APPENDIX A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members
J. Bradford Mooney, Jr., NAE (chair), is former president of Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution and an ocean engineering and research management consultant to universities and industry. He retired from the U.S. Navy as rear admiral in 1987. His Navy career included assignments as chief of naval research, oceanographer of the Navy, and naval deputy to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). His extensive prior experience in submarines and submersible vehicles included roles as a Navy deep submergence vehicle hydronaut; pilot of the Trieste II vehicle in the successful 1963 search for the sunken U.S. Navy submarine Thresher at a depth of 3,500 meters; coordinator of diving and submersible operations below 100 meters in the search and recovery of an H-bomb off Palomares, Spain, in 1966; officer in tactical command of a task force involved in the successful recovery of a classified object from a depth of 5,000 meters in the mid-Pacific in 1972; and founder of the Navy's first fleet operational deep submergence command. He received his B.S. degree from the U.S. Naval Academy and pursued postgraduate management studies at George Washington and Harvard Universities. Admiral Mooney was a member of the Marine Board and the Mine Countermeasures Study of the Naval Studies Board. He also has served on other National Research Council (NRC) boards.
John R. Apel recently retired from the Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University, where he was the principal staff physicist and chief scientist at the Milton S. Eisenhower Research Center. Previously, Dr. Apel served as director and supervisory oceanographer at NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory and earlier was director at NOAA's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratories' Ocean Remote Sensing Laboratory. Also during his directorship with NOAA's Pacific Laboratory, he was affiliate professor of oceanography and affiliate professor of atmospheric sciences at the University of Washington, Seattle. Dr. Apel's research interests focus on geophysical fluid dynamics and nonlinear internal waves, Gulf Stream waves and instabilities, ocean remote sensing, and electromagnetic scatter from the ocean surface. He has served on many NRC committees and boards, including the NRC's Committee on Earth Sciences (June 1989 through June 1991), as well as on several satellite oceanography planning committees for NASA and the Office of Naval Research. Dr. Apel received his B.S. and M.S. degrees in physics from the University of Maryland and a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Johns Hopkins University.
Robert H. Cannon, Jr., NAE, is Charles Lee Powell Professor (and was chairman 1979–1991), Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University. Previously, he was professor of engineering and chairman, Division of Engineering and Applied Science, California Institute of Technology, and associate professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Dr. Cannon also served as assistant secretary of transportation and chief scientist, U.S. Air Force. Earlier in his career, he contributed to advances in aircraft autopilots and contributed to gyro and stable-platform development for the polar voyages of the U.S. Navy submarines Nautilus and Skate. He received his B.S. degree from the University of Rochester in 1944 and D.Sc. from MIT in 1950, after serving as a naval officer. His research concerned a hydrofoil sailboat that held the unofficial world speed record for sailing. Dr. Cannon was a member of the NRC's Ocean Studies Board (until June 1995), has served on several other NRC boards, and was chairman of the Assembly of Engineering. He is currently working with Ph.D. students conducting experimental research studies in human strategic-level control of free-flying robots in space and under the ocean.
John R. Delaney is director of the Volcano Systems Center and professor of oceanography at the University of Washington, Seattle. He began his career in the mining industry searching for base and precious mineral deposits in Canada and the Western United States. He joined the faculty in Seattle in 1977 and has been chief scientist on more than 20
major seagoing expeditions, using a number of undersea vehicles to study deep sea volcanic activity at mid-ocean ridges. In 1987, Professor Delaney led an National Academy of Sciences workshop on interdisciplinary research related to spreading centers on the seafloor; the National Science Foundation-supported Ridge Initiative grew out of that event, and Professor Delaney served as the first chair of the steering committee from 1988 to 1992. His current research is focused on establishing long-term seafloor observations. He received a B.A. from Lehigh University, an M.S. from the University of Virginia, and a Ph.D. from the University of Arizona.
Norman B. Estabrook of Science Application International Corporation was formerly director of Ocean Engineering for the Naval Command, Control, and Ocean Surveillance Center, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Division Naval Research and Development Section (NR&D), in San Diego, California. At NR&D, he was responsible for leading 88 engineers and scientists in the development of non-crewed vehicles systems, fiber-optic microcable systems, work systems, mine countermeasures vehicles, surveillance arrays, and related technologies. Mr. Estabrook has had more than 30 years of service involving developing, installing, and field testing many types of undersea systems, including the Navy's SEA LAB III, the acrylic-hulled manned submersible Makakai, research on the Navy's underwater work systems package, engineering support of Submarine Development Group One (the Navy's advanced manned submersible field test operation), and project management of the Advanced Unmanned Search System (autonomous vehicle). His experience largely parallels that of the late Howard Talkington, whom he replaced on this committee. Mr. Estabrook received an M.S. in aerospace engineering from the University of Southern California and a B.S. in engineering from the University of California at Los Angeles. He has completed predoctoral studies at the University of Hawaii. He is author of more than 15 major technical papers on ocean engineering topics.
Larry L. Gentry recently retired from Lockheed Martin Marine Systems, where he was responsible for undersea vehicle programs and the development of advanced energy systems, materials, and sensor technologies for underseas equipment, including numerous advanced technologies used in developing underwater vehicles unoccupied by humans. Mr. Gentry has more than 30 years of experience in subsea and offshore engineering and program management, including applying aerospace technologies to the marine environment. His recent activities have focused on developing autonomous vehicles for the Navy and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Earlier work involved developing seafloor work and subsea maintenance vehicles for use by the offshore oil industry, as well as developing seafloor cable laying systems and pipeline pull-in systems. He began his marine career as a commissioned officer and a diver in the U.S. Navy. Mr. Gentry received a B.S. from Oregon State University and an M.S. from San Jose State University, both in electrical engineering. He was a member of the Marine Board until June 30, 1992.
James R. McFarlane is president and founder of International Submarine Engineering (ISE). Since 1975 he has directed the design, construction, and operation of tethered and untethered remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) and the development of autonomous vehicles. Previously, he served as vice president of engineering and operations of International Hydrodynamics, where he was responsible for ROV development, construction, testing and operations. Prior to that, his 18-year career as an officer in the Canadian Armed Forces included assignments as senior structural engineer and staff officer on the staff of the Canadian Naval Submarine Technical Representatives, and as project manager for the SDL-1 diver lockout submersible. He is a founding member of the Canadian Academy of Engineering. He has authored numerous technical papers on submarines, human-occupied submersibles, ROVs, and autonomous vehicles. He received his B.Sc. degree in mechanical engineering from the University of New Brunswick, an M.S. in naval architecture and marine engineering, and a degree in naval engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He received honorary Doctor of Engineering degrees from Canada's Royal Military College and the University of Victoria, an honorary Doctor of Military Science from Royal Roads Military Academy, and an honorary Doctor of Science from the University of New Brunswick.
Andrew L. "Drew" Michel is the founder of ROV Technologies, Inc., which provides engineering services in the area of remote underwater intervention to oil companies and other major organizations worldwide. He has more than 30 years of experience with ROV systems and associated technology. As vice president and manager of a large undersea service company from 1966 to 1986, he was responsible for some of the earliest development and operations of electronics and ROV systems in commercial use. In his current position as technical director of ROV technologies, he supervises the work of engineers and ROV specialists on the nation's deepest oil and gas projects. He is chairman of the Marine Technology Society ROV Committee and a senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.
Bruce H. Robison is senior scientist and science chairman of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. His research interests are focused on deep sea ecology and applying advanced submersible technology to oceanographic research. A qualified manned submersible pilot, he has dived in 12 different research submersibles and is a regular user of ROVs. He led the Deep Rover expedition, the first program to use submersibles to study California's
Monterey Submarine Canyon, in 1985. He received his B.S. degree from Purdue University; an M.S. from the College of William and Mary; and Ph.D. from Stanford University. He was also a postdoctoral fellow at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
Mary I. Scranton is a professor at the State University of New York, Stony Brook, where she has been associated since 1979. Previously, she was a National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council Resident Research Associate at the Naval Research Laboratory. Her research interests focus on the interaction between biological and chemical processes in the ocean, particularly on the initial and final stages of carbon degradation in water and sediments. She was a member of the Alvin Review Committee (renamed the Deep Submergence Science Committee), operating under the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System. In 1994, she was the first woman to dive in the Navy DSV NR-1. She received her B.A. degree in chemistry from Mount Holyoke College and a Ph.D. in oceanography from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Joint Program.
Peter H. Wiebe is senior scientist and department chairman at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, where he has held various positions since 1969. In 1968 and 1969, he was a postdoctoral fellow at Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University. His research interests include the small-scale spatial distribution of oceanic zooplankton and the transfer of energy to deep sea populations by sinking large particles of particulate organic matter from surface waters. He received his B.S. degree in zoology/mathematics from Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, and his Ph.D. in biological oceanography from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
Dana R. Yoerger is an associate scientist at the Deep Submergence Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics and Engineering, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. His major interests include underwater vehicles and manipulators. He is a principal in the design and application of Argo/Jason, a telerobotic system designed for seafloor survey, and ABE, an autonomous vehicle used for long-term monitoring of the deep ocean. He has participated in numerous oceanographic cruises, including the discovery of the Titanic, the full-scale dynamic testing of the Argo system, and the deep ocean deployment of the Jason vehicle and manipulator. He has published papers on vehicle and tether dynamics, the application of modern nonlinear and adaptive control techniques to underwater vehicle operation, supervisory control methodologies, and underwater manipulator design and performance. He received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in mechanical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.