BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION ON COMMITTEE MEMBERS
Phillip A. Griffiths (Chair) is the director of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. He has been professor of mathematics at Princeton University and Harvard, and provost and James B. Duke Professor of mathematics at Duke University. He earned his BS at Wake Forest University and his PhD at Princeton University in 1962. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. His current research centers on the geometry of differential equations.
Robert McCormick Adams is secretary emeritus of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. and adjunct professor of anthropology at the University of California, San Diego. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and has been a councilor of the NAS twice. From 1955 to 1984 he was a member of the University of Chicago faculty. He earned a PhB in 1947, an AM in 1952, and a PhD in 1956, all at the University of Chicago.
Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and is a biochemist who has been recognized for his work in both biochemistry and molecular biology. He graduated from Harvard College with a BS and earned a PhD in 1965 at Harvard. Dr. Alberts has long been committed to the improvement of science education and serves on the advisory board of the NAS's National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment.
Arden L. Bement is Basil S. Turner Distinguished Professor of Engineering and director of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium at Purdue University. He was vice president for science and technology at TRW, Inc. He earned a professional degree of Metallurgical Engineer (EMet) at the Colorado School of Mines, a MS at the University of Idaho, and a PhD from the University of Michigan. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a recipient of the Distinguished Civilian Service Medal of the Department of Defense.
Elkan R. Blout is director emeritus of the Division of Biological Sciences at Harvard School of Public Health and Edward S. Harkness Professor of Biological Chemistry, Emeritus, at Harvard Medical School. He earned an AB at Princeton University in 1939 and a PhD in chemistry at Harvard in 1942. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine.
Felix E. Browder is university professor of mathematics at Rutgers University and former vice president for research. He is also Max Mason Distinguished Service Professor, Emeritus, of the University of Chicago. He graduated from Massachusetts Institute of Technology with a BS in 1946 and obtained his PhD in mathematics at Princeton University in 1948. His research centers on partial differential equations and nonlinear functional analysis. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and was elected to the council of NAS in 1992.
David R. Challoner is vice president for health affairs at the University of Florida and chairman of the board of directors of the Shands Hospital. He earned an MD at Harvard Medical School in 1961 and was dean and professor of medicine at the St. Louis University School of Medicine before taking his post in Florida. His clinical specialty is internal medicine with a subspecialty interest in endocrinology. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine.
Ellis B. Cowling is University Distinguished Professor At-Large and director of the Southern Oxidants Study at North Carolina State University. He earned a BS and an MS at the State University of New York College of Forestry at Syracuse University (wood technology), a PhD at the University of Wisconsin (plant pathology and biochemistry), and Filosofie Licensiat and Filosofie Doktor degrees in physiological botany at the University of Uppsala in Sweden. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences.
Bernard N. Fields was the Adele Lehman Professor and chairman of the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics at Harvard Medical School. He earned his AB at Brandeis University and a MD in 1962 at New York University School of Medicine. He was a postdoctoral fellow in cell biology at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and was a member of the Institute of Medicine. He died in 1995.
Alexander H. Flax is a senior fellow at the National Academy of Engineering (NAE). He received his BS in aeronautical engineering from the Guggenheim School of Aeronautics of New York University in 1940 and a PhD in physics from the University of Buffalo. He was president of the Institute for Defense Analyses for 14 years before to coming to NAE. He is a member and former home Secretary of the National Academy of Engineering.
Ralph E. Gomory is president of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. He received his BA from Williams College in 1950, studied at Cambridge University, and received his PhD in mathematics from Princeton University in 1954. He was director of research for the IBM Corporation from 1970-1986, and senior vice president for science and technology from 19861989. He is a member of both the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering. He has been awarded a number of honorary degrees and prizes, including the National Medal of Science.
Thomas D. Larson is a consultant and former administrator of the Federal Highway Administration. He earned his BS, MS, and PhD in civil engineering at Pennsylvania State University. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Public Administration. He served for 8 years as secretary of transportation for Pennsylvania and as a chaired professor at Pennsylvania State University.
Mary Jane Osborn is head of the Microbiology Department at the University of Connecticut Health Center. She received a BA (physiology) from the University of California, Berkeley and a PhD (biochemistry) from the University of Washington. Dr. Osborn is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Her research focuses on biogenesis of bacterial membranes.
Phillip A. Sharp is Salvador E. Luria Professor in the Center for Cancer Research and head of the Department of Biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He received a BA (chemistry and mathematics) from Union College, Kentucky, and a PhD (chemistry) from the University of Illinois, Urbana/Champaign. He is a member of both the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine and corecipient of the 1993 Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine.
Kenneth Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine and professor of medicine, emeritus at the University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine. He is the School of Medicine's immediate past dean and provost for medical sciences. Both a cardiologist and a physiologist, he received his AB from Harvard College and his MD from Harvard Medical School.
Ralph Snyderman is chancellor for health affairs and dean of the School of Medicine at Duke University. Formerly, he was senior vice president for medical research and development at Genentech, Inc. and Frederic M. Hanes Professor of Medicine and Immunology at Duke. In 1991, he was awarded the Ciba Geigy award for lifetime achievement in inflammation research and in 1993, he was awarded the Bonazinga Award for Excellence in leukocyte-biology research. He received his BS degree from Washington College and his MD degree from the SUNY Downstate Medical Center. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine.
H. Guyford Stever is trustee at a variety of scientific agencies and a consultant on science issues. He was science and technology adviser to President Ford (1976-1977). From 1972 to 1976, he was director of the National Science Foundation. He was president of Carnegie-Mellon University from 1965 to 1972, chief scientist of the Air Force from 1955 to 1965, and professor of aeronautical engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1946 to 1965. He received degrees from Colgate and California Institute of Technology. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), serving as the NAE foreign secretary from 1984 to 1988. In 1991, he was awarded the National Medal of Science.
Morris Tanenbaum retired as vice chairman of the board and chief financial officer of AT&T in 1991. He earned a BA in chemistry at Johns Hopkins University and a PhD in physical chemistry at Princeton University. He pioneered the use of silicon as a commercial semiconductor material through the invention of the diffused base silicon transistor and was a leader of the group that discovered the first practical materials for superconductor magnets. He is a member and currently vice president of the National Academy of Engineering.
Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. He holds a BA in geology from Harvard University and MS and ScD degrees in meteorology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He served under five US presidents from 1963 to 1977, first as chief of the US Weather Bureau and finally as the first administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. In those capacities, he brought about a revolution in the US weather warning system with satellite and computer technology, helping to initiate new approaches to the balanced management of the country's coastal zones.