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Suggested Citation:"5 References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 1996. The Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory's Thyroid Function Study: A Radiological Risk and Ethical Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5106.
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Suggested Citation:"5 References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 1996. The Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory's Thyroid Function Study: A Radiological Risk and Ethical Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5106.
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Page 68
Suggested Citation:"5 References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 1996. The Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory's Thyroid Function Study: A Radiological Risk and Ethical Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5106.
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Page 69
Suggested Citation:"5 References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 1996. The Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory's Thyroid Function Study: A Radiological Risk and Ethical Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5106.
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Page 70
Suggested Citation:"5 References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 1996. The Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory's Thyroid Function Study: A Radiological Risk and Ethical Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5106.
×
Page 71
Suggested Citation:"5 References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 1996. The Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory's Thyroid Function Study: A Radiological Risk and Ethical Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5106.
×
Page 72
Suggested Citation:"5 References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 1996. The Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory's Thyroid Function Study: A Radiological Risk and Ethical Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5106.
×
Page 73
Suggested Citation:"5 References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 1996. The Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory's Thyroid Function Study: A Radiological Risk and Ethical Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5106.
×
Page 74

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References Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. Government Printing Office, Pittsburgh, PA. 1995. Final Report. U.S. Ad hoc Committee on Polar Biomedical Research, Polar Research Board. 1982. Polar Biomedical Research: Appendix Polar Medicine-A Literature Review. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Ahmed, S.R., and S.M. Shalet. 1985. Gonadal damage due to radioactive iodine (~3~) treatment for thyroid carcinoma. Postgrad Med ~ 61:361-2. American Cancer Society, Inc. 1995. Cancer Facts & Figures-1993. American Cancer Society, Inc., Atlanta, GA. Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. 1957. Report of Operations, July i, 1956 to December 3l, 1955. U.S. Air Force, Alaska Air Command, Fairbanks, AK. Baeumier, G.R. 1986. Radioactive iodine uptake by breasts (letter). ~ Nuc} Med 27:149-51. Bagchi, N., T.R. Brown, and P.F. Parish. 1990. Thyroid dysfunction in adults over age 55 years. A study in an urban US Community. Arch Intern Med 150: 785-7. Bauer, F., W.E. Goodwin, R.~. Libby, and B. Cassen. 1953. The diagnosis of morphologic abnormalities of the human thyroid gland by means of l]3~. Radiology 61:935-37. Baker, T.G. 1971. Radiosensitivity of mammalian oocytes with particular reference to the human female. Am ~ Obstet Gyneco! Il0:746-61. Beauchamp, T., and I. Childress. 1994. Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ea., chapter 6. Oxford University Press, New York. 67

68 The AAL Thyroid Function Study Bland, W.H., 1965. In Nuclear Medicine, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York. Brown, H., and Hatcher, C.H. 1953. Acclimatization to Cold, Metabolic and Vascular Studies. Proceedings XIX International Physiology Congress, p. 240. Burch, E. 1976. "Nunamiat Concept and the Standardization of Error in Contributions to Anthropology: The Interior Peoples of Northern Alaska. Edwin S. Hall, Ir., editor. Mercury Series. Archaeological Survey Paper 49. Canada National Museum of Man, Ottawa, pp. 52-97. Chance, N. 1961. Conceptual and Methodological Problems in Cross-Cultural Health Research. Proceedings of Twelfth Alaskan Science Conference. Alaska Division of American Association for the Advancement of Science, pp. 14-6. Chapman, E.M. 1983. History of the discovery and early use of radioactive iodine. lAMA, v. 250: p. 2042-4. Chopra, A. 1991. Nature, sources, and relative biologic significance of circulating thyroid hormones. In Werner and Ingbar's "The Thyroid" ME. Braverman and R.D. Utiger, eds), I.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, p. 127143. Chopra, I.~., and D.H. Solomon. 1979. Thyroid function tests and their alterations by drugs. In The Thyroid, Physiology and Treatment of Disease AM. Hershman and G.A. Bray, eds.), Pergamon Press, New York, p. 105-137. Clark, D.E. 1956. Proceedings of the Conference on Radioiodine, November 5 and 6, 1956, Chicago, Illinois. University of Chicago. Cooper, D.S., A.. Cevallos, R. Houston, N. Chagnon, and P.W. Ladenson. 1993. The thyroid status of the Yanomano Indians of southern Venezuela. ~ Clin Endocrino] Metab 77: 878-80. Cox, P.H., I.G.M., Klinj, M. Bontebal, and D.H.W. Schonfeld. 1990. Uterine radiation dose from open sources: The potential for underestimation. Eur ~ Nuc! Med 17:94-5. Department of Energy. 1995. Human Radiation Experiments: The Department of Energy Roadmap to the Story and: the Records. NatI. Tech. Tnfo. Service, Springfield, Virginia. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Food and Drug Administration, Radioactive Drugs and Radioactive Biological Products. July 25, 1975. Fed Reg 40:31308-9. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. 1979. Belmont Report.

References 69 Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration. 1990. Radioactive Drugs for Certain Research Uses. 21 CFR 361.1, revised April 1993. Dick, M., and F. Watson. 1980. Prevalent low serum thyroxine-binding globulin level in Western Australian aborigines: its effect on thyroid function tests. Med ~ Aust 1: ~ 156-~. Drury, H., M. Hall, R. Glisczinski R. and I. Spence. 1956. Nutritional Survey at Anaktuvuk Pass. Proceedings of the VII Alaskan Science Conference, pp. 95-6. Dydek, G.J., and P.W. Blue. 1988. Human breast milk excretion of Ii3i following diagnostic and therapeutic administration to a lactating patient with Graves' disease. ~ Nucl Med 29:407-10. Edmonds, C.J., and T. Smith. 1986. The long-term hazards of the treatment of thyroid cancer with radioiodine. Br J Radiol 59:45-51. Faden, R., T. Beauchamp, and N. King. 1986. A History and Theory of Informed Consent, Oxford University Press, New York. Federal Common Rule §111(a)(1)-(2). 1991. Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, Fed Reg' vol. 56, 116. pp: 28016-17. Garcia, B. 1994. Social-psychological dilemmas and coping of atomic veterans. Am Orthopsychiatry-64(4) :651-55. Green, H.G. et al. 1971. Cretinism associated with maternal sodium iodidet3i therapy during pregnancy. Am ~ Dis Child 122:247-9. Greenspan, F.S., B. Rapoport. 1983. Thyroid gland, In Basic and Clinical Endocrinology (F.S. Greenspan and P.H. Forsham eds.). Lange Medical Publications, Los Altos, Californ~a, p. 120-186. Hanson, W.C. 1967. Cesiumi37 in Alaska lichens, Caribou and Eskimos. Health Phys 13:383-9. Hanson, W.C. 1971. i37Cs: seasonal patterns in Native residents of three contrasting Alaskan villages. Health Phys v22:39-42. Hanson, W.C. 1982. i37Cs concentrations in Northern Alaska Eskimos, 1962-79: Effects of Ecological, Cultural and Political Factors. Health Phy v42:433-47. Hanson, W.C. 1994. Radioactive Contamination in Arctic Tundra Ecosystems. In: Workshop on Arctic Contamination, May 2-7, 1993, Anchorage, Alaska. Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee, pp.198-206.

70 The CAL Thyroid Functiorl Study Hedrick, W.R., R.N. DiSimone, and R.L. Keen. 1987. Radiation dosimetry from breast milk excretion of }~23. ~ Nuc} Med 28:544-45. Hendee, W.R., 1993. History, current status, and trends of radiation protection standards. Med Phy 20:1303-14. Holm, L.E., K.E. Wiklund, G.E. Lundell, N.A. Bergman, G. Bjelkengren, E.S. Cederquist, U.B.C. Ericsson, L.G. Larsson, M.E. Lidberg, R.S. Lindberg, H.V. Wicklund, and I.D. Boice, Ir. 1988. Thyroid cancer after diagnostic doses of iodinei3~: A retrospective cohort study. INCT 80: ~ 132-38. Hopkins, C., C. Dotter, and H. Griswold. 1958. Longitudinal Medical-Anthropological Observations of the Northwestern Coastal Eskimo of Alaska, with Special Emphasis on Cardiovascular Disease. Proceedings of Ninth Alaskan Science Conference. Alaska Division of American Association for the Advancement of Science, pp. 120-131. Tjsselmuiden, C.B., and R.R. Faden. 1992. Research and Informed Consent in Africa Another Look. New England ~ Med v. 326 pp.830-3. Journal ofthe American MedicalAssociation (JAMA). 1958. JAMA published the AMA's 1957 Principles of Medical Ethics and Opinions and Reports of the Judicial Council on December 2S, 1946. Lanier, A.P., J.J. Kelly, B. Smith, C. Amadon, R. Harpster, H. Peters, and H. Tanttila. 1994. Cancer in the Alaska Native population: Eskuno, Aleut, and Indian, incidence and trends 1969-1988. Alaska Med. v36~:5-87. L`aughlin, W. 1957. Blood Groups of the Anaqtuavik Eskimos, Alaska. Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, Ladd Air Force Base, Alaska, Technical Report 57-S. Lawes, S.C. 1992. li23 excretion in breast mi~- additional data. Nucl Med Co~ 13:570-3. Leblond, G., and I. Gross 1943. Thyroidectomy on resistance to low enviro~ental temperature. Endocrinology. v33:155. Leblond, G., J. Gross, W. Peacock, and R. Evans. 1944. Metabolism of radio-iodine in the thyroids of rats exposed to high or low temperature. Am ~ Phy vI40:671. Marsh, G. 1954. Comparative Survey of the Esk~o-Aleut Religions. Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska. Volume 5~. Meehan, I. 1955. Individual and Racial Variations in a Vascular Response to Cold Stimulus. Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, Ladd Air Force Base, Alaska, Project 7-7953, Report No. i.

References Milan, F. 1962. The Acculturation of the Contemporary Eskimo of Wainwright, Alaska. Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska. Volume 11(2). 71 Morrow, P. 1992. Culture and communication in the Alaskan courtroom-A place to be made to talk. Arctic ~ US 6:65-70. Mossman, K.L. 1992. Radiation protection of human subjects in research protocols. In: Mossman KE and Mill WA eds. The Biological Basis of Radiation Protection Practice. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 255-61. NAS (National Academy of Sciences). 1990. BEIR V. Health Elects of Exposure to Low Levels of ionizing Radiation. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. NCRP (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements). 1989. Exposure of the U. S. Population from Diagnostic Medical Radiation. NCRP Report No. 100. NCRP, Bethesda, MD. NCRP (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements). 1985. Induction of Thyroid Cancer by Ionizing Radiation. NCRP Report No. 80. NCRP, Bethesda, MD. National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. 1979. The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research. Washington, D.C.: Public Heal Service. Nuremberg Code. 1946. Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10: Nuremberg, October 1946-April 1949. Washington. Government Printing Office (n.~.), vol. 2, pp:ISI-2. President's Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experunents Interun Report. October 2l, 1994. 41 pp. plus appendices. Quimby, E.H., S. Feitelberg, and S. Silver. 1958. In Radioactive Isotopes in Clinical Practice, Lea and Felsiger, Philadelphia. Rail, I.E. 1956. The role of radioactive iodine in the diagnosis of thyroid disease. Am Med 20:719-31. Rail, I.E. 1957. Radiation and the medical profession (editorial). AMA Arch Intern Med: 100:347-52. Reed, Em., D. Brice, K.M. Mohamed Shakir, K.D. Burman, M.M. D'Alesandro, and I.T. O' Brian 1990. Decreased Free Fraction of Thyroid Hormones After Prolonged Antarctic Residence. I. Appl. Physiol. 69:1467-90.

72 The ALL Thyroid Function Study Reed, H.L., E.D. Silverman, K.M. Mohamed Shakir, R. Dons, K.D. Burman, and J.T. O'Brian. 1990. Changes in serum triiodothyronine (T3) kinetics after prolonged Antarctic residence: The polar T3 syndrome. J Clin Endocrino] Metab 70:965-74. Rodahl, K. 1952. Basal Metabolism of the Eskimo. Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, Ladd Air Force Base, Alaska Project. 22-1301-001, part 2. Rodahl, K. 1954. Studies on the Blood and Blood Pressure in the Eskimo and the Significance of Ketosis Under Arctic Conditions. Norsk Polar Institute, Skrifter, No. 102. Rodahl, K. 1962. Last of the Few. Harper and Row, New York. Rodahl, K. 1957. Human Acclunatization to Cold. Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory Technical Report 57-21. Ladd Air Force Base. Rodahl, K., and G. Bang. 1956a. Endemic Goiter in Alaska. Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, Ladd Air Force Base, Alaska, Technical Report AAL-TN-56-9. Rodahl, K., and G. Bang. 1956b. Endemic Goiter in Alaska. Proceedings of Seventh Alaskan Science Conference. Alaska Division of American Association for the Advancement of Science, pp. 101-2. Rodahl, K., and G. Bang. 1957. Thyroid Activity in Men Exposed to Cold. Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, Ladd Air Force Base, Alaska, Technical Report 57-36. Rodahl, K., and D. Rennie. 1957. Comparative Sweat Rates of Eskunos and Caucasians Under Controlled Conditions. Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, Ladd Air Force Base, Alaska, Project 8-7951-18, Report No. 7. Romney, B., E.~. Kickoloff, and P.D. Easer. 1989. Excretion of radioiodine in breast milk (editorial). J Nucl Med 30:124-6. Ron, E., J. Lubin, R. Shore, et al. 1995. Thyroid cancer after exposure to external radiation: A pooled analysis of seven studies. Radiat Res 141:259-77. Schectman, J.M., G.A. Kallenberg, R.P. Hirsch, and R.J. Schumacher. 1991. Report of an association between race and thyroid stunulating hormone level. Am i Public Health 81 :505-6, Science Magazine. 1953. The Problem of E'cperimentation on Human Beings. February 27, 1953.

References 73 Shepard, T.H. 1967. Onset of function in the human fetal thyroid: Biochemical and radioautographic studies from organ culture. ~ Clin Endocrinol Metab 27:945-58. Shore, R. 1992. Issues and epidemiological evidence regarding radiation-induced thyroid cancer. Radial Res 131 :98-~! l. Shore, R.E., L.H. Hempelmann, and E.D. Woodard. 1986. Carcinogenic effects of radiation on the human thyroid gland. In: AC Upton, RE Albert, F] Burns, and RE Shore, eds. Radiation Carcinogenesis Elsevier, New York, pp. 293-309. Simpson, C.~., L.H. Hempelmann, and L.M. Fuller. 1955. Neoplasia in children treated with x-rays in infancy for thymic enlargement. Radiology 64:840-5. Slater, P.E., I.D. Kark, Y. Friedlander, and N.A. Kaufman. 1984. Determinants of thyroid hormone and thyroid lipid interrelationships in lerusalem. Tr i Med Sci 20: Il58-63. Spencer, R. 1984. North Alaska Coast Eskimo. In: Handbook of North American Indians' vol.S. Arctic. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, pp. 320-37. Stabin, M., E.E. Watson, C.S. Marcus, and R. Salk. 1991. "Radiation dosunetry for the adult female and fetus from Il31 admin~stration inhyperthyroidism. " ~ Nucl Med; 31:808-~13. Stutzman, C.D., D.M. Nelson, and L.P. Lanier. 1986. Estimates of cancer incidence in Alaskan Natives due to exposure to global radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Alaska Med 28:53-63. Therien, M. 1949. Contribution to the physiology of cold accl~at~zation. Laval Medicine, vol. 4, November 8-9. Tkachev, A.V., E.B. Ramenskaya, and I.R. Bojko. 1991. Dynamics of ho~one and metabolic state in polar inhabitants depend on daylight duration. Arctic Med Res 50 (Suppl 61: 152-5. Air Force. Undated. (U.S. Air Force Alaska Air Command, 1955a, 1955b, 1956a, 1956b, 1957a, 1957b, 1958a). Air Force. 1955a. History of the Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, 1 January 1955-30 June 1955. Alaskan Air Command. Elmendorf Air Force Base, Anchorage, Alaska. U. S. Air Force. 1955b. History of the Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, ~ July 1955-31 December 1955. Alaskan Air Command, Elmendorf Air Force Base, Anchorage, Alaska. U.S. Air Force. 1956a. History of the Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, 1 lanuary 1956-30 June 1956. Alaskan Air Command, Elmendorf Air Force Base, Anchorage, Alaska.

74 The AAL Thyroid Function Study U.~. Air Force. 1956b. History of the Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, ~ July 1956-31 December 1956. Alaskan Air Command, Elmendorf Air Force Base, Anchorage, Alaska. U.S. Air Force. 1957a. History of the Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, ~ January 1957-30 June 1957. Alaskan Air Command, Elmendorf Air Force Base, Anchorage, Alaska. U.S. Air Force. 1957b. History of the Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, ~ July 1957-31 December 1957. Alaskan Air Command, Elmendorf Air Force Base, Anchorage, Alaska. U.S. Air Force. 195Sa. History of the Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, ~ January 1958-30 June 1958. Alaskan Air Command, Elmendorf Air Force Base, Anchorage, Alaska. VanStone, I. 1956. Report on Air Force Eskimo Contacts. Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, Ladd Air Force Base, Alaska, Technical Report 56-15. World Medical Association. 1961 . Declaration of Helsinki.

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During the 1950s, with the Cold War looming, military planners sought to know more about how to keep fighting forces fit and capable in the harsh Alaskan environment. In 1956 and 1957, the U.S. Air Force's former Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory conducted a study of the role of the thyroid in human acclimatization to cold. To measure thyroid function under various conditions, the researchers administered a radioactive medical trace, Iodine-131, to Alaska Natives and white military personnel; based on the study results, the researchers determined that the thyroid did not play a significant role in human acclimatization to cold.

When this study of thyroid function was revisited at a 1993 conference on the Cold War legacy in the Arctic, serious questions were raised about the appropriateness of the activity--whether it posed risks to the people involved and whether the research had been conducted within the bounds of accepted guidelines for research using human participants. In particular, there was concern over the relatively large proportion of Alaska Natives used as subjects and whether they understood the nature of the study. This book evaluates the research in detail, looking at both the possible health effects of Iodine-131 administration in humans and the ethics of human subjects research. This book presents conclusions and recommendations and is a significant addition to the nation's current reevaluation of human radiation experiments conducted during the Cold War.

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