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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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REFERENCES

AAU (Association of American Universities)
1990
Institutional Policies to Improve Doctoral Education. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Universities/Association of Graduate Schools.

ACS (American Chemical Society)
1993
Starting Salaries of Chemists and Chemical Engineers: 1993. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society

AMS (American Mathematical Society)
1994a
1993 Annual AMS-IMS-MAA Survey (Second Report). Notices of the American

Mathematical Society 41(July/August):598-601.
1994b
1994 Annual AMS-IMS-MAA Survey (First Report). Notices of the American Mathematical Society 41(November/December): 1121-1128.

APS (American Physical Society)
1995
Graduate Student Packet. College Park, Md.: American Physical Society and American Institute of Physics.

ASEE (American Society for Engineering Education)
1987
A National Action Agenda for Engineering Education. Washington, D.C.: American Society for Engineering Education.

Atkinson, Richard C.
1990
"Supply and demand for scientists and engineers: A crisis in the making." Science 248(April 27):425-432.

Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Bowen, William G., and Neil L. Rudenstine.
1992
In Pursuit of the PhD. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Bowen, William G., and Julie Ann Sosa
1989
Prospects for Faculty in the Arts and Sciences. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

1991
"Measuring time to the doctorate: A reinterpretation of the evidence." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 88: 713-717.

CGS (Council of Graduate Schools)
1990
The Doctor of Philosophy Degree: A Policy Statement. Washington, D.C.: Council of Graduate Schools.

COSEPUP (Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy)
1993
Science, Technology, and the Federal Government: National Goals for a New Era. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

CRS (Congressional Research Service)
1992
Foreign-Born Science and Engineering Doctorate Students in U.S. Institutions. CRS Report for Congress 92-469. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress.

Fechter, Alan
1990
"Engineering shortages and shortfalls: Myths and realities. " The Bridge (Fall): 16-20.

Good, Mary, and Neal Lane
1994
"Producing the finest scientists and engineers for the 21st century." Science 266:742.

Goodstein, David
1993
"Scientific Ph.D. problems." American Scholar 62(Spring):215-220.

Kirby, Kate, and Roman Czujko
1993
"The physics job market: Bleak for young physicists." Physics Today (December):22-27.

Leslie, Larry L., and Ronald L. Oaxaca
1990
"Scientist and Engineer Supply and Demand." Final Report to the Division of Science Resources, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C.

Mitchell, Susan, and Daniel Pasquini
1991
Nonresponse Bias in the 1989 Survey of Doctorate Recipients: An Exploratory Study. Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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NCES (National Center for Education Statistics)

1991
Projections of Education Statistics to 2002. NCES 91-490. Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, D.C.

1993
Condition of Education 1993. NCES 93-290. Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, D.C.

1994
Faculty and Instructional Staff: Who Are They and What Do They Do? NCES 94346. 1993 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education.

NRC (National Research Council)

1964
Federal Support of Basic Research in Institutions of Higher Learning. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.

1969
The Invisible University: Postdoctoral Education in the United States. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.

1975
Personnel Needs and Training for Biomedical and Behavioral Research: The 1975 Report. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.

1978
A Century of Doctorates: Data Analyses of Growth and Change. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

1981
Postdoctoral Appointments and Disappointments. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

1983
Departing the Ivy Halls: Changing Employment Situations for Recent PhDs. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

1993
Summary Report 1992: Doctorate Recipients from United States Universities. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

1994a
The Funding of Young Investigators in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

1994b
Meeting the Nation's Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

1995
Summary Report 1993: Doctorate Recipients from United States Universities. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Forthcoming
Science Education Standards. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

NSB (National Science Board)

1985
Science Indicators: The 1985 Report. NSB 85-1. Washington, D.C.: National Science Board.

1993
Science and Engineering Indicators: 1993. NSB 93-1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Page 206

NSF (National Science Foundation)

1984
Characteristics of Recent Science/Engineering Graduates: 1982. NSF 84-318. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation.

1986
Characteristics of Recent Science/Engineering Graduates: 1984. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation.

1987
Characteristics of Recent Science/Engineering Graduates: 1986. NSF 87-321. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation.

1989
Future Scarcities of Scientists and Engineers: Problems and Solutions. Division of Policy Research and Analysis, Washington, D.C., November 13, Working Draft.

1990a
Characteristics of Recent Science/Engineering Graduates: 1986. NSF 90-305. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation.

1990b
The State of Academic Science and Engineering. NSF 90-35. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation.

1991
Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1989. NSF 91-317. Division of Science Resources Studies. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation.

1992a
Academic Science and Engineering: Graduate Enrollment and Support, Fall 1990. NSF 92-323. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation.

1992b
Characteristics of Recent Science and Engineering Graduates: 1990. NSF 92-316. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation.

1992c
Using the Survey of Doctorate Recipients to Measure the Number of Academic Research Personnel. NSF 92-315. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation.

1993a
Academic Science and Engineering: Graduate Enrollment and Support, Fall 1991. NSF 93-309. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation.

1993b
Science and Engineering Doctorates: 1960-91. NSF 93-301. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation.

1993c
Human Resources for Science & Technology: The Asian Region. NSF 93-303. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation.

1993d
Foreign Participation in U.S. Academic Science and Engineering: 1991. NSF 93302. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation.

1993e
Indicators of Science and Mathematics Education 1992. NSF 93-95. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation.

1994a
Selected Data on Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering: Fall 1992. NSF 94-301. Arlington, Va.: National Science Foundation.

1994b
Science and Engineering Degrees: 1966-1991. NSF 94-305. Arlington, Va.: National Science Foundation.

1994c
Selected Data on Federal Support of Universities and Colleges, Fiscal Year 1992: Selected Data Tables. NSF 94-312. Arlington, Va.: National Science Foundation.

1994d
Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1991. NSF 94-307. Arlington, Va.: National Science Foundation.

1994e
Guidelines for the NSF Graduate Research Traineeship Program. NSF 94-140. Arlington, Va.: National Science Foundation.

Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Page 207

1994f
Selected Data on Science and Engineering Doctorate Awards: 1993. NSF 94-318. Arlington, Va.: National Science Foundation.

1994g
Science and Engineering Degrees, by Race/Ethnicity of Recipients: 1966-1991. NSF94-306. Arlington, Va.: National Science Foundation.

Unpublished
Detailed tables in the Fall 1992 NSF/NIH Survey of Graduate Science and Engineering Students and Postdoctorates.

PCAST (President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology)
1992
Renewing the Promise: Research Intensive Universities and the Nation. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Rawls, Rebecca L.
1994
''Demand." Chemical & Engineering News (October 24):43-48.

Sapolsky, Harvey M.
1994
"Financing science after the Cold War." Pp.159-176 in David H. Guston and Kenneth Keniston, eds., The Fragile Contract: University Science and the Federal Government. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Spisak, Andrew, and Betty D. Maxfield
1979
The Effects of Nonresponse Bias on the Results of the 1975 Survey of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Stricker, Lawrence J.
1994
Institutional factors in time to the doctorate." Research in Higher Education 35:569-587.

Tuckman, Howard, Susan Coyle, and Yupin Bae
1990
On Time to the Doctorate: A Study of the Increased Time to Complete Doctorates in Science and Engineering. Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

U.S. Bureau of the Census
1994
Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1994. 114th Edition. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Vetter, Betty M.
1993
Setting the Record Straight: Shortages in Perspective." Occasional Paper 92-4, Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology, Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 208

Additional Reading

Aylesworth, Kevin, Daryl E. Chubin, and Sheila Tobias
1995
Rethinking Science as a Career: Perceptions and Realities in the Physical Sciences. Tucson, Arizona: Research Corporation.

Babco, Eleanor L., Alan E. Fechter, and Catherine D. Gaddy
1995
Assessing Imbalance Between Young Researchers and Employment Opportunities. Final Report prepared for the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation by the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology (May 24). Washington, D.C.: CPST.

Bloom, Floyd E.
1995
Degrees of Uncertainty." Science, Volume 268 (May 12).

Doering, Don S.
1995
Degrees of Freedom." Science, Volume 269 (August 18).

Fechter, Alan E.
1994
Future supply and demand: Cloudy crystal balls." In W. Pearson, Jr. and Alan Fechter, eds., Who will do science?. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Goldman, Charles A. and William F. Massy
1995
The Production and Utilization of Science and Engineering Doctorates in the United States. Prepared for the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation with assistance from the RAND Institute for Education and Training and the U.S. Department of Education Office of Education Research and Improvement. (July).

Griffiths, Phillip A.
1995a
"Reshaping Graduate Education." Issues in Science and Technology, (Summer). 1995b "Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers." Academic Medicine, Volume 70, Number 9 (September).

Kennedy, Jr., Thomas J.
1994
Graduate Education in the Biomedical Sciences: Critical Observations on Training for Research Careers." Academic Medicine, Volume 69, No. 10 (October): Pp. 779-799.

OSEP (Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel)
1995
Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Continuity and Change. Committee for the Study of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Ziman, John
1994
Prometheus Bound: Science in a Dynamic Steady State. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 203
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 204
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 205
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 206
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 207
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
Page 208
Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers Get This Book
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Are we producing too many PhDs? Does the current graduate education system adequately prepare science and engineering students for today's marketplace? How do foreign students enter the picture? What should be the PhD of the future? These and other questions are addressed in this book by a blue-ribbon panel of scientists and engineers. Recommendations are aimed at creating a new PhD that would retain the existing strengths of the current system while substantially increasing the information available, the potential versatility of students, and the career options afforded to them by their PhD education.

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