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Suggested Citation:"G. Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 1996. The Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory's Thyroid Function Study: A Radiological Risk and Ethical Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5106.
Page 99
Suggested Citation:"G. Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 1996. The Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory's Thyroid Function Study: A Radiological Risk and Ethical Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5106.
Page 100

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Appendix G Biographical Sketches of Committee Members Chester M. Pierce earned his AB from Harvard College and his MD from Harvard Medical School and has received honorary Doctorates of Science from Westfield College and Tufts University. He is a professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. He was the Chairman of the ad hoc Committee on Polar Biomedicine of the National Research Council's Polar Research Board in the 19SOs, andhas been the U.S. delegate for the National Academy of Sciences to the international Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research's Working Group on Human Biology and Medical Science since 1977. Dr. Pierce is Past President of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences and is a recipient of the Special Recognition Award from the National Medical Association as well as having been made an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. He also has a geographic feature in Antarctica named for hen Pierce Peak. -David R. Baines earned his BS from Arizona State University and his MD from the Mayo Medical School. He is a Board Certified family practitioner in private practice at St. Maries Family Medicine Clinic in St. Maries, Idaho. He has been President of the Executive Board of the Association of American Indian Physicians, he is the current Chair of the Ad Hoc Committee on Minority Populations at the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health, and is a recipient of the 1993 Gentle Giant of Medicine Award from G.D. SearIe & Company. He was selected for the 1995 United States Public Health Service Primary Care Fellowship and was also selected to be on the Graduate Training and Family Medicine Review Committee in the Division of Medicine, Bureau of Health Professions of the Health Resources and Services Administration. He is on the Commission on Membership and Member Services of the American Academy of Family Physicians and is a member of the National Research Council, Polar Research Board, and is a consultant to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Department of Health and Human Services. He is a member of the Tlingit and Tsunpshian Tribes of Alaska and works on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation in Idaho. Dr Baines frequently lectures on how he incorporates his culture and traditional beliefs into his practice of modern medicine. 99

100 The ALL Thyroid Function Study Inder J. Chopra received his MB, BS ('61), and MD ('65) from the All India Institute of Medical Science. He received his American Board diploma in Internal Medicine in 1 972 and his certification in endocrinology in 1973. He is a licensed physician in the State of California. He is a Professor of Medicine, School of Medicine at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and a staff physician at the Center for Health Science at UCLA. He is the recipient of the Van Meter-Annour and the Parke-Davis Awards from the American Thyroid Association, the Ernst Oppenhenner Memorial Award from the American Endocrine Society. He is a Fellow of the American College of Physicians, as well as a member of the American Thyroid Association and the Endocrine Society. Nancy M. P. King is Associate Professor of Social Medicine at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine. She received her BA from St. John's College and her ID from the University of North Carolina School of Law. She is a member of the Maryland Bar and the North Carolina Bar. Professor King teaches legal, social, and ethical issues to medical students as part of a comprehensive social medicine curriculum at UNC. Her research interests center on the study of roles and responsibilities in health care decisions, including issues related to infonned consent, neonatal intensive care, the development and use of experimental technologies, and decisionmaking at the end of life. She is a collaborating author of A History and Theory of Informed Consent, and has written about informed consent and decisionmaking in health care treatment and research in the health law and medical ethics literature. A revised edition of her book, Making Sense of Advance Directives, will be published by Georgetown University Press in 1996. Kenneth L. Mossman received his BS from Wayne State University in Biology, his MS and PhD from the University of Tennessee in Radiation Biology, and MEd from the University of Maryland in Education Policy, Planning, and Administration. From 1990 to 1992 he served as Assistant Vice President for Research at Arizona State University. He is currently Professor, Department of Microbiology, Arizona State University. He is a recipient of the Elda E. Anderson and the Marie Curie Gold Medal Award from the Health Physics Society and is the Health Physics Society's Past President. Dr. Mossman was elected fellow of the Health Physics Society in 1994.

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During the 1950s, with the Cold War looming, military planners sought to know more about how to keep fighting forces fit and capable in the harsh Alaskan environment. In 1956 and 1957, the U.S. Air Force's former Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory conducted a study of the role of the thyroid in human acclimatization to cold. To measure thyroid function under various conditions, the researchers administered a radioactive medical trace, Iodine-131, to Alaska Natives and white military personnel; based on the study results, the researchers determined that the thyroid did not play a significant role in human acclimatization to cold.

When this study of thyroid function was revisited at a 1993 conference on the Cold War legacy in the Arctic, serious questions were raised about the appropriateness of the activity--whether it posed risks to the people involved and whether the research had been conducted within the bounds of accepted guidelines for research using human participants. In particular, there was concern over the relatively large proportion of Alaska Natives used as subjects and whether they understood the nature of the study. This book evaluates the research in detail, looking at both the possible health effects of Iodine-131 administration in humans and the ethics of human subjects research. This book presents conclusions and recommendations and is a significant addition to the nation's current reevaluation of human radiation experiments conducted during the Cold War.

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