National Academies Press: OpenBook

Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications (1995)

Chapter: TRAINING IN PLASMA ASTROPHYSICS

« Previous: Magnetic Reconnection
Suggested Citation:"TRAINING IN PLASMA ASTROPHYSICS." National Research Council. 1995. Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4936.
×
Page 125

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

PLASMA ASTROPHYSICS 125 nently frozen into the plasma and that the field never changes topology. Yet, magnetic fields apparently do change topology (e.g., the star formation process seems to reconnect the magnetic field), and there is strong evidence that magnetic reconnection is an important source of energy in solar flares. How do field lines reconnect at very high magnetic Reynolds number? Present thinking suggests a two-stage process: some ideal magnetohydrodynamic effect creates steep gradients; then reconnection proceeds. We need a more fundamental understanding of the reconnection process itself; many of the fusion-oriented simulations have inappropriate boundary conditions for astrophysical systems. We also need a better understanding of the "ideal" current concentration phase. The Magnetization of the Universe Stars, galaxies, and the gas in clusters of galaxies possess magnetic fields. Standard cosmology predicts that the big bang did not produce a magnetic field. How and when did the universe become magnetized? Did large-scale, intergalactic fields form first and become incorporated into smaller structures, or did fields form first in stars, which then seeded their ambient medium through winds and supernova explosions? Are astrophysical magnetic fields nearly permanent, as suggested by their very long ohmic decay times, or are they constantly destroyed, regenerated, and reconfigured by turbulent dynamos? Laboratory Experiments There have been few laboratory experiments dedicated to plasma astrophysics, and any such experiments must carefully scale properly from the laboratory to the real astrophysical system. Areas in which experiments could be helpful include MHD turbulence, magnetic reconnection, shock waves, particle acceleration, dusty plasmas, and heat conduction. The status and future promise of laboratory experiments in many of these and related areas are discussed in Chapter 8. TRAINING IN PLASMA ASTROPHYSICS How do graduate students become equipped to deal with problems in plasma astrophysics? The standard graduate curriculum in astrophysics contains graduate physics courses, such as quantum mechanics, electrodynamics, statistical mechanics, classical mechanics—more or fewer, depending on the school and the inclination of the student. Then there are standard astrophysics courses, such as stellar structure and evolution, stellar atmospheres and radiative transfer, interstellar medium, and galaxies and cosmology. At many universities, no courses in plasma physics are taught in the physics or astrophysics departments. Such courses may be given in an engineering or applied science department, but these

Next: FUNDING FOR PLASMA ASTROPHYSICS »
Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $65.00 Buy Ebook | $54.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Plasma science is the study of ionized states of matter. This book discusses the field's potential contributions to society and recommends actions that would optimize those contributions. It includes an assessment of the field's scientific and technological status as well as a discussion of broad themes such as fundamental plasma experiments, theoretical and computational plasma research, and plasma science education.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!