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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4988.
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Page 147
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4988.
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Page 148
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4988.
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Page 149
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4988.
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Page 150
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4988.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4988.
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Page 152
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4988.
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Page 153
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4988.
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Page 154

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INDEX 147 Index A Allergic rhinitis, 53-54, 59-60 Amebiasis, 98-99 AAAAI. See American Academy of American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology and Immunology (AAAAI), 64 Abscesses, 34 American National Standards Institute Access control barriers, 108-109, 126 (ANSI), 117 Accidents, 15, 25 Amphibians, 60 Accountability and responsibility, 4, 15-17 Anaphylaxis, 52-53, 64 Acoustical hazards. See Hazards, physical Anesthetic gases, 42-43 Administration and management, 2, 4, 8, Animal and Plant Health Inspection 16-18, 22, 121. See also Service (APHIS), 26 Commitment, element of Animal biosafety levels, 45, 81 consistency in, 4, 13, 15, 124 Level 2 practices, 49, 72, 77, 80, 88, procedures, 6, 107 90, 92, 94, 100-101 style and structure of, 23 Level 3 practices, 49, 68, 73, 83, 86, Adverse-reaction report data, 27, 29 91 Aerosol transmission, 45, 48-49, 55-56, Level 4 practices, 48, 70 73, 76, 85 Animal care and use programs, 4, 18-20, African green monkeys, 46, 70, 78 22, 112. See also Site inspections Agricultural Research Service (ARS), 26 addressing occupational health in, 8 AIDS. See Susceptibility of employees progress in, 1 Airborne exposures. See Aerosol Animal-control measures, 79 transmission Animals. See also individual species Air hoods. See Respirators species-specific responses to, 12, 107 Airway hyperresponsiveness. See Asthma wild, 13, 66-67, 79-81, 101-102 (See Allergens. See Hazards also Rodents, wild) Allergic conjunctivitis, 53 147

148 INDEX ANSI. See American National Standards Cages, 62, 109-110 Institute (ANSI) Campylobacteriosis, 46, 92 APHIS. See Animal and Plant Health Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 64 Inspection Service (APHIS) Carpal-tunnel syndrome, 40 Approvals required, 21, 39, 48 Cats, 57-58, 71, 79, 81, 83-85, 95-97, 99- Arboviral infections, 45-46, 80-81 100, 102-104 ARS. See Agricultural Research Service Cat-scratch fever, 34, 83-84 Arthritis, septic, 34 Cattle, 46, 58-59, 85, 91 Arthropod-borne viruses. See Arboviral Cellulitis, 34 infections Centers for Disease Control and Arthropod infestations, 101-102, 104-105 Prevention (CDC), 5, 25, 45, 66, Asthma, 51, 53-54, 57-63 68, 72 Atopy, 54 Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (CHV1). See Authorizations required. See Approvals B-virus infection required Chemical fume hoods. See Respirators Chemical inventory data, 25 Chemical restraint, 15, 33, 35, 68 B Chemicals, hazardous. See Hazards, Back injuries, 40 chemical Bacterial pathogens, 46-47, 85-95 Chemoprophylaxis, 86, 88 Balantidiasis, 99 Chlamydiosis. See Psittacosis Benign epidermal monkeypox, 73-74 Choriomeningitis, lymphocytic. See Biological hazards. See Hazards Lymphocytic choriomeningitis Biological safety cabinets, 109-111, 117 CHV1. See B-virus infection Biosafety in Microbiological and Cleaning hazards. See Housekeeping Biomedical Laboratories, 45, 48, practices 125 Collaboration. See Coordination within Biosafety in the Laboratory: Prudent programs Practices for the Handling and Commitment, element of, 4, 8, 13, 15, 23- Disposal of Infectious Materials, 48 24, 121 Biosafety levels. See Animal biosafety Compliance Database data, 29-30 levels Compliance issues, 17, 23, 107. See also Birds, 46, 59, 81-82, 85, 87-88, 93, 104 Approvals required; Regulatory Bites and scratches. See Hazards, physical requirements Bloodborne pathogens. See Hazards, Compressed-gas cylinders, 36 biological Computer links, 120 Breathing, difficulty in, 53 Confidentiality, 118 Brucellosis, 34, 46, 90-91 Conjunctivitis, allergic, 53 Bubonic plague, 89-90 Consultants, using, 30-31, 64, 129, 132 Bursitis, 40 Contagious ecthyma, 34, 74-75 B-virus infection, 27, 34, 46, 66-68 Coordination within programs, 2-5, 8, 13, 15, 18, 21, 65 Coxiella burnetii. See Q fever C Coyotes, 46 Credibility issues, 15 Cage cleaning. See Housekeeping Cryptosporidiosis, 97-98 practices

INDEX 149 Custodial service. See Housekeeping Envenomation, 34 practices Environmental health and safety Cylinders, compressed-gas, 36 programs, 2, 4, 6-7, 9, 18, 21-22, 29, 106 Environmental Protection Agency, 2 D Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Deer, 59 (ELISA), 61 Dermatitis Epinephrine, self-administered, 64 atopic, 54 Episodic health evaluations, 10, 29, 131 contact, 59 Equipment, dangerous, 40-41 contagious pustular (See Orf disease) Equipment performance, 6, 25, 116-118 Dermatomycosis, 47, 99-100 Ergonomic hazards, 40, 108. See also Disinfectants, 42-43 Hazards, physical Documentation, 118 Evaluation Dogs, 46-47, 58, 79, 81, 84-85, 90-91, 95, program, 6, 121-122, 133-134 97, 99-100, 102-105 of workers, 63-64, 124, 130-131, 133 Dust-mist respirators. See Respirators (See also Episodic health evaluations) Experimentation. See Research E Exposure, 4, 13-14, 43, 55, 125, 127 controlling, 4, 25, 108-114 Ebola-Reston virus, 69 Ebola-virus infection, 68-70 Ecthyma, contagious. See Orf disease F Ectoparasitic infestations, 34, 74-75 Eczema. See Dermatitis, atopic Facilities, 17, 107-108 Edema, laryngeal, 53 design, 6, 62 Education and training, 4, 6, 12-14, 17, operation, 6 34, 39-40, 62-63, 65, 114-116 Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics data, Electric hazards. See Hazards, 27-28 physical Ferrets, 80, 85 Electromagnetic radiation. See Ionizing Filoviruses. See Ebola-Reston radiation Filter-top cages, 62, 109-110 ELISA. See Enzyme-linked Fires. See Hazards, physical immunosorbent assay First-aid log data, 27, 29, 134 Emergency procedures, 6, 120-121. See First Report of Injury or Illness data, 27- also Accidents 28 Employees Fish, 60 defined (See Occupational health and Flammable materials, classes of, 35 safety programs, participation in) Flea-control measures, 84 at risk, 4, 12, 17, 22, 111, 120, 129- Fleas. See Insects 130 (See also Hazards, perceived; Flight zone, 33 Screening programs; Susceptibility Fowl. See Birds of employees) Fume hoods. See Respirators Endocarditis, 34 Funding agencies, requirements of, 2 Engineering controls, 108-110 Fungal pathogens, 34, 47, 99-101 Enteric yersiniosis, 95

150 INDEX G undetected, 14, 31 unknown, 44, 66 Gene therapy research, 48. See also zoonoses, 3, 6, 14, 20, 44-45, 65-105 Guidelines for Research Involving HBV. See Hepatitis-B virus (HBV) Recombinant DNA Molecules Health and safety risks. See Hazards Gerbils, 56 Health Research Extension Act of 1986, Giardiasis, 97 124 Goats, 46-47, 74-75, 85 Helminth-parasite infections, 101-103 Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Hemorrhagic fever. See Hantavirus Animals, 63 infection; Lymphocytic Guidelines. See Rules and guidelines choriomeningitis (LCM) virus Guidelines for Research Involving infection Recombinant DNA Molecules, 48, HEPA filtration. See High-efficiency- 124 particulate-air-filtered (HEPA- Guinea pigs, 46-47, 56, 95, 104 filtered) laminar-flow ventilation Hepatitis A virus, 46, 76-77 H Hepatitis B virus (HBV), 7, 77-78, 124 Hepatitis C, D, and E viruses, 77-78 Hamsters, 46, 102 High efficiency-particulate-air-filtered Hantavirus infection, 34, 71-72 (HEPA-filtered) laminar-flow Hazard Communication Standard, 42 ventilation, 62, 110-112, 117 Hazard information, sources of, 25-26 High-pressure lines, 36 Hazards. See also Laboratory safety Hives. See Anaphylaxis; Edema, allergens, 3, 5-6, 24, 26, 51-64 (See laryngeal; Uticaria, contact also Evaluation, of workers) Hoods. See Respirators mechanisms of, 53-54 Horses, 59 preventive measures, 60-64 Housekeeping practices, 39, 110, 112-113 biological, 7, 127 (See also Approvals Human-influenza viruses, 80 required) Human-resources function, 22 infectious agents, 2, 7, 12-13, 44-48, Husbandry, animal. See Animal care and 124 use programs radiation sources, 12, 20-21, 36-39 Hygiene, personal, 48-50, 63, 65, 111-112 chemical, 2, 5, 12-14, 24, 42-44 Hypersensitivity, 54, 59 defined, 26 identifying (See Risk Assessment) novel, 47 I perceived, 24 IACUC. See Institutional animal care and physical, 3, 5, 7, 24, 26, 32-41, 127 use committee (See also Housekeeping practices) ILAR. See Institute of Laboratory Animal bites and scratches, 33-34, 44, Resources 52-53 Immunizations. See Vaccinations electricity, 36 Immunotherapy, 64 fires, 35, 118 Influenza-virus infections, 80 noise, 41 Information management, 6, 118-120. See trauma, 40 also Occupational health and safety protocol-related (See Research, information, sources of protocol-related hazards of)

INDEX 151 Insects, 58, 60, 83-84 Lifting injuries, 40 Inspections. See Site inspections Lighting, low, 36 Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Livestock, 46, 99. See also individual 25 species Institutional animal care and use Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) committee (IACUC), 2, 5, 18-21, virus infection, 14, 46, 65, 72-73 107, 121 Institutions categories of, 1-2 M functional parts of, 4, 16-22 Macaques, 46, 69, 74, 78, 85, 125 mission, 4, 123 Machinery, dangerous, 40-41 obligations of, 1, 16, 124 Management. See Administration and Interactions between departments, 18-19, management 130, 134. See also Coordination Marburg-virus disease, 46, 70 within programs Material-Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), 25, Ionizing radiation, 38-39. See also 35, 127 Hazards, biological Measles, 75-76 IPAC. See Public Health Service Advisory Medical-surveillance programs, 78, 124, Committee on Immunization 134 Practices Meningitis, 34 Irradiation. See Ionizing radiation Mice, 46-47, 55-56, 91, 102, 104 Monitoring, 4, 13, 15, 22, 61, 116. See also Recordkeeping J of effluent, 118 Janitorial service. See Housekeeping Monkeypox, 73-74 practices Monkeys, various, 76-78. See also African Job descriptions, 12, 22 green monkeys; Macaques Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 66 L MSDSs. See Material-Safety Data Sheets Laboratory safety, 2, 42, 65, 85, 110-114 Multidisciplinary approaches, 9 Laboratory Safety: Principles and Practices, 48 N Laboratory standard. See Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals National Animal Disease Center (NADC), in Laboratories 26 Laryngeal edema, 53 National Center for Infectious Diseases, Laser radiation, 37-38. See also Hazards, 72-73 biological National Fire Protection Association Lassa fever, 72 (NFPA), 35 LCM. See Lymphocytic choriomeningitis National Institute for Occupational Safety (LCM) virus infection and Health (NIOSH), 25, 40, 63 Lentivirus infections. See Simian National Institutes of Health (NIH), 5, 26, immunodeficiency virus (SIV) 45, 68, 124-125 infection National Research Council, 1, 5 Leptospirosis, 47, 91-92 recommendations by, 8-10

152 INDEX National Safety Council (NSC), 38 OSHA. See Occupational Safety and National Sanitation Foundation (NSF), Health Administration (OSHA) 117 OSHA Form 101. See Supplementary Near-miss reports, 131-132 Record of Occupational Injury or Neuropathia endemica. See Hantavirus Illness (OSHA Form 101) data infection OSHA 200 log data, 27-29, 119-120, 127, Newcastle disease, 76 134 NFPA. See National Fire Protection Osteomyelitis, 34 Association NIH. See National Institutes of Health NIOSH. See National Institute for P Occupational Safety and Health Paramyxovirus infection. See Newcastle Noise. See Hazards, physical disease Nonparticulate radiation. See Ionizing Parrot fever. See Psittacosis radiation Personal protective equipment, 14, 17, 41, NSC. See National Safety Council 49, 63, 111-114 NSF. See National Sanitation Foundation Pesticides, 42-43 Physical examinations, 7, 9-10. See also Evaluation, of workers O Physical hazards. See Hazards Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Pigs. See Swine Chemicals in Laboratories, 42 Plague, 89-90 Occupational health and safety Pneumonitis, 59 information, sources of, 26-30 Poxvirus diseases. See Benign epidermal Occupational health and safety programs, monkeypox; Monkeypox; Orf 18, 22 disease costs of, 5, 30-31 Preexisting conditions, 60-61 developing, 4-5, 17, 23-31 Primates (nonhuman), 33, 46-47, 58, 76- elements of, 6, 106-122 77, 85-87, 94-95, 97, 99, 102-103 participation in, 9, 11-13, 123-124 Priority-setting of hazards, 24 Occupational health and safety risks. See Professional societies, 25 Hazards Protective equipment. See Personal Occupational health-care service, 6-7, protective equipment 123-134 Protozoal pathogens, 95-99 activities of, 129-133 Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: limitations of, 133 Handling and Disposal of responsibilities of, 125-129 Chemicals, 42, 44 Occupational health log data, 27, 29, 119 Psittacosis, 46, 87-88 Occupational Safety and Health Public Health Service, 7 Administration (OSHA), 2, 7, 21, Advisory Committee on Immunization 25, 35, 41, 114, 121, 124 Practices (IPAC), 132 Occupations, categories of, 2 Public Health Service Policy on Humane Orf disease, 34, 74-75 Care and Use of Laboratory Orientation. See Education and training Animals, 124 Ornithosis. See Psittacosis Pulmonary function, monitoring, 61, 64 Orthopox virus. See Monkeypox Pustular dermatitis. See Orf disease

INDEX 153 Q S Q fever, 14, 46, 65, 81-83 Safety awards, 23 Safety bulletins and reports, 25 Safety cabinets, 109-111, 117 R Salmonellosis, 47, 92-94 Rabbits, 47, 56, 85, 95, 99, 103-105 SALS. See Subcommittee on Arbovirus Rabies virus, 34, 79-80 Laboratory Safety Radiation, ionizing. See Ionizing Scratches. See Hazards, physical radiation Screening programs, 60-61, 126 Radioallergosorbent test (RAST), 61 SDS. See Supplementary Data System Radioisotopes. See Hazards, biological (SDS) data Ranking hazards, 26 Sedation. See Chemical restraint RAST. See Radioallergosorbent test Septic arthritis, 34 Rat-bite fever, 34, 47, 88-89 Serum collection, 7, 9-10, 126, 132-133 Rats, 47, 54-55, 91, 102, 104 Sharps, controlling, 34-35, 48, 111 Recordkeeping, 4, 13, 15, 116, 132 Sheep, 46, 59, 74-75, 81-82, 85 Refresher training. See Education and Shigellosis, 47, 94 training Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Regulatory requirements, 2, 5, 7, 24, 112, infection, 46, 78-79 127 Site inspections, 20-21, 25, 116, 134. See Reporting requirements, 15, 20, 131-132 also Animal care and use programs Reptiles, 60, 93. See also Envenomation SIV. See Simian immunodeficiency virus Research, 4, 18, 21 (SIV) infection complexity of, 43-44 Snake bite, 34 protocol-related hazards of, 5, 7, 43-50 Sporotrichosis, 47, 100-101 reviews of protocols, 25, 115-116 Stomatitis virus, 46 Resource development. See Occupational Subcommittee on Arbovirus Laboratory health and safety programs, costs of Safety (SALS), 45, 70 Respirators, 63, 109-111, 114 Supplementary Data System (SDS) data, Responsibility and accountability, 4, 15- 27-28 17 Supplementary Record of Occupational Restraint, 68, 113. See also Chemical Injury or Illness (OSHA Form 101) restraint data, 28-29 Rhesus monkeys, wild-caught, 67 Surveillance programs. See Medical- Rhinitis, allergic, 53-54, 59-60 surveillance programs Rickettsial pathogens, 46, 81-85 Susceptibility of employees, 7, 127-128 Risk AIDS-related, 98 assessment of, 4-9, 13-14, 20, 24-30, Swine, 46, 58, 85, 90-91, 97, 99, 103-104 125, 127 defined, 26 T Rodents, 99. See also Guinea pigs; Mice; Rats Tanapox. See Benign epidermal wild, 71-72, 84, 89-90, 104-105 monkeypox Rubeola. See Measles Tennis elbow, 40 Rules and guidelines, 4, 13-15 Tenosynovitis, 34 Tetanus, 34

154 INDEX Tissue-preserving chemicals, 42-43 Vesicular stomatitis virus, 46 Toxic chemicals, 42. See also Hazards, Veterinarian, staff, 18, 20-21, 115, 127 chemical Viral pathogens, 46, 66-81. See also Toxoplasmosis, 95-97 individual viruses Training. See Education and training Visibility, impaired, 36 Transgenic animals, 48 Transplantation, 66 Tuberculosis, 47, 85-87 W Tularemia, 34 Walk-through. See Site inspections Welts. See Urticaria, contact Wheezing. See Edema, laryngeal U Work environment. See Exposure, Ultrasonography, hazards associated with, controlling 41 Worker compensation data, 26-28, 119, Ultraviolet (UV) radiation. See also 127, 132, 134 Hazards, biological Workplace diversity. See Occupational biocidal use of, 117 health and safety programs, classification of, 36-37 participation in Urticaria, contact, 52-53, 60 Work practices. See Laboratory safety U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Disease (USAMRIID), 83 X U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 39 Xenograft transplantation, 66 USAMRIID. See U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Disease (USAMRIID) Y UV. See Ultraviolet (UV) radiation Yersinia infection, 95 V Z Vaccinations, 74, 76-80, 87, 90, 124, 126, Zoonoses. See Hazards 132 Ventilation systems, 62, 107-108, 117-118

Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals Get This Book
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Much has been written about the care of research animals. Yet little guidance has appeared on protecting the health and safety of the people who care for or use these animals.

This book, an implementation handbook and companion to Guide For the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, identifies principles for building a program and discusses the accountability of institutional leaders, managers, and employees for a program's success. It provides a detailed description of risks-- physical and chemical hazards, allergens and zoonoses, and hazards from experiments--which will serve as a continuing reference for the laboratory.

The book offers specific recommendations for controlling risk through administrative procedures, facility design, engineering controls, and periodic evaluations. The volume focuses on the worker, with detailed discussions of work practices, the use of personal protective gear, and the development of an emergency response plan.

This handbook will be invaluable to administrators, researchers, and employees in any animal research facility. It will also be of interest to personnel in zoos, animal shelters, and veterinary facilities.

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