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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5137.
×

Index

A

Accountability for drug use, 4, 5, 6, 27, 46, 62, 81, 98-99, 174, 178

Administration regimens.

See also Subtherapeutic antibiotic use

and antibiotic resistance, 31, 33, 72, 151, 163-164

combinations of drugs, 160, 163-164, 197

gradient approach, 72, 157-158

in rotation, 31, 33, 72, 160

routes, 34-37, 82, 83, 85, 103

subtherapeutic doses, 71-72, 151

therapeutic doses, 157, 158

Aerococcus viridans, 59

Aeromonas spp., 130-131

A. hydrophila, 127, 128-129, 132-135

A. liquefaciens, 59

A. salmonicida, 59

Agalactia, 43

AGRICOLA, 14

Agricultural Marketing Service, 110-111

Agricultural Research Service, 89, 139, 174, 190

Alabama, 30

Allergenicity of antibiotics, 6, 69, 82, 84-85, 144

American Feed Industry Association, 13

American Sheep Industry Association, 60

American Veal Association, 60

American Veterinary Medical Association, 13, 63-64

Amoxicillin, 42, 45, 52, 54

Ampicillin, 42, 52, 54, 146, 162, 164, 165, 166, 167, 172

Amprolium, 32, 33, 57

Anaplasmosis, 44, 50

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), 139, 162, 174, 190

Animal Drug Availability Act (ADAA), 6, 10, 99-100, 107

Animal health industry, economics of subtherapeutic drug use, 180, 186

Animal Health Institute (AHI), 81, 148, 149, 171

Animal management practices

and antibiotic resistance, 9, 150-153, 159, 160

aquaculture, 58, 206

beef cattle, 50, 67, 191, 206

behavioral stress, 193

biosecurity techniques, 197-199

dairy cattle, 44, 64-65, 191-192, 197, 199, 201, 203-205

fly control, 50, 199

heat stress management, 190-193

immune-function enhancers, 200-202

intensive management and confinement operations, 31

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5137.
×

moisture management, 39, 199-200

nutrition, 50, 192, 202-206

overcrowding, 193

pasture management, 50

poultry, 61, 191, 192-193

probiotics (direct-fed microbial), 195-197

recommendations, 11, 208-209

sheep, 54-55

subtherapeutic drug-use alternatives, 181, 182, 189-190

swine, 41, 181, 191, 197-198, 206

vaccination, 193-195

Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act (AMDUCA), 5, 10, 97-99, 107

Anthelmintic, 54, 55-56, 82

Antibiotic drug use.

See also Ban on subtherapeutic antibiotic use;

Subtherapeutic antibiotic use

animal management alternatives to, 9, 190-202

applications, 2, 4, 19, 28, 71

for aquaculture, 59

for beef cattle, 52, 175

benefits, 1-2, 4, 13, 21, 25, 29, 68, 72, 73-75, 107, 174-175

case studies, 166-176

concerns, 15, 24, 25-26, 142-143, 155

in dairy industry, 45, 46, 47-48, 52, 119-120

disease eradication and, 190, 206

genetics and, 207-208

growth promotion with, 28, 31, 34, 51-53, 81, 153-154

hazards (potential), 6, 75-81

history, 20-22, 153-154

illegal, 182

issues, 19-26

literature review, 3, 14, 15-19

magnitude of, 24-25

for minor species, 56, 57

multidrug therapy, 147-148

nutrition and, 202-206

in poultry industry, 18, 32, 175

recommendations, 10, 177-178

in sheep industry, 55

in swine industry, 41-42, 175

therapeutic, 13, 28, 72-73, 103, 153-161

trends, 25

in veal industry, 53, 54

Antibiotic drugs.

See also specific drug

allergenicity in humans, 6, 69, 82, 84-85, 144

availability concerns, 4, 7, 10, 24, 81, 107, 143, 148-149, 176-177

bactericidal, 147-148

bacteriostatic, 147-148

banned, 77, 78, 83-84, 97, 101-102

cell division targets, 147

defensins, 147

DNA gyrase inhibitors, 147

endotoxin blockers, 146

human last line of defense, 35, 168-169, 175

identifying and screening new drugs, 145-148

mechanisms of action, 28, 143-145, 154-155

metabolism modifiers administered with, 146

nonsystemic, 82

over-the-counter availability, 4, 6, 46, 65, 81, 182, 186

protein secreton inhibitors, 147

protein synthesis inhibitors, 146-147

residues in foods, 14, 21, 63, 116-117, 118

synthetic, 146, 163, 168

systemic, 82

toxicity to humans, 6, 77, 81-82, 83-84, 144

Antibiotic resistance

administration regimen and, 31, 33, 72, 151, 160, 162, 163-164

animal management practices and, 150-153, 159

age of animal population and, 166

assessment methods, 8-9, 170

and availability of drugs, 4, 7, 9, 24, 81, 107, 143, 148-149, 168-169

causes, 69, 70, 81, 86

cross-genera transfer, 152-153

cross-resistance, 178

data availability, 69, 70, 73

definition of, 7-8, 21, 166, 170, 171, 176

development and transmission, 7, 76-77, 78, 79, 150, 151-153, 155-156, 161, 168, 171, 172, 176

economic factors, 150, 182-183

fluoroquinolone controversy, 166, 168-175, 182-183

food-borne pathogens, 2, 8, 23, 70-71, 86, 87, 138, 140, 155, 166, 168, 171, 172

and human health risk, 2, 4, 7, 9, 13, 21, 22-26, 69, 70, 76-78, 79, 86-87, 138, 143, 150, 155, 160, 161-166, 168, 172

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5137.
×

literature review, 3, 22

mechanisms of action, 146, 151, 154-155, 169

multidrug, 21, 23-24, 78, 79, 80, 107, 138, 149, 152, 153, 154, 159, 162, 170, 176, 183

nonpathogenic bacteria, 8-9, 176, 196

plasmid transfer, 22, 152-153, 169

productivity effects, 43

recommendations, 10, 177-178

regulatory and approval process and, 7, 9, 166, 168-176

reservoirs of bacteria, 79, 80, 87, 153, 155, 159, 160, 161, 166, 168, 169, 172

selection pressures, 77, 150, 154, 169, 176

sentinel organisms, 172, 174, 177

Subtherapeutic drug use and, 7, 18, 79, 81, 150, 151, 154, 156, 160

therapeutic doses and, 7, 72-73, 79, 150-151, 156, 158, 160-161, 169, 176

tracking emergence of, 7, 10, 70, 140, 157, 160, 162-166, 168, 172, 173-174, 176, 177

trends, 78-81, 161-166, 183, 196

vancomycin-like, 18, 22, 152-153

veterinary clinical implications, 161-166, 176-177

virginiamycin controversy, 175-176

Antioxidant therapy, 202-206

Antiparasitic drugs, 2, 14, 41-42, 45, 51, 58

Antiprotozoal compounds, 31, 33, 59, 82

Antiseptics, topical

literature, 14

uses, 1, 12

AOAC INTERNATIONAL, 112, 125, 126

Apramycin, 42, 164, 165, 167

Aquaculture industry

compassionate INADs, 94

drug use in, 2, 13, 58-60, 94, 101, 119, 149.

See also Fish and shellfish

growth and structure, 56-58

management strategies, 58, 206

quality assurance, 58

residues in fish and shellfish, 119

Arcobacter spp., 127, 128-129

Arizona, 192

Arkansas, 30

Arsanilate, 32

Arsanilate sodium, 43

Arsenical compounds, 14, 31, 33, 34, 38, 116-117, 118

Arsenilic acid, 42, 43

Association of American Feed Control Officials, 197

Atrophic rhinitis, 43

Avian influenza, 31, 33, 61, 206

Avian leukosis, 207

Avoparcin, 18, 79, 166, 168, 171

Azithromycin, 170

B

Bacillus cereus, 128-131, 134-135

Bacitracin, 21, 32, 38, 39, 42, 52, 57, 75, 82

Bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia, 59

Bacterial infections

categories of, 71

stress and, 71

Bactericides, uses, 2, 12

Bambermycin, 32, 42, 82

Ban on subtherapeutic antibiotic use

consumer costs, 181-182, 183-184

economics analysis, 180-186

effect of, 15, 18, 180-184

extra-label, 107

fluoroquinolones, 107

and management practices, 181, 182

measurement of costs, 180-182

petitions for, 156-157

recommendations, 15

total vs. partial, 182-183

Banned drugs, 77, 78, 83-84, 97, 101-102

Beef cattle production.

See also Meat

and antibiotic resistance, 162, 167, 169

breeding programs, 207

disease prevention, 50, 51-53, 159, 175, 180

economics, 25, 51, 180, 181, 182, 184, 185, 187

growth promotion, 50, 51, 53, 56, 154

history and growth, 48-49, 102

management strategies, 50, 67, 191, 206

microbiological hazards, 75, 130-131

quality assurance program, 67-68

residues in slaughtered animals, 83

specialty producers, 181

structure of industry, 30, 49

therapeutic drug use, 51-53, 74, 180, 182

trends in drug use, 25, 50-51

vaccinations, 50, 53

Beef Quality Assurance program, 67-68

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5137.
×

Behavioral stress, management of, 193

Beta-carotene, 204-205

Beta-lactam antibiotic residues, 84, 119, 120, 123, 143, 144.

See also Penicillin

Biosecurity measures, 35, 159, 197-199

BIOSIS, 14

Bison, 56

Blackhead, 33

Bloat, 2, 13

Bluetongue, 50, 55

Bodo spp., 59

Bordetella spp., 194

B. avium, 31

B. pertussis, 194

Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency, 207

Bovine lingual antimicrobial peptide, 147

Bovine lymphocyte antigen, 207-208

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus, 45

Bovine somatotropin, 2, 13, 48

Bovine viral diarrhea, 45

Breeding, 40, 44, 47, 48, 49

for disease resistance, 35, 206-208

Brucella spp., 127

B. melitensis, 136

Brucellosis, 45, 50, 53, 72, 136, 190, 206

Buquinolate, 32

C

California, 54, 98, 136, 191

Campylobacter spp.

antibiotic-resistant, 159-160, 166, 170, 171, 172, 196

C. coli, 127

C. fetus, 74

C. jejuni, 23, 127, 130-135, 197

food-borne illness in humans, 86, 127-135, 137

vaccination against, 194

Campylobacteriosis, 23

Canada, 104-105, 164, 165

Carbadox, 43

Carbenicillin, 162

Carcinogenic compounds, 6, 33, 82, 84, 102

Catfish Farmers of America, 60

Ceftiofur, 25, 52

Ceftiofur sodium, 34

Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, 174

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 174

Center for Veterinary Medicine, FDA, 2, 13, 33, 88.

See also Regulatory and approval process

criticisms of policies of, 95-96

extra-label use policy, 5, 96-99, 142

Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation, 89

Office of Surveillance and Compliance, 89

organizational structure, 5, 89, 90

practices and procedures, 91-92, 100, 107

residue monitoring, 112-113, 114, 123, 126

responsibilities, 5, 10, 89, 112, 173-174, 197

trends in drug approvals, 94, 101, 169

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 22, 85-86, 88, 127, 130, 133, 139, 140, 170, 174

Cephalosporins, 77, 161, 162

Cephalothin, 162, 165

Cephapirin, 45

Chemical residues in animals, 58, 61, 161

Chemotherapeutic compounds, 43

Chickens. See Poultry

Chilodonella spp., 59

Chloramphenicol, 77, 78, 83-84, 97, 119, 120, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 172

Chlortetracycline, 21, 32, 42, 52, 55, 57, 75, 154, 158

Cholera, 31, 41, 190

Chromium, 205-206

Ciprofloxacin, 169, 170, 172-173

Classes of food-animal drugs, 2, 12

Clean Water Act, 139

Cleidodiscus spp., 59

Clenbuterol, 116-117, 118

Clinton administration, 91-92, 100, 138-139, 195-196

Clopindol, 32

Clostridium spp.

in beef cattle, 50, 53, 130-131

C. botulinum, 128-129

C. perfringens, 39, 40, 43, 55, 128-135

in poultry, 39-40, 134-135

resistant strains, 39-40

in sheep, 55, 132-133

in swine, 43, 128-129

vaccination against, 194

Cloxacillin, 45

Coccidia, resistant, 31, 33

Coccidiosis, 31, 39, 44, 54, 56

Coccidiostats, 31, 32, 33, 34, 38, 39, 45, 51, 56, 57, 82

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5137.
×

Codex Alimentarius Commission, 114

Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods, 106

Colemon Natural Beef, 181

Colibacillosis, 55

Coliform plasmid transfer, 22

Colisepticemia, 72

Colony stimulating factors, 200-202

Colorado, 54

Committee on Drug Use in Food Animals

charge to, 2, 13-14

process, 3

Competitive exclusion products, 39, 196-197

Compliance Policy Guides, 63

Consumer

concerns, 13, 21-22, 69

costs of ban on subtherapeutic antibiotic use, 181-182, 183-184

education, 175, 178

Continuing education programs, 67

Copper, 205, 206

Corynebacterium bovis, 204

Cost of medications, 31, 35, 36-37, 51

Costia spp., 59

Council on Agriculture and Science Technology (CAST) report, 15, 16, 18, 21, 75, 160, 182

Coxiella burnetti, 127

Cryptosporidium parvum, 127

Culicoid control, 50

Cysticercus spp., 127

Cytidine monophosphate-KDO synthetase, 146

Cytokines, 29, 195, 200, 202

D

Dactylogyrus spp., 59

Dairy industry.

See also Drug residues in milk

antibiotic drug use, 45, 46, 47-48, 52, 119-120, 162

breeding programs, 208

disease control, 44, 45-47, 52, 162, 191, 197

economics, 25, 45-46

food-borne pathogens from, 75

heat stress management, 191-192

history and growth of, 44, 102

human health risks, 46-47, 162-163

integration of, 30, 44

management strategies, 44, 64-65, 191-192, 197, 199, 201, 203-205

production enhancers, 2, 13, 48, 52, 205-206

prophylactic treatments, 45, 197

quality assurance program, 46, 63-67, 119, 122

therapeutic treatments, 45-47, 51-53

Databases, 14, 67, 98, 99, 120, 140, 176, 177

Decoquinate, 54, 57

Delaney Clause, 102

Denmark, 168

Dequinate, 32

Development of new drugs.

See also Regulatory and approval process

approval process and, 5, 9-10, 91, 96, 99-100, 101-103, 106-109, 114, 143, 149, 166

ban on subtherapeutic antibiotics and, 186

corporations, number of, 101

costs, 96, 99, 101, 103, 106-107, 149

efficacy requirements, 5, 94, 95, 99-100, 103, 104, 108, 175

environmental evaluation, 96, 101, 175

field trials, 94-95, 99-100, 108

food safety requirements, 83, 100-103, 104, 114

identifying and screening new compounds, 145-148

incentives for, 9, 175

length of time for, 91-92, 103

for minor species, 101

recommendations, 10, 177, 178

target-animal safety studies, 95, 103, 104

Diarrhea, 50, 52.

See also Scours

Diethylstilbestrol, 82, 97, 102

Dihydroseptomycin, 52

Dimetridazole, 97

Direct-fed microbial products, 195-197

Disease control.

See also Therapeutic drug use;

Subtherapeutic drug use;

Vaccination

in beef cattle, 50, 51-53

breeding programs, 207-208

culling, 47-48, 206

in dairy industry, 44, 45-47, 52, 162

eradication programs, 55, 60-61, 190, 206

in poultry, 31-33, 34, 38-40, 60-61, 158-159, 169-170, 171-172, 175, 180, 206

prophylactic treatments, 45

in sheep, 55-56

spontaneous recovery, 47, 48

in swine, 41-42, 43, 74, 75, 158-159, 163, 175, 180, 190, 206

Drug Importation Act, 88

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5137.
×

Drug residues in foods.

See also Drug residues in milk

action levels, 114

administration route and, 82, 85, 103

anabolic compounds, 50

analytical methods, 111-112, 113-115, 119, 123, 140, 141

carcinogenic, 82

Compound Evaluation System, 116

defined, 112

exposure potential, 113, 116

in fish and seafood, 58, 119, 140

foreign standards, 104-105

human health risks from, 6, 50, 81-86, 87, 100-103, 116

maximum residue levels, 82, 114

in meat and poultry, 33, 41, 51, 83, 115-119

microbial contamination risks compared, 85-86, 87

monitoring and enforcement, 67, 84, 111, 113-114, 115-119, 123, 140, 141

pharmacokinetics in diseased animals and, 140-141

recommendations, 141

regulatory and approval process, 82, 100-103, 107, 110-111, 114-115

risk assessment, 100-103, 116, 117

safe levels, 114

screening, 6, 65-66, 111-112

surveillance testing, 115-116, 123-124, 140

standard setting, 84, 105-106, 108-109, 111-113

target tissue sites, 113-114, 117

tolerance levels, 104-105, 108, 111, 114, 117, 119

toxicity, 81-82, 103, 112-113

tracking, 41, 113-115

violations, 83, 115, 116-117, 118, 183

Drug residues in milk

analytical methods, 119, 122, 124-126

controversies, 125-126

database program, 120

monitoring and enforcement, 120, 124-125

Pasteurized Milk Ordinance, 63, 64, 66, 119, 121-122, 123, 125, 126

testing for, 65-66, 122-124, 125-126

tracking, 46

violation rates, 120-121

Duck, 57

Dysentery, 75

Dystocia, 44

E

Echinococcus multilocularis, 194

Economics issues

antibiotic resistance, 150

cost of medications, 31, 35, 36-37, 51

drug development costs, 96, 99, 101-103, 106-107, 149

food-animal production, 1, 4, 21, 24-25, 75

food-borne illnesses, 38, 138

subtherapeutic drug use, 179-187

testing for residues, 125

Economic Research Service, USDA, 13

Ectoparasites, 31, 50

Edwardsiella ictaluri, 59

Efrotomycin, 25, 42

Egg Products Inspection Act, 111

Eimeria, 39, 194

Endectocides, 51

Endotoxins, 146

Enforcement of regulations

product labeling, 96-97

recommendations, 141

residues in foods, 115

responsibility for, 84

Enteric septicemia, 59, 73

Enteritis, 44, 54, 57, 127, 164, 165

Enterococcus spp., 74, 79, 152-153

Enterotoxemia, 47, 55

Enzootic abortion, 55

Epididymitis, 55

Epistylis spp., 59

Erysipelas, 31, 41, 43

Erysipelothrix rhusiopatheae, 75, 128-129, 194

Erythromycin, 32, 42, 45, 52, 55, 75, 82, 160, 162

Escherichia coli

in cattle, 130-131, 193, 201

compounds available for treating infections, 35, 163-164

drug-resistant, 22, 39, 153, 155, 156, 159, 163-164, 165, 166, 169, 174, 196

enterotoxigenic, 196

immune function mediators and, 201

in meat and meat products, 128-133

monitoring, 140

nonpathogenic, in gut flora, 39

nutrition and, 203

O157:H7 strain, 72, 74, 127, 128-135, 138, 155, 193, 194

in poultry, 35, 39, 134-135, 153, 194, 196

scours, 43

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5137.
×

in swine, 43, 128-129, 194

vaccinations, 193, 194

Estradiol, 53

Estradiol/progesterone, 53

Estradiol/testosterone, 53

Estrus synchronizers, 51, 55

European Economic Community, 104, 105, 106

Extra-label use of drugs, 5, 10, 67, 92, 96-99, 107, 140, 142

F

Farm Bill of 1990, 13

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 5, 88, 93, 96, 111

Food Additives Amendment, 102 n.2

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, 111

Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA), 111

Federal Security Agency, 88

Feed

poultry, 34

Fish and shellfish, drug residues in, 119, 140

Florida, 98, 192

Fluoroquinolones, 25, 32, 35, 107, 160, 166, 168-175, 182-183

Fly control, 50, 55

Food and Agriculture Organization, 106

Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 73, 130.

See also Center for Veterinary Medicine

Bureau of Veterinary Medicine, 89, 96

Compliance Policy Guides, 63

food safety responsibilities, 138, 139, 140

Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance, 63, 64, 66, 121-122

history, 88

milk safety program, 119, 120, 123

monitoring activities, 5, 85-86, 115, 119

Office of Seafood, 119

Officer of the Commissioner, 174

quinolone policy, 170

residue standard setting and enforcement, 84, 99, 111

Food Animal Residual Avoidance Databank (FARAD) project, 5, 67, 98, 99

Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 140

Food-borne pathogens, 126-127.

See also Microbial contamination of food

antibiotic resistance in, 8, 70-71, 86, 87, 138, 140, 171

determination of, 71, 127-133

hazardous organisms, 73-74, 75, 126-127

outbreaks of illness, 22-23, 25-26, 85-86, 122, 133, 136-137, 146, 155, 172

selection of, 80

sentinel organisms, 127, 136-137, 172

surveillance barriers, 71

Food handling, 7, 8, 139, 172

FoodNet, 140

Food poisoning. See Food-borne pathogens

Food safety, responsibility for, 98, 139, 195-196

Food Safety and Quality national initiative, 98

Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS), 5, 63, 83, 85, 86, 88, 111, 112, 113, 115, 116, 117, 127, 130, 141, 174

Foot-and-mouth disease, 50

Foot rot, 44

Formalin, 59, 94

France, 164, 165, 166

Fungi, 31

Fungicides, 2, 12, 33, 59

Furamazone, 52

Furazolidone, 33, 165, 167

Furunculosis, 59

G

Gaffkemia, 59

Gastroenteritis, 43

Gastrointestinal diseases, 50

Geese, 56

Genetic selection strategies, 35, 207-208

Gentamycin, 32, 42, 52, 83, 162, 165, 169

Gentamycin sulfate, 34

Georgia, 30

Germany, 38, 166, 169, 170

Goats, 56, 57, 83, 101, 102, 149

Gonadotropins, 55

Good laboratory practice (GLP) regulations, 89, 95

Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO), 63, 64, 66, 119, 121-122, 123, 125

Gram-negative bacteria, 146

Growth promotion and feed efficiency

with antibiotics, 28, 31, 34, 51-53, 81, 153-154

in beef cattle, 50, 51-53, 56, 154

in dairy cattle, 52

in minor species, 57

in poultry, 31, 34, 38, 56, 154

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5137.
×

in sheep, 55-56

with steriodal and nonsteroidal estrogenic agents, 29, 31

in swine, 42-43, 154

Grub control, 57

Guidelines

definition, 95-96

dosage, 10

testing, 100, 108, 123, 126

Gyrodactylus spp., 59

H

Halofuginone, 116-117, 118

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points, 62, 68, 137, 139

Heat stress management, 190-193

Helminth control, 42

Hemophilus piscium, 59

Hemophilus pleuropneumonia, 43

Hemorrhagic enteritis, 31

Hetacillin, 45

Hill Farm Research Station, 199

Histomonas influenza, 155

Histomoniasis, in poultry, 33

Hospital-acquired (nosocomial) bacterial infections, 22, 24, 69

Human health risks

animal-to-human transfer of disease, 78, 79, 80, 86-87, 143, 161-162, 168, 171, 172

antibiotic resistance and, 2, 4, 7, 9, 13, 21, 22-26, 69, 70, 76-78, 79, 86-87, 138, 150, 154-155, 160, 161-166, 168, 172

carcinogens, 82

cases of disease, 3, 22-23

from dairy cattle, 46-47

hospital-acquired infections compared, 22, 24, 69

magnitude of threat, 2, 3, 9, 23-24, 70, 77-78, 86

manure exposure and, 79, 87

mathematical model, 18

from poultry, 38-40

regulatory and approval process and, 100-103

from residues in food, 81-86, 100-103, 116

sensitive populations, 8, 9, 25-26, 70

steroid growth promoters, 50

of subtherapeutic antibiotic use in animals, 18, 75, 76, 150, 160

toxicity of antibiotics, 6, 77, 81-82, 83-84

I

Icthyopthirius spp., 59

Identification of treated animals, 65

Immunostimulants, 200-202

Imported foods, 140

Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, 45, 53

Influenza, 31, 33

Injection site tissue damage, 67

Insecticides and insecticidal ear tags, 51

Inspection at slaughter, 75

Institute of Medicine (IOM), 15, 17, 18, 150, 156

International Conference on Harmonization, 104

International Meeting on Nucleic Acid Vaccines for Prevention of Infectious Diseases, 195

Ionophores, 2, 12

antiprotozoals, 33

coccidiostats, 31, 32, 33

for growth promotion, 50, 56

Iowa, 40

Ipronidazole, 33, 97

Irradiation of food, 71, 175

Iron, 206

Israel, 192

Ivermectin, 57, 116-117, 118

J

Japan, 104, 105

Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives, 106

K

Kanamycin, 162, 165

L

Labels/labeling, drug, 65, 67, 96, 100

Lactobacillus spp., 39-40, 196

Laminitis, 44

Lasalocid, 32, 52, 56

Leptospira interrogans, 127

Leptospirosis, 43, 45, 53, 72, 74

Levamisole, 116-117, 118

Lice, 43

Lincoln, Abraham, 88

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5137.
×

Lincomycin, 38, 39, 42, 82, 162

Lincosaminides, 160

Listeria spp., 127

L. monocytogenes, 75, 128-135

Literature review

databases, 14

major reports, 3, 15-19, 22

Litter, water activity of, 39

Liver abscesses, 50, 75, 180

Louisiana State University, 199

Lyme disease, 70

M

Maduramycin, 32

Manure, environmental exposure to, 79, 80, 159, 161, 166

Marek’s disease, 31, 34, 207

Mange, 43, 55

Mastitis, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 52, 162, 191-192, 199-200, 201, 203-205, 208

Meat

bacterial contamination, 74, 75, 127-137

drug residues in, 47, 63, 64, 83, 85, 113, 115-119

inspection, 111

Melengestrol, 53

Methicillin, 162

Metritis, 43, 44, 45, 205

Microbial contamination of food.

See also Food-borne pathogens;

specific pathogens

costs of, 138

illness determinants, 131-133

magnitude and severity of threat, 69, 86, 87, 137-138

meat and meat products, 127-136, 141

milk and other dairy products, 121-122, 133, 136

poultry, 35, 38-40, 75, 134-135

prevention, 71, 195-196

recommendations, 141

residue risks compared, 85-86, 87

risk assessment, 140

routes of, 127

surveillance and monitoring of, 85-86, 138, 139, 140, 141

Milk.

See also Drug residues in milk

pathogen contamination, 121-122, 133, 136, 163-164

Milk and Dairy Beef Quality Assurance Program, 63

Milk and Dairy Beef Residue Prevention Protocol, 63, 66, 123

Minnesota, 137

Minor species.

See also individual species

drug use in, 5, 56, 57, 149

veal calves as, 54

Mite control, 55

Moisture management, 39, 199-200

Monensin, 32, 52, 57

Monitoring

antibiotic resistance in pathogens, 7, 70, 140, 157, 160, 162-166, 168, 174, 176

disease outbreaks, 85-86

drug residues in food, 5, 6, 34, 71, 86, 113-114, 115, 124-125, 140

microbial contamination, 86

Monogenetic trematodes, 59

Montana, 54

Morantel tartrate, 118

Morocco, 39

Mosquito control, 50

Mutagens, 6, 82, 84

Mycobacterium spp., 127, 194

Mycoplasma spp., 194

M. galisepticum, 33, 60

M. meleagridis, 60

M. synovia, 33, 60

N

Nalidixic acid, 165, 168, 169, 173

Narasin, 32

National Antimicrobial Monitoring System, 174

National Antimicrobial Susceptibility Monitoring Program, 140

National Aquaculture Association, 60

National Broiler Council, 60, 61

National Cattlemen’s Association, 51

National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, 60, 67

National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), 170, 171

National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (NCIMS), 119, 120, 123, 125

National Drug Residue Milk Monitoring Program, 120

National Food Safety Initiative, 139-140

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5137.
×

National Institutes of Health (NIH), 195

National Mastitis Council, 125

National Milk Producers Federation, 60, 63-64

National Pork Producers Council (NPPC), 60, 61, 62, 63

National Poultry Improvement Plan, 60-61

National Research Council, 2, 13, 16, 205

National Residue Program, 115

National Surveillance for Antibiotic Resistance in Zoonotic Enteric Pathogens, 174

National Turkey Federation, 60

Chemical Residue Avoidance Program, 61

National Turkey Improvement Plan, 60

National Veterinary Services Laboratory, 162

Necrotic enteritis, 39

Nematode control, 45

Neomycin, 32, 42, 52, 55, 57, 82, 83, 162, 164, 165, 166, 167

Nequinate, 32

Netherlands, 166, 170, 171

Newcastle disease, 31, 61

Nicarbazin, 32

Nitrarsone, 33

Nitrofurans, 25, 33, 35, 82, 84, 97, 102, 164

Nitrofurazone, 82, 165

Nitroimidazole, 82, 84, 102

Nonpathogenic bacteria, 8-9, 176

Nonsteroid growth promoters, 14

North Carolina, 30, 40, 98

Nourseotricin, 153

Novobiocin, 32, 45, 57, 82, 162

Nutrition, 11, 30, 50, 192, 202-206

O

Office of Science and Technology Policy, 140

Office of Technology Assessment, 22, 76

Oleandomycin, 32, 42, 82

Organochlorine and organophosphate compounds, 14, 116-117, 118

Ormetoprin, 59

Over-the-counter antibiotic sales, 4, 6, 46, 65, 81, 182, 186

Overcrowding, management of, 193

Oxazolidinones, 146

Oxolinic acid, 119

Oxytetracycline, 32, 33, 42, 45, 52, 53, 55, 59, 75, 94, 154

P

Parainfluenza type 3, 45, 53

Parvovirus, 43

Pasteurella spp., 194

P. multocida, 35, 39

pneumonia, 43

Pasteurellosis, 169

Pathogens.

See also Antibiotic resistance;

Food-borne pathogens;

Microbial contamination of food;

specific pathogens

adaptation to environment, 76-77

animal-to-human transfer, 78, 79, 80, 86-87, 143, 161-162

eradication of, 35

Pathogen Reduction Task Force, 85-86, 130

Penicillin, 18, 20, 21, 32, 38, 39, 42, 45, 51-53, 55, 57, 81, 82, 83, 85, 117, 119, 143, 144, 148, 154, 155, 156, 161, 162, 163-164, 166, 169

Pennsylvania, 204

Peptide production enhancers, 2, 13

Pfisteria, 101

Pheasant, 57

Phenothiazine, 57

Pinkeye, 44, 50

Pirlimycin, 45

Poison Control Center, 95

Porcine stress syndrome, 207

Pork Quality Assurance (PQA) program, 61-63

Poultry and poultry products

drug residues in, 33, 83, 115-119

microbial contamination, 35, 38-40, 75, 134-135, 168

Poultry production

and antibiotic resistance, 18, 32, 153, 158, 162, 167, 168, 169-170, 171-172

breeding programs, 207

Clostridium infections, 39-40

concerns, 35

cost of medications, 35, 36-37

day-old-chick vaccination, 31, 34

disease control, 31-33, 34, 38-40, 60-61, 158-159, 169-170, 171-172, 175, 180, 206

drug approval process, 103

drug use history and trends, 31-34, 35, 169-170

economics of, 25, 30-31, 181, 184, 185, 186-187

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5137.
×

Escherichia coli infections, 35, 39, 196

feed and nutrition, 30, 34

growth promotion, 1, 31, 34, 38, 56, 154

history and growth of industry, 29-30, 102

integration of industry, 30-31, 33, 49

management practices, 61, 191, 192-193

quality assurance program, 34, 60-61

routes of drug administration, 34-37

Salmonella infections, 38-39, 158, 162, 167, 197, 206

vaccinations, 31, 33, 40

water medication, 34-35

withdrawal period, 33, 34, 38

Poultry Products Inspection Act (PPIA), 111

Prevention of bacterial infections, 71-72.

See also Prophylactic treatments;

Subtherapeutic antibiotic use

Probiotics, 39-40, 195-197

Production enhancers, in dairy industry, 48

Production of food animals.

See also Animal management practices;

individual industries

intensiveness, 21, 29

size of industry, 101, 102

trends, 27, 29

Productivity effects of antibiotic resistance, 43

Prophylactic use of drugs

in beef industry, 50, 180

in dairy industry, 45, 197

immune function mediators, 200

in poultry industry, 31, 33, 34

risk-benefit analysis, 71-72

Propionibacterium acnes, 202

Pseudomonas spp., 59

Pseudorabies, 43

Psoroptis ovis, 199

Pure Food and Drug Act, 88

Q

Quail, 57

Quality assurance programs, 27-28

aquaculture, 58

beef, 67-68

certification, 62, 68, 119

dairy, 63-67, 119

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points, 62, 68

incentives for participants, 66

objectives and focus, 60, 68

pork, 61-63

poultry, 34, 60-61

record-keeping, 4, 65, 66, 67

residue screening, 112

VCPR and, 5, 28, 54, 56, 64, 67, 97, 98-99

Quinolones, 147, 159-160, 197

Quinoxaline di-N-oxides, 82, 84

R

Rabbits, 57

Rabies, 70, 72

Recombinant bovine somatotropin, 2, 13, 48

Recommendations

animal management research, 11, 208-209

antibiotic development and use, 10, 177, 178

antibiotic resistance surveillance, 11, 177-178

consumer education, 178

database, 177

food animal identification, 178

monitoring and enforcement, 141

nutrition research, 11, 208-209

regulatory and approval process, 10, 107-109, 177

vaccination research, 11, 209

Records, treatment, 4, 65, 66, 67

Regulations, 89, 94-95, 96, 97, 106

Regulatory and approval process.

See also individual statutes and agencies

antibiotic resistance and, 166, 168-176

carcinogenic drugs, 82

compassionate INAD, 94

continuing education programs, 67

direct-fed microbial products, 196-197

dispute settlement, 93, 108

drug development perspectives, 5, 91, 96, 99-100, 101-103, 106-109, 114, 143, 149, 166

efficacy requirements, 6, 94, 95, 99-100, 103, 104, 107, 108

enforcement policies, 96-97

environmental evaluation, 96, 101, 104

extra-label usage, 5, 67, 92, 96-99, 107, 140, 142

field trials, 94-95, 99-100, 108

flexibility in, 91, 108

food-safety research program, 96

guidelines for meeting criteria, 95-96

history, 88

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5137.
×

human drug application process compared, 95, 97, 103, 104, 107

human health risks and, 82, 100-103

investigational new animal drug (INAD) application, 89-90, 92, 93, 94, 108

IR4 program, 54

length of, 5, 24, 91, 93, 103, 106-107

monitoring activities, 5, 89

New Animal Drug Application (NADA), 89, 92, 93, 114

organizational structure, 88-89, 90

panel approach, 105-106

preapproval process, 89-91, 92-93, 94-95

quality of sponsor applications, 94

recommendations, 10, 107-109, 177

redirected drug use, 95

redundancy in, 95, 103

reforms needed, 95-96, 99, 107-108

residues in foods, 83, 100-103, 104-106, 107, 108-109, 112, 114

restructuring, 5, 9-10, 91-100, 107, 143

socioeconomic and political pressures, 96, 143

target-animal safety studies, 95, 104

trends in approvals, 94, 101-102

worldwide harmonization of, 104-106, 109, 143

Reindeer, 57

Reinfection and cross-infection of animals, 159

Research barriers, 20, 56

Residues. See Drug residues in food

Resistance, defined, 77.

See also Antibiotic resistance

Respiratory disease complex, 50, 53

Respiratory infections, 44, 50, 52, 54, 55

Rifamycin, 77

Robenidine, 32

Rockefeller University, 80

Roosevelt, Theodore, 88

Roxarsone, 32, 33, 43

Rumen foaming, 2, 13

S

Sales of animal drugs, 103

Salmonella spp., 127

animal-to-human transfer, 162-163, 171, 172

in cattle, 162, 167, 169

drug-resistant, 22, 23, 136, 150, 156, 158, 159, 162, 163, 164-166, 167, 169, 171, 172-173, 174, 196

DT-104 strain, 23, 72, 73-74, 138, 149, 155, 170, 172-173

in meat and meat products, 128-133, 162

moisture conditions and, 39

monitoring, 140

in poultry and poultry products, 31, 134-135, 158, 162, 167, 193, 194, 206

reservoirs, 155

S. dublin, 136, 164

S. enteritidis, 136, 164, 165, 194, 206

S. gallinarum, 31, 60-61

S. heidelberg, 163

S. javiana, 136

S. newport, 162-163

S. oranienburg, 136

S. pullorum, 31, 60

S. typhimurium, 136, 155, 159, 164-166, 167, 194

in sheep, 167

in swine, 162, 167

vaccinations, 193

virulence and pathogenicity, 38, 72, 73-74, 138, 150, 155, 159, 196

Salmonellosis

economic impacts, 38

in humans, 23, 38, 70, 73-74, 78, 81, 86, 136

in poultry, 38-39

in swine, 74

Salinomycin, 32

Sanitation, 61, 63

satA-gene-mediated streptogramines, 79

Scours, 43, 44

Screening for drug residues in food, 6, 65-66, 111-112, 145-148

analytical approaches, 111-112

confirmatory methods, 112

Screwworm control, 55

Scyphidia spp., 59

Selection pressures, 77, 150, 154, 169, 176

Selenium, 203, 204, 205, 206

Sentinel Site Study, 86, 130

Septicemia, 146

Sheep production

antibiotic resistance, 167

disease control, 55-56

drug use in, 55-56, 101, 149

economics, 25

growth of industry, 54, 102

management strategies, 54-55

microbiological hazards, 75, 132-133

residues in slaughtered animals, 83

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5137.
×

Shigella sp., 86, 127, 130

Shipping fever, 55

Slaughtered animals

residues in, 83

test subjects, 90

South Dakota, 54

Spain, 171

Specific-pathogen-free stock, 35, 206

Spectinomycin, 32, 42

Squab, 56

Staphylococcus spp.

multidrug resistant, 153

S. aureus, 35, 46-47, 128-131, 134-135, 201, 203, 205

Sterile packaging, 71, 175

Steroid anabolic growth promoters, 2, 12-13, 14, 50, 53

Storage of drugs, 65

Streptococcus

antibiotic resistance, 162

infections, 43

S. agalactiae, 162

S. faecalis, 196

S. suis, 74

Streptomycin, 21, 32, 42, 45, 52, 55, 57, 82, 144, 158-159, 162, 163-164, 165, 166, 172

Streptothricin, 153

Stress, and bacterial infection, 71, 159, 180, 202

Subtherapeutic antibiotic use.

see also Ban on subtherapeutic antibiotic use

administration strategies, 71-72, 151, 157

and antibiotic resistance, 7, 18, 79, 81, 150, 151, 154, 156, 179

criticisms of, 156

definition of, 4, 15, 28, 180

economic analysis, 107, 179-187

human health risks, 18, 75, 76, 150, 160

importance, 68, 154, 157

low therapeutic dose distinguished from, 51

mechanism of action, 77, 154, 157

substitutes for, 182, 189-190

swine, 41, 42-43

trends, 25

uses, 4, 28, 42-43, 68

Sulfa drugs, 14, 81, 94, 120, 145-146, 148, 160

Sulfabromomethazine, 52

Sulfacetamide, 84

Sulfachloropyrazine, 32, 43, 52, 84

Sulfadimethoxine, 52, 84, 120

Sulfaethoxypyridazine, 43, 52

Sulfamethazine, 32, 43, 50, 52, 63, 84

Sulfamethoxazole, 78, 163-164, 165, 166

Sulfamethoxine, 32, 52, 59

Sulfamyxin, 32

Sulfanilamide, 84

Sulfanitran, 32

Sulfaquinoxaline, 32, 57, 84

Sulfathiazole, 43, 84

Sulfonamides, 32, 33, 51, 52, 54, 55, 84, 116-117, 118, 165, 172

Surveillance testing, drug residues in foods, 115-116, 123-124, 140

Surveys of food-borne illness, 133-137

Swann Committee Report, 15, 16, 156

Sweden, 166

Swine production.

See also Pork

antibiotic resistance, 43, 158-159, 160-161, 162, 163, 167, 168

breeding programs, 207

disease control, 41-42, 43, 74, 75, 158-159, 163, 175, 180, 190, 206

economics, 25, 40, 75, 181, 182, 185, 186, 187

growth and metabolic performance, 42-43, 154

integration of industry, 30, 40-41, 49

management systems, 41, 181, 191, 197-198, 206

microbiological hazards, 128-129

residues in slaughtered animals, 83, 85

size of industry, 40, 102

slaughter rejection, 75, 76

therapeutic drug use, 182

T

Testing feed quality, 61

Testing for drug residues

analytical methods, 111-112, 113-115, 119, 123, 140

in milk, 122-124, 125-126

toxicity, 112-113

unresolved issues, 125-126

Tetracycline, 18, 21, 32, 38, 42, 50, 51-53, 78, 81, 82, 83, 120, 152-153, 156, 159, 160, 162, 164, 165, 166, 167, 172

Texas, 54, 136

Thailand, 170

Therapeutic drug use

administration regimen, 34-35, 157

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5137.
×

and antibiotic resistance, 7, 72-73, 79, 150-151, 156, 157, 158-159, 160-161, 176

in beef cattle, 51-53, 180

in dairy cattle, 45-47

definition, 180

economics of, 74

low-dose, 51, 189

minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), 150-151, 166, 176

in poultry, 34-35

reduction strategies, 188-189

regulation of, 182

risk—benefit assessment, 72-73, 74, 75, 179

Thiabendazole, 57

Tiamulin, 42

Tilmicosin, 52, 160

Tobromycin, 169

Topical drugs, 1, 12, 82

Toxic shock syndrome, 146

Toxic Substances Control Act, 111

Toxicity of food-animal drugs, 81-82, 83-84, 103, 112-113, 144

Toxoplasma gondii, 127

Toxoplasmosis, 72

Tracking

antibiotic resistance, 7, 70, 140, 157, 160, 162-166, 168, 174, 176

drug residues in food, 113-115

Trenbolone, 53

Trends

in antibiotic resistance, 78-81

in drug use, 31-34, 50-51

Tricaine methanesulfonate, 59

Trichinella spiralis, 127

Trichodina spp., 59

Trimethoprim, 146, 160, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 172

Triple sulfonamides, 162, 165

Trypanosomiasis, 207

Tuberculosis, 31, 50, 72, 190, 206

Turkeys. See Poultry

Tylosin, 32, 33, 38, 42, 50, 52, 75, 82

U

United Egg Producers, 60

United Kingdom, 75, 155, 164, 168, 170, 171, 172

United States and Canada Free Trade Agreement, 104-105

University of California at Davis, 98

University of Florida, 98

U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2

Bureau of Chemistry, 88

Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, 98, 139

food safety responsibilities, 138, 140, 174

National Agriculture Library, 14

Pathogen Reduction Task Force, 85-86, 130

residue monitoring and enforcement responsibilities, 111, 114-115

Residue Monitoring Program, 67, 83, 84

U.S. Department of Health and Human

Services, 88, 90

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 88, 111, 139

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 119

U.S. Public Health Service, 88, 90, 119, 121, 122

U.S. Trout Farmers Association, 60

V

Vaccinations, 127

beef cattle, 50, 53, 193

dairy cattle, 45, 193

eradication of disease, 206

mutations introduced by, 194

nucleic acid, 195

pathogen targets, 193-194

poultry, 31, 33, 35, 40, 193, 194

research recommendations, 11, 209

sheep, 55

swine, 41, 43, 194

Vancomycin, 18, 22, 79, 152-153, 166, 168

Veal production, 53-54, 101, 102, 163, 181

Veterinarian-client-patient relationship (VCPR), 5, 28, 54, 56, 64, 67, 97, 98-99

Veterinary feed directive drugs, 100

Vibrio spp., 127

Vibriosis, 55

Virginiamycin, 32, 38, 39, 42, 79, 82, 175-176

Vitamin A, 204-205

Vitamin E, 203, 204, 205, 206

W

Water

medication, 2, 34-35, 58

quality and availability, 192

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5137.
×

Withdrawal

diets, 34

intervals, 99

times, 33, 38, 67, 83, 84, 90, 96, 97, 99, 113, 117, 126, 161

World Health Organization (WHO), 17, 18, 78, 106

Worms, 31, 33, 43, 50, 55, 56, 57

Wyoming, 54

Y

Yersinia spp., 74

Y. enterolitica, 127, 128-131

Z

Zeranol, 53, 55-56

Zinc, 205, 206

Zoalene, 32

Zoonotic disease transfer, 8, 18, 69-70, 72, 74, 87, 150-151, 154, 160, 162-163, 176

Zoothamnium spp., 59

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5137.
×
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The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks Get This Book
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The use of drugs in food animal production has resulted in benefits throughout the food industry; however, their use has also raised public health safety concerns.

The Use of Drugs in Food Animals provides an overview of why and how drugs are used in the major food-producing animal industries--poultry, dairy, beef, swine, and aquaculture. The volume discusses the prevalence of human pathogens in foods of animal origin. It also addresses the transfer of resistance in animal microbes to human pathogens and the resulting risk of human disease.

The committee offers analysis and insight into these areas

  • Monitoring of drug residues. The book provides a brief overview of how the FDA and USDA monitor drug residues in foods of animal origin and describes quality assurance programs initiated by the poultry, dairy, beef, and swine industries.
  • Antibiotic resistance. The committee reports what is known about this controversial problem and its potential effect on human health.

The volume also looks at how drug use may be minimized with new approaches in genetics, nutrition, and animal management. November

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