs were employed in business and industry as of 1973, a proportion that grew to about 45% in 1991 (Figures C-3 through C-5).

1 As the report was going to press, after this was written, NSF released the preliminary results of the 1993 SDR. The unemployment rates were up slightly but still low (see text Figure 2-5).

2 It is important to remember that some members of each 4-year cohort have already completed a postdoctoral assignment by the time of the survey. These figures are most useful for seeing trends.

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 145

The employment patterns differ from field to field (see Figures C-6 through C-18 for those 1-4 years out and Figures C-19 through C-31 for those 5-8 years out). Some fields such as chemistry and engineering, have long had a high percentage of PhDs working in industry; others have had high percentages working in academe. Within the sciences, however, the trends have been similar—a smaller proportion going into academe and the federal government, and a greater proportion going into business and industry (there was also noticeable growth in nonprofit employment among social scientists). Engineering is one field in which the percentage working in academe after 5-8 years, although relatively low, has increased (from 29% in 1979 to 32% most recently), as has the percentage working in business and industry (from 50% to 58%). The federal government was the big loser, going from 13% (1,600 of the class of 19691972 in 1977) to 5% (about 500 of the class of 1983-1986 in 1991).

Tenure Status

Table C-2 has some interesting data on trends in tenure and tenure status within academe among those 5-8 years after receiving the PhD. The number of academics with tenure fell both absolutely and relatively over the period. In 1979, for example, 20% of all those who had received their PhDs 5-8 years before (1971-1974) had tenure, and another 14% had tenure-track positions. The percentage with tenure after 5-8 years fell steadily to 12% in 1989, while the percentage in tenure-track positions grew to 17%. In absolute terms, the number with tenure after 5-8 years fell from 12,000 in 1979 to 6,500 in 1989, while the number in tenure-track positions went from 8,000 to 9,000. (The 1991 survey increased the percentage with tenure to at least 14%; the extent to which the change in survey methods contributed to this change needs to be explored.)

In another way of looking at the data, the total number in the tenure system of those 5-8 years after receiving the PhD fell from 20,000 in the 1979 survey to about 16,000-17,000 in the 1989-1991 survey, and the proportion with tenure decreased relative to those still in tenure-track jobs.

Meanwhile, a fairly steady number and percentage of PhDs 5-8 years out had non-tenure system positions over the period (about 7,000, or 12% of all PhDs 5-8 years out).

The figures differ from field to field, although the general trends hold. Biology is interesting because the percentage with tenure, low in 1979 at 18% fell to 7% in 1989, while those in tenure-track positions or not in the tenure system stayed about the same. Presumably, that reflects the high and growing proportion of postdoctorates and the lengthening time before biology PhDs enter faculty positions, and begin their quest for tenure. In fact, as noted above, more than 9% of biologists were still in postdoctoral positions 5-8 years after receiving their PhDs. That in turn might be part of the explanation for the low and falling percentage of principal investigators under 35 years of age applying for National Institutes of Health research project grants, as reported in the recent National Research Council study of funding of young investigators (NRC, 1994a).

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 146

Impact of Employment Choices of Recent PhDs

The new data presented here on science and engineering 1-4 and 5-8 years after receiving their doctorates give a sense of the career-related flow of new PhDs. The flows also have an impact on the overall stock of PhDs. More than 14,000 new doctorates were added each year to the total stock of PhDs working in the United States, and small shifts in employment patterns have a cumulative impact over time on the whole. Table C-3 presents data on the employment of all US PhDs at the time of each survey.

· With 14,000 a year being added to a stock that was relatively young in 1973, the total number of employed science and engineering PhDs increased from 220,000 in 1973 to 437,000 in 1991.

· Although the percentage in academe (four-year colleges, universities and medical schools) fell from 57% to 49%, the absolute number increased from 125,000 in 1973 to 195,000 in 1991 (an increase of 56%).

· The overall percentage of those in academe with tenure grew from 58% in 1975 to 62% in 1983 and fell to 55% in 1991.

· The percentage employed in business and industry increased from 24% to 36%, or from 53,000 to 157,000 (an increase of 196 percent).

Conclusions

1. More than 14,000 new PhDs in science and engineering have found employment each year since the early 1970s. Unemployment rates of those out for 1-4 years or 5-8 years have been low compared with other occupations and fairly stable, at least through 1991. That does not reflect events since 1991, and it does not mean that all found work in their fields or found jobs that they expected or wanted.

As a result of the steady output of doctoral science and engineering, the overall number of people with science and engineering PhDs from U.S. universities working in the United States has nearly doubled since 1973. Academe has absorbed a large number, 70,000, or about 3,900 a year. Business and industry have absorbed another 104,000, or 5,800 a year. The latter has been the growth sector for PhD employment, and is likely to remain so for future PhDs.

2. Year by year, the proportion of new PhDs going into academe for employment has fallen steadily, with business and industry increasing their share of PhD employment. It is important to note that academe, while losing share, is still an important employer of new PhDs, and any changes in the academic employment market would have a substantial, if slowly declining, impact on the career prospects of new PhDs.

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 147

3. The increasing proportion of new PhDs taking postdoctoral appointments has been an important feature of some fields, especially biology (accounting for more than half) and some of the physical sciences. The percentage of those 5-8 years out, in postdoctoral positions, especially in biology, is increasing, indicating perhaps a lengthening of such positions or an increase in the practice of taking multiple postdoctorates. Those trends might account in part for the decreasing percentage of PhDs with tenure 5-8 years out, because it postpones beginning of an independent faculty career. Also, increasing numbers of postdoctorates are going into nonacademic employment.

4. The data do not show a substantial increase in part-time employment or in nontenure positions in academe, at least through 1991. However, a large percentage (12%) and number (7,000) of recent PhDs, all those 5-8 years out, have been in such positions through the period. Who are they and what are they doing?

5. This analysis should be extended by looking at data on such matters as salary (academe versus business versus government), primary activity (e.g., basic or applied research, development, R&D management, teaching, or consulting), and field-switching.

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 148

The Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR) is a biennial survey that has gathered employment-related information from a nationally representative panel of PhDs from U.S. institutions since 1973 (it does not include anyone who received a doctorate from a foreign institution). It is conducted by the Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel (OSEP) of the National Research Council (NRC) for the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Institutes of Health (NIH), and other federal agencies. For each survey, a sample of new doctorate recipients since the preceding survey is added that is representative of all U.S. citizens and foreign citizens who stay in the United States. Although NSF publishes tables of information based on the entire sample, it is possible to use the SDR database to compare the employment situations of PhD "classes" over time. For this report, for example, we had tables produced of the employment characteristics of doctoral scientists and engineers who had received their PhDs 1-4 and 5-8 years before each survey to see how the employment situations of "new" or "recent'' PhDs have changed over time by field (much more such work could be done, involving more detail and additional variables-e.g., citizenship and sex-to understand better the careers of doctoral scientists and engineers).

During the 1980s, the response rate to the SDR fell steadily. NRC studies in 1975 and 1989 indicated that nonresponse bias resulted in overestimates of the number of employed scientists and engineers, especially in academe but also overall (Spisak and Maxfield, 1979; Mitchell and Pasquini, 1991). In 1989, for example, the difference in academic employment was estimated to be about 5 percentage points. A recent NSF analysis concluded that the overestimates had been consistent over time and therefore did not affect the trend line of steady growth since 1973 (NSF, 1992b).

In 1991, several changes were made in the SDR that affect he comparability of the 1991 results with earlier data. The overall response rate was improved substantially, from 58% in 1989 to 80%. That improved the quality of the 1991 estimates, but, as NSF noted, "The improved response rates and the expected lessening of bias should be considered additional sources changes in time series and longitudinal analysis" (NSF, 1994d:66). The 1991 survey was also fielded 7 months later than earlier surveys, and that explains at least part of the drop in proportion of those in postdoctoral-study positions in the group 1-4 years after the PhD (from 18.7% in 1989 to 14.0% in 1991).

Because of the changes in survey response rates and timing, time-series comparisons involving 1991 should be interpreted with caution. In his report, for example, we do not use 1991 data at all to look at postdoctoral-study trends. We do use 1991 estimates of employment status because they are the most-accurate data on the current situation, and if the reader understands the procedural changes described here, they still provide a useful comparison with (and correction of) earlier data.

In 1993, most of the questions were also changed, which substantially limited comparability for all but a few basic characteristics (e.g., unemployment). The only data used from the 1993 survey, which appeared as this report was going to press, are unemployment rates.

Box C-1: Methodological note

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 149

TABLE C-1 Scientists and Engineers 1-4 Years After Receiving PhD from US Institutions, by Field, Employment Status, and Sector of Employment, 1973-1991

 

Year of Survey:

TOTAL

1973

1975

1977

1979

1981

1983

1985

1987

1989

1991

Total Population

58,121

59,618

57,343

55,075

53,518

54,119

55,324

56,227

58,825

63,010

(percentage)

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Postdoctoral Study

4,652

6,315

7,280

7,307

7,725

7,956

8,919

9.390

10,978

8,803

(percentage)

8.0

10.6

12.7

13.3

14.4

14.7

16.1

16.7

18.7

14.0

Total Employed

50,934

51,595

47,848

45,887

44,218

44,250

44,815

45,029

46,098

51,935

(percentage)

87.6

86.5

83.4

83.3

82.6

81.8

81.0

80.1

78.4

82.4

4 Year/University/

Medical School

28,170

27,017

24,062

23,410

21,150

20,646

22,175

21,976

22,139

25,174

(percentage)

48.5

45.3

42.0

42.5

39.5

38.1

40.1

39.1

37.6

40.0

-tenured

3,468

4,206

3,168

2,483

1,764

1,829

1,347

1,122

1,029

1,482

(percentage)

6.0

7.1

5.5

4.5

3.3

3.4

2.4

2.0

1.7

2.4

-tenure track

     

11,771

12,648

11,761

13,262

12,363

12,057

14.313

(percentage)

0.0

0.0

0.0

21.4

23.6

21.7

24.0

22.0

20.5

22.7

-other/no reports

24,702

22,721

20,894

9,156

6,738

7,056

7,566

8,491

9,053

9,379

(percentage)

42.5

38.1

36.4

16.6

12.6

13.0

13.7

15.1

15.4

14.9

Other Educational

Institutions

1,326

1,472

1,618

802

923

969

892

764

827

911

(percentage)

2.3

2.5

2.8

1.5

1.7

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.4

1.4

Business/Industry

12,550

14,086

13,962

13,615

15,009

16,120

15,634

15,177

15,435

18,280

(percentage)

21.6

23.6

24.3

24.7

28.0

29.8

28.3

27.0

26.2

29.0

US Government

5,400

5,347

4,379

4,104

3,681

3,154

2,641

2,992

3,527

3,465

(percentage)

9.3

9.0

7.6

7.5

6,9

5.8

4.8

5.3

6.0

5.5

State/Local Government

806

999

1,141

1,124

886

959

1,117

1,259

1,453

1,144

(percentage)

1.4

1.7

2.0

2.0

1.7

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.5

1.8

Nonprofit Organization

2,468

2,398

2,386

2,555

2,409

2,193

2,176

2,515

2,545

2,626

(percentage)

4.2

4.0

4.2

4.6

4.5

4.1

3.9

4.5

4.3

4.2

Other/No Report

214

276

300

277

160

209

180

346

172

335

(percentage)

0.4

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.3

0.4

0.3

0.6

0.3

0.5

Total Not Employed

2,535

1,708

2,215

1,881

1,534

1,913

1,590

1,808

1,749

2,272

(percentage)

4.4

2.9

3.9

3.4

2.9

3.5

2.9

3.2

3.0

3.6

-seeking

811

783

927

716

622

682

670

775

686

940

(percentage)

1.4

1.3

1.6

1.3

1.2

1.3

1.2

1.4

1.2

1.5

-not seeking

287

348

353

480

345

285

297

465

498

668

(percentage)

0.5

0.6

0.6

0.9

0.6

0.5

0.5

0.8

0.8

1.1

-retired

23

16

24

11

9

2

0

90

71

19

(percentage)

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.1

0.0

-other/no report

1,414

561

911

674

558

944

623

478

494

645

(percentage)

2.4

0.9

1.6

1.2

1.0

1.7

1.1

0.9

0.8

1.0

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 150

NOTES: This table compares cohorts of scientists and engineers 1-4 years after receiving a doctorate from a US university (e.g., 1969-1972 PhDs in 1973, 1971-1974 PhDs in 1975, and so on). All fields are included except psychology (for field-level data, see Figures C-6 through C-18). All percentages are of the total population, including those not in the workforce.

Due to changes in survey procedures and timing in the 1991 survey, the 1991 estimates are not entirely comparable to those for the earlier survey years (see methodological note in Box C-1 for further information on comparability of 1991 estimates).

SOURCE: Special runs of data on employment status and employment sector of US doctoral scientists and engineers from the Survey of Doctorate Recipients.

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 151

TABLE C-2 Scientists and Engineers 5-8 Years after Receiving PhD from US Institutions, by Field, Employment Status, and Sector of Employment, 1977-1991

 

Year of Survey:

TOTAL

1977

1979

1981

1983

1985

1987

1989

1991

Total Population

58,334

59,514

57,456

55,734

53,985

54,013

54,812

55,598

(percentage)

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Postdoctoral Study

1,179

1,208

1,153

1,185

1,355

1,228

1,651

1,325

(percentage)

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.1

2.5

2.3

3.0

 

Total Employed

55,446

56,879

54,914

52,507

51,504

51,233

51,782

52,082

(percentage)

95.0

95.6

95.6

94.2

95.4

94.9

94.5

93.7

4 Year/University/

Medical School

29,561

27,673

26,467

25,165

24,831

24,063

24,468

23,879

(percentage)

50.7

46.5

46.1

45.2

46.0

44.6

44.6

42.9

-tenured

14,407

12,149

11,257

9,822

8,113

7,163

6,502

7,844

(percentage)

24.7

20.4

19.6

17.6

15.0

13.3

11.9

14.1

-tenure track

 

8,171

9,026

8,483

10,138

9,165

9,658

9,081

(percentage)

0.0

13.7

15.7

15.2

18.8

17.0

17.6

16.3

-other/no reports

15,154

7,353

6,184

6,860

6,580

7,735

8,308

6,954

(percentage)

26.0

12.4

10.8

12.3

12.2

14.3

15.2

12.5

Other Educational

1,357

1,174

1,032

805

977

847

721

883

Institutions

2.3

2.0

1.8

1.4

1.8

1.6

1.3

1.6

(percentage)

Business/Industry

14,945

16,981

17,974

18,285

17,830

18,568

19,418

19,156

(percentage)

25.6

28.5

31.3

32.8

33.0

34.4

35.4

34.5

US Government

5,556

6,525

4,682

4,573

3,998

3,536

3,074

3,255

(percentage)

9.5

11.0

8.1

8.2

7.4

6.5

5.6

5.9

State/Local Government

932

1,034

1,158

1,129

1,044

1,080

1,090

1.773

(percentage)

1.6

1.7

2.0

2.0

1.9

2.0

2.0

3.2

Nonprofit Organization

2,693

3,070

3,175

2,401

2,683

2,865

2,741

2,774

(percentage)

4.6

5.2

5.5

4.3

5.0

5.3

5.0

5.0

Other/No Report

402

422

426

149

141

274

270

362

(percentage)

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.3

0.3

0.5

0.5

0.7

Total Not Employed

1,709

1,427

1,389

2,042

1,126

1,552

1,379

2,191

(percentage)

2.9

2.4

2.4

3.7

2.1

2.9

2.5

3.9

-seeking

761

515

452

735

373

563

498

1.058

(percentage)

1.3

0.9

0.8

1.3

0.7

1.0

0.9

1.9

-not seeking

286

453

473

529

312

483

498

571

(percentage)

0.5

0.8

0.8

0.9

0.6

0.9

0.9

1.0

-retired

56

66

57

82

63

59

78

100

(percentage)

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

-other/no report

606

393

407

696

378

447

305

462

(percentage)

1.0

0.7

0.7

1.2

0.7

0.8

0.6

0.8

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 152

NOTES: This table compares cohorts of scientists and engineers 5-8 years after receiving a doctorate from a US university (e.g., 1969-1972 PhDs in 1977, 1971-1974 PhDs in 1979, and so on). All fields are included except psychology (for field-level data, see Figures C-19 through C-31). All percentages are of the total population, including those not in the workforce.

Due to changes in survey procedures and timing in the 1991 survey, the 1991 estimates are not entirely comparable to those for the earlier survey years (see methodological note in Box C-1 for further information on comparability of 1991 estimates).

SOURCE: Special runs of data from the Survey of Doctorate Recipients on employment status and employment sector of US doctoral scientists and engineers.

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 153

TABLE C-3A Employed Doctoral Scientists and Engineers, by Field, 1973-1991

Field

1973

1975

1977

1979

1981

1983

1985

1987

1989

1991

TOTAL

220,332

255,940

285,055

314,257

343,956

369,320

400,358

419,118

448,643

437,206

SCIENTISTS

184,551

213,507

240,005

263,915

286,917

307,775

334,505

351,350

373,860

367,440

Physical scientists

48,526

54,629

57,531

60,222

63,110

63,986

67,480

68,647

70,209

80,872

Chemists

30,769

35,825

37,412

39,659

41,910

41,298

43,735

44,136

45,649

48,967

Physicists/ Astronomers

17,757

18,804

20,119

20,563

21,200

22,688

23,745

24,511

24,560

31,905

Mathematical scientists

12,130

13,611

14,609

15,250

15,569

16,379

16,758

16,699

17,611

20,049

Mathematicians

10,661

11,864

12,846

12,843

13,024

13,589

13,957

13,878

14,867

16,546

Statisticians

1,469

1,747

1,763

2,407

2,545

2,790

2,801

2,821

2,744

3,503

Computer/ Information Specialists

2,713

3,528

5,767

6,684

9,064

12,164

14,964

18,571

19,797

5,376

Environmental scientists

10,321

12,103

13,001

14,575

15,909

16,467

17,288

17,811

19,787

13,263

Earth scientists

8,552

9,500

9,715

11,083

11,990

12,523

13,202

13,577

15,138

9,745

Oceanographers

1,130

1,277

1,563

1,662

1,793

1,742

1,959

2,037

2,460

1,920

Atmospheric scientists

639

1,326

1,723

1,830

2,126

2,202

2,127

2,197

2,189

1,598

Life scientists

56,665

63,344

70,537

78,857

84,912

92,802

101,838

107,378

115,833

113,743

Biological scientists

36,798

39,036

42,069

45,617

49,621

55,205

59,871

61,985

67,250

88,188

Agricultural scientists

9,189

10,993

12,112

12,789

13,496

14,536

15,513

15,796

16,504

16,637

Medical scientists

10,678

13,315

16,356

20,451

21,795

23,061

26,454

29,597

32,079

19,047

Psychologists

24,782

30,001

33,652

37,848

42,829

46,645

52,182

56,378

60,596

65,672

Social scientists

29,414

36,291

44,908

50,479

55,524

59,332

63,995

65,866

70,027

68,465

Economists

9,674

11,814

12,970

13,978

15,990

16,958

17,925

17,837

18,588

19,241

Sociologists/ Anthropologists

65,311

7,910

9,471

10,198

11,007

12,056

12,692

12,933

13,529

18,094

Other social scientists

3,209

16,567

22,467

26,303

28,527

30,318

33,378

35,096

37,910

31,130

ENGINEERS

35,781

42,433

45,050

50,342

57,039

61,545

65,853

67,768

74,783

69,766

Aeronautical/ Astronomical

1,670

2,019

1,987

2,364

2,519

3,684

3,827

5,005

6,367

3,087

Chemical

4,458

5,368

5,603

6,166

7,146

6,992

7,122

6,923

7,959

10,633

Civil

3,100

3,772

4,066

5,157

6,089

5,317

6,396

6,479

6,951

7,512

Electrical/Electronic

7,057

8,538

8,284

8,597

10,630

12,696

14,248

12,601

15,088

16,994

Material science

4,462

4,784

5,244

5,732

6,085

7.422

7,259

8,088

8,280

6,230

Mechanical

3,257

4,033

4,648

5,245

5,370

5,657

6,594

6,711

7,390

8,680

Nuclear

1,264

1,680

1,773

2,286

2,061

2,329

2,377

2,151

2,437

1,903

Systems design

1,963

2,436

3,556

4,931

5,349

3,891

3,683

3,935

3,896

1,561

Other

8,550

9,803

9,889

9,864

11,790

13,557

14,347

15,875

16,415

13,166

NOTES: All numbers in the table are estimates derived from a sample.

All doctoral scientists and engineers employed in a science or engineering (S&E) field were categorized by their field of employment when that information was available. When it was not, or when the employment field was other than science or engineering, doctorate holders were categorized by their field of degree.

SOURCE: Calculated from NSF, 1991, and NSF, 1994d.

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 154

TABLE C-3B Employed Doctoral Scientists and Engineers, by Employment-Related Characteristics, 1973-1991 (percentage distribution)

Characteristics

1973

1975

1977

1979

1981

1983

1985

1987

1989

1991

TOTAL

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Type of employment

Science/Engineering

93.6

93.9

91.9

91.7

91.4

88.6

91.3

90.3

90.4

89.7

Other/Unknown field

6.4

6.1

8.1

8.3

8.6

11.4

8.7

9.7

9.6

10.3

Sector of employment

Business/Industry, Total

24.2

25.2

25.1

26.4

28.8

30.7

31.4

31.4

32.4

36.0

Not self-employed

22.2

22.9

22.5

23.1

24.6

25.8

25.6

24.8

25.1

27.1

Self-employed

2.0

2.3

2.6

3.3

4.3

4.9

5.8

6.6

7.2

8.8

Educational institution

58.7

58.2

57.5

55.5

54.4

53.1

52.9

52.2

51.5

47.2

University/4-year college

56.7

56.1

55.1

53.3

52.1

50.8

50.5

50.0

49.2

44.7

Other

2.0

2.1

2.3

2.2

2.3

2.3

2.4

2.2

2.2

2.5

Federal government (civilian)

8.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.3

7.0

6.6

6.6

6.5

6.3

State/Local government

1.9

1.9

1.9

1.9

1.9

2.1

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

Hospitals/Clinics

2.1

2.9

3.0

3.1

2.9

2.8

2.8

2.9

2.8

3.2

Other non-profits

3.6

3.3

3.6

4.0

3.7

3.2

3.4

3.7

3.6

3.6

Other/No response

1.2

1.0

1.5

1.5

1.1

1.1

.9

1.0

.9

1.4

Primary work activity

Research and development

32.4

32.2

32.8

31.7

34.9

33.8

33.1

36.8

37.1

36.0

Basic research

15.5

14.9

15.3

15.2

16.0

15.5

15.3

15.1

15.1

14.0

Applied research

13.0

12.9

12.8

11.7

13.5

12.8

12.3

17.2

17.4

16.4

Development

3.9

4.4

4.7

4.8

5.3

5.5

5.5

4.5

4.7

5.6

Management/Administration

20.9

20.2

21.3

23.0

17.6

16.7

17.4

16.2

16.4

15.6

of Research and Development

11.9

11.2

10.8

13.7

9.5

8.5

8.7

8.1

7.9

7.6

of Other

9.0

9.0

10.5

9.3

8.1

8.2

8.7

8.1

8.5

8.0

Teaching

36.3

35.6

31.9

29.4

30.6

29.3

27.9

26.2

25.1

22.7

Professional services

3.3

4.0

4.7

5.8

6.7

7.1

7.9

7.8

8.2

9.1

Reports/Statistics/ Computer activity

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

2.8

2.9

3.6

Consulting

1.8

2.2

2.2

2.9

3.5

3.5

3.5

3.3

3.7

4.4

Other/No response

5.2

5.8

7.2

7.2

6.7

10.2

10.2

6.9

6.6

8.5

Federal support

Receiving support

45.2

43.0

42.0

40.3

36.9

32.3

32.3

43.7

44.2

40.7

Not receiving support

50.3

53.5

53.7

54.4

46.8

52.3

52.3

52.7

53.0

55.7

Status unknown/No response

4.5

3.5

4.2

5.3

16.3

15.4

15.4

3.6

2.7

3.5

1/ This category was first introduced in 1987 to conform to other data series produced by NSF.

NOTE: All numbers in the table are estimates derived from a sample.

SOURCE: Calculated from NSF, 1991, and NSF, 1994d.

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 155

image

FIGURE C-1 Employment of all scientists
and engineers 1-4 years after US PhD.

image

FIGURE C-2 Employment of all scientists
and engineers 5-8 years after US PhD.

SOURCE: Tables C-1 and C-2

NOTES: See notes to Table C-1 and methodological note in Box C-1 for important information on the comparability of 1991 estimates with earlier estimates.

Not employed includes those seeking work (i.e., unemployed), not seeking work, retired, otherwise not working, or not reporting employment status.

Other employment includes other education (junior colleges, 2-year colleges, technical institutes, and elementary, middle, and secondary schools); state and local governments; hospitals and clinics; private foundations and other nonprofit organizations; other employers; and those who did not respond to the employment-sector question.

Business/industry includes self-employed.

Academe includes those employed at 4-year colleges, universities, and medical schools (including university-affiliated hospitals and medical centers).

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 156

image

FIGURE C-3 1969-1972 science and engineering
PhD recipients 1-4 and 5-8 years later.

image

FIGURE C-4 1977-1980 science and engineering
PhD recipients 1-4 and 5-8 years later.

image

FIGURE C-5 1983-1986 science and engineering
PhD recipients 1-4 and 5-8 years later.

SOURCE: Tables C-1 and C-2.

NOTES: See notes to Table C-1.

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 157

NOTES: Figures C-6 through C-18 compare cohorts of scientists and engineers 14 years after receiving a doctorate from a US university (e.g., 1969-1972 PhDs in 1973, 1971-1974 PhDs in 1975, and so on). Figures C-19 through C-31 compare cohorts of scientists and engineers 5-8 years after receiving a doctorate from a US university (e.g., 1969-1972 PhDs in 1977, 1971-1974 PhDs in 1979, and so on). All percentages are of the total population, including those not in the workforce.

Due to changes in survey procedures and timing in the 1991 survey, the 1991 estimates are not entirely comparable to those for the earlier survey years (see methodological note in Box C-1 for further information on comparability of 1991 estimates).

SOURCE: Special runs of data from the Survey of Doctorate Recipients on employment status and employment sector ofU.S. doctoral scientists and engineers.

FIGURES C-6 THROUGH C-31

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 158

image

FIGURE C-6 Employment of physical
scientists 1-4 years after US PhD.

image

FIGURE C-7 Employment of mathematicians
1-4 years after US PhD.

image

FIGURE C-8 Employment of computer
scientists 1-4 years after US PhD.

image

FIGURE C-9 Employment of
physicists/astronomers 1-4 years after US PhD.

image

FIGURE C-10 Employment of chemists 1-4
years after US PhD.

image

FIGURE C-11 Employment of environmental
scientists 1-4 years after US PhD.

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 159

image

FIGURE C-12 Employment of life scientists
1-4 years after US PhD.

image

FIGURE C-13 Employment of agricultural
scientists 1-4 years after US PhD.

image

FIGURE C-14 Employment of medical
scientists 1-4 years after US PhD.

image

FIGURE C-15 Employment of biological
scientists 1-4 years after US PhD.

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 160

image

FIGURE C-16 Employment of social scientists 1-4 years after US PhD.

image

FIGURE C-17 Employment of psychologists 1-4 years after US PhD.

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 161

image

FIGURE C-18 Employment of engineers 1-4 years after US PhD.

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 162

image

FIGURE C-19 Employment of physical
scientists 5-8 years after US PhD.

image

FIGURE C-20 Employment of mathematicians
5-8 years after US PhD.

image

FIGURE C-21 Employment of computer
scientists 5-8 years after US PhD.

image

FIGURE C-22 Employment of
physicists/astronomers 5-8 years after US PhD.

image

FIGURE C-23 Employment of chemists 5-8
years after US PhD.

image

FIGURE C-24 Employment of environmental
scientists 5-8 years after US PhD.

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 163

image

FIGURE C-25 Employment of life scientists
5-8 years after US PhD.

image

FIGURE C-26 Employment of agricultural
scientists 5-8 years after US PhD.

image

FIGURE C-27 Employment of medical
scientists 5-8 years after US PhD.

image

FIGURE C-28 Employment of biological
scientists 5-8 years after US PhD.

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 164

image

FIGURE C-29 Employment of social scientists 5-8 years after US PhD.

image

FIGURE C-30 Employment of psychologists 5-8 years after US PhD.

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 165

image

FIGURE C-31 Employment of engineers 5-8 years after US PhD.

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 166

EMPLOYMENT OF RECENT SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING MASTER'S DEGREE RECIPIENTS

The National Science Foundation conducts biennial surveys of recent recipients of master's and bachelor's degrees in various science or engineering fields. The latest published data are from the survey administered in the spring of 1990 to a sample who received science and engineering degrees during the 1987-1988 (1988) and 1988-1989 (1989) academic years (NSF, 1992a). Surveys conducted in 1982 (NSF, 1984), 1984 (NSF, 1986), 1986 (NSF, 1987), and 1988 (NSF, 1990a) are also reported here. A more recent survey was fielded in 1993 and is scheduled to be published shortly.

The NSF survey of recent college graduates and master's-degree recipients collects information on demographic and education characteristics and on early career-development experiences, such as employment status, reasons for unemployment, and attributes of employment including occupational classification, major activity, and salary. The survey is based on a nationally representative sample and is used to derive national estimates of the numbers and demographic, education, and employment characteristics of recent graduates in science and engineering.

How Many Science and Engineering Master's Degree Recipients Continue Graduate Study?

The number of new science and engineering master's-degree recipients in 1989 continuing as full-time students in 1990 was 16,200, or about 23% of the estimated 70,400 who received master's degrees in 1989 (another 4,900, or 7%, were part-time students)(Table C-4). The comparable percentage and number of continuing students among new master's-degree recipients in the 1980s surveys were about 21% and 10,000 - 13,000.

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 167

TABLE C-4 Graduate-School Status One Year Later of Recipients of New Master's Degrees in Science and Engineering, 1982-1990

 

Master's Received in

Status

1981

1983

1985

1987

1989

New science and engineering master's

46,700

47,500

61,100

58,100

70,400

Full-time students

Number

9,800

10,300

13,000

12,200

16,200

Percentage

21.0%

21.7%

21.3%

21.0%

23.0%

Part-time students

Number

4,300

4,200

4,700

3,300

4,900

Percentage

9.2%

8.8%

7.7%

5.7%

7.0%

SOURCE: Calculated from Table B-28 in NSF, 1984; Table B-28 in NSF, 1986; Table B-31 in NSF, 1987; Table B-31 in NSF, 1990a; and Table B-31 in NSF, 1992b.

Continued Education of New Science and Engineering Master's-Degree Recipients

The tendency to continue graduate studies full-time varies across fields but has increased in most fields since 1982. Barely 7% of those receiving master's degrees in computer science in 1989 were full-time students the next year, compared with 60% of those with new physics/astronomy master's degrees (Table C-5). The proportion of new master's degree recipients going to graduate school part-time also varies from field to field but has gone down since 1982. The ratio of full-time to part-time graduate students a year after receipt of master's degrees also varies by field. In fields where the master's degree is usually considered the working degree, the ratio is more nearly equal (e.g., 2.2:1 in engineering and 1:1 in computer science and technology) than in fields where the PhD is considered the minimal professional credential (e.g., 3.6:1 in physics/astronomy, 22.6:1 in biology, and apparently higher in chemistry).

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 168

TABLE C-5 Science and Engineering Master's-Degree Recipients Continuing in Graduate School the Next Year, 1982 and 1990 (percentages)

 

Master's Received in 1981

Master's Received in 1989

 

Full-Time Student

Part-Time Student

Full-Time Student

Part-Time Student

All science and engineering master's

21.0

9.2

23.0

7.0

Physical sciences

33.3

11.1

43.5

6.5

Physics/Astronomy

50.0

a

60.0

16.7

Chemistry

33.3

13.3

43.8

a

Other Physical sciences

25.0

25.0

11.1

a

Mathematics/Statistics

17.1

9.8

21.6

7.8

Computer sciences

8.0

10.0

7.1

7.1

Environmental sciences

17.6

5.9

20.0

8.0

Life sciences

27.9

9.3

32.0

4.1

Agricultural sciences

25.0

9.4

27.8

8.3

Biological sciences

29.1

9.1

36.1

1.6

Social sciences

23.9

8.5

27.5

7.3

Psychology

33.3

16.7

41.9

7.0

Engineering

15.2

7.2

17.3

7.7

a Too few cases to report.

SOURCES: Calculated from Table B-28 in NSF, 1984, for 1981 data; and Table B-31 in NSF, 1992b, for 1989 data.

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 169

How Many Recent Science and Engineering Master's-Degree Recipients Are Unemployed?

Unemployment rates among recent science and engineering master's-degree recipients in the labor force are low. In 1990, among those awarded master's degrees in 1988 and 1998, unemployment was 1.8% overall, ranging from a low of 1.1% of mathematicians and statisticians to a high of 3.6% of psychologists (Table C-6). In most fields, the unemployment rate among recent master's-degree recipients was lower in 1990 than in 1982 and 1984 (in the aftermath of the 1980-1982 recession), but slightly higher than in 1988.

TABLE C-6 Unemployment One Year Later Among Recipients of Master's Degrees in Science and Engineering, 1982-1990 (percentages)a

 

Master's Received in

Field of Degrees

1980-1981

1982-1983

1984-1985

1986-1987

1988-1989

All science and

         

engineering master's

3.7

3.5

2.1

1.7

1.8

Physical sciences

3.0

3.6

1.4

2.9

2.1

Physics/Astronomy

b

b

b

b

2.2

Chemistry

2.0

6.3

1.3

3.1

1.9

Other Physical sciences

b

b

b

b

b

Mathematics/Statistics

4.1

2.7

1.5

1.1

1.1

Computer sciences

0.6

1.1

0.4

1.1

1.5

Environmental sciences

6.9

4.3

6.1

1.9

2.7

Life sciences

2.5

4.3

4.2

1.3

2.1

Agricultural sciences

1.6

4.3

4.6

0.3

2.5

Biological sciences

3.0

4.3

4.0

1.9

1.9

Social sciences

6.8

5.6

3.4

3.2

2.1

Psychology

9.3

2.7

4.4

2.5

3.6

Engineering

2.1

3.0

1.2

1.7

1.7

a Full-time graduate students are excluded.

b No rate computed for groups in which labor force is smaller than 1,500.

SOURCES: Calculated from Table B-45 in NSF, 1984; Table B-45 in NSF 1986; Table B-49 in NSF, 1987; Table B-47 in NSF, 1990a; and Table B-47 in NSF, 1992b.

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 170

How Many New Science and Engineering Master's-Degree Recipients Are Employed in Their Fields or Other Science and Engineering Occupations?

Although unemployment rates are comparatively low for those with master's degrees, not all are working in the fields of their degrees or in other science and engineering occupations. Overall, in 1990, fewer than two-thirds of science and engineering master's degree recipients were working in the same fields as their degrees, and fewer than one-fifth were working in other science and engineering occupations (Table C-7). Exactly 17% were not employed in science and engineering occupations. This split varied by field, however, with 7.5% of engineers and 8% of computer scientists working outside science and engineering, compared with 37% of social scientists and 46% of psychologists. Only one-fourth of physicists and astronomers were working in their fields (25% were working in computer science and ''other physical sciences," and 25% in engineering occupations) (NSF, 1992b:Table B-39).

TABLE C-7 Employed New Science and Engineering Master's-Degree Recipients Working in Fields of Degrees or in Science and Engineering Occupations, 1990 (percentage)a

Field of Degree

Same Field as Master's

Another Science and Engineering Occupation

Non-Science and Engineering Occupation

All 1989 science and

     

engineering master's

64.7

18.1

17.0

Physical sciences

41.7

41.7

16.7

Physics/Astronomy

25.0

50.0

25.0

Chemistry

55.6

33.3

11.1

Other Physical sciences

25.0

50.0

25.0

Mathematics/Statistics

57.9

26.3

15.8

Computer sciences

78.2

13.9

7.9

Environmental sciences

65.0

25.0

10.0

Life Sciences

52.5

19.7

27.9

Agricultural sciences

52.2

26.1

21.7

Biological sciences

52.6

15.8

31.6

Social sciences

44.0

20.0

36.0

Psychology

41.7

12.5

45.8

Engineering

78.2

14.4

7.5

a Exclusive of full-time graduate students.

NOTE: Percentages may not add to 100 because of rounding.

SOURCE: Calculated from Table B-39 in NSF, 1992b.

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 171

Who Employs New Science and Engineering Master's-Degree Recipients?

In the last decade, nearly 60% of employed new science and engineering master's degree recipients were working in the private sector (Table C-8). Less than 20% were employed by educational institutions, split about evenly between four-year colleges and universities and other institutions (two-year colleges and elementary and secondary schools).

TABLE C-8 Type of Employer One Year Later of Recipients of Master's Degrees in Science and Engineering, 1982-199a

 

Master's Received in

Employer

1981

1983

1985

1987

1989

All employed science

34,100

34,400

45,600

43,700

51,700

and engineering master's

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

Educational institutions

6,000

4,900

6,800

7,400

9,300

 

17.6%

14.2%

14.9%

16.9%

18.0%

4-year college/ university

     

4,000

4,600

       

9.2%

8.9%

Other educational institution

     

3,400

4,600

       

7.8%

8.9%

Business and industry

20,000

20,000

25,400

25,200

30,700

 

58.7%

58.1%

55.7%

57.7%

59.4%

Nonprofit organization

900

1,700

1,600

1,400

1,000

 

2.6%

4.9%

3.5%

3.2%

1.9%

Federal government

2,200

2,500

3,900

2,300

3,600

 

6.5%

7.3%

8.6%

5.3%

7.0%

State/local government

2,500

2,800

4,100

2,900

2,900

 

7.3%

8.1%

9.0%

6.6%

5.6%

Other

2,300

2,400

3,600

4,400

4,200

 

6.7%

7.0%

7.9%

10.1%

8.1%

No report

100

100

200

100

b

 

0.3%

0.3%

0.4%

0.2%

 

a Full-time graduate students are excluded.

b Too few cases to report.

SOURCES: Calculated from Table B-32 in NSF, 1984; Table B-32 in NSF, 1986; Table B-36 in NSF, 1987; Table B-36 in NSF, 1990a; and Table B-36 in NSF 1992b.

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 172

Field-to-Field Differences in Employment Sector

The tendency to work in industry or for other types of employers varies by field. In 1990, for example, more than three-quarters of computer scientists worked in the private sector, compared with less than a third of life scientists (Table C-9).

TABLE C-9 Type of Employer of New Recipients of Master's Degrees, by Field of Science and Engineering, 1990a

Employer

Physical Sciencs

Mathematics/ Statistics

Computer Sciences

Environmental Sciences

Life Sciences

Social Sciences

Psychology

Engineering

ALL

2,400

3,800

10,100

2,000

6,100

7,500

2,400

17,300

Educational institutions

800

1,600

800

200

2,300

2,400

700

600

 

33.3%

42.1%

7.9%

10.0%

37.7%

32.0%

29.2%

3.5%

Four-Year college/university

300

400

500

200

1,200

1,200

300

500

 

12.5%

10.5%

5.0%

10.0%

19.7%

16.0%

12.5%

2.9%

Other educational institution

400

1,100

300

100

1,100

1,200

400

100

 

16.7%

28.9%

3.0%

5.0%

18.0%

16.0%

16.7%

0.6%

Business and industry

1,200

1,700

7,800

1,200

1,900

2,700

900

13,200

 

50.0%

44.7%

77.2%

60.0%

31.1%

36.0%

37.5%

76.3%

Nonprofit organization

100

100

100

b

100

300

100

100

 

4.2%

2.6

1.0%

 

1.6%

4.0%

4.2%

0.6%

Federal government

100

200

400

200

600

700

100

1,400

 

4.2%

5.3%

4.0%

10.0%

9.8%

9.3%

4.2%

8.1%

State/local government

100

b

200

200

700

1,000

100

600

 

4.2%

 

2.0%

10.0%

11.5%

13.3%

4.2%

3.5%

Other

100

300

800

200

600

400

400

1,400

 

4.2%

7.9%

8.0%

10.0%

9.8%

5.3%

16.7%

8.1%

No report

b

b

b

b

b

b

b

b

a Full-time graduate students are excluded.

b Too few cases to report.

SOURCE: Calculated from Table B-36 in NSF, 1992b.

Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 139
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 140
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 141
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 142
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 143
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 144
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 145
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 146
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 147
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 148
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 149
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 150
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 151
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 152
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 153
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 154
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 155
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 156
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 157
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 158
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 159
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 160
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 161
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 162
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 163
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 164
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 165
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 166
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 167
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 168
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 169
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 170
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 171
Suggested Citation:"C EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WITH GRADUATE DEGREES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 172
Next: D RESPONDENTS TO CALL FOR COMMENTS »
Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $81.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Are we producing too many PhDs? Does the current graduate education system adequately prepare science and engineering students for today's marketplace? How do foreign students enter the picture? What should be the PhD of the future? These and other questions are addressed in this book by a blue-ribbon panel of scientists and engineers. Recommendations are aimed at creating a new PhD that would retain the existing strengths of the current system while substantially increasing the information available, the potential versatility of students, and the career options afforded to them by their PhD education.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!