National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: C Factors Related to Underconsumption --A Selected Bibliography
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×

Index

A

A Rations

application, 7-8

cholesterol levels, 249

described, 7-8, 117

energy balance, 46

field feeding, 32, 65, 66

nutrient intake, 139

preparation, 117

in training environment, 50

Aerobic capacity, 277

energy metabolism and, 268-273,

in ketogenic diet, 306

oxygen uptake, 14, 272

women and, 277

Aldosterone, 306, 308

Altitude-induced effects, 126, 128

Anemia, iron deficiency, 13

Animal studies

food variety as intake factor, 164

generalizability, 18

learning and consumption, 292

social facilitation of intake, 374-375, 384, 385

Anorexia nervosa

application to troop underconsumption, 400-401

clinical features, 398-399

comorbid disorders, 395, 399

cytokine-mediated, 313

dehydration-induced, 140

energy metabolism, 307

epidemiology, 399

hypohydration-induced, 41, 50

See also Eating disorders

Appetite

fluid intake and, 222, 223-224

situational cues and, 22

in stressful situations, 262, 401

Army Field Feeding System (AFFS)

deficiencies of current system, 69-70

evaluation and results, 50, 66

implementation, 66-69

potential application, 48-49

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×

Army Field Feeding System-Future (AFFS-F)

advantages, 76

cook staff, 70-72

equipment, 72

evaluation trials, 66, 76

mobile kitchen trailer, 72, 74-75

operational design, 70-74

ration planning, 75-76

sanitation center, 72

status, 66

water storage, 75

Army Physical Fitness Research Institute (APFRI), 83

Artificial sweeteners, 51, 142

Aspirin, 369

Assimilation model, 26, 27, 188-189, 190-192, 197-198

Attitudes

about food appropriateness, 24-25

behavior and, 353

commanders', as intake determinant, 23-24, 42

as focus of interventions to overcome underconsumption, 52

individual differences in intake, 43

mood, 287

perceived lack of meal choices, 330

role of commanders in shaping, 74

toward ration consumption, 325

toward weight loss in military settings, 10, 15

See also Food image and stereotypes

B

B Rations

development and testing, 117

described, 7, 116-117

field feeding, 32, 65, 66

ingredients, 7

preparation, 7, 116-117

in training environment, 50

Baseline data

cognitive performance, 288-289

consumption, 18, 255-256

Beverages

accessibility, 29, 30, 222-226 227-228, 236-237

artificially sweetened, 51, 142

attributes of, as intake factor, 229-230

caloric intake and, 217-222, 230, 231-232

CMNR identifies research needs for, 53

CMNR recommendations regarding, 51

consumer behavior situational research, 343-344

determinants of intake, 29-30

dietary role, 217

energy-containing, food intake and, 27-28

factors affecting intake in field, 226-230

food interactions, 29, 30

hedonic qualities, 30

hot drink consumption in cold environments, 220

liquid diet, portion size as intake factor, 206-207

lubricating effect, 225

preparation requirements, 233

social factors affecting intake, 229

variety, 232

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×

water intake in ration consumption, 60

water storage in AFFS-F, 75

See also Dehydration;

Hypohydration

Biodegradable components, 115

Biological/chemical warfare, ration packaging for, 112

Blood pressure, 369-370, 408

Bulimia nervosa, 395

See also Eating disorders

C

C Rations

described, 98

replaced by MRE, 3, 31, 152

Calcium

intake studies, 133-134

MRDA, 133

Carbohydrate metabolism

dietary conceptualizations, 303-307

garrison studies, 123

glycogen function, 147, 148-149, 305

intake studies, 132, 147

low-carbohydrate diets, 19

mental functioning and, 293

in physical activity, 130-132, 250, 305

underconsumption and, 18-21, 141

Cardiac function, 259-260, 271

chronophysiologic monitoring, 369-370

early effects of caloric deprivation, 308

high-fat diet and, 306

Cholesterol, 249

Chronobiology. See Circadian rhythms

Circadian rhythms

on consumption, effect of, 21

in consumption interventions, 368-369

during deployment, 324

exercise effects, 366

general health applications, 369-370

meal timing and, 30, 327, 361-371

troop relocation effects, 406-407

CMNR. See Committee on Military Nutrition Research

Coffee, 113, 114, 190

Cognitive performance

baseline data, 288-289

CMNR identifies research needs for, 53

control group data for field research, 289

dehydration effects, 15

effects of underconsumption, 15-18, 43, 47, 292-294, 298-299

environmental factors in field-ration studies, 290

glycogen metabolism in, 132

individual differences, 291

investigator bias, 292

learning, 292

motivational factors, 290-291

obstacles to assessment of, 15, 18, 47, 172, 289-290

obstacles to field research, 289-292, 298

operational measures, 287

psychomotor performance vs., 287

ration as force multiplier, 111

research methodology, 287-292

research needs, 298, 299

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×

severe deficits, 294

underconsumption combined with stress and, 293

Cold environments

effect on food, 128

energy metabolism, 9

fluid intake, 220

food intake in, 128-130

high-fat diet in, 140

intake in, 140

macronutrient consumption, 18-19

MRE testing, 105

T Ration arctic module, 116

Combat Field Feeding System

development of, 100

field testing of, 101-102, 104, 122, 126, 264

role of CMNR in evaluating testing of, 101, 104

Commanders

in AFFS-F implementation, 74

in AFFS-F structure, 73

attitudes of, regarding field feeding, 23-24, 42, 59

exemplary beverage consumption by, 233

field feeding decisions, 32, 66, 80-81

field feeding guide for, 51

in group performance motivation, 291

as intake variable, 140-141

in interventions to overcome underconsumption, 45, 48, 51

monitoring of troop weight loss, 141

perceived responsibility for feeding soldiers, 80-81

survey of attitudes and knowledge about feeding, 77-83

Committee on Military Nutrition

Research (CMNR)

Army questions to, 5

answer to Army questions, 41-45

conclusions of, 45-49

in developing military nutritional standards, role of, 91, 92, 94

emphasis on labeling, 31, 45, 118

in evaluating ration testing, role of, 3, 99, 101, 104

identifying research needs, 52-53

previous reports of, 11, 19-20, 118, 257

recommendations of, 49-52

task from the Army, 4-5, 57, 122

workshop convened by, 6, 62

Constipation, 81

Cooks

in AFFS, 68, 69

in AFFS-F, 70-72

in Combat Field Feeding System, 100

future policy for field feeding, 33

Cytokine-mediated

underconsumption

CMNR identifies research needs for, 53

ibuprofen and, 14, 53

as result of trauma and sickness, 307

D

Dehydration

cognitive functioning and, 15

criteria for monitoring, 106

in deployment, 324

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×

field monitoring, 51

in weight loss, 12, 46, 140

See also Hypohydration

Deployment process, 323-325, 406-407

Desert Shield/Storm

anecdotal evidence of feeding patterns, 4, 81

feedback on weight loss during, 52

field feeding, 32, 65

regarding labeling, feedback from, 31

troop weight loss, 147

use of MREs during, 7

Detraining effects, 270

Development and evaluation of feeding systems

acceptance measures, 358

AFFS, 50, 66, 76

B Rations, 117

beverage components, 218-222, 232

challenges in, 110-112, 119

dehydration criteria, 106

future developments, 118-119

KCLFF-E, 53

MFM, 115

MRE, 3-4, 31, 58, 60, 98-100, 104-105, 112-115, 128, 152-159

novelty of new rations as consumption variable, 148, 159

nutritional criteria, 97-98

nutritional labeling, 118

responsibility, 109-110

T Ration, 116, 159-162

UGR, 117-118

weight loss criteria, 49, 106

See also Intake studies

Diarrhea, 147

Disease. See Trauma and sickness

E

Eating disorders

assessment, 394

biological factors, 395-396

clinical features, 394-395

cognitive factors, 397

cognitive treatments, 406

comorbidity, 395, 396

epidemiology, 393

family risk factors, 395

personality characteristics, 396, 397

prevalence in military, 405

risk factors, 393-394

social factors, 397-398, 405

symptoms, 393

See also Anorexia nervosa;

Binge eating disorder;

Bulimia nervosa

Education and training

for AFFS-F, 74

CMNR recommendations regarding, 50, 51

for commanders, 24, 51

to increase food intake, 45

need for, 82, 83

Energy metabolism

aerobic capacity and, 268-273

in anorexia of illness or injury, 307

baseline data, 255-256

between-meal foods and fluids in, 126

calculations, 20

carbohydrate intake and, 148-149

criteria for evaluation, 49

effects of deficits in, 308-309

effects of ration modifications on, 10

fat consumption and, 205

field monitoring, 53

field studies, 125-128

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×

fluid intake and, 217, 220-222

garrison studies, 123-124

immune function and, 309

macronutrient intake and, 20-21

mental functioning and, 293

during military exercise, 8-10

MRE field testing, 99-100, 104

partial consumption of ration and, 135

performance decrements, research in, 254

protein intake and, 312-313

rate of weight loss, 12-13, 47

requirements of field feeding doctrine, 49

in short-term high-intensity activity, 273-276, 314-315

sources of caloric restriction, 307

in starvation/semistarvation, 260, 308

strength and, 265-268

underconsumption of MREs and, 3-4, 46

utilization of A Rations, 46

weight loss and, 11-12, 45, 138-139

women intake studies, 130

work capacity and, 259-262

Energy source

energy density, satiation and, 27, 204

fluids as, 29

wastage, 10

Environmental factors

challenges for military feeding, 110-111

in cognitive performance studies, 290

in food intake, 42, 140, 412

in interventions to overcome underconsumption, 44-45, 48, 51

in MRE intake, 153

See also Cold environments;

Hot environments;

Situational factors;

Temperate environments

Evaluation and testing. See Development and evaluation of feeding systems

Expectancies

assimilation model, 188-189, 190-192

commander's role in determining, 196-197

commercial vs. military packaging, 194-196

consumption and, 194

food acceptance, 26, 178-181

food quality, 178, 181-183

informational variables in food acceptance, 187-188

models of disconfirmed expectations, 188-189

sensory, 343

troop survey, 178

F

Fat, dietary

contradictory messages to soldiers, 247, 248

eucaloric ketogenic diet, 305-306

flavor effects, 246

high-fat diets, 19-20, 44, 140, 203-205, 206, 213, 304, 306-307, 309

normal, 255

omega-3/omega-6 polyunsaturates in, 306-307

physical activity and, 250

physical exertion and acceptance of, 246, 247-248

satiety and, 27, 204-206

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×

underconsumption and, 18-21

women, 258

Fiber, 27, 28, 206, 213

Field feeding doctrine

CMNR recommendations regarding, 49-51, 53

development of, 44, 48

Flameless ration heater

development of, 113

MRE and, 70, 73, 114

Fluids. See Beverages

Water

Folate, 134, 148

Focus groups

CMNR recommendations regarding, 52

women and veterans in, 52, 53

Food acceptance

appropriateness of food and, 24-25, 42-43, 357-358

assimilation-contrast model, 189

assimilation model, 26, 27, 188-189, 190-192, 197-198

challenges for military feeding, 110

CMNR identifies research needs for, 52

consumption modeling, 63-64

contrast model, 189, 192

effects of ration modifications on, 10-11

energy density of food as factor in, 27, 204

fiber content of food as factor in, 27

food industry research, 240, 246

food intake and, 163, 165

food quality and, 26, 27-28

food stereotypes and, 25-27, 45

form of food and, 207-208, 236

generalized negativity model, 189

informational variables in, 187-188, 194

lack of choice and, 329-330

long-term monotony effects, 164-165, 211

military vs. commercial food, perceptions of, 187-188, 194-196

monotony effects, 10

in MRE developmental testing, 99, 154-156

MRE performance, 48

MRE supplement pack, 157

palatability as factor in, 27, 28

portion size as factor in, 27, 28

rating scales, 168, 169-170

ration-related determinants, 42, 47

reintroduction of food item, 168

replacement vs. variety, 163

sensory cues and, 328

situational factors in, 170-171

T Rations, 160

troop expectations, 178-181

within-meal variety, 208-210

Food appropriateness

categorization, 346-353

elements of, 342

laboratory studies, 354-355

meal timing and, 42, 327, 354

situational factors, 25

Food image and stereotypes

characteristics and sources, 183-187

commander's role in determining, 196-197

current understanding, 197-198

expectations among military, 25, 178-183, 185-187

fat in food, 247, 248

general public and media, 25, 178

improving, CMNR recommendations regarding, 45, 52

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×

informational variables in food acceptance and consumption, 187-188, 194

intake and, 208

models of disconfirmed expectations, 26, 27, 188-189

program for improving, 198

See also Food appropriateness

Food quality

current state, 44

food acceptance and, 26, 27-28

in interventions to overcome underconsumption, 47

military vs. commercial food, perceptions of, 183

in models of disconfirmed expectations, 189

shelf life, 111

troop expectations, 178, 181-183

See also Palatability

Future developments

CMNR identifies research needs for, 52-53

field feeding concepts, 118-119

field feeding, 33

MRE beverages, 219

ration design, 31

self-heating group meal, 119

self-heating individual meal, 118-119

G

Gastrointestinal functioning, 81, 147, 152, 153

Glycogen, 132, 147, 148, 305, 308

Grazing, 359

Group interaction, 23, 48, 331, 374-375, 387-388

H

High-altitude environments, 9

High-fat diets

CMNR identifies research needs for, 44

in cold environments, 140

high-fiber diet vs., 213

high-carbohydrate diet vs., 304

omega-3/omega-6 polyunsaturates in, 306-307

satiety value of, 205, 206

use of carbohydrate to prevent ketosis in, 19-20

Hot environments

conducting field studies in, 53

energy intake, 9

food intake in, 140

heat-stable chocolate, 113

hypohydration in, 217

weight loss in, 12

Hot meals

access to ration heating as intake factor, 329

advantages of, 49, 125

in AFFS, 32, 33

in AFSS-F, 32, 33, 72, 73, 75

food acceptance and, 69-70

nutrient intake and, 139

possibilities with KCLFF-E, 72

self-heating group meal, 119

self-heating individual meal, 118-119

Hypohydration

anorexia induced by, 41, 50

CMNR recommendations regarding, 50, 53

in food intake studies, 222-226, 230

in hot environments, 217

indicators of, 222, 225-226

reduced food intake as a result of, 21, 41

See also Dehydration

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×

I

Ibuprofen

CMNR identifies research needs for, 53

cytokine-mediated underconsumption and, 14, 53

Immune function, 309, 313

Individual differences

attitudes toward rations, 325

cognitive performance, 291

in eating disorders, 396

self-selected ration components, 135, 211

weight loss and physical performance, 47

Intake studies

access to water as factor in, 222-226

beverage consumption in, 218-222, 226-230

calcium, 133-134

carbohydrate metabolism, 130-132

cognitive factors in food behavior, 346-357

cold environment training, 128-130

commander's attitude as variable in, 196-197

energy metabolism, 138-139

field studies, 125-128

folate, 134

food quality variables, 203-206

food waste in, 135

form of food as variable in, 207-208

in garrison, 123-124

intentional weight loss, 130, 256-257

labeling as variable, 208

long-term effects of monotony/variety, 164-165, 211

methodological issues, 122-123, 167-168, 169

portion size as variable in, 206-207

protein metabolism, 132-133

ration changes as factor in, 162-165

self-reports, 377-378

sensory-specific satiety in, 208-212

single meal per day, 362-365

social facilitation of food consumption, 374-383

variety as variable in, 135-138

women, 130

Interleukin-1, 307, 313

Interventions to overcome

underconsumption

anorexia nervosa model, 400-402

beverage-related, 30, 44, 212-213, 231-233

changes in MRE design, 154-159

changes in T Ration design, 159-162

CMNR identifies research needs for, 48, 52-53

CMNR recommendations regarding, 50-52

education and training, 24, 45

emotional factors, 48

environmental factors in, 44-45, 48, 412-413

field feeding doctrine, 44, 48, 49

food appropriateness as element of, 25, 47

food image and stereotypes as focus of, 198

food variety, 135-137, 212

hot meals, 49

implementation, 411, 413

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×

implications of assimilation model, 192

improving food image, 26-27, 47

improving food quality, 28, 47, 212

informational variables in, 194

labeling, 212

leadership issues, 48

long-term plans, 414-415

manipulation of situational factors, 22, 23, 34, 44, 47, 332-333

marketing concepts for, 62

packaging-related, 194-196

portion size, 212

presentation, 212

ration-related, 412-413

research design, 33-34

short-term plans, 413-414

social facilitation of intake, 48, 387-388

use of circadian rhythms in, 368-369

Iron, 13, 258-259

J

Jet lag, 406

K

K Ration, 31

KCLFF. See Kitchen Company

Level Field Feeding

KCLFF-E. See Kitchen Company

Level Field Feeding-Enhanced

Ketones, 306

Ketosis

dietary prevention, 20

in high-fat diet, use of carbohydrate to prevent, 19-20

in low-carbohydrate diets, 19

physical capacity during, 305-306

Kitchen Company Level Field

Feeding (KCLFF), 68

Kitchen Company Level Field

Feeding-Enhanced (KCLFF-E)

CMNR evaluation of, 53

command structure, 73

equipment and capabilities, 33, 72-73

tactical flexibility, 73-74

Kitchen in a Carton, 31, 119

Korean War, 31

L

Labeling

CMNR emphasis on, 31, 45

CMNR recommendations regarding, 51

current developments, 118

feedback from Operation Desert Shield/Storm regarding, 31

intake and, 208

military vs. commercial, food acceptance and, 187-188

survey of commanders' knowledge of, 79

Liquid diet, 206-207

Liquids. See Beverages

Water

Logistics package, 68

Long Range Patrol Food Packet, 30

Low-fat diets, 205, 213, 303-304

M

Magnesium, 306

Marketing concepts, 62

See also Food image and stereotypes

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×

Meal, Combat Individual. See C Ration

Meal, defined, 6

Meal, Ready-to-Eat (MRE)

advantages, 3, 32

applications, 7, 48, 49, 70, 112

beverage interactions, 29

calories, 3, 79

carbohydrate content, 132

CMNR recommendations regarding, 51

cold environments testing, 105

commercial items in, 115

commercial-like packaging, 194-196

described, 7, 112

development, 3, 4, 31, 60, 98, 112-115, 152

duration of field use, 3, 4, 31, 113, 152-153

ease of opening, 329

effects of ration modifications, 10

energy metabolism in field, 9, 10, 45-46, 58

field feeding, 65

field tests, 3, 58, 112-113, 152

flameless ration heater and, 70, 73, 113, 114

fluid intake studies, 218-222

Improved version, 154, 155-156

individual selection, 120, 247

intake studies, 128

macronutrient consumption, 46

menus, 7, 10-11, 112, 113, 114, 115, 329

modifications, 154-159

nutritional balance, 7, 112

nutritional testing, 98-100, 104-105

in Operation Desert Shield/Storm, use of, 7

packaging, 7, 112, 115

portion size, 330

prolonged feeding studies, 152-153

role of CMNR in evaluating testing of, 99

short-term applications, evaluation of, 50

Soldier Enhancement Pack, 157-159, 219, 220-221

supplement pack, 156-157

in training environment, 50

underconsumption, 3-4

wastage of, CMNR identifies research needs for, 53

weight, 7

weight loss in field study, 9

Meal size, social mediation of, 378-382

Meal timing

in AFFS, 68-69

circadian rhythms and, 30, 327, 361-370

CMNR identifies research needs for, 53

duration of meal, 326, 386, 387-388

in field operations, 325

frequency, 326

perceived appropriateness, 354

physical performance and, 366

regularity and predictability, 326-327

Menu cycle

CMNR identifies research needs for, 53

current standard, 112

defined, 160 n.3

food monotony study, 164-165

logistical constraints, 111-112

T Rations, 160

Menus

CMNR identifies research needs for, 53

food appropriateness considerations, 24-25

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×

KCLFF-E flexibility, 73-74

MFM, 115

MRE, 7, 10-11, 112, 113, 114, 115, 329

ration changes as intake factor, 162-165

ration types, 7-8

T Ration, 116, 160-162

variety, 10-11, 27, 28-29, 53

vegetarian, 115

Military Nutrition Division (MND), 5

Military Recommended Dietary Allowances (MRDAs)

calcium, 133

carbohydrate, 132

cold environment training, 128-130

Combat Field Feeding System, 104

folate, 134

historical development, 30-31, 59-60, 91-94

intake studies in garrison, 123

MRE conformity, 3

MRE testing, 98-100, 104-105

nutritional criteria for testing, 97-98

protein, 132

ration formulations excepted from, 30

role of, 30

T Rations, 160

for women, 130, 273

Minerals

deficits in women, 258-259

immune function and, 309

in ketogenic diets, 306

long-term effects of deficits, 141

See also Calcium

Mission, Energy, Troops, Terrain, and Time (METT-T)

field decision making, 32

in field feeding, 66

ration choice and, 6

MND. See Military Nutrition Division

Mobile kitchen trailer, 72, 74-75

Modularity, 111

Morale, 99

MRE. See Meal, Ready-to-Eat

Multi-Faith Meal (MFM),

described, 115

N

Nibbling. See Snacking behavior

Nitrogen metabolism, 308, 309, 311

Norepinephrine, 396

NRDEC. See U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center

Nutrition.

See also Military Recommended Dietary Allowances

adaptation to macronutrient changes, 19

circadian rhythms and, 327

commanders' understanding of, 24

energy-density of foods, 27, 204

importance in military setting, 121

initial status and response to energy deficit, 255-256

ketogenic diets, 305-307

long-term effects of deficits, 141

Military Nutrition Division test

methods, 122-123

MRE, 112

status of women, 258-259

survey of commanders' knowledge of, 78-80

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×

underconsumption and, 18-21

weight loss and, 287

O

Odor research, 243

Officers. See Commanders

Omega-3/omega-6

polyunsaturates in high-fat diets, 306-307

Operational rations

current types, 6-7, 110, 125

defined, 6

design considerations, 31, 44, 110-112

Overconsumption, 84-85, 124, 212, 256-257

Oxygen uptake

aerobic capacity, 268-273, 277, 306

performance effects, 272

in physical performance measurement, 14

P

Packaging

against biochemical threats, 112

camouflage considerations, 244

challenges for military feeding, 112

CMNR recommendations regarding, 45, 51

commercial-like, 26, 115

commercial vs. military, consumption and, 194-196

on consumption, effects of, 27, 29, 42, 194

ease of opening, 329, 333

food industry research, 244

MRE, 7, 112, 115

for operational rations, 31

product name, 244

storage of unused portions, 370

Palatability

as determinant of intake, 203-204

food interactions during meal, 208-210

long-terms effect, 211

micronutrients and, 210

military vs. commercial food, 183

physical exertion and, 243, 249

role of fat, 246

sensory cues and, 328

Pemmican, 18-19, 304-305

Physical performance

aerobic capacity, 268-273, 277

body temperature in exertion, 260

carbohydrate metabolism and, 130-132

CMNR identifies research needs for, 53

effects of underconsumption on, 43, 46-47

energy metabolism and, 254, 259-262

fat loss as enhancer of, 257

glycogen function in, 305

during ketogenic diets, 305-306

macronutrient requirements, 18-21

meal timing and, 366

measurement strategies, 13-14, 61, 262-265

oxygen uptake, 14, 272

physical training test data, 147, 171-173

psychological factors, 264-265, 272-273

ration as force multiplier, 111

short-term high-intensity, 273-276, 314-315

strength, 265-268, 276-277

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×

weight loss and, 11-14, 251, 253-254

women with nutritional deficits, 258-259

Platoon sergeants, 45

Pogey bait, 81

Portion size

acceptance and, 27, 28

consumer lack of control over, 330

design considerations, 243

intake and, 206-207

liquid diets and, 206-207

wastage related to, 139

Potassium, 306, 308

Preparation of rations

access to ration heating, 329

accessibility of food, 328-329

in AFFS, 68-70

in AFFS-F, 72-75

A Rations, 7-8, 117

B Rations, 7, 116-117

field challenges, 32

flameless ration heaters and, 70, 73, 113, 114

future developments, 31

future policy for field feeding, 33

in harsh environments, 128, 140

as intake factor, 27, 28

military vs. commercial food, perceptions of, 183

MREs, 7

odor effects, 242-243

self-heating rations, 31, 111

sensory cues in, 327-328

strategies to increase food intake, 44-45

T Rations, 7

UGR, 8

use of prepared foods, 75

use of sauces, 75-76

Presentation

intake and, 194, 207

See also Meal timing

Private sector research

amount of consumption, 243

consumer choices, 241-242, 344-346

food acceptance, 240

food behavior, 240-241

observation techniques, 242

packaging, 244

physiological data, 242-243

vs. academic research, 239-240

Product name, 244

Protein metabolism

energy needs, 20

garrison studies, 123

intake studies, 132-133

mental functioning and, 293

partial consumption of ration and, 135

underconsumption and, 18-21

weight loss and, 20

Psychological factors

adaptation to deployment, 325

eating disorder model of troop underconsumption, 400-401

economic modeling of behavior, 319-321, 333

in etiology of eating disorders, 394, 395, 396-397

evidence for social mediation of food intake, 374-377, 378-383, 388 , 392

meal regularity and predictability, 326-327

performance motivation, 290-291

physical performance and, 264-265, 272-273

situational cues, 21-22

social behavior, 373-374

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×

theoretical models for social mediation of food intake, 383-387

See also Attitude;

Cognitive performance

Psychomotor performance, 286

Public opinion, 26, 27, 178

R

Race/ethnicity, 110, 244

Rate of weight loss

energy metabolism and, 12-13, 47

health risk, 12

Ration, Cold Weather (RCW), 132

Ration, defined, 6

Ration, Lightweight (RLW), 30

Religious observances. See Multi-Faith Meal

Restricted rations, 30

Retort pouch, 327 n.2

Retort processing

application, 112 n.2

process, 7 n.1

in self-heating group meal, 119

S

Salt

in ketogenic diets, 306

Sanitation center, 72

Satiety

dietary fat and, 27, 204-206

dietary fiber and, 206

energy density and, 27, 204

intake and, 203-204

liquid vs. solid foods, 236

motivation to eat, 341

sensory-specific, 164, 208-212

social effects, 385-386

variety and, 164

Sauces, 75-76

Seasonings

CMNR identifies research needs for, 44

food industry practice, 29

preference for, 244-245

Self-heating rations, 31, 111

group meal, 118-119

individual meal, 118-119

Self-selection

food intake and135, 211, 241-242, 330

Sensory cues

expectancies, 343

on food intake, effects of, 21-22, 327-328

nonsensory cues, 330-331

Sensory-specific satiety

defined, 164

variety and, 208-212

Serotonin, 396

Shelf life, 111

Situational factors

acceptance modeling, 63-64

CMNR identifies research needs for, 53

cognitive functioning in field exercises, 15

consumer behavior research, 343-346

deployment process, 323-325

economic modeling of behavior, 319-321, 333

expectations of food acceptance, 179-181

expectations of food quality, 181-183

field research methodology, 28

field research vs. multifactorial modeling, 33-34

in fluid intake, 29, 226-229, 232-233

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×

in food acceptance, 170-171

food accessibility, 357

food appropriateness, 25, 357

general field conditions, 323

in interventions to overcome underconsumption, 47

meal timing, 30, 44, 125, 325-327

nonsensory cues, 330-331

physical setting, 21-22

research models, 319-323

sensory cues, 21-22, 327-328

social environment, 22-23, 331

in underconsumption, 11, 15, 41-42, 286, 288, 343

See also Environmental factors

Snacking behavior,

CMNR recommendations regarding, 51

grazing, 359

on nutrient intake, impact of, 10, 29, 45, 241-242, 338-339

social effects, 376

Social environment

beverage intake and, 229

as disinhibiting, 386-387, 408

eating disorder risk, 397-398, 405

emotional response, 384-385

enhanced consumption in, 48

evidence for mediation of food intake, 374-377, 378-383, 388, 392

food intake and, 22-23, 42, 331

food stereotypes, 25-27

individual behavior and, 373-374

snacking behavior and, 376

theoretical models for mediation of food intake, 383-387

use of, to facilitate intake, 387-388

Sodium

in ketogenic diets, 306

Somalia, 147

Soup, 204, 236

Special Forces, 273-276, 325

Storage

shelf life, 111

of unused ration portion, 370

water, 75

Stress

appetite and, 262, 401

in cognitive performance-underconsumption relationship, 293

combat anxiety, 22

ibuprofen and cytokine-mediated, 14, 53

meal regularity and, 326

in training environment, 50

underconsumption as response to, 14

Supply logistics

AFFS, 66-69

food delivery and, 32-33, 41-42

menu cycle constraint, 111-112

Survival General Purpose, Food

Packet, 30

Survival ration, 30

T

T Rations. See Tray rations

Temperate environments,

conducting field studies in, 53

Testing. See Development and evaluation of feeding systems

Trauma and sickness

anorexia related to, 307

immune function, 308, 309

nitrogen balance in, 308, 309

resulting in cytokine-mediated undersonsumption, 307

weight loss in, 11, 14

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×

Tray Ration (T Ration)

acceptance, 160

applications, 7, 70, 160

arctic module, 116

in Combat Field Feeding System, 100, 104

contents, 7, 116, 159-160

described, 7, 116

development and testing, 116, 159-162

effects of ration modifications, 10

field feeding, 32, 65, 160

menus, 7, 116, 160

nutritional balance, 7, 116, 160

short-term applications, evaluation of, 50

Tumor necrosis factor, 307, 313

U

Underconsumption

baseline data, 18, 255-256

clinical context, 62

commanders' attitudes and, 23-24, 140-141

contributors to, 9-10, 41-43, 44, 139-141, 177, 341-342

cytokine-mediated, 14, 53, 307, 313

defined, 6, 45

dehydration as a factor in, 12, 15, 17, 44, 46, 51

effects in women, 258

effects on cognitive performance, 15-18, 43, 46, 47, 49-50, 292-294, 298-299

effects on physical performance, 43, 46-47, 49-50, 253-254

energy expenditures and work capacity, 259-262

food attributes as factor in, 25-30

food waste as measure of, 135

lack of appetite in, 14

macronutrient metabolism and, 18-21

MRE field tests, 3-4

physical eating situation and, 21-22

physiological effects, 254, 307-309

ration modification and, 11

ration-related variables, 11, 47, 412

research procedure, 8-9, 33-34

in short-term high-intensity activity, 273-276

situational factors, 11, 15, 21-23, 47, 139-140, 286, 288, 343

social environment as factor in, 22-23, 331

systemic factors, 32

in training environment, 49-50, 139-140

weight loss as indicator of, 10, 11-14, 15, 18, 21, 34, 42, 43, 45 -47, 49, 50, 51, 52

See also Interventions to overcome underconsumption

Unitized Group Ration (UGR)

in AFFS-F, 75-76

application, 8, 31, 117

described, 8, 117

development and testing, 117-118

features, 8, 31, 75, 115

USARIEM. See U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine

U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center (NRDEC), 5

U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM), 5

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×

V

Variety

beverages, 232

body weight and, 212

current menu cycle, 112

intake studies, 135-138

within meal, 208-210

military vs. commercial food, perceptions of, 183

ration changes as intake factor, 162-165

replacement vs., 163

sensory-specific satiety and, 164, 208-212

Vegetarian menus, 115

Veterans, in focus groups, 52

W

Water

access to, and food intake, 222-226, 228-229

access to, as intake determinant, 227-228, 233

carbohydrate supplements in, 148

food intake in extreme environments and, 140

temperature of, 225, 232, 249

See also Beverages;

Dehydration;

Hypohydration

Weight loss

baseline data, 255-256

CMNR identifies research needs for, 52-53

CMNR recommendations regarding, 45-47, 49-52

cognitive performance and, 15-18, 251, 292-294, 298

criteria for evaluation, 49, 106, 141

in deployment, 324

early effects of caloric deprivation, 308, 309

effects on physical performance, 11-14, 43, 46-47, 251, 253-254, 312

energy metabolism and, 138-139

fat consumption and, 205-206

field intake studies, 126-128

field monitoring for, 51, 53, 141

fluid intake and, 29, 223

food variety and, 212

forms of, 11-12

as indicator of underconsumption, 10, 11-14, 15, 18, 21, 34, 42,43, 45-47, 49, 50, 51, 52

individual differences, 291

initial nutritional status and, 255-256

intentional, 130, 256-257, 305

ketogenic diets, 305

military attitudes toward, 10, 15

MRE field studies, 9, 58, 99-100, 128

during Operation Desert Sheild/Storm, feedback on, 52

physiological effects, 11-12

protein intake and, 20

rate of, 12, 47

recent operational data, 147, 171-172

in short-term high-intensity activity, 274, 275

strength effects, 265-268, 276-277

vs. nutritional loss, 287

Women

aerobic capacity and, 277

calcium intake, 104, 133-134, 141

carbohydrate intake, 19

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×

CMNR recommendations regarding, 52, 53

in focus groups, 52

folate intake, 134, 141

intake studies, 130, 149, 277

nutrition standards, 93

nutritional status and physical performance, 258-259

protein intake, 20, 132

reduced hemoglobin concentration, 258, 259

World War II, 31, 93

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×
Page 465
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×
Page 466
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×
Page 467
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×
Page 468
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×
Page 469
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×
Page 470
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×
Page 471
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×
Page 472
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×
Page 473
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×
Page 474
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×
Page 475
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×
Page 476
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×
Page 477
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×
Page 478
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×
Page 479
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×
Page 480
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×
Page 481
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×
Page 482
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1995. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5002.
×
Page 483
Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $70.00 Buy Ebook | $54.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Eating enough food to meet nutritional needs and maintain good health and good performance in all aspects of life—both at home and on the job—is important for all of us throughout our lives. For military personnel, however, this presents a special challenge. Although soldiers typically have a number of options for eating when stationed on a base, in the field during missions their meals come in the form of operational rations. Unfortunately, military personnel in training and field operations often do not eat their rations in the amounts needed to ensure that they meet their energy and nutrient requirements and consequently lose weight and potentially risk loss of effectiveness both in physical and cognitive performance. This book contains 20 chapters by military and nonmilitary scientists from such fields as food science, food marketing and engineering, nutrition, physiology, psychology, and various medical specialties. Although described within a context of military tasks, the committee's conclusions and recommendations have wide-reaching implications for people who find that job-related stress changes their eating habits.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!