B Committee Activities
In order to cover the topics of our charge, the committee undertook a number of activities—including site visits to relevant field settings and briefings by experts—in addition to full committee meetings, evaluation of reports provided by research and operational centers, and reviews of available research literature. The committee met four times during 1994-1995 at the National Research Council facilities in Washington, D.C., and Irvine, California. These meetings included presentations by the following Army experts to acquaint us with both specific Army interest in particular topics and Army experience and practice:
Dr. Michael Drillings, Army Research Institute
Dr. Edgar M. Johnson, Army Research Institute
Lt. General Theodore G. Stroup, Jr., Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel, U.S. Army
Colonel Michael Shaler (retired), Steamboat Leadership Institute
Dr. Zita Simutos, Army Research Institute
Dr. Alma Steinberg, Army Research Institute
Dr. Steven Zaccaro, George Mason University
Most of the rest of the committee's work was carried out by subcommittees on specific topics. Our subcommittee organization tracks directly to the chapter organization of this report, and members wrote the drafts of chapters.
George P. Huber, Robert L. Kahn, and Harold Van Cott constituted this subcommittee. It convened a roundtable discussion with organizational consultants held at the National Research Council on August 31, 1994. In addition to the subcommittee, participants included Larry Bailey from Coopers & Lybrand, Richard Burton from Duke University, Joyce Doria from Booz, Allen & Hamilton, and Ira Goldstein from Arthur Anderson. It also held a conference call meeting on October 10, 1994, with Robert Keller from Fort Leavenworth on issues of organizational design in the Army.
Techniques For Changing Organizations
Kim S. Cameron and George P. Huber constituted this subcommittee. In addition to reviews of evaluation studies on popular techniques, the members participated in the consultants' roundtable at the National Research Council referred to above.
Janice M. Beyer, Kim S. Cameron, John M. Wattendorf, and Jerome E. Singer constituted this subcommittee. Mary E. Zellmer of the University of Wisconsin prepared a paper reviewing the practitioner literature on organizational cultures. The subcommittee also participated in a conference call discussion on socialization issues coordinated by E.F. Baskin and conducted with the training staff at Anderson Consulting in St. Charles Illinois.
Gary Yukl, David L. DeVries, Myrna H. Williamson, and John Wattendorf constituted this subcommittee. It was briefed by Lt. General (ret.) Thomas Carney on July 28, 1994, at the National Research Council on issues of leadership in the Army. It was briefed on how Army leaders at the lieutenant and captain ranks are trained at the Center for Army Leadership (hosted by Sue Metlan), Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, on September 29-30, 1994. The subcommittee was also briefed on training issues by Bart Michelson at the Industrial College of the Armed Forces (ICAF) in Washington, D.C., on October 25, 1994. This briefing was followed by an interview by Jerome Singer with Dean John Johns at ICAF. A visit to the Army War College at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, on October 28, 1994, hosted by Herbert Barber and attended by Daniel Druckman, Jerome E. Singer, and Harold Van Cott, also provided information on leadership training at the colonel rank. Members were also briefed on the research being conducted by the
staff at the Center for Creative Leadership in Greensboro, North Carolina, on March 21-23, 1995. The subcommittee was joined by Jerome Singer, Harold Van Cott, and Daniel Druckman at this site visit.
W. Warner Burke and Nicole W. Biggart constituted this subcommittee. William E. Siegal of Columbia University assisted in the preparation of the draft chapter on interorganizational relations. Subcommittee members attended the annual meeting of the Association of Researchers in Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action at Berkeley Marina, California, on October 21-22, 1994, and held a conference call discussion about joint service and multilateral operations with Colonel Joseph Tyo of the Army War College at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania. In addition, Jerome Singer and Daniel Druckman were briefed on interorganizational coordination issues by Michael Austin at the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) on December 22, 1995. This meeting was the basis for a conference call discussion between the subcommittee and Michael Austin's staff at FEMA on March 24, 1995.
Paul F. Diehl, Daniel Druckman, and James A. Wall constituted this subcommittee. It was briefed on international peacekeeping issues on a visit to the International Peace Academy hosted by Lt. Colonel Stephen Moffat and at the United Nations arranged by Juergen Dedring and Chris Coleman on August 29, 1994. Briefings on peacekeeping missions were also arranged for the subcommittee by Lt. Colonel Murray Swan and Major David Last at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, on October 12, 1994. In addition, the subcommittee held conference call discussions on December 21, 1994, with Jim Thomas of Cooper Management, Inc., of McLean, Virginia, on negotiation training and on January 23, 1995, with Professor Morton Deutsch of Columbia University on approaches to conflict management training.
Military Organization Characteristics
Jerome E. Singer and Myrna H. Williamson constituted this subcommittee. It received valuable information in interviews with Robert J.T. Joy, Craig H. Llewellyn, and Michael Drillings.