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Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1996. Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5135.
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Ecologically Based Pest Management

New Solutions for a New Century

Committee on Pest and Pathogen Control through Management of Biological Control Agents and Enhanced Cycles and Natural Processes

BOARD ON AGRICULTURE

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1996

Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1996. Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5135.
×

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

This report has been prepared with funds provided by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and Agricultural Research Service, and by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Policy under agreement number 59-32U4-0-28. Dissemination was supported by the W. K. Kellogg Foundation.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Ecologically based pest management : new solutions for a new century / Committee on Pest and Pathogen Control Through Management of Biological Control Agents and Enhanced Cycles and Natural Processes, Board on Agriculture, National Research Council.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references (p. ) and index.

ISBN 0-309-05330-7 (alk. paper)

1. Agricultural pests—Integrated control. 2. Agricultural pests—Integrated control—Environmental aspects. 3. Agricultural ecology. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Pest and Pathogen Control Through Management of Biological Control Agents and Enhanced Cycles and Natural Processes.

SB950.E365 1996

632’.96—dc20 96-4946

CIP

© 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1996. Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5135.
×

COMMITTEE ON PEST AND PATHOGEN CONTROL THROUGH MANAGEMENT OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS AND ENHANCED NATURAL CYCLES AND PROCESSES

RALPH W. F. HARDY, Chair,

The Boyce Thompson Institute, Ithaca, New York

ROGER N. BEACHY,

The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California

HAROLD BROWNING,

University of Florida

JERRY D. CAULDER,

Mycogen Corporation, San Diego, California

RAGHAVAN CHARUDATTAN,

University of Florida

PETER FAULKNER,

Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

FRED L. GOULD,

North Carolina State University

MAUREEN KUWANO HINKLE,

National Audubon Society, Washington, D.C.

BRUCE A. JAFFEE,

University of California, Davis

MARY K. KNUDSON,

University of Michigan

W. JOE LEWIS,

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Tifton, Georgia

JOYCE E. LOPER,

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Corvallis, Oregon

DANIEL L. MAHR,

University of Wisconsin, Madison

NEAL K. VAN ALFEN,

Texas A&M University

Consultant

ALLAN EAGLESHAM,

Ithaca, New York

Staff

MARY JANE LETAW, Project Officer

CRAIG COX, Project Officer*

JANET OVERTON, Editor

VIOLA HOREK, Project Assistant

CRISTELLYN BANKS, Senior Secretary and Project Assistant

*  

 Through April 1994.

†  

Through June 1994.

Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1996. Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5135.
×

BOARD ON AGRICULTURE

DALE E. BAUMAN, Chair,

Cornell University

PHILIP H. ABELSON,

American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.

JOHN M. ANTLE,

Montana State University

MAY R. BERENBAUM,

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

LEONARD S. BULL,

North Carolina State University

WILLIAM B. DELAUDER,

Delaware State University

SUSAN K. HARLANDER,

The Pillsbury Company, Minneapolis, Minnesota

RICHARD R. HARWOOD,

Michigan State University

T. KENT KIRK,

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Madison, Wisconsin

JAMES R. MOSELEY,

Jim Moseley Farms, Inc., Clarks Hill, Indiana, and Purdue University

NORMAN R. SCOTT,

Cornell University

GEORGE E. SEIDEL, JR.,

Colorado State University

CHRISTOPHER R. SOMERVILLE,

Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, California

JOHN R. WELSER,

The Upjohn Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan

Staff

SUSAN E. OFFUTT, Executive Director

CARLA CARLSON, Assistant Executive Director

Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1996. Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5135.
×

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1996. Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5135.
×
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Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1996. Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5135.
×

Preface

At the request of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and with support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the National Research Council's Board on Agriculture convened the 14-member Committee on Pest and Pathogen Control through Management of Biological Control Agents and Enhanced Natural Cycles and Processes to assess status of the knowledge in areas of pesticide application, host resistance, and biological-control practices and to chart future direction. Specifically, the committee was charged to address the following:

  • Why do we need new arthropod, weed, and pathogen control methods in crop and forest production systems?

  • What can we realistically expect from investment in new technologies?

  • How do we develop effective and profitable pest control systems that rely primarily on ecological processes of control?

  • How should we oversee and commercialize biological control organisms and products?

Given our charge and the record of history of the application of pesticides, breeding for disease resistance, and integrating biological control practices into production agriculture, my colleagues on the committee and I deliver this report with one key message: In both science and application, researchers, providers of inputs, and growers must progress from a product based approach to an ecologically based pest management system identified as EBPM. Management is the key word. In fact, the word control, as in biological control, is misleading. Pests in most cases cannot be controlled; pests must be managed with the objectives of a safe, profitable, and durable outcome.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1996. Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5135.
×

With a better understanding of ecology, the inherent strengths of the managed ecosystem can be used with more modest inputs than in the past. Essentially, the change to EBPM as proposed here will require a substantial change from the primary practice of product input to the primary mind set of information and management. Ultimately, EBPM will help to address ecosystem health not by administering products alone to treat symptoms, but by integrating components that maximize use of natural processes with minimum development of resistance.

EBPM will require regulatory oversight that matches the level of risk of biological inputs added to the managed ecosystem. For example, synthetic chemicals are new to the biosphere—they have no base of performance in the environment or in relation to human health. However, biologically based organisms, products, and resistant cultivars are inherently different, for the most part, from synthetics. Biological processes, having existed in nature over time, provide a base of experience that is a major resource to evaluate the safe application and establish appropriate oversight of EBPM. Biologically based products are not inherently different from synthetics in their vulnerability to development of resistance, although history suggests that such will be less frequent. Users will need to monitor managed ecosystems for early identification of pest resistance.

In this report we place major emphasis on the research information needs and on appropriate regulatory oversight. The committee also urges an interactive, cooperative approach to development of EBPM. Given the other individuals and organizations addressing issues relating to the adoption of new pest management approaches, we have only modestly considered adoption in our report.

In this deliberative report the Executive Summary presents the findings and key recommendations. Chapter 1 describes the history of pest management and the limitations of current practices. Chapter 2 details the committee's new approach to pest management, ecologically based pest management. Chapter 3 identifies priority research areas and discusses important institutional changes to effectively carry out that research. Chapter 4 assesses regulatory oversight and aspects of risk assessment and management.

The contents of this report offer a new paradigm, the concept of EBPM. We are optimistic that the development and application of the principles of EBPM will contribute to a future with high-quality food, fiber, and forest production and sound management of our natural resources for safety, profitability, and durability.

RALPH W. F. HARDY, Chair

Committee on Pest and Pathogen Control through Management of Biological Control Agents and Enhanced Natural Cycles and Processes

Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1996. Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5135.
×

THE COMMITTEE ACKNOWLEDGES with deep appreciation all those who contributed their expertise to this project. The committee is especially grateful for the contributions of Joseph Panetta of Mycogen Corporation. Mr. Panetta provided useful ideas and insights based on his experience with registration and commercialization of biological control products.

Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1996. Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5135.
×
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Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1996. Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5135.
×
   

Synthetic Organic Pesticides

 

23

   

Insecticides

 

24

   

Herbicides

 

24

   

Declining Use

 

24

   

Integrated Pest Management

 

25

   

Obstacles to Continued Use of Broad-Spectrum Pesticides

 

26

   

Problems and Limitations of Pesticides

 

26

   

Problems that Defy Conventional Chemical Solutions

 

29

   

Human and Environmental Health Concerns

 

37

   

Time to Reassess and Plan

 

41

2

 

DEFINING AND IMPLEMENTING ECOLOGICALLY BASED PEST MANAGEMENT

 

42

   

Goals of Ecologically Based Pest Management

 

42

   

Supplements to Natural Processes

 

44

   

Biological-Control Organisms

 

46

   

Biological-Control Products

 

47

   

Synthetic Chemicals

 

47

   

Resistant Plants

 

47

   

Economic Feasibility of Ecologically Based Pest Management

 

49

   

Economic Feasibility of Pest Management

 

49

   

Economic Feasibility and Risk

 

54

   

The Role of Information in Pest Management

 

56

   

Role of Collective Action in Pest Management

 

63

   

Grower Cooperatives

 

63

   

Small-Market Support

 

64

   

Certification

 

64

   

Monitoring Pests

 

64

3

 

ACCELERATING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

 

69

   

Foundations of a Knowledge Base

 

70

   

Priority Research Areas

 

71

   

Research on the Ecology of Managed Ecosystems

 

72

   

Research on Behavioral, Physiological, and Molecular Mechanisms to Effect EBPM

 

76

   

Research to Identify and Conserve Natural Resources Needed for EBPM

 

82

   

Development of Better Research and Diagnostic Techniques

 

84

   

Development of Ecologically Based Crop Protection Strategies

 

86

   

Research on Implementation and Evaluation of EBPM

 

88

   

Research to Improve Understanding of the Socioeconomic Issues Affecting Adoption

 

89

   

Development of New Institutional Approaches to Encourage the Necessary Interdisciplinary Cooperation

 

91

   

Infrastructure for Research

 

94

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1996. Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5135.
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Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1996. Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5135.
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Widespread use of broad-spectrum chemical pesticides has revolutionized pest management. But there is growing concern about environmental contamination and human health risks--and continuing frustration over the ability of pests to develop resistance to pesticides. In Ecologically Based Pest Management, an expert committee advocates the sweeping adoption of ecologically based pest management (EBPM) that promotes both agricultural productivity and a balanced ecosystem. This volume offers a vision and strategies for creating a solid, comprehensive knowledge base to support a pest management system that incorporates ecosystem processes supplemented by a continuum of inputs--biological organisms, products, cultivars, and cultural controls. The result will be safe, profitable, and durable pest management strategies. The book evaluates the feasibility of EBPM and examines how best to move beyond optimal examples into the mainstream of agriculture. The committee stresses the need for information, identifies research priorities in the biological as well as socioeconomic realm, and suggests institutional structures for a multidisciplinary research effort. Ecologically Based Pest Management addresses risk assessment, risk management, and public oversight of EBPM. The volume also overviews the history of pest management--from the use of sulfur compounds in 1000 B.C. to the emergence of transgenic technology. Ecologically Based Pest Management will be vitally important to the agrichemical industry; policymakers, regulators, and scientists in agriculture and forestry; biologists, researchers, and environmental advocates; and interested growers.

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