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APPENDIX A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members
WILLIAM A. CREELMAN, Chair, U.S. Maritime Administration (retired), received his B.S. in nautical science from the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy. He held a Coast Guard First Class Pilotage License for various East Coast waters. He was appointed as deputy maritime administrator in l988, having previously served as deputy maritime administrator for inland waterways and the Great Lakes. Previously, he was president of National Marine Service (NMS), a towing industry company carrying bulk liquids on the inland waterways, completing 30 years of service in 1985. Afloat service with NMS included pilotage of coastal tankers on the East Coast. He served twice as chairman of the board of directors of the American Waterways Operators (AWO), served as chairman of various AWO committees and task forces, and also served as vice chairman of the Coast Guard's Towing Safety Advisory Committee. Mr. Creelman was a member of the Marine Board of the National Research Council.
PETER BARBER is senior lecturer, Maritime Simulation Section, Southampton Institute of Higher Education, Warsash, U.K., where he specializes in shiphandling training using manned models, bridge team management training on full-mission ship-bridge simulators, radar, vessel traffic system training, and port development contracts. He received maritime training from the College of Maritime Studies, earning his Master Mariner Certificate in l976. Mr. Barber has been an instructor and lecturer for a full range of computer-based and physical scale manned-model training simulations. He participated in an assessment of radar simulation use part of COST 301, the European Economic Community's broad examination of vessel traffic services. His consultancies included port
development simulations for ports in Australia, the United Kingdom, and Hong Kong. He returns to sea regularly in an advisory capacity with various shipping companies and pilotage associations to update his knowledge and skills. Prior to joining the Warsash faculty, he served as chief and first officer with Townsend Thoresen Ferries. Earlier, he was first officer with Cunard Steamship Company, serving as training officer aboard the Queen Elizabeth 2. Prior to this position, he served in all ranks to chief officer on a broad range of ships in the British Merchant Navy. Mr. Barber's publications include use of shiphandling simulations for training and waterway design and simulation training for operators of vessel traffic services. He is a member of the Nautical Institute.
ANITA D'AMICO BEADON is assistant director, research and development, Grumman Data Systems, where she manages projects related to advance technology hardware and software. She earned her B.A. in psychology from the University of Pennsylvania and her M.A. and Ph.D. in psychology from Adelphi University. She has also served as senior human factors engineer at Grumman Aircraft Systems, where she developed functional requirements for rapid display prototyping software used to design and test new display concepts for cockpits and space vehicles. She is also assistant research professor, Adelphi University, where she teaches courses on advanced research design and execution. Previously, as an employee of Eclectech Associates, a division of Ship Analytics, she was assistant program manager and research director at the Computer Aided Operations Research Facility (CAORF) of the U.S. Maritime Academy. While at CAORF, she conducted and supervised research in simulation training, simulation fidelity, layout of bridge instrumentation, design of navigational aids, design of ports and harbors including the Panama Canal simulation study, watchstanding fatigue, and work scheduling. Her consultancies have included research on watchstanding officer workload for the SUSAN ship simulation facility in Hamburg, an ongoing study of drug-induced fatigue on worker productivity, and numerous research in experimental methods, statistics, and programming. She has had various other faculty appointments with Adelphi University, the State University of New York at Farmingdale, and Molloy College. Previously she was a research assistant at Adelphi University, the Temple University Medical School, and the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Beadon has authored and coauthored numerous technical reports and published extensively. She is a member of the Human Factors Society, SAE Aerospace, Association for Computing Machinery-Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction, and the Society for Information Display.
PETER H. CRESSY, rear admiral, U.S. Navy (retired), is the chancellor of the University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, and the former president of Massachusetts Maritime Academy. He earned his B.A. from Yale University, his M.S. in systems analysis from the Naval War College, his M.B.A. from the University of
Rhode Island, and his Ed.D. in organizational development from the University of San Francisco. He was a awarded an honorary Ph.D. in organizational psychology by the Pacific Graduate School of Psychology. He has extensive experience in naval training and development and manpower utilization, including a Navy-wide appraisal of training requirements. His naval service included positions as commander, Fleet Air Mediterranean, Naples, Italy; director, Total Force Training and Education Policy Division; and director, Naval Aviation Training and Manpower Division, Washington, D.C.; commanding officer, Anti-Submarine Warfare Training Group Atlantic; commanding officer, Patrol Wing Five; and various legislative and U.S. State Department assignments. He has also taught courses for the Navy and at nine colleges and universities and developed curriculum publications. He sits on the academic board of the Pacific Graduate School of Psychology and chairs several marine boards and seaport councils in Massachusetts. He completed naval service as rear admiral.
DOWARD G. DOUWSMA is a principal in the Grafton Group, Gainesville, Georgia, where he specializes in organizational strategy and development. He is also associate professor of business administration at Brenau University where he teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in corporate strategy and marketing. He earned his B.A. in political science and economics at North Central College, his M.B.A. in strategic systems management at Baldwin Wallace College, and his Ph.D. in organization and management at The Union Institute. He has consulted in simulation-based learning for the Maritime Training and Research Center, Toledo Ohio; the Maritime Institute of Technology and Graduate Studies, Linthicum Heights, Maryland; and nonmaritime firms including General Motors Corp., Midland Ross Corp., and Pickands Mather and Co. He developed and presented vessel/bridge resource management courses for U.S.and foreign-flag fleets as well as the U.S. Coast Guard. He has conducted funded research using simulation for government agencies. He served as an intelligence officer in the U.S. Navy during the Vietnam conflict. Dr.Douwsma has authored and coauthored a number of articles and has made presentations of national and international focus on the use of shiphandling simulation for training and waterway design, including the l99l Transportation Research Board annual meeting. His memberships include the Association for Management of Organization Design, the Society of Computer Simulation, and the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (affiliate member).
PHYLLIS J. KAYTEN is scientific and technical advisor for human factors at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). She is currently assigned to the NASA Ames Research Center, Palo Alto, California, where she functions as liaison between the FAA and NASA on human factors issues and research. She earned her B.A. in psychology from Brandeis University and M.A. and Ph.D. in development psychology from the State University of New York at Stony Brook. She provides highly specialized scientific and technical advice and guidance in aviation human factors development programs, including training system design,
control and display design for cockpit and air traffic control systems, personnel selection, workload, impact of automation and new technology on human performance, and selection criteria measurement of individual and group performance. Previously, Dr. Kayten was special assistant to John Lauber, member, National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), for whom she provided technical support on human factors issues in transportation accidents. She earlier served as human performance investigator on the NTSB staff for on-scene investigation of railroad, highway, marine, and aviation accidents, including examination of training and operation factors on human performance. Prior to these positions, Dr. Kayten was research analyst for human-computer interface and simulator training validation at Ship Analytics. She designed and conducted research at the Computer Aided Operations Research Facility that provided the basis for Coast Guard accreditation of simulator training of Merchant Marine Academy cadets as equivalent to a portion of the required sea time for deck officer licensure. Dr. Kayten has authored and coauthored a number of technical reports and papers.
GAVAN LINTERN is associate professor and associate head, Aviation Research Laboratory, Institute of Aviation, University of Illinois, where he instructs on human factors, engineering psychology, and cognitive science. He received his B.A. in psychology and mathematics and M.S. in psychology and mathematical statistics from the University of Melbourne, Australia, and his Ph.D. in engineering psychology and computer science from the University of Illinois. He specializes in flight training research. His research includes the impact of simulator design features, such as visual scene detail, and training effectiveness and the value of special instruction, such as part-task training, to flight training. He has been a principal investigator for Canyon Research Group with the U.S. Navy's Visual Technology Research Simulator, Naval Training Equipment Center, and has worked as an experimental psychologist in human factors with the Aeronautical Research Laboratory in Australia. He also served 11 years with the Australian Army. Professor Lintern has published extensively. He is on the editorial board of Human factors and is a member of the Human Factors Society and the International Society for Ecological Psychology.
DANIEL H. MacELREVEY is a senior pilot with the Panama Canal Commission. He is also a principal in Offshore Services Company, a consulting firm specializing in shiphandling, training, marine technical writing, and services, as an expert advisor for admiralty law cases involving shiphandling and vessel operations. He earned his B.S. (cum laude) in nautical science from the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy. He served progressively from third mate to chief mate aboard vessels of the Moore-McCormack Lines and qualified for a master's license (oceans, any tonnage) in 1970. He qualified as Panama Canal pilot (all waters, any tonnage) in 1972. He has participated in a number of computer-based simulations. He subsequently served ashore and afloat with El Paso Marine Company for four years, including command of one of that company's LNG
ships. Earlier, Captain MacElrevey authored Shiphandling for the Mariner, a leading book on the art of shiphandling presently in its third edition. He also authored numerous manuals and guides on shiphandling, marine operations, and training and watchkeeping for El Paso Marine Company and the Panama Canal Commission, along with various other marine publications. Captain MacElverey served as an officer in the U.S. Naval Reserve. Memberships include the Council of American Master Mariners; the Pilot Division of the International Organization of Masters, Mates, and Pilots; and the Panama Canal Pilot's Association.
EDMOND L. MANDIN American President Lines (APL) (retired), received his B.S. in nautical science from the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy. He provides marine operations consulting services to APL and other clients. Captain Mandin joined APL in 1948, and was assigned as master in 1961. He commanded 17 APL ships on worldwide trade routes. Appointed marine superintendent in 1987, he initiated and implemented companywide deck department personnel standards, produced and instituted training criteria, developed bridge team management and emergency response team underway training, and contributed to the development of a pilotage training curriculum. He also originated and implemented a system of vessel handling in heavy weather through applied meteorology, wave motion, and ship response techniques. His memberships include the International Organization of Masters, Mates, and Pilots and Council of American Master Mariners, of which he was a founding member of a local chapter.
ROBERT J. MEURN is currently full professor, Department of Marine Transportation, U.S. Merchant Marine Academy (USMMA), Kings Point, New York. Master mariner and captain, U.S. Naval Reserve (retired), Professor Meurn received his B.S. in nautical science from the USMMA and his M.A. in higher education from the George Washington University. He taught at the Texas Maritime Academy, was commandant of cadets and executive officer of the TS Texas Clipper, and was selected by the USMMA as teacher of the year in 1978. In 1981 he initiated the first watchstanding course in the United States for cadets, using the Computer Aided Operations Research Facility simulator. In 1983 he was honored again as teacher of the year at USMMA, where he served as head, Nautical Science Division. He coauthored the second edition of Marine Cargo Operations in 1985 and authored Watchstanding Guide for the Merchant Officer in 1990 and Survival Guide for the Mariner in 1993. In 1995 he was the recipient of the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bronze Medal award for his contributions to safety in marine transportation. Professor Meurn has sailed with U.S. Lines, Farrell Lines, American Export Lines, Moore-McCormack Lines, Grace Lines, and the Military Sealift Command as relief master and chief mate. His memberships include the International Marine Simulation Forum, International Radar and Navigation Simulator Lecturers' Conference, Maritime Training Advisory Board, the International Cargo Handling Coordination Association, and the International Maritime Lecturers Association.
J. NICHOLAS NEWMAN, NAE, is professor of naval architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He received his S.B. in naval architecture and marine engineering, S.M. in naval architecture and marine engineering, and Sc.D. in theoretical hydrodynamics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Prior to joining the MIT faculty in 1967, he was a research naval architect with the David Taylor Research Center and adjunct professor, American University. His primary scientific contributions include theoretical and computational studies applicable to the interactions of ocean waves with ships and offshore platforms and wave resistance of ships. Other contributions include performance of sailing vessels, theoretical studies of maneuvering performance of ships in confined waters, and algorithms for use in navigation. He chaired the International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies in 1986 and 1988. Dr. Newman published Marine Hydrodynamics in 1977; he has also authored numerous other papers. He is a fellow of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers and of the Royal Institutions of Naval Architects. He is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a foreign member of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.
RICHARD A. SUTHERLAND, U.S. Coast Guard (retired), received his B.S. in engineering from the U.S. Coast Guard Academy. Captain Sutherland completed 30 years of Coast Guard service in 1988, as chief, Marine Safety Division in the Eighth Coast Guard District. During his Coast Guard service, he specialized in merchant marine safety and marine licensing. While serving as chief, Merchant Vessel Personnel Division, Office of Marine Safety, he managed the marine licensing program, including federal and Great Lakes pilotage, established national policies that permitted use of shiphandling simulation to gain sea-time equivalency required in marine licensing, and instituted computer-based record storage in the marine licensing program. He also headed U.S. delegations to five international meetings and served as technical advisor for seven additional meetings of the International Maritime Organization. Captain Sutherland served five years afloat in deck and engineering assignments.