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Eject of Envimnrnent on Nutrient Requimnents of Domestic Animals Subcommittee on Environmental Stress Committee on Animal Nutrition Boars] on Agriculture and Renewable Resources Commission on Natural Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1981
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures ap- proved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sci- ences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of fur- thering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership cor- poration. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. This study was supported by the Bureau of Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, by the Agricultural Research, Science and Education Administration of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and by Agriculture Canada. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Main entry under title: Effect of environment on nutrient requirements of domestic animals. Bibliography: p. 1. Animal nutrition. 2. Temperature Physiological effect. 3. Stress (Physiology) 4. Veterinary physiology. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Animal Nutrition. Subcommittee on Environ- mental Stress. II. Title: Environment on nutrient require ments of domestic animals. SF95.E3 636.08'52 81-16779 ISBN 0-309-03181-8 AACR2 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America
Preface This report attempts to bring into focus the effects of environmental stresses on nutrient requirements of cattle (beef and dairy), sheep, swine, and poul- try. The term environmental stress used herein includes both physical and psychological aspects of the animal's surroundings, although most available data relating environment and nutrition involve the climatic environment and, in particular, the effects of thermal stress. The goal of this report is to create an awareness of the numerous and var- ied interactions between environment and nutrition. There are expectations that NRC committees preparing nutrient requirement tables will find the report valuable in documenting environmental effects on nutrient requirements. Re- searchers should benefit from the report when conducting and analyzing ex- periments where environmental effects are evident. Students of both nutrition and physiology should find the discussions valuable in explaining environment-nutrition interactions. Extension workers and technical person- nel including producers may apply principles discussed herein to make man- agement decisions. The report includes documented data dealing with animal responses to en- vironmental stressors but is not limited to a review of pertinent literature. The authors have projected topics beyond the scope of "textbook" materials in an attempt to describe new and imaginative approaches to the complex problems involved in adjusting nutrient requirements to meet demands im- posed by adverse environments. The authors have the conviction that assem- bling and interpreting data in this way will stimulate research that will strengthen present knowledge and fill voids that now exist in the understand- ing of this most important topic. . · .
The CAN Subcommittee on Environmental Stress expresses its appreciation to Gerald H. Stott, L. E. Mount, Minoru Hironaka, and Robert R. Oltjen, who reviewed the manuscript, and M. W. A. Verstegen, who made valuable contributions to the report. Also reviewing this report were the members of the Committee on Animal Nutrition of the National Research Council. The Subcommittee is indebted to Philip Ross, Executive Secretary, and Selma P. Baron, Staff Officer, of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources, for their assistance in the production of this report. CAN Subcommittee on Environmental Stress DAVID R. AMES, Chairman Kansas State University STANLEY E. CURTIS University of Illinois G. LEROY HAHN USDA Meat Animal Research Center ROBERT E. MCDOWELL Cornell University DONALD POLIN Michigan State University BRUCE A. YOUNG University of Alberta COMMITTEE ON ANIMAL NUTRITION JOSEPH P. FONTENOT (Chairman), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University CARE E. COPPOCK, Texas A&M University RICHARD D. GOODRICH, University of Minnesota BERYL E. MARCH, University of British Columbia PAUL W. MOE, USDA Animal Science Institute WILSON G. POND, USDA Meat Animal Research Center QUINTON R. ROGERS, University of California, Davis GARY L. RUMSEY, Tunison Laboratory of Fish Nutrition DUANE E. ULLREY, Michigan State University SELMA P. BARON, Staff Officer 1V
BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND RENEWABLE RESOURCES GEORGE K. DAVIS (ChairmanJ, University of Florida, retired CHESTER O. MCCORKLE, IR. (Vice ChairmanJ, University of California, Davis JOHN D. AXTEEE, Purdue University NEVILLE P. CLARKE, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, College Station SALLY K. FAIRFAX, University of California, Berkeley JOHN E. HAEVER, University of Washington ROBERT O. HERRMANN, Pennsylvania State University MINORU HIRONAKA, University of Idaho LAURENCE R. lAHN, Wildlife Management Institute BERNARD S. SCHWEIGERT, University of California, Davis GEORGE R. STAEBLER, Weyerhaeuser Company, retired PAUL E. WAGGONER, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven PHILIP ROSS, Executive Secretary COMMISSION ON NATURAL RESOURCES ROBERT M. WHITE (ChairmanJ, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research TIMOTHY ATKESON, Steptoe & Johnson STANLEY I. AUERBACH, Oak Ridge National Laboratory NORMAN A. COPEEAND, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Inc., retired GEORGE K. DAVIS, University of Florida, retired EDWARD D. GOLDBERG, Scripps Institution of Oceanography CHARLES I. MANKIN, Oklahoma Geological Survey CHESTER O. MCCORKEE, JR., University of California, Davis NORTON NELSON, New York University Medical Center DANIEL A. OKUN, University of North Carolina DAVID PIMENTEE, Cornell University JOHN E. TILTON, Pennsylvania State University ALVIN M. WEINBERG, Oak Ridge Associated Universities E. BRIGHT WILSON, ex officio, Harvard University WAEEACE D. BOWMAN, Executive Director v
Contents LIST OF Tastes LIST OF FIGURES INTRODUCTION I FARM ANIMALS AND THE ENVIRONMENT ANIMAL-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS Thermal Balance, 5 Effective Ambient Temperature, 6 Thermal Zones, 8 ENv~RoNMENT-NuTR~T~oN INTERAcT~oNs Partitioning of Feed Energy, 14 Digestibility and Metabolizability, 16 BASAL METAsoE~sM FEED INTAKE Dairy Cows, 27 Dairy Heifers, 29 Feedlot Cattle, 30 vii x . . . X111 s 13 22 27
Contents Sheep, 31 Swine, 32 Poultry, 33 FORAGE-TEMPERATURE INTERACTION ON FEED INTAKE Temperature Effects, 35 Light Intensity, 35 Forage Quality, 37 WATER-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS Water Sources, 39 Water Losses, 40 Factors Affecting Water Intake, 41 NuTR~T~oNA~ EFF~c~ENcY II APPROACHES FOR PRACTICAL NUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENT BEEF CATTLE Introduction, 59 Voluntary Food Intake, 61 Water Needs, 61 Nutrient Values of Feedstuffs, 62 Adjustments to Maintenance Energy Requirement, 63 Adjustments to Nonenergy Components, 67 Summary of Adjustments for Environmental Stress for Beef Cattle, 69 Examples of Environmental Influences on Nutrition of Beef Cattle, 71 DAIRY CATTLE Introduction, 75 Thermal Zones for Dairy Cattle, 76 Feed Intake and Energy Requirements During Cold Stress, 77 Feed Intake and Energy Requirements During Heat Stress, 80 Summary, 83 S HEEP Introduction, 85 Thermal Zones for Sheep, 86 . . . vail 35 39 51 57 59 75 85
Contents Environmental Effects on Feed Energy Intake, 86 Nutrient Digestibility, 87 Energy Requirement During Cold Stress, 88 Energy Requirement During Heat Stress, 91 Thermal Effects on Protein Requirement of Sheep, 92 Environmental Effects on Lamb Performance, 92 Miscellaneous Environmental Factors Affecting Nutrition of Sheep, 93 Summary, 95 SWINE Introduction, 96 Lower Critical Temperature, 96 Cold Stress, 100 Heat Stress, 105 Summary, 108 POULTRY Introduction, 109 Poultry Environment, 109 Feed Intake and Nutrient Requirements, 110 Efficiency of Egg Production, 112 Feed Intake, 119 Performance, 120 Acclimation, 121 Carcass Composition, 122 Nutrient Adjustments, 122 Estimating ME Requirement for Laying Hens, 125 Water, 129 Vitamin A, 131 Summary, 131 EPIEOGUE REFERENCES 1X 96 109 135 137
List of Tables Estimates of Lower Critical Temperatures for Sheep, Cattle Swine, and Poultry 2 Influence of Ambient Temperature on the Ability of Cattle, Sheep, and Swine to Digest Feed Basal Metabolic Rates of Various Farm Species from Various Sources to Indicate Older and Contemporary Values in the Literature Effect of Alfalfa Hay-to-Concentrate Ratio on Feed Intake of Sheep Under Cool and Hot Conditions Heat Loss from White Leghorn Fowl by Respiratory and Cutaneous Evaporative Heat Loss at Different Environmental Temperatures 6 The Effect of Water Availability on Water Consumption by Lactating Grazing Cows 7 Effect of Some Diets on Water Intake of Holstein Heifers 8 Intake of Drinking Water and TDN of Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey Heifers Under Various Temperature Conditions 9 Correlation Coefficients Between Intake of Drinking Water and Various Climatic and Production Variables for Lactating Holstein Cows 10 Water Intake by Broiler Chickens 11 Effect of Temperature on Intake, Growth Rate, and Efficiency of Energy Conversion for Swine (70 to 100 kg) 12 Summary of Voluntary Food Intake of Beef Cattle in Different Thermal Environments x 11 18 25 32 41 43 44 45 46 49 53 60
List of Tables ~ 13 14 Summary;of Voluntary Food Intake of Beef Cattle Exposed to Nonthermal Stress .Water.Requirements of Beef Cattle-.in Different Thermal En- vironments 15 ~ Example of Adjustment to tine' Feeding Value of Alfalfa Hay for Feeding ~ Beef Cattle~iEx~sed to Warm, Thermoneutral, and Cold<-.Ehi'ironmental.~bh~itions 16 t`.'Estimates of Ti's~sue~and External Insulation for Beef Cattle 17 ' Estimates 0~3 Lower Critical Temperature (LCT)- of Beef Cattle and the Increase in Energy Requirements to Compensate for Exposure to Temperatures Below Their Lower Critical Temperature 18 NEm and NEg in Diet for Example 1 (Finishing Steer) Adjusted for Effects of the Thermal Environment 19 Estimated Adequacy of Diets and Performance of a 300-kg Finishing Steer (Example 1) Illustrating Expected Influences of the Thermal Environment 20 Estimated Maintenance Requirements for a 500-kg Pregnant Beef Cow During the Last Third of Pregnancy (Example 2) Illustrating the Influences of Environmental Stress Relative Changes in Maintenance Requirements and Dry Matter for 600-kg Cows Producing 27-kg 3.7 Percent Fat Milk at Various Ambient Temperatures Along with Estimates of Actual Intakes of DM and Water 22 Gross Efficiency (kg milk/Mcal/NE) for Holsteins in First Lactation When Maximum Daily Temperature Did Not Exceed 27°C or Exceeded 27°C 21 to 40 or 40 to 87 Days per 100 Days of Lactation Average Hourly and Daily Temperature During the Month of July for Tropical (San Juan)., 52uibtrop~.al' (New Iberia), Semiarid (Phoenix), and Temperate (Ithaca)- Areas 24 Percent Increase in Maintenance Energy Cost per Degree Centigrade Below Lower Critical Temperature. Comparison of Measured and Estimated Heatt Loss (kcal/ m2/day/0C) During Cold 26 Protein Adjustment for Growing Lambs.; 27 ADO and Feed Efficiency of Lambs Grown-!at.Differeint Ambient Temperatures and Fed Ad Libitum 28 Lower Critical Temperatures tUCT) in Pigs of- Different Body Weights Fed at Maintenance (100 kcal/W075/day), 2 Times Maintenance, and 3 Times Maintenance 29 Amounts of Feed (g/day) Given PigS of Various Weights at 1 to 3 Times Maintenance (Assuming Feed Contains 2.87 kcal ME/g) X1 61 62 63 67 68 70 72 74 79 82 83 90 90 93 94 97 98
List of Tables 30 Changes in Lower Critical Temperature (LCT) in Pigs at Var- ious Housing, Management, and Climatic Conditions 31 Extra Heat Required per °C Coldness and Feed Equivalent Required to Compensate (Assuming Feed Contains 2.9 kcal ME/g) Estimates of Extra Feed Required at Various Temperatures (g/day) 33 Extra Feed Intake and Reduction in Gain per °C Temperature Change in the Cold 34 Decrease in Feed Intake and Rate of Gain During Heat Stress The Efficiency of Converting Feed to Egg in Energetic Equiv- alents, Assuming a Diet Containing ME = 2.85 kcal per g 36 The Efficiency of Converting Feed to Egg in Energetic Equiv alents, Assuming a Diet Containing ME = 3.00 kcal per g l lS 37 The Effect of Environmental Temperature on the Efficiency of Protein Deposition in Chicken Eggs 38 Lysine Intake and Body Weights of Broilers Reared at Tem- peratures of 15.6 and 29.6°C 39 Effect of Temperature on Feed Intake of Laying Hens, Re- gardless of Value for Metabolizable Energy in Diet 99 100 101 103 106 114 116 118 124 40 The Effect of Diets with Nutrients Increased 20 to 25 Percent and ME 10 Percent on the Response of Chickens to High Temperature 1 26 41 Observed and Estimated ME Intakes of Various Experiments 128 . . X11
List of F. 1gures 1 Schematic Representation Showing Relationship of Thermal Zones and Temperatures 2 Estimated Range in Thermoneutral Temperature for Newborn and Mature Animals of Different Species 3 Partition of Feed Energy Within the Animal 4 Basal Metabolic Heat Production for Laying Fowl and Resting Metabolic Heat Production at 22 h Fasting for the Beef Cow 5 Effect of Environmental Chamber Temperature on Feed Intake in Cattle Using 18-20°C as Baseline 6 Estimated Changes in Dry Matter Intake of Feedlot Cattle on a Ration with 70 Percent Apparent Digestibility or at Tempera- tures Above 27°C, 75 Percent Apparent Digestibility 7 Effect of Environmental Temperature on Feed Intake of Swine 8 ME Intake of Laying Hens After Being Moved from an 18°C Environment to a 35 or 7°C Environment 9 Estimated Change in Peed Intake for Laying Hens 10 The Effect of Temperature on the Cell Wall Content (cwc) of Grasses of the Same Maturity 11 Changes in the Digestibility Percentage by Ruminants of Plant Digestibility of Dry Matter (DDM) and Digestibility of Cell Wall (DCW) with Changes in Ambient Temperature from 10 to 28°C Relationship Between Daily Dry Matter Intake (DMI) by Rumi- nants and Cell Wall with Increasing Percentage of Cell Wall Content (cwc) of Temperate Forages 12 . . . X111 9 10 14 24 28 30 32 33 34 36 36 37
List of Figures 13 Water Intake of Two Species of Cattle as a Function of Envi- ronmental Temperature 14 Intake of Drinking Water of Shorthorn Heifers Kept in an Open Barn January-April (Control), or Changed from Outside to 32°C in January (Winter), or to 32°C in September (Summer) 15 Estimated Ad Libitum Water Intakes for Nonlactating Cattle over the Temperature Range-10 to 35°C 16 Schematic Relationship of Heat Production (HE), Intake Energy (~E), and Energy for Production (RE = lE - HE) with Tem- perature Zones 17 Estimated Maintenance Requirements for a 600-kg Cow over a Temperature Range of-15 to + 40°C 18 Relationship Between Total Feed Intake and Total Weight Gain of White Leghorn Chicks Fed for 15 Days Diets win Ly- sine Levels of 0.73, 0.88, 1.03, and 1.33 Percent at Two Am- bient Temperatures 19 Relationship Between Accumulative Intake of Lysine and Ac- cumulative Growth of Chicks Reared at 20 or 31.1°C and Fed Diets for 15 Days Containing 0.73, 0.88, 1.03, or 1.33 Percent Lysine 20 Relationship Between Dietary ME, Feed Intake, and Ambient Temperature for Broiler-type Chicks 6-10 Weeks of Age 21 Relationship Between Gain, Percent Protein, and ME of the Diet Fed to Broiler-type Chicks 6-10 Weeks of Age 22 Relationship Between Dietary Protein Level and Daily Egg Mass from White Leghorn Hens at 5.5, 24.4, and 30°C 23 The Relationship Between Daily Calcium Intake and Shell Thickness by Turkeys Fed 1.54, 2.01, or 2.48 Percent Dietary Calcium at Each of Four Environmental Temperatures 24 The Relationship Between Ambient Temperature and Water In- take or Body Temperature of White Leghorn Hens in Cham- bers for 6 Hours x~v 42 47 48 54 78 111 112 117 117 120 125 130
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