Appendix D— Government and Industry Programs that Invest in Shipbuilding Technology
The second task of the committee is to assess current and proposed programs that invest in ship design and production-related research and to identify appropriate changes that would improve their effectiveness and contribution to the goal of creating an internationally competitive U.S. shipbuilding industry. Information on these programs came from several sources. Committee members and government liaisons to the committee were asked to identify all relevant programs. The Marine Board staff interviewed the program managers of the identified programs and obtained literature on the objectives of these programs. Interviews were also used to identify additional programs, for which information was then obtained. In addition, program managers and sponsors addressed the committee at its meetings. The following information on existing programs is based on those presentations, interviews, and other available documentation.
The following programs were assessed by the committee:
- Maritime Systems Technology
- Technology Reinvestment Project
- Simulation-Based Design
- National Shipbuilding Research Program
- Navy Manufacturing Technology Program
- Best Manufacturing Practices Program
- Sealift Ship Technology Development Program
- Affordability Through Commonality
- Office of Naval Research Surface Ship Technology Program
- American Society for Testing and Materials
- International Standards Organization
- National Maritime Resource and Education Center
Maritime Systems Technology (Maritech)
The president's initiative for revitalizing the U.S. commercial shipbuilding industry tasked the Maritime Systems Technology Office of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) with establishing a technology-development initiative to help shipyards become internationally competitive in commercial markets and thereby help preserve the industrial base for possible future national security needs (Clinton, 1993). ARPA is executing this program in collaboration with the Maritime Administration and the Office of Naval Research (ONR). This program, called MARITECH, is structured for a five-year period, with $30 million in the first year, $40 million in the second year, and $50 million per year for the next three years.
The ARPA approach for MARITECH technology development consists of an integrated two-part program. The initial phase will be to master the basics of commercial shipbuilding and enter the international market in the near term. The second phase is to provide a national infrastructure dedicated to continuous shipbuilding product and process improvement for the long-term. The approach is to have the shipbuilding industry compete for government funds on a cost-share basis to assist in these development initiatives. The shipyards are encouraged to initiate partnerships with customers, suppliers, and technologists to develop a total system or "focused development projects" approach (Denman, 1994). Through a government Broad Agency Announcement, which only specifies areas of consideration and criteria for acceptability, proposals are solicited from industry. In this manner, the ideas for projects that come from shipbuilders themselves rather than from the government. Criteria for awarding funds include having a team that is effective in identifying a real market need, an innovative design concept to service that market, and a competitive approach for the detailed design and construction process that could be implemented in the near term (MARITECH, 1994).
Linked with this near-term effort must be a long-term effort to take advantage of lessons learned and to institutionalize continued advancement. The primary thrust of the long-term program is to put in place an integrated national infrastructure focused on maritime technology development. The objective is to ensure the long-term viability and growth of the U.S. shipbuilding industry through continuous product and process improvement in commercial ship design and construction.
The awards for the first year of the program were announced in May 1994. Twenty projects were funded (ARPA, 1994).
High-Speed Monohull Focused Technology Development Project
The objective of this project is the development of a high-speed monohull ship. The specific project objectives are (1) to develop innovative designs for fast commercial cargo and passenger ships, (2) to enhance worldwide U.S. commercial-shipbuilding competitiveness by reducing ship design and construction time and cost, and (3) to integrate commercial-shipbuilding capability and secure contracts for new ship types. Funding is $600,000 over a 24-month period. The performers are Bath Iron Works Corporation, Bath, Maine; General Electric Company, Schenectady, New York; Kværner Masa Marine, Inc., Annapolis, Maryland; and American Automar, Inc., Washington, D.C.
Medium-Sized Multipurpose Ship
The objective of this project is development of a medium-sized, multipurpose ship. This wide-beam, shallow-draft vessel is intended to service short and medium length ocean routes and smaller ports of the current ocean trade. Its high beam/draft ratio, cargo self-unloading, and high maneuverability capabilities make it ideal for this purpose. This project includes a concept design study that will incorporate enhanced propulsion and manning-reduction concepts with a detailed market study. The project is funded for $400,000 over a 24-month period. The performers are Halter Marine, Inc., Gulfport, Mississippi; Pacific Marine Leasing, Inc., Portland, Oregon; Connell Finance Company, Inc., Westfield, New Jersey; and Fisker-Anderson and Whalen, Seattle, Washington.
23,000-Ton Container/Bulk Carrier
The objective of this project is to develop a state-of-the-art, self-sustaining, 23,000-DWT multipurpose carrier for the dry-cargo market. The design will include a maximum-cubic-capacity cargo hold for grains, a structural design that enables alternate loading of ores, wide-hatch openings for container and unitized cargo, a long hold for pipes and other steel products, self-unloading of bulk cargo, cargo gear capable of handling containers and/or unitized and general cargo, a modernized engine room and controls, and an advanced bridge featuring integrated navigation and advanced communication systems. Funding is for $1 million over a 24-month period. The performers are Halter Marine, Inc., Gulfport, Mississippi; Connell Finance Company, Inc., Westfield, New Jersey; and Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Ltd., Japan.
Multipurpose Dry-Cargo Ship Design/Process Development
The objective of this project is to develop a commercially competitive contract design for a multipurpose dry-cargo ship. This design offers a plan for the
re-engineering and reorganization of the McDermott shipyard and applies it to the design of a dry-cargo ship. Further, it develops state-of-the-art concepts for improvements and innovations in ship construction. This offers penetration of a U.S. shipyard into the international commercial dry-cargo market sector, building of strategic alliances with overseas shipyards and suppliers, and implementation of state-of-the-art design and production tools at a U.S. shipyard. The project is funded for $3.9 million over an 18-month period. Performers are McDermott Operations Research, Alliance, Ohio; McDermott/B&W, Lynchburg, Virginia; University of New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana; Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Ltd., Japan; and MAN B&W, Germany.
Cruise Ship Preliminary Design, Manufacturing Plan, and Market Analysis
The objective of this project is to develop a cruise ship preliminary design and shipyard manufacturing plan. A market analysis will be prepared to determine the sales potential for U.S.-built cruise ships. The completion of this project will place Ingalls in a position to enter the competition in the multimillion dollar per year new cruise ship construction market. In addition, the project will better position Ingalls to compete in the cruise-ship repair market. Advanced ship designs, market validation, and creative construction processes will be employed. This project is funded for $1.1 million over a 16-month period. The performers are Ingalls Shipbuilding, Inc., Pascagoula, Mississippi; Hopeman Brothers, Inc., Waynesboro, Virginia; Jamestown Metal Marine Sales, Inc., Pompano Beach, Florida; Cruise Lines International Association, New York, New York; Deltamarin, Finland; and Aeromarine, Ltd., Greece.
U.S.-Built Cruise Ships: Market- and Producibility-Driven Design for the World Market
The objective of this project is the development of an advanced cruise ship design. Specific objectives of the project include capturing an appropriate share of the new cruise shipbuilding market by the year 2000; reestablishing the United States as a major player in the worldwide cruise/passenger shipbuilding industry; and taking a leadership role in developing and applying advanced propulsion, control, and environmental and safety systems for cruise ships. Funding is for $400,000 over a 24-month period. Performers are National Steel and Shipbuilding Co., San Diego, California; Delta Queen Steamship Company, New Orleans, Louisiana; General Electric Company, Schenectady, New York; Hopeman Brothers, Inc., Waynesboro, Virginia; Mercer Management Consulting, Lexington, Massachusetts; Argent Group, Ltd., New York, New York; and Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Japan.
Commercialization of Planing Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull (SWATH) Technology
The objective of this project is commercialization of planing SWATH technology. This innovative vessel-design concept (planing SWATH), in combination with associated advanced construction technology, has the potential for global sales on a large scale. The integration of two technologies—planing craft and SWATH—in target markets such as ferries offers the opportunity of making small- to medium-sized marine craft faster in rough seas, more seaworthy, and more cost effective than current craft. The project is funded for $300,000 over a 24-month period. The performers are Halter Marine, Inc., Gulfport, Mississippi; Semi-Submerged Ship Corp., Solano Beach, California; Connell Finance Company, Westfield, New Jersey; and Hornblower Developer Corp., San Francisco, California.
Development of SLICE Fast Passenger Ferry Design and Comprehensive Marketing Plan
The objective of this project is to develop the design of a commercial high-speed ferry based on U.S. Navy-developed SLICE hull-form technology. This hull form offers a combination of high speed and excellent stability in heavy seas. These characteristics make it ideal for use as a high-speed ferry in open waters such as those in the Hawaiian Islands. The construction of these vessels will use advanced aluminum extrusion techniques to reduce construction time and cost. The proposers plan to conduct an extensive market survey and project a large international market for this type of craft. This project is funded for $400,000 over a 36-month period. Performers are Pacific Marine & Supply Company, Ltd., Honolulu, Hawaii; Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Palo Alto, California; Textron Lycoming, Stratford, Connecticut; MacKinnon Searle Consortium, Ltd., Alexandria, Virginia; KaMeWa, Sweden; and Schichau Seebeckwerft, Germany.
Integration of Modern Manufacturing Methods and Modern Information Systems
The objective of this project is the integration of modern manufacturing and information methods in the revitalization of a state-of-the-market, medium-sized shipyard. The objective of the project will be to apply modern managerial design, material marshalling, and production techniques to the construction of jumbo-class ferries for the West Coast market. The project is funded for $1.6 million over a 36-month period. Performers are Todd Pacific Shipyards Corporation, Seattle, Washington; Kvæner Masa Marine, Inc., Annapolis, Maryland; and Maritech Engineering Japan Company, Inc., Japan.
Penetrating the International Market for Small Ships
The objective of this project is to conduct a market analysis and to develop innovative designs for the international market in small vessels. In addition, the team will work to develop competitive build strategies and international financing packages for export sales. Kværner Masa Marine will also work with the shipyards on the team to develop a computer-integrated manufacturing system for the shipyards. The project is funded for $600,000 over a 24-month period. The performers are the American Waterways Shipyard Conference, Arlington, Virginia; Bender Shipbuilding, Inc., Mobile, Louisiana; Bird-Johnson Company, Walpole, Massachusetts; McDermott Marine, Amelia, Louisiana; Steiner Shipyard, Inc., Bayou La Batre, Alabama; Trinity Marine Group, Gulfport, Mississippi; Wartsila Diesel, Inc., Annapolis, Maryland; Kværner Masa Marine, Annapolis, Maryland; Colton and Company, Arlington, Virginia; SPAR, Annapolis, Maryland; and National Ports and Waterways Institute, Arlington, Virginia.
Sea Horse—Self-Elevating Offshore Support Platform for the International Markets
The objective of this project is to develop designs for self-elevating offshore support platforms for the international market. These designs will meet international requirements for permanent offshore structures, and the resulting platforms will be classified as ocean-going vessels. Possible applications for these versatile designs include subsea well service and maintenance, offshore construction, undersea pipe laying and maintenance, and oil spill recovery, drilling, and salvage operations. The project is funded for $1.5 million over a 24-month period. The performers are Bollinger Machine Shop and Shipyard, Inc., Lockport, Louisiana; Halliburton Energy Services, Inc., Dallas, Texas; Colton & Company, Arlington, Virginia; and Brown & Root, Inc., Houston, Texas.
Focused Technology Development, 40,000–DWT, Double-Hull Product Carriers, 85,000–DWT Double-Hull Oil, Bulk, or Ore (OBO) Carriers
The objective of this project is to develop 40,000-DWT double-hull product carriers and 85,000-DWT double-hull oil, bulk, or ore carriers. This project includes marketing and financial planning, expansion of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing capability, procurement of internationally competitive designs and their modification to the marketing analysis, production and manufacturing modernization, technology transfer, and training. The project is funded for $3 million over 36 months. The performers are Alabama Shipyard, Mobile, Alabama; American Automar Inc., Washington, D.C.; American Petrobulk, Inc., Washington, D.C.; and Burmeister & Wain, Denmark.
Focused Technology Development
The objective of this project is to develop a world-class design for a 40,000-DWT product carrier. This project includes a detailed market analysis and financial planning and the purchase of a design from an internationally competitive foreign yard. The design will be further modified to meet the requirements of the market analysis. This international competitive design will be examined for benchmarks for future design work. Avondale will negotiate a technology transfer agreement with an internationally competitive shipyard to obtain benchmarks for production processes. Metrification and standardization studies will also be performed. This project is funded for $2.3 million over 24 months. The performers are Avondale Industries, Inc., New Orleans, Louisiana; Dyer, Ellis, Joseph & Mills, Washington, D.C.; Chemical Bank, New York, New York; Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, Canada; MCA Associates, Greenwich, Connecticut; Carderock Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock, Maryland; John J. McMullen, Associates, Inc., New York, New York; Kirby Corporation, Groves, Texas; American Heavy Lift Shipping Co., Houston, Texas; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Japan; Mitsubishi International Corp., New York, New York.
Petroleum Product Tanker Technology Development
The objective of this project is to develop petroleum product tankers for the domestic market. This consortium consists of representatives from all major sectors of the maritime industry. Together they will design a tanker that is environmentally safe and economically sound. Information will be exchanged throughout the consortium through a sophisticated electronic data exchange system. The project is funded for $800,000. The performers are Gibbs & Cox, Inc., Arlington, Virginia; Ingalls Shipbuilding, Pascagoula, Mississippi; Trinity Marine Group, Gulfport, Mississippi; Marine Transport Lines, Inc., Secaucus, New Jersey; Sabine Towing & Transportation, Company, Inc., Groves, Texas; Chevron Shipping Company, San Francisco, California; ARCO Marine, Inc., Long Beach, California; American Bureau of Shipping, Houston, Texas; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Sperry Marine, Charlottesville, Virginia; Booz, Allen and Hamilton, Arlington, Virginia; Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Japan; Aquamaster Rauma, Inc., Finland; and ABB Industrial Systems, Finland.
Focused Technology Development for a Family of Double-Hull Tankers
The objective of this project is to develop the designs and marketing and finance plans for 324,000-DWT and 125,000-DWT double-hull tankers. These tanker designs would be based on the Marc Guardian curved plate hull concept, which has been developed jointly by Marinex and Metro Machine. Construction of these vessels will pursue advanced technologies in the hull coating and a
three-way welding process developed by Metro Machine and Lincoln Electric. The design and construction methods used in production offer potential owners the benefits of reduced construction times and reduced operating costs. The project is funded for $1.8 million over an 18-month period. The performers are Marinex International, Hoboken, New Jersey; Metro Machine Corporation, Chester, Pennsylvania; Ingalls Shipbuilding, Pascagoula, Mississippi; CG International, Inc., Scott Plains, New Jersey; Ross/McNatt Naval Architects, Stevensville, Maryland; Carderock Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock, Maryland; American Bureau of Shipping, Houston, Texas; Webb Institute of Naval Architecture, Glen Cove, New York; Crandall Dry Dock Engineers, Inc., Chelsea, Massachusetts; General Electric Company, Schenectady, New York; Exxon Company, International, Florham Park, New Jersey; ARCO Marine, Inc., Long Beach, California; Texaco, Inc., White Plains, New York; Coastal Marine Corporation, Houston, Texas; Overseas Shipbuilding Group, New York, New York; Marine Engineers Beneficial Association, Brooklyn, New York; and Papachristidis (UK) Ltd., England.
Internationally Competitive, High Technology Tanker Vessels
The objective of this project is the development of innovative world-class designs for 40,000-DWT and 125,000-DWT tankers. This project includes a detailed market analysis; design development; double-hull tanker procurement and production technology transfer; review of environmental and safety features of tanker designs and machinery; marketing and financing plans; and design, engineering, and production tools and software. The project is funded for $1 million over an 18-month period. The performers are Modular Tanker Consortium, Annapolis, Maryland; McDermott, Inc., Amelia, Louisiana; BethShip–Sparrows Point, Sparrows Point, Maryland; Wartsila Diesel, Annapolis, Maryland; Bird-Johnson Company, Walpole, Massachusetts; Seaworthy Systems, Essex, Connecticut; Kværner Masa Marine, Annapolis, Maryland; SPAR, Annapolis, Maryland; International Marine Software Associates, Stevensville, Maryland; Wilson, Gillette & Company, Arlington, Virginia; and ABB Industrial Systems, Finland.
Market- and Producibility-Driven Shuttle Tanker Design for the World Market
The objective of this project is to develop state-of-the-art designs for a range of shuttle tankers of about 70,000-DWT to 125,000-DWT cargo carrying capacity. These tankers will have the ability to operate year round in a variety of weather conditions and in coastal, open ocean, and U.S. territorial waters. The design provides advanced state-of-the-art features such as a flexible propulsion plant, dynamic positioning capability, global positioning and collision avoidance features, and safety and environmental systems. In addition, adaptation of
the designs will allow operation in Arctic and sub-Arctic environments. Features for high-latitude navigation will include ice avoidance, hull strengthening for operation in northern waters, superstructure and rigging de-icing, and design considerations for high seas and high wind conditions. The project is funded for $200,000 over a 24-month period. The performers are National Steel and Shipbuilding Co., San Diego, California; ARCO Marine, Inc., Long Beach, California; Wartsila Diesel, Mt. Vernon, Indiana; Raytheon Company Submarine Signal Division, Hudson, New Hampshire; IMODCO, Inc., Calabasas, California; First International Finance Corporation, New York, New York; KaMeWa AB, Sweden; Ugland Group, Norway; Braemer, England; and Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Japan.
Conversion to World Class Commercial Shipbuilder
The objective of this project is to help Newport News Shipbuilding reenter the commercial shipbuilding market. This project comprises five complementary elements, including market analysis, applied state-of-the-art technologies, world-class production processes, innovative financial arrangements, and revised project management leading to construction of a 40,000-DWT tanker. The project is funded for $3 million over a 24-month period. The performers are Newport News Shipbuilding, Newport News, Virginia; Sabine Towing & Transportation Co., Groves, Texas; Texaco, Inc., White Plains, New York; Maritime Overseas Corporation, New York, New York; Science Applications International Corp., Arlington, Virginia; American Bureau of Shipping, Houston, Texas; Total Transportation Systems, A/S, Norway; Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Japan; and MAN B&W Diesel, Germany.
Design of the Virtual Shipyard
The objective of this project is to create and utilize the development of a ''virtual shipyard" to support the building of 40,000-DWT product carriers. The project includes the creation of a ship design development process that is fully integrated with marketing, design, and production engineering and the development of an integrated and efficient system for converting a shipbuilding contract into a delivered ship. This project could result in the building of an internationally competitive product carrier. The project is funded for $1.6 million. The performers are U.S. Shipbuilding Consortium, Greenwich, Connecticut; McDermott Inc., Morgan City, Louisiana; IBM Federal Systems, Manassas, Virginia; Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Sunnyvale, California; Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corp., Austin, Texas; George Washington University, Washington, D.C.; Carderock Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock, Maryland; Kværner Masa Marine, Annapolis, Maryland; Colton and Company, Arlington, Virginia; and ARCO Marine, Long Beach, California.
From Sealift Ships to Vehicle Carriers Internationally Competitive Ships for the 1990s
The objective of this project is to develop a contract design, a build strategy, and marketing and finance plans for a vehicle-carrier vessel. The design of these vessels will include advances in modular design techniques, an integrated bridge, and workstation-oriented control systems. The shipbuilding process will use advances in modular construction and computer-integrated manufacturing. The project is funded for $200,000 over a 24-month period. The performers are National Steel and Shipbuilding Co., San Diego, California; Argent Group, Ltd., New York, New York; Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Japan; and Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha, Ltd. (K-Line), Japan.
Second-Year MARITECH Proposals
The second year of the MARITECH program sought proposals for the development of market-oriented ship designs integrated with build strategies that can lead to competitive ship construction in one to three years. Technology development proposals were to be in the area of process-improvement technology that can dramatically improve ship design, construction, conversion, repair, and marketing processes that could make possible a revolutionary new process, heretofore limited by technology.
The overall objective of the second-year proposals is to dramatically improve overall efficiency in ship production. Proposals were also sought for product-improvement technology for shipboard equipment and systems that could dramatically improve operational performance and dramatically reduce operating, environmental liability, and life-cycle costs of U.S. built ships. As with the first year of MARITECH, proposals were sought from a vertically integrated consortia of shipbuilders, shipowners and operators, ship designers, equipment and material suppliers, universities, government and private laboratories, and other breakthrough technology developers.
Technology Reinvestment Project
The Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP) is jointly sponsored by the Department of Defense, Department of Commerce, Department of Energy, NSF, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Department of Transportation. The TRP is administered by the Defense Technology Conversion Council, which is chaired by the ARPA. The TRP mission is to simulate the transition to a growing, integrated, national industrial capability that provides the most advanced, affordable, military systems and the most-competitive commercial products. The TRP programs are structured to expand high-quality employment opportunities in commercial and dual-use U.S. industries and to enhance U.S.
competitiveness demonstrably (ARPA, 1993). Funding for TRP activities is cost shared with non-federal government entities.
The TRP began prior to MARITECH. Subsequent to the advertisement of the MARITECH program in 1994, all projects relating to shipbuilding became part of the MARITECH program. Of the 212 projects selected for the first TRP competition, two projects address shipbuilding and ship propulsion.
Commercial Shipbuilding Focused Development Project
The objective of this project is to transfer management and production technologies into the partnership to create a globally competitive shipyard. Specific technologies include computer-aided design and process simulation, advanced automated fabrication processes, flexible automation/robotics, real-time measurement systems for process control, production planning, material control and estimating, and pollution abatement. Advancement of these technologies and implementing them is intended to directly improve production of both commercial vessels and warships for the U.S. Navy. The total cost of this project is $13.9 million over a 24-month period. The performers are Bath Iron Works Corp., Bath, Maine; Great American Lines, Inc., Roseland, New Jersey; American Automar, Inc., Washington, D.C.; Kværner Masa Marine, Inc., Annapolis, Maryland; and Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding, Tokyo, Japan.
Demonstration and Spin-Off of the Integral Motor/Propeller Propulsion System
The objective of this project is the application of an innovative electric propulsion system originally developed for future U.S. Navy submarines to commercial marine applications. The system is known as the integral motor/propeller propulsor. The effort will include both factory tests and seawater trials. The propulsion system is expected to have a significant impact on the U.S. shipbuilding industry by providing advanced propulsor technology to compete against European and Japanese motors. These systems can also be incorporated into future U.S. Navy all-electric ships. The project is funded for $9.8 million over a 24-month period. The performers are Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Cheswick, Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania; Edison Chouest Offshore, Inc., Galliano, Louisiana; Ben Franklin Technology Center of Western Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Carderock Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock, Maryland.
ARPA is developing the prototype of a tool that could enable a revolutionary change in the ship acquisition process (Jones and Hankinson, 1994). Simulation-based
design (SBD) will seamlessly integrate, in real time, the resources of design and acquisition. The results of this program will provide the means for an interdisciplinary team to interact with a digital-based integrated product- and process-development model, enabling integrated and concurrent development of requirements, products, and related processes, such as manufacture, operations, and support. The SBD program will provide real-time connectivity to all of the activities of the acquisition process. The program will develop innovative human-computer interfaces beyond visualization. It will also incorporate intelligent design guidance and assistance, relating what have traditionally been unrelated areas of information.
The SBD program has two phases, the first of which began in March 1993 and was completed in June 1994. The first phase established the feasibility and potential of the proposed system. Phase One included demonstrations such as one illustrating the ability to show the structural response of the hull to a particular sea state through integrated physics models of a synthetic ocean and a ship-hull structural model. In another demonstration, data were taken from a computed-aided design model to a virtual environment where the data were manipulated and then returned seamlessly to the design model. In another demonstration, a piece of shipboard machinery was defined along with associated piping in a manner that, when the machinery was relocated in the design process, the piping was automatically rerouted along the optimum path, avoiding obstructions.
The second phase of SBD began in the second quarter of 1995. In this phase, critical technologies will be developed and integrated in a prototype system. The technologies that will be addressed include visualization and sensualization of data, tactile feedback, object-oriented database management, data standards, information baselines for distributed environment, wide-area network bandwidth, multilevel security, and information technology.
Phase One of the program, which was funded for $10 million, was performed by two teams. The first team consisted of General Dynamics/Electric Boat Division, Deneb Robotics, Loral Federal Systems, Intergraph, STEP Tools, Silicon Graphics, and the University of Iowa. Performers on the second team were Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Newport News Shipbuilding, Science Applications International Corporation, and Fakespace. Phase Two is funded for $45 to $60 million in the president's budget over four years.
National Shipbuilding Research Program
The mission of the NSRP is to assist the U.S. shipbuilding and repair industry in achieving and maintaining global competitiveness with respect to quality, time, cost and customer satisfaction (NSRP, 1993). The NSRP is an industry-driven, industry-led program administered through the Ship Production Committee of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers and the Carderock
Division of the Naval Surface Warfare Center. Funding is currently provided by ARPA's Maritime Systems Office. Additional financial support is provided by shipyards, design agents, and government agencies through the time invested by individuals in planning, managing, and reviewing the research performed by the eight panels of the NSRP. 1 Through industry involvement in the selection and management of projects, the NSRP ensures that the work is relevant to the needs of the shipbuilding and ship-repair industry (Donohue, 1994).
Panel 1: Facilities and Environmental Effects
This panel has two objectives, the first of which is to help the shipbuilding industry maintain compliance with environmental laws and regulations in a cost-effective manner and with the minimum impact to production. The second objective is to ensure that the production facilities of shipyards do not hinder essential improvements. To accomplish these objectives, the panel facilitates effective communication and information exchange within the shipbuilding industry and helps shipbuilders become aware of both current and future rules and regulations and the potential impact they may impose on shipbuilding operations. Current research projects include environmental symposia for shipyard managers, supervisors, and environmental compliance personnel; an environmental bulletin board with updates of federal regulations; and various environmental studies and testing program projects. Other projects include a study funded by the Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate and quantify emissions from dry-dock blasting operations that documents the reduction of emissions through paint reformulations required under the California marine coatings rules. The panel also tries to ensure that federal and state environmental regulations are in fact "livable." The panel works with the Environmental Protection Agency on Clean Air Act guidelines to educate both regulators and shipyards.
Panel 3: Surface Preparation and Coatings
This panel addresses the preparation and coating of surfaces of steel, aluminum, exotic metals, plastic, wood, and similar materials. These surfaces are on hull structure, pipe, cable, duct, equipment, furniture, and numerous other items on a ship. Protective, decorative, and special-function coatings are studied; for example, coatings that are anti-fouling, anti-corrosive, and anti-sweat; heat-resisting, camouflaging, lining, and insulating; nonconducting; conducting; temporary; and so on. More than a hundred different coatings may be specified for a typical U.S. Navy ship. Panel 3 is concerned with specifications, receipt inspection of materials, preparation for coating, application of coatings, personnel
protection, cleanup, and environmental compliance. The panel also addresses the difficult health and environmental challenges facing the surface-preparation and coatings discipline. These regulations can adversely affect construction costs and product performance. Research of the panel includes solving problems with specific coatings and other coatings-related problems. The research is of a very practical nature and most often produces an immediately implementable result.
Panel 4: Design/Production Integration
This panel addresses improving production through innovative design and planning methods and the recognition and correction of design methods that inhibit production. Panel 4 also conducts research into the means of integrating the design and production processes of U.S. shipbuilders so as to reduce costs, reduce production time, and improve quality. In addition, the panel evaluates worldwide research efforts and state-of-the-art shipbuilding and design with the intent of analyzing and modifying them as necessary and implementing these global efforts into American shipbuilding. Examples of successful research include studies on the application of advanced measuring techniques and scheduling programs to data and configuration management; a study on weld shrinkage; an assessment of computer aids in shipbuilding; developing a generic-build strategy; and other in-depth research evaluating aspects of producibility in shipbuilding. At the direction of the Ship Production Committee, the panel has expanded the scope of its research projects to include an international market study for U.S. shipbuilding, a joint project with Panel 8 on improving the U.S. shipbuilding industry's competitive position through use of concurrent engineering, and an assessment of the requirements for global shipbuilding competitiveness.
Panel 5: Human Resource Innovations
The research program of this panel is designed to develop and test specific human-resource innovations in shipbuilding and ship-repair environments. This panel is unique in that both union and management representatives participate in all aspects of the panel. The panel's research has included organizational topics, such as problem-solving teams; decentralizing statistical accuracy control responsibility to the ship production work force; multiskilled, self-managing work teams in a zone construction environment; and a study of a product-oriented work force. The panel also conducted a study for improving motivation in the shipbuilding industry through employee involvement, along with research on employee involvement in a shipyard assembly yard and an analytical review of employee involvement and work redesign in U.S. shipbuilding. Additional research projects have addressed safety issues, such as a study on organizational innovation in shipyard safety, a survey of the principal elements of shipyard safety programs, and a project on employee involvement in improving safety. Another project of
this panel has been to organize periodic national workshops on human resource innovations in shipbuilding, bringing state-of-the-art information to a wide industry audience.
Panel 6: Marine Industry Standards
This panel is working to ensure that standards are developed or adopted for maximum benefit to the U.S. shipbuilding industry, considering that standards play an increasing role in the way the shipbuilding industry does business and in determining competitiveness and profitability as shipbuilding markets become more global and more commercial. Composed of managers and technical representatives from a wide spectrum of the industry, this panel has provided direction and much of the energy for the U.S. shipbuilding standards program. Working with Committee F-25 on Shipbuilding of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the panel has initiated the development of more than 50 shipbuilding-related standards. More recently, the panel has turned to the broader issues of redefining the organization and processes by which the marine industry deals with standardization, both domestically and internationally. The panel conducted a Marine Industry Planning Workshop, bringing together the industry's standardization leaders to create a comprehensive plan for developing and administering industry-standardization strategy. Other recent projects include drafting a new industrywide Standards Master Plan, creating a computerized compendium of standards, developing a manual for establishing and managing a shipyard standardization program, and providing support to the U.S. Technical Advisory Group to the International Standards Organization (ISO). In addition, the panel conducted a project on introducing metrification into the shipbuilding industry, which is essential to global competitiveness. Other initiatives will address the acceptability of foreign and international standards in U.S.-flag applications and establishment of an industrywide communications network for standards information.
Panel 7: Welding
This panel addresses methods and processes for improving the technology of welding, cutting, forming and burning as it pertains to and is applied by shipyards in the United States. The panel also investigates new materials and inspection methods that will improve shipbuilding technology and efficiency. The scope of the research of the panel includes of all attributes of a weld system, including materials, machinery, technology, and the quality of the product. Research has included equipment development, filler-materials research and application analysis, and base-material metallurgy and weldability studies. The panel has also completed projects related to advanced processes and automated welding systems. Weld inspection technology development and fitness-for-purpose data collection have also been topics of study. Other projects include the development of a portable
AC/DC welding power supply module; development of mechanized gas metal arc welding of light plate; investigation of tubular electrodes designed for submerged arc welding applications; development of flame bending of pipe for alignment control; a practical guide for flame bending of pipe; and a project that created three-dimensional plastic replicas of various weld discontinuities, along with a detailed guide to their use. Current projects include development of a portable tack welding device, development of a filler material for welding HLSA-100 steel, a portable pipe laser-beam cutting and welding system, and an evaluation and application of portable welding robotics.
Panel 8: Industrial Engineering
This panel addresses the planning, performance, and implementation of research and development projects to advance shipbuilding processes and systems. The goal is to develop and initiate implementation of equipment, procedures, technology, systems, and processes that reduce costs and improve competitiveness of U.S. shipbuilding and ship repair. The research projects aim to reduce shipbuilding design, acquisition, and production process times and costs and to improve quality through people and processes. A recent project investigated methods of improving production throughput in a shipyard, with the objective of increasing throughput to reduce the cycle time of ship production from concept to delivery. Another project addressed the use of personal computers as an aid in the production planning process, developing a personal computer-based model to serve as a tool to assist planning organizations in developing, updating, and revising schedules and in staffing facility utilization reports. Other projects include an industrial engineering workshop, a project on the reduction of non-value-added tasks, and a joint project with Panel 4 on implementing concurrent engineering.
Panel 9: Education and Training
This panel addresses the educational needs of the U.S. shipbuilding and ship-repair industry with the objective of advancing the state of the art of ship production and improving industry competitiveness. Research by the panel has included development of a textbook on ship production, a technical evaluation of a U.S. shipyard to implement state-of-the-art shipbuilding processes, a 45-lesson video series on basic naval architecture, an overview of interactive instruction for shipyard trades training, and the facilitation of the NSRP leadership's strategic planning meetings. Other research includes surveys and analyses of specific U.S. and foreign training programs and a textbook on engineering for ship production. A project to apply the latest technology in education to shipbuilding training has created an interactive video instruction lesson on "Arc-Drawn Stud Welding." This lesson will be demonstrated to shipyards to show the ease with which shipyard training departments can develop their own interactive courseware.
Navy Manufacturing Technology Program
The Department of Defense established the Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH) program in the late 1960s, with the requirement that each service maintain a MANTECH program. The overall purpose of MANTECH is to support manufacturing needs so as to improve the nation's ability to provide affordable military equipment and to sustain that equipment for increased service lives cost effectively. Within the Department of the Navy, the MANTECH program is managed by the MANTECH office of ONR (ONR, 1993).
The U.S. Navy MANTECH program provides a mechanism for the development of enabling manufacturing technology in the form of new processes and equipment and for the implementation of this technology on Navy-weapon-system production lines. MANTECH funds are used when industry cannot or will not provide the needed capability in a timely manner. The Navy emphasizes the reduction of risk inherent in the transition from research and development to production as the primary consideration for a MANTECH effort. Other considerations are development of the enabling technology without which military systems cannot be effectively or economically produced, implementation of MANTECH efforts in the production of Navy weapon systems, and dissemination of manufacturing technology that has both military and commercial attributes (dual-use) to the commercial sector to stimulate industry's implementation of and investment in new manufacturing techniques.
Total funding for Navy MANTECH was $211 million in fiscal year 1994, funding of $267 million in fiscal year 1995, and funding of $253 million for fiscal year 1996 (Jenkins, 1993).
Navy MANTECH projects are evaluated and selected by the following criteria:
- They must provide a solution to a well defined Navy need.
- They must demonstrate technical feasibility.
- They must develop generic technology applicable to multiple weapon systems and dual-use.
- They may encompass technology development at risk levels beyond those normally assumed by industry.
- They must provide for timely implementation of anticipated benefits.
Project benefits may be realized through increased productivity or capability, increased process capability, improved reliability, or conservation of critical materials.
Centers of Excellence
The Navy MANTECH program established six centers of excellence to provide focal points for the development and technology transfer of new manufacturing
processes and equipment in a cooperative environment with industry, academia, and Navy centers and laboratories. The center of excellence concept was developed to:
- Serve as a corporate residence of expertise in a particular technological area.
- Provide advice to the MANTECH program director concerning program formulation.
- Provide consulting services to both the U.S. Navy's industrial activities and industry.
- Facilitate the transfer of developed manufacturing technology.
- Develop and demonstrate manufacturing technology solutions for manufacturing issues identified by the U.S. Navy.
The six centers of excellence are discussed below.
Automated Manufacturing Research Facility
The Automated Manufacturing Research Facility in Gaithersburg, Maryland, is sponsored by the Department of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The objective of the facility is to develop and deploy automated manufacturing technologies that can improve the competitiveness of both the civilian and defense industrial bases.
Center of Excellence for Composites Manufacturing Technology
The Center of Excellence for Composites Manufacturing Technology in Kenosha, Wisconsin, is sponsored by the Great Lakes Composites Consortium. The center represents a collaborative effort among industry, academia, and government to develop, evaluate, demonstrate, and test composites-manufacturing technologies.
Electronics Manufacturing Productivity Facility
The Electronics Manufacturing Productivity Facility, in Indianapolis, Indiana, is sponsored by Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis; the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division; and the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Aircraft Division. The facility's research is a team effort among government, industry, and academia in the areas of electronics design, assembly, test, inspection, and rework, with an emphasis on the evaluation of electronics manufacturing equipment, processes, and materials.
National Center for Excellence in Metalworking Technology
The National Center for Excellence in Metalworking Technology in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, is sponsored by Concurrent Technologies Corporation.
The principal goal of the center is to help the Navy and defense contractors improve manufacturing productivity and parts reliability through research, development, demonstration, training, and education in advanced metalworking technologies.
Navy Joining Center
The Navy Joining Center, in Columbus, Ohio, is sponsored by the Edison Welding Institute. The center provides a national resource for the development of materials joining expertise and the deployment of emerging manufacturing technologies to Navy contractors, subcontractors, and other activities.
Center of Excellence for Advanced Marine Technology
The Center of Excellence for Advanced Marine Technology, in New Orleans, is sponsored by the Gulf Coast Region Maritime Technology Center of the University of New Orleans. Thrust areas of this new center will be practical measures that the U.S. maritime industry can take to become more competitive in the global market.
Typical MANTECH Programs
There are more than 60 specific MANTECH programs that have application to commercial shipbuilding, either directly through the stated objective of the program or because the program will aid shipbuilders to some degree in becoming internationally competitive even though it may have been developed for other purposes. A few of these programs, some of which have been completed, are described here.
Intelligent Weld Process
The objective of this program is to increase the productivity, quality and safety of U.S. Navy welding operations through the use of computer-aided robotic work cells. The Navy will be provided with a prototype robotic welding cell that can be controlled and set up off-line to allow for single item robotic welding. The system is known as the WELDEXCELL and will be delivered to the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. The program, which has a $5.7 million budget, is being performed by the American Welding Institute.
Plasma Spray—Computer Numerical Control Integration
The objective of this program is to develop a method of eliminating much of the manual skilled labor and part setups used when the Navy refurbishes many
metal parts, thereby increasing the effectiveness and consistency of the thermal-spray operation. In this project, plasma spray and computer numerical control technologies are integrated into an automated system for part repair and maintenance. This work cell contains integrated parts preparation, thermal spraying, parts finishing, and quality assurance. A stand-alone process-planning system was also developed. The project was funded for $3.6 million and was performed by the National Center for Excellence in Metalworking Technology.
Multi-Sensor Inspection System
The objective of this program is to provide a state-of-the-art, multi-sensor inspection system for complete dimensional measurement and analysis of complex surfaces and shapes of interest to the Navy. The program is funded for $800,000 and is being performed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems.
Portsmouth Fastener Workstation
The objective of this program is to develop a flexible manufacturing system equipped with the technology of highly controlled systems necessary for the efficient production of highly accurate, Level-1 threaded fasteners of various types and sizes for use on nuclear submarines. This project is funded at $1.7 million and is being performed by the Automated Manufacturing Research Facility.
Advanced Machine Tool Structures
The objective of this program is to investigate the application of new machine forms and control strategies for machine tools to U.S. Navy needs in machining complex-contoured parts. The project is focusing on an octahedral-hexapod tool concept such as the one being developed by the Ingersoll Milling Machine Tool Company. This revolutionary machine tool form combines parallel, kinematic-link manipulators (also known as Stewart platforms) with an octahedral machine frame to provide full six-axis machining capability and a machine structure that is extremely rigid and self-contained. The machine planned for study will have a work volume of 1 cubic meter and a spindle power of about 15 kW (20 hp). The project is funded for more than $100,000 and is being performed by the Automated Manufacturing Research Facility.
Plasma Spray Sensor Development
The objective of this program is to assess Navy requirements for inspection of thermal spray coatings, particularly on machinery components of the submarine fleet, and to identify a sensor or sensors capable of inspecting thermal spray coatings and ensuring their quality. The project is funded for $50,000 and is being performed by the Automated Manufacturing Research Facility.
Robotic Paint Removal
The objective of this program is to investigate the potential for using robotics, control systems, and sensor technology to support the development of low-cost, automated paint removal systems. These systems will reduce the impact of stringent environmental and human workplace regulations, which will soon eliminate most conventional paint removal processes. The project is funded for $85,000 and is being performed by the Automated Manufacturing Research Facility.
Mobility for Welding Automation in Ship Construction
The objective of this program is to explore the requirements of shipyards for welding automation, current practices in automated welding systems, and the potential of a demonstration project that would incorporate mobility over the large working volumes inherent in shipyard operations. The project was funded for $85,000 and was performed by the Automated Manufacturing Research Facility.
Automated Propeller Optical Measurement System
The objective of this program is to develop a high-speed, optical-inspection tool capable of automatically measuring, at low cost, the surface of a ship's propeller. In addition, the system will provide a reliable measurement database to validate propeller designs and serve as input to automated propeller manufacturing and repair processes. This basic-measurement robot will rapidly and automatically produce detailed surface measurement data via non-contact, three-dimensional optical sensing. This system will provide dimensional inspection of the propeller and dimensional data necessary to make propeller repairs. This project was funded at more than $15 million and was performed by Robotic Vision Systems, Inc.
Propeller Adaptive Machining System
The objective of this program is to develop, fabricate, and install a system that will be capable of machining monoblock propellers to near-final configuration. More accurate measurement and the adaptive automated control of the machining process developed in the automated propeller optical measurement system will be used in this project. The project was funded for $14.5 million and was performed by Robotic Vision Systems, Inc.
Automated LAN-Integrated Paperless Factory Modernization
The objective of this program is to provide highly interactive, user friendly, assembly/inspection instructions and test procedures. The network will support
developing, updating and accessing instructions and procedures in a centrally maintained database. The program will also facilitate the integration of text and graphics imported from computer-aided design, digitized first article photographs, and specification drawings and tests. This project is being performed by Litton Amecom.
Computer-Integrated Focused Factory Management System
The objective of this program is to design, develop, and implement an open system architecture solution that is versatile and flexible—one that will serve as the communications information foundation for the overall computer-integrated manufacturing strategy. This program will replace current application systems and information technology that is of third-generation, legacy-system vintage. The current technology is inflexible, costly, difficult to maintain, and incapable of providing a sufficient level of integration to allow for the timely, accurate, cost-effective sharing of data. The project is being performed by Litton Amecom.
Best Manufacturing Practices
The objective of BMP, which was established and funded as part of the U.S. Navy MANTECH program, is to identify the best practices used in industry, to encourage industry to share these practices among themselves, and to work together toward a common goal of high efficiency and improved product reliability. The program is very broadly based, covering government laboratories, shipyards, and other facilities. However, the program also includes extremely diverse industry representation, from defense manufacturing companies to hotels. A collateral objective of BMP is to identify the problems industry is experiencing in an effort to resolve them. To accomplish these objectives, independent teams of government manufacturing experts are established to survey companies.
Company participation in a survey by a BMP team is voluntary. The survey covers only things a company wants to have reviewed. When the BMP team completes the surveys a report is written and provided to the company for review and editing before publication. Copies of the final report are mailed to government, industry, and academia representatives throughout the United States. The report is also entered in the BMP database, which is easily accessible by computer. Points of contact within the companies are identified in both the written and online copies of the reports, so that direct company-to-company contacts can be made. It is then up to the companies to determine what information they are willing to share (BMP Program, n.d.). Some of the organizations surveyed recently include Alpha Industries Components and Subsystems Division, Methuen, Massachusetts; R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Hamilton Standard Electronic Manufacturing Center, Farmington, Connecticut; Marriott Crystal Gateway Hotel,
Arlington, Virginia; and Stafford County Public Schools, Stafford County, Virginia (BMP Program, 1994).
A major step in improving the competitiveness and strength of the U.S. industrial base was to affiliate the Navy BMP program with NIST and the University of Maryland to form a Center of Excellence. The Center of Excellence for Best Manufacturing Practices was established in early 1994 to promote technology transfer and solve common problems faced by U.S. commercial and defense firms. By improving the use of existing technology, promoting the introduction of improved technology, and providing a noncompetitive means of addressing common problems, the center will be a major factor in countering the foreign competition that threatens America's survival as a major manufacturing nation. The center will be effective because the means has already been developed, proven, and is in operation today in the Navy BMP program and within the NIST Manufacturing Technology Center outreach program.
Four BMP satellite resource centers are also being established around the nation to meet the growing number of requests for briefings, training sessions, and information on the BMP program. The centers will be in Louisville, Kentucky; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Oak Ridge, Tennessee; and San Francisco, California. Among the goals of the new centers are to make small- to medium-sized manufacturers aware of and have them use what the BMP program offers. The centers are also charged with achieving a greater level of involvement with and support of institutions of higher education in the areas they serve.
Sealift Ship Technology Development Program
The Sealift Ship Technology Development Program (SSTDP) is a broad-based R&D effort managed by NAVSEA. The SSTDP started in response to the congressionally directed Fast Sealift Technology Development Program, funded in fiscal year 1990–1991 (NAVSEA, 1992). The program goal is to develop new concepts and technologies that can be applied to future sealift ships and merchant ships to enhance their operational capability and efficiency, while simultaneously reducing the life-cycle cost, particularly acquisition cost, of ships capable of performing the sealift mission.
The technologies/developments addressed by the total program include total ship concepts, alternatives for achieving quick convertibility of lift on/lift off cargo ships to roll on/roll off cargo ships and vice versa, improvements in ship production and design for production methods, better hydrodynamics, improved ship propulsion, equipment to increase cargo loading and unloading rates (including merchant ship replenishment), personnel-reduction concepts, improved structural configurations and materials, and logistics-over-the-shore (LOTS) improvements. The long-term efforts will also enhance joint service LOTS operations to satisfy U.S. Navy requirements. This program heavily involves U.S. industry, particularly shipyards, and includes participation by the U.S. Coast Guard and
MARAD to assure that the potential benefits of these technologies to commercial ship design and shipbuilding are realized. Three primary focus areas are (1) mid-term sealift improvements (post 2000), (2) long-term improvements (2010–2020) and (3) merchant ship naval augmentation program (MSNAP).
Mid-term improvements are envisioned to be incorporated into new construction vessels acquired to meet the requirement for recapitalization of the Ready Reserve Force established by the Department of Defense Mobility Requirements Study of January 23, 1992. The goal is to develop technologies leading to commercially viable ''dual-use" ships that would be used in commercial trade in peacetime and would be available for military roll-on/roll-off ship use in time of national need.
Long-term improvements are intended for the 2010–2020 time frame, when most sealift assets will be due for replacement (fast sealift ships, maritime prepositioned ships, T-AH, and T-AVB).
MSNAP enables civilian personnel merchant ships to perform tasks in support of the Strategic Sealift Mission. This program develops prototype systems from service-approved and commercially available components. The elements of the program are to provide new militarily useful capabilities, improve ship performance envelopes, and increase crew efficiency through mechanization. These elements are necessary because merchant ships are designed to fill a narrow commercial need with the greatest feasible economy and require conversion to meet military needs.
The total appropriated and planned funding for this program for fiscal years 1993–1997 is about $55 million (Raber and Webster, 1994).
Affordability Through Commonality
The objective of the Affordability Through Commonality (ATC) Program of the Naval Sea Systems Command is to develop, through the use of commonality, the means to design, build, and operate a fleet that is affordable within future budget restrictions without degrading performance or reliability (Cable and Rivers, 1992). The program was funded for $3 million in fiscal year 1993, $9 million in fiscal year 1994, and $17 million in fiscal year 1995. Efforts of the ATC program include increasing the producibility and supportability of naval ships, developing generic build strategies, developing new ship architectures, and working with industry to incorporate shipyard production processes into naval ship design. The program also works with the vendor base to design systems that are highly producible from a manufacturing standpoint. The ATC project is primarily composed of efforts involving low technical risk, extending proven construction experience using standard components and methods assuring technical reliability. The basis for most of the initiatives is repackaging existing equipment by function. Several of these efforts have real-world models to follow. Thus, the technical risk of developing a successful product is minimal. Development and
implementation of the commonality techniques of equipment standardization, process simplification, and modularization are expected to produce a number of benefits (Rivers et al., 1993).
Office Of Naval Research
Surface Ship Technology Program
There are several programs sponsored by ONR that enhance shipbuilding technology (Gagorik, 1994). Dual-use technologies are in the categories of "spin in" and "spin out," that is, commercially developed technologies of use to the military and military technologies of use to the commercial sector. One of these technologies is the $25-million advanced double hull project, which is built around the concept of the unidirectional stiffened double hull. The project is managed by the Carderock Division of the Naval Surface Warfare Center but has many participants from other government laboratories, as well as commercial organizations. Twenty-five percent of that project is in structural integrity areas; another 25 percent is devoted to predicting damage from grounding. Another principal area of the advanced double hull project is the affordability task, which seeks to reduce the cost of construction for naval and commercial ships.
The emphasis of the affordable composite structures project is on developing composite structures for U.S. Navy combat ships, although developments may have future use in commercial ships, especially weight-critical, high-speed vessels. Although no project within the program is devoted specifically to it, the use of commercial off-the-shelf equipment is encouraged in all dual-use technologies projects. This has the advantages of both reduced price for Navy use and enhancement of the market base for commercial equipment manufacturers. Alternatives to halon gas are being pursued in the advanced damage control systems project, and this and other fire-fighting concepts, such as the multiphase water-mist project, will have application for commercial ships. The fiber-optic–based damage control sensors may also have commercial applications.
Fuel cell technology provides the same high efficiency across the entire power band and does not emit pollutants, even when "dirty diesel" fuel is used. The advanced electrical systems project has strong commercial implications, as evidenced by the Electric Power Research Institute participation in a large TRP project to enhance electric power transmission efficiency and reliability. Other concepts within this project, such as electronic circuit breakers, superconducting motors and generators, and the contrarotating homopolar motor, may have eventual commercial application.
The regenerating diesel engine and composite-diesel, vertical-axis propulsor are all propulsion programs that will improve propulsive efficiency. Active magnetic sensor controls are being developed for combat and noncombat use. These have also generated interest from commercial owners who have to take ships into
areas where there is a high risk of underwater mines, such as the Persian Gulf. Similarly, the electro-optic emissions monitoring project is being conducted for military purposes but is an area of interest to commercial television and radio stations, which have problems today with electromagnetic interference, which is increasing as more uses are found for radio signals.
The reliability-based structural design project will have a major impact on the structural design of both Navy and commercial ships. This project is linked to similar efforts of the SSC, which in turn supports the effort of the American Bureau of Shipping to develop new structural design criteria.
In summary, there are many projects within the surface ship technology program that have commercial implications. Those that have the greatest implication for international competitiveness in shipbuilding are the advanced double-hull program and advanced electrical-systems projects.
American Society For Testing And Materials
Organized in 1898, the ASTM has grown into one of the largest voluntary standards development systems in the world. ASTM is a not-for-profit organization that provides a forum for producers, users, ultimate consumers, and others with a general interest (representatives of government and academia) for meeting on common ground and writing standards for materials, products, systems, and services. From the work of 134 standards-writing committees, ASTM publishes standard test methods, specifications, practices, guides, classifications, and terminology. ASTM's standards encompass metals, paints, plastics, textiles, petroleum, construction, energy, the environment, consumer products, medical services and devices, computerized systems, electronics, and many other areas. ASTM headquarters has no technical research or testing facilities; work is done voluntarily by 33,000 technically qualified ASTM members throughout the world. More than 8,500 ASTM standards are published each year in the 68 volumes of the Annual Book of ASTM Standards. These standards and related information are sold throughout the world. Approximately 85 percent of ASTM's income is derived from the sale of publications, primarily from the standards produced by committees. Other income is derived from annual administrative fees (ASTM, 1993).
The federal government participates in many of the committees of ASTM. However, the ASTM committee most relevant to this report is Committee F-25, Ships and Marine Technology, the members of which include individuals from several government agencies, shipbuilders, ship design agents, shipowners, and suppliers of ship machinery and components. There are 12 F-25 subcommittees. These subcommittees address the subjects of structures, insulation processes, outfitting, computer applications, marine environmental protection, general requirements, electrical and electronics, machinery, piping systems, international standards and long-range planning.
International Standards Organization
ISO is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from some 90 countries. It is a nongovernmental organization established in 1947. The mission of ISO is to promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services and to developing cooperation in the intellectual, scientific, technological, and economic spheres. ISO's work results in international agreements that are published as international standards. There are currently more than 200 ISO standards applicable to shipbuilding and about 119 specifically for shipbuilding (Piersall, 1994).
The financing of ISO closely reflects its decentralized mode of operation. The financing of the Central Secretariat derives from member body subscriptions (77 percent) and revenues from the sale of the organization's standards and other publications (23 percent). The subscriptions required of member bodies for financing the operations of the Central Secretariat are expressed in units and calculated in Swiss francs. The number of units each member body is invited to pay is calculated on the basis of economic indicators of gross national product and the value of imports and exports. The value of the subscription unit is set each year by the ISO Council.
Within the ISO, the Technical Committee for Ships and Marine Technology (TC-8) establishes international shipbuilding standards. The input from the United States comes from the U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to the ISO's TC-8. This organization is accredited and chartered by the American National Standards Institute, which is the U.S. member body to ISO. The focus of ISO (TC-8) is on ship design, shipbuilding, ship systems engineering, operation of ships, and marine environmental protection. The U.S. TAG seeks to inform and involve the U.S. maritime industry in the process of international standards development and adoption through the ISO. The U.S. TAG is the U.S. maritime industry's representative to ISO (TC-8).
The ISO 9000 series quality standards are standards for the management of quality that are recognized throughout the world. To become registered and certified to ISO 9000, a company's quality control system must be audited by a qualified third party firm that is not part of the company's organization. Areas covered by the standards include receiving inspection, in-process inspection, final inspection, corrective action, metrology and calibration, process controls, control of purchases, production tooling used as media of inspection, work instructions, internal quality audits, training, and servicing. Registration is for a period of three years, with surveillance audits performed every six months (SNAME, 1994).
National Maritime Resource And Education Center
The U.S. Maritime Administration established the National Maritime Resource and Education Center in 1994 to assist the U.S. shipbuilding and allied
industries in improving their competitiveness in the international commercial market. The center is intended to be a major source of information and facilitator within the government for the maritime industry, providing expertise, information, and reference material on commercial shipbuilding. The short-term focus of the center is on establishing a marine industry standards library; providing assistance to companies that wish to become qualified to ISO 9000 for quality assurance; conducting seminars and training; being an interface with the U.S. Coast Guard for implementing consensus standards in lieu of regulations; providing support to ISO (TC-8); coordinating with ARPA for the MARITECH program; updating the MARAD guideline specifications to include international standards and to reflect metric dimensions; developing a three-dimensional computer-aided design library; and providing marine environmental protection information. These short-term goals are part of a continuing process to acquire and maintain marine standards; develop and conduct seminars and workshops on a variety of topics such as standards, regulations and environmental concerns; and provide other information to assist industry (MARAD, 1994).
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). 1993. Program Information Package for Defense Technology Conversion, Reinvestment, and Transition Assistance. Arlington, Virginia: ARPA Technology Reinvestment Project.
ARPA. 1994. List of Advanced Research Projects Agency MARITECH Program Focused Technology Development Project Prospective Award Selectees. Arlington, Virginia: ARPA.
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). 1993. What is ASTM? Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: ASTM.
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Cable, C.W. and T.M. Rivers. Affordability Through Commonality. Presentation to American Society of Naval Engineers DDG 51 Technical Symposium. Brunswick, Maine, September 23–25, 1992. Arlington, Virginia: ASNE.
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Gagorik, J. 1994. Interview with Robert A. Sielski, Marine Board staff, at Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Virginia, September 2, 1994.
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Jones, G. and T. Hankinson. 1994. "Simulation-Based Design for Ship Acquisition and Design." Arlington, Virginia: Advanced Research Projects Agency.
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MARITECH. 1994. Broad Agency Announcement 94-44. Arlington, Virginia: Advanced Research Projects Agency.
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Piersall, C.H., Jr. 1994. Presentation by Charles H. Piersall, Jr., Chairman, U.S. Technical Advisory Group to the International Standards Organisation Technical Committee for Ships and Marine Technology, to the Committee on National Needs in Maritime Technology, at the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., July 27, 1994.
Raber, J.D. and W.A. Webster. 1994. Sealift Ship Technology Development Program. Presentation to Chesapeake Section, Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, Arlington, Virginia, June 7, 1994.
Rivers, T.M., M. Burcham and A. Almeida. Human support systems within the Affordability Through Commonality Philosophy. Association of Scientists and Engineers of the Naval Sea Systems Command, 30th Annual Technical Symposium, held in Arlington, Virginia, April 18, 1993.
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