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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1999. Measures of Environmental Performance and Ecosystem Condition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5147.
×

INDEX

A

Academy of Natural Sciences, 4, 219

Accounting methods, 64-173

agricultural sector, 8, 75-83, 89-92, 93, 96, 97-112

air pollution, 66, 68, 69, 84-85, 97, 99, 101, 106, 108-109

chemical indicators, 69, 89, 90-91, 102

chemicals industry, 123, 125-138, 151

developing countries, 71-72, 73-76

electric power, 8, 84-86, 119

energy resource extraction and processing, 118-123, 124, 137, 148, 158

fish processing industry, 72-73, 75, 78, 98, 104, 105, 107, 108

food and feed processing, 105-108, 150, 164

forest and wood products, 73, 74, 96, 97, 108-112, 113, 149, 150, 158, 161

fossil fuel combustion, 146-148, 149, 151

industrial ecology, national material metrics, 157-173

limitations of, 66, 78-79

managerial decision support, 5-6, 177-187 (passim)

materials balances and aggregate waste generation, with breakdowns by sector, 96-156

metals smelting and refining, 138-145, 149, 151, 158, 162-164

mining, not energy minerals, 112-118, 148, 150, 158, 161, 169

multifactor productivity, 71, 84-86

natural resource accounting, 7-8, 70-83

rangelands, 89, 92-95, 101

standards, 72-73, 91-92

stone, clay, and glass industries, 145-146, 150, 151

3M's waste ratio, 6, 8, 66-69

toxic substances, 6, 65-66, 68, 69, 78, 89, 96, 99-100

water pollution, 68, 69, 91-92, 109, 114, 118, 120

see also Cost and cost-benefit factors

Aesthetics and recreation, 15, 26, 27, 35, 77, 93, 260, 281, 283

noise, 59

Agricultural chemicals, 8, 99, 101-103, 115, 125, 128, 129, 170

bioassays, 192, 266

Agricultural sector, 8, 75-83, 89-92, 93, 96

accounting methods, 8, 75-83, 89-92, 93, 96, 97-112

air pollution, 97, 99, 101, 106, 108, 149, 150

import/export, 98, 105, 106, 107, 162, 169

materials balances and aggregate waste generation, 97-112, 148, 149 , 150, 158

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1999. Measures of Environmental Performance and Ecosystem Condition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5147.
×

standards, 89-92, 93-95

technology comparisons, sustainability, 79-80, 81

water pollution standards, 91-92

see also Food and feed processing;

Forestry and wood products

Air pollution

accounting methods, 66, 68, 69, 84-85, 97, 99, 101, 106, 108-109

agricultural sector, 97, 99, 101, 106, 108, 149, 150

chemical indicators, 124, 135, 151

chemicals industry, 124, 135, 151

emission control technologies, 42, 49-50, 56, 57, 146

energy requirements and, 118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 124, 150

food processing, 150

forestry and wood products, 108-109, 111, 112, 149, 150

fossil fuel combustion, 146-148, 149, 151

greenhouse gases, 2, 40, 46, 58, 82, 101-102, 146

just-in-time inventory practices, 50

life-cycle analyses, 27, 36, 48, 50, 56, 57, 58, 60, 61

material metrics, 157, 158, 160, 162

metals processing, 140-141, 142

mineral fuels extraction/processing, 118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 124, 150

mining, other, 114, 150

ozone layer, 2, 43

net energy expenditure analyses, 27

stone, clay and glass industry, 145-146, 150

Ambient bioassays, 10, 199-216

chemical indicators, 203, 209, 210-211, 214

fish and fisheries, 204, 211

Analysis of variance methods, 205-210 (passim)

Aquatic ecosystems, see Benthic communities;

Bioassays;

Fish and fisheries;

Rivers

and streams;

Water pollution

Automobiles, see Motor vehicles

B

Benthic communities, 11, 233, 261, 263, 266, 267, 270-273, 274, 278 , 280, 282

Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity, 233, 278

Best management practices, 92, 94-95, 244

Bioassays, 191-284

ambient, 10, 199-216

chemical indicators vs, 228-230, 231, 254

effluent, 3, 4, 7, 10, 199-201

fish, 11, 193, 194, 204, 211, 233, 261, 263, 266, 267, 270, 273-276, 279, 280, 282

history of, 191-192, 217, 222, 223

limitations of, 194-197, 202, 213

Tennessee Valley Authority, ecological health assessment, 11, 260-284

see also Reservoirs;

Rivers and streams

Biodiversity, 10, 189-284 (passim)

ambient toxicity testing, 199-216

life-cycle analysis, 35, 39, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48

multimetric biotic indices, 11, 233-234

types of, defined, 4, 7, 10, 192-193, 199-202

Biological integrity, 9, 11, 89, 92, 227-256

Clean Water Act, 227, 230, 231-232, 243

defined, 233

Bureau of Mines, 114, 158

C

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, 147

Chalmers Institute of Technology, 35

Chemical indicators, 6, 9

accounting methods, 69, 89, 90-91, 102

air pollution, 124, 135, 151

ambient toxicity testing, 203, 209, 210-211, 214

bioassays vs, 228-230, 231, 254

effluent bioassays, 191, 192, 194, 195, 196

life-cycle analysis, 27, 38

TVA ecological assessment program, 261, 262, 267-277, 280, 282

Chemicals industry, 123, 125-138, 151

import/export, 125, 134, 135, 169

Chemical toxins, see Agricultural chemicals;

Bioassays;

Toxic substances

Chlorofluorocarbons, see Ozone layer

Clay industry, 145-146, 151

Clean Water Act, 42, 90, 91, 93, 191, 193, 217, 227, 230, 231-232, 243, 260, 262

biological integrity, 227, 230, 231-232, 243

see also Federal Water Pollution Control Act

Clean Water Initiative (TVA), 260

Coal mining, see Energy resource extraction and processing

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1999. Measures of Environmental Performance and Ecosystem Condition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5147.
×

Computer applications, 3

agricultural sustainability, 79-80, 81-83

national environmental metrics, 169-170

rivers, 220-221, 241, 247

Tennessee Valley Authority, 273

3M waste ratio, 68

Concordance ranks, 208-209

Consumer behavior, life-cycle analysis, 28, 29, 39-40, 44

Consumption metrics, 8

agricultural products, 98, 102

energy-based life-cycle analyses, 5, 15-28

forest products, 110, 111, 112

global measures, 9

linear valuation, 35-36, 37, 40

materials balances and aggregate waste generation, with breakdowns by sector, 96-156 (passim)

national metrics for industrial ecology, 157-171 (passim)

Contingency-table analysis methods, 206-207, 208, 209

Cost and cost-benefit factors, 3, 67

bioassays, 199, 201, 217

just-in-time inventory practices, 49, 50

life-cycle analyses, 16-28, 36, 37-39, 49, 50-51, 52

managerial decision support, 5-6, 177-187 (passim)

recycling and reuse of materials, 21-25, 66-67

see also Accounting methods

Cropping Practices Survey, 80

D

Data sources, see Computer applications;

Information sources

Decision analysis and support, 30, 31-35

managerial decision support, 5-6, 177-187

measurement error, 96, 136, 180-182, 183

multiple-objective decision making, 32

value functions, 32-33, 35-40, 46

see also Computer applications;

Information sources;

Life-cycle assessment

Department of Agriculture, 80-81, 102, 104, 107

Department of Energy, 199, 203-204

Department of the Interior, see Bureau of Mines

Design-for-environment approaches, 43-62

defined, 43

Developing countries, 71-72, 73-76

Diseases and disorders

accounting methods, 66, 84

life-cycle analysis, 36, 38

Distribution of goods, see Transportation/ distribution issues

Dose-response relation, 203

E

Eastman Chemical Company, 4, 218-226

Economic factors

decision support, managers, 177-187 (passim)

developing countries, 71-72, 73-76

life-cycle analysis, 29-30, 36-40, 42-43, 52

national materials use and waste production, 8

natural resource accounting, 7-8, 70-83

sustainable development, 70-88

see also Accounting methods;

Consumption metrics;

Cost and cost-benefit factors;

Employment issues;

Funding

Economic Research Service, 80, 81

Ecosystem monitoring, general, 2-4, 10-12, 47, 56, 57-58, 59, 60

biological integrity, 9, 11, 89, 92, 231-256

metrics, examples, 9-11

TVA, Vital Signs, 260-263

see also Bioassays;

Biodiversity;

Habitat;

Physical and chemical metrics

Effluent bioassays, 3, 4, 7, 10, 199-201

chemical indicators, 191, 192, 194, 195, 196

fish, 193, 194

Electric power

accounting methods, 8, 84-86, 119

life-cycle analyses, 19-20, 26, 50-51

net energy expenditure, 19-20, 26

Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, 6

Emission control technologies, 42, 49-50, 56, 57, 146

Employment issues, 71, 72, 73

motivation, 47, 50, 51, 56, 60, 67-68, 69, 178, 179-180, 183

Energy requirements, 162, 164

air pollution, 118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 124, 150

life-cycle analyses, 5, 15-28, 50-51, 54, 56, 58, 59, 60

technology comparisons, 5, 15-28

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1999. Measures of Environmental Performance and Ecosystem Condition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5147.
×

Energy resource extraction and processing, 118-123, 124, 137, 148, 158

import/export, 121, 162

water pollution, 118, 120, 149

see also Organic chemicals industry;

Oil products

Environmental Load Index, 36, 38

Environmentally responsible facilities, 5, 42-62, 185

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program, 231, 247

Environmental performance, general, 2-4, 11-12

metrics, examples, 4-9, 20-25

see also Bioassays;

Life-cycle assessment;

Natural resource accounting;

Raw-flux measurements;

3M's waste ratio

Environmental Priority Strategies, 33, 35-40

Environmental Protection Agency, 31, 40, 51, 108, 111, 123, 145-146, 277

bioassays, 191, 192, 193-195, 199, 203, 231-234 (passim), 247, 255

Erosion and sedimentation, 72, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 81, 83

farming and ranching, 91, 92, 94, 95

materials balance and aggregate waste, 97, 105, 118

see also Sediment quality

Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator, 81

Error of measurement, see Measurement error

Exports, see Imports and exports

F

Farm Costs and Returns Survey, 80

Farming, see Agricultural sector

Federal government

funding, 38-39, 94

national material metrics, 169-170

rangelands, 92

see also Legislation;

Regulatory issues;

specific departments and agencies

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, 192

Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 232

see also Clean Water Act

Fertilizers, see Agricultural chemicals

Fish and fisheries, 10, 11, 42, 48, 227-263 (passim)

accounting methods, 72-73, 75, 78, 98, 104, 105, 107, 108

ambient toxicity testing, 204, 211

benthic communities, 11, 233, 261, 263, 266, 267, 270-273, 274, 278 , 280, 282

bioassays, 11, 193, 194, 204, 211, 233, 261, 263, 266, 267, 270, 273-276, 279, 280, 282

effluent bioassays, 193, 194

processing industry, 72-73, 75, 78, 98, 104, 105, 107, 108

Tennessee Valley Authority, 266, 267, 270, 273-276, 279, 280, 282

Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act, 83

Food and feed processing, 105-108, 150, 164

see also Agricultural sector

Foreign countries, see International perspectives;

specific countries

Foreign trade, see Imports and exports

Forest and wood products, 73, 74, 96, 97, 108-112, 113, 149, 150, 158, 161

air pollution, 108-109, 111, 112, 149, 150

import/export, 109, 111, 112, 162

Fossil fuel combustion, 146-148, 149, 151

Funding, 38-39, 94

G

Gas, natural, see Energy resource extraction and processing

Gaseous waste, see Air pollution

Geological Survey, see U.S. Geological Survey

Glass, 132, 145-146

energy costs, 19, 21, 25

Global measures, 8-9, 42, 43, 44, 161

greenhouse gases, 2, 40, 46, 58, 82, 101-102, 146

green payments, 83

ozone layer, 2, 43

see also Import and exports

Greenhouse gases, 2, 40, 46, 58, 82, 101-102, 146

Green payments, 83

Gross domestic investment, 73, 74, 75

Gross domestic product, 73, 74, 159, 164, 166, 170

Gross national product, 7

H

Habitat, 51, 54, 55, 59, 255

see also Bioassays;

Biodiversity;

Fish and fisheries;

Rivers and streams

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1999. Measures of Environmental Performance and Ecosystem Condition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5147.
×

Health effects, see Diseases and disorders

Heating systems, 16-18

Heavy metal pollutants, 50, 147, 167-168, 266

Histological measures, 10

Historical perspectives, 1, 44, 86

bioassays, 191-192, 217, 222, 223

electric power generation, 85

natural resource accounting, 70-72

I

Imports and exports, 72, 85, 96, 156, 158, 168-169

agricultural/food products, 98, 105, 106, 107, 162, 169

chemicals, 125, 134, 135, 169

energy products, 121, 162

forest products, 109, 111, 112, 162

metals, 138, 162, 169

minerals, 114, 115, 117, 162, 169

petroleum products, 120, 169

Index of Biotic Integrity, 9, 11, 233, 234, 234-237, 240-252

Index of Well-Being, 233, 251, 252

Indicators, see Bioassays;

Chemical indicators;

Leaks and leak indicators;

Physical indicators

Indicator species, 10, 11

multimetric biotic indices, 11, 233-234

Indonesia, 7, 73-76

Information sources

agricultural sustainability, 79-80, 81-83

life-cycle analysis, 18-20, 30-31

material metrics, 160-170

net energy expenditure, 18-20

proprietary, 66

see also Computer applications;

Decision analysis and support

Inorganic chemicals industry, 123-134

Insecticides, see Agricultural chemicals

Intensity-of-use metrics, 164

Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality, 3

International perspectives, 7

developing countries, 71-72, 73-76

evolution of environmental regulation, 44

Index of Biotic Integrity, 11

life-cycle analyses, 21, 22, 23, 33, 35-40, 44, 48-49

national material metrics, 159

net energy expenditure, 21, 22, 23

Swedish Environmental Priority Strategies, 33, 35-40

Inventory analysis, 27, 30-31, 49, 50

Invertebrate Community Index, 233, 234, 250

J

Just-in-time inventory practices, 49, 50

L

Landfills, 24, 48, 68, 107, 112, 146

Land use, see Agricultural sector;

Ranching and rangelands;

Site selection

Leaks and leak indicators, 58, 120, 167-168

Legislation, 42, 90, 217

Clean Water Act, 42, 90, 91, 93, 191, 193, 217, 227, 230, 231-232, 243, 260, 262

Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, 6

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, 192

Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 232

Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act, 83

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 68, 192

Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, 65-66

see also Regulatory issues

Life-cycle assessment, 3, 5-6, 14-62

air pollution, 27, 36, 48, 50, 56, 57, 58, 60, 61

biodiversity, 35, 39, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48

chemical indicators, 27, 38

consumer behavior, 28, 29, 39-40, 44

cost-benefit factors, 16-28, 36, 37-39, 49, 50-51, 52

decision analysis, 5-6, 30, 31-35

defined, 5, 30

design-for-environment approaches, 43-62

electric power, 19-20, 26, 50-51

energy requirements, 5, 15-28, 50-51, 54, 56, 58, 59, 60

environmentally responsible facilities, 42-62

impact analysis, 30

improvement analysis, 30, 31

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1999. Measures of Environmental Performance and Ecosystem Condition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5147.
×

international perspectives, 21, 22, 23, 33, 35-40, 44, 48-49

inventory analysis, 27, 30-31, 49, 50

limitations of, 5, 31, 32, 35-41, 46, 52

technology comparisons, 5, 15-28, 31-32, 43, 57-58

water pollution, 27, 48, 55, 57, 58, 59-60, 61

Lighting of facilities, 51

Linear index method, 33, 34

Liquid waste, see Water pollution

Local conditions, 10, 29, 30, 42, 43, 45, 47, 48

national material metrics and, 159

M

Mass measurements

linear valuation, 35

materials balances and aggregate waste generation, with breakdowns by sector, 96-156

3M's waste ratio, 6, 8, 66-69

Materials selection and metrics

air pollution, 157, 158, 160, 162

design-for-environment approaches, 43, 46, 50, 56, 57

industrial ecology, 43, 44, 157-173

materials balances and aggregate waste generation, with breakdowns by sector, 96-156

net energy expenditure, 5, 15-28

see also Imports and exports;

Recycling and reuse

Measurement error

bioassays, 194-197, 241

managerial decision support, 180-182, 183

material balances and aggregate waste generation, 96, 109, 110, 136

Metals smelting and refining, 138-145, 149, 151, 158, 162-164

air pollution, 140-141, 142

import/export, 138, 162, 169

Mining, energy minerals, see Energy resource extraction and processing

Mining, not energy minerals, 112-118, 148, 150, 158, 161, 169

air pollution, 114, 150

Bureau of Mines, 114, 158

import/export, 114, 115, 117, 162, 169

Motor vehicles, 16, 17, 35

Multifactor productivity, 71, 84-86

Multimetric biotic indices, 11, 233-234

Multiple-objective decision making, 32

Multivariate analysis, 209-211, 233-234

N

National Agricultural Statistical Service, 80

National Coastal Pollution Discharge Inventory, 168

National-level conditions

biological integrity, 237

income and resource accounting, 7-8, 70-76

Indonesia, 7, 73-76

U.S., industrial ecology, national material metrics, 157-173

U.S., materials balances and aggregate waste generation, with breakdowns by sector, 96-156

see also Imports and exports

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 168

National Pollution Discharge Elimination System, 193

Natural resource accounting, 7-8, 70-83

Net domestic investment, 73-74, 75

Net energy expenditure, 5, 15-28

Noise, 59

Nonpoint-source pollution, 10, 42, 91, 93, 94, 254, 255

O

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 147

Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, 11, 228-254, 255

Oil products, 3, 16, 118, 120-124, 124, 147, 150

heating systems, 16-18

import/export, 120, 169

motor vehicles, 16, 17, 35

Organic chemicals industry, 134-138

Organic waste, 58, 68-69, 122, 123, 135

Organization-based measurements, see Bioassays;

Raw-flux measurements;

3M's waste ratio

Ozone layer, 2, 43

P

Packaging, 50

Pesticides, see Agricultural chemicals

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1999. Measures of Environmental Performance and Ecosystem Condition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5147.
×

Physical indicators, 9, 35, 89, 90, 191, 195, 202, 210-211, 261, 262, 263, 266, 267

Plant-based measurements, see Bioassays;

Raw-flux measurements;

3M's waste ratio

Precautionary principle, 31

Principal component analysis, 209

Q

Quality management process, 217-226

R

Ranching and rangelands, 89, 92-95, 101

Rapid Bioassessment Protocols, 233, 234

Recreation, see Aesthetics and recreation

Recycling and reuse

accounting methods, 66, 68

chemicals industry, 128, 130-131

cost-benefit factors, 21-25, 66-67

energy expenditure, 21-25, 27

forest products, 109-110, 112, 165, 166

industrial facility siting and, 48-49, 54

life-cycle analyses, 21-25, 27, 48-49, 50, 51, 54-55, 57-58, 60-61

managerial decision support, 184, 186

material balances and aggregate waste generation, with breakdowns by sector, 109-110, 112, 128, 130-131

material metrics, 157, 160-161, 164-167

metals, 140-141, 142, 161, 165-166

oil refining, byproducts, 120, 122-123

raw materials use vs, 164-166

Regional conditions, 7-8, 43, 44, 48

agricultural sustainability, 81, 82

biotic integrity, 236-237, 240

Indonesia, 7, 73-76

Tennessee Valley Authority, 11, 260-284

Regression analysis, 209, 210, 211, 214

Regulatory issues

agricultural sector, 89

bioassays, 3, 7, 193-197, 199, 200-201, 203, 213

decision analysis, 32

evolution of environmental regulation, 44

life-cycle analysis, 29, 32, 42, 44, 47-48

managerial decision support, 180, 181-182, 183, 186

national material metrics and, 159

productivity and, 86

urban siting of facilities, 47-48

waste accounting, 170

water pollutants, bioassays, 3, 191, 193, 217 , 227, 230, 231-232, 243, 260,

see also Standards

Reservoir Fish Assemblage Index, 273

Reservoirs, TVA's ecological health assessment, 260-276, 279-283

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 68, 192

Reuse, see Recycling and reuse

Rivers and streams, 4

ambient toxicity testing, 199-216

comprehensive studies, 217-226

reservoirs, 260-276

sediment quality, 213, 261, 266, 270-272, 274, 277, 280, 282

TVA ecological health assessment, 260-284

watersheds, 89, 90, 93, 230, 236, 252, 255

see also Erosion and sedimentation;

Fish and fisheries;

Water pollution

S

Science Applications International Corporation, 108, 142, 145

Sedimentation, see Erosion and sedimentation

Sediment quality, 213, 261, 266, 270-272, 274, 277, 280, 282

Site selection, industrial facilities, 47-49, 54

Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 30, 40

Solid waste, see Waste and waste treatment

Soils, see Agricultural sector;

Erosion and sedimentation;

Ranching and rangelands

Species diversity, see Multimetric biotic indices

Standards

accounting methods, 72-73, 91-92

agricultural pollution, 89-92, 93-95

bioassays, 3, 7, 193-197, 199, 200-201, 203, 213, 231-256 (passim)

biological integrity, 9, 11, 89, 92, 231-256

environmentally responsible facilities, 46-62

life-cycle analysis, linear valuation, 35

rangelands, 92-93, 94

Tennessee Valley Authority, 260-284 (passim)

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1999. Measures of Environmental Performance and Ecosystem Condition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5147.
×

Toxic Release Inventory, 6, 65-66

water pollutants, 3, 91-92, 191, 193, 217, 227-256

see also Regulatory issues

Statistical methodology, bioassays, 192-193, 205-214

see also Measurement error

Stone industry, 145-146, 150, 151

Streams, see Rivers and streams

Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, 65-66

Sustainable development, 70-88

defined, 70, 76

Swedish Environmental Research Institute, EPS system, 33, 35-40

System of National Accounts, see United Nations System of National Accounts

T

Technology comparisons

agricultural sustainability, 79-80, 81

design-for-environment approaches, 43

emission control, 42

life-cycle analysis, 5, 15-28, 31-32, 43, 57-58

net energy expenditure, 5, 15-28

proprietary information, 66

Tennessee Valley Authority, 11, 260-284

chemical indicators, 261, 262, 267-277, 280, 282

fish, 266, 267, 270, 273-276, 279, 280, 282

3M's waste ratio, 6, 8, 66-69

Total factor productivity, see Multifactor productivity

Toxic Release Inventory, 6, 65-66

Toxic substances

accounting methods, 6, 65-66, 68, 69, 78, 89, 96, 99-100

forest products, 110-112

life-cycle analyses, 6, 27, 36, 48, 50, 54, 55, 56, 61

mass flows and, 96

see also Agricultural chemicals;

Bioassays

Transportation/distribution issues, 9, 47, 48, 55, 56

just-in-time inventory practices, 49, 50

motor vehicles, 16, 17, 35

natural gas, 120, 124

U

United Nations System of National Accounts, 72-73

Urban areas, 47-48, 247

U.S. Geological Survey, 247

U.S. Math Programming model, 81

V

Value functions, 32-33, 35-40, 46

Visual resources, see Aesthetics and recreation

Vital Signs (TVA), 260-263

W

Waste and waste treatment, general, 8, 84

chemicals industry, 123-138 (passim)

fossil fuel combustion, 146-147

landfills, 24, 48, 68, 107, 112, 146

life-cycle analysis, 15, 26, 27, 30, 55, 57, 58, 59, 61

managerial decision support, 178, 182, 184

material metrics, 158, 160-161, 162, 166-167, 170

materials balances and aggregate waste generation, with breakdowns by sector, 96-156 (passim)

metals processing, 140, 141

minerals, fuels, 118-120, 123, 148-149

minerals, other, 112-118, 148-149, 169

national industrial ecology, 157, 158

net energy expenditure, 15, 26, 27

organic waste, 58, 68-69, 122, 123, 135

packaging, 50

3M's waste ratio, 6, 8, 66-69

see also Air pollution;

Recycling and reuse;

Toxic substances;

Water pollution

Water pollution, 4

accounting methods, 68, 69, 91-92, 109, 114, 118, 120

agricultural standards, 91-92

Clean Water Act, 42, 90, 91, 93, 191, 193, 217, 227, 230, 231-232, 243, 260, 262

forestry, 109

heavy metal pollutants, 50, 147, 167-168, 266

life-cycle analyses, 27, 48, 55, 57, 58, 59-60, 61

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1999. Measures of Environmental Performance and Ecosystem Condition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5147.
×

mineral fuels extraction/processing, 118, 120, 149

mining, other, 114

net energy expenditure analyses, 27

nonpoint-source pollution, 10, 42, 91, 93, 94, 254, 255

sediment quality, 213, 261, 266, 270-272, 274, 277, 280, 282

see also Bioassays;

Erosion and sedimentation;

Rivers and streams

Water resources

consumption, by sector, 96-97, 99, 106, 120, 146, 149

Tennessee Valley Authority, 260-284

Watersheds, 89, 90, 93, 230, 236, 252, 255

Wildlife, see Bioassays;

Biodiversity;

Habitat

World Resources Institute, 73, 78-83

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1999. Measures of Environmental Performance and Ecosystem Condition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5147.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1999. Measures of Environmental Performance and Ecosystem Condition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5147.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1999. Measures of Environmental Performance and Ecosystem Condition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5147.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1999. Measures of Environmental Performance and Ecosystem Condition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5147.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1999. Measures of Environmental Performance and Ecosystem Condition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5147.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1999. Measures of Environmental Performance and Ecosystem Condition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5147.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1999. Measures of Environmental Performance and Ecosystem Condition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5147.
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Page 301
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1999. Measures of Environmental Performance and Ecosystem Condition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5147.
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Page 302
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1999. Measures of Environmental Performance and Ecosystem Condition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5147.
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Measures of Environmental Performance and Ecosystem Condition Get This Book
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When Cleveland's Cuyahoga River caught fire in 1969, no environmental measurements were necessary to know the seriousness of the problem. Incidents like the Cuyahoga fire raise an important question: Can catastrophes-in-the-making be detected early enough to be prevented? For those in industry, such disasters point to the need for measures that can improve the environmental performance of processes, products, business practices, and linked industrial systems.

In Measures of Environmental Performance and Ecosystem Condition, experts share their insights on environmental metrics. The volume explores the most productive relationship between measures of environmental performance and measures of ecosystem conditions. It reviews current approaches, evaluates structures for business decisionmaking, and includes a matrix for determining the environmental performance of industrial facilities. Case studies include:

  • Development and application of a water-quality rating scheme for streams and reservoirs in the Tennessee Valley.
  • Three years of successful experience with waste metrics at 3M.

The book covers the range of environmental performance and condition metrics, from the use of material flow data to monitor environmental performance at the national level to the use of bioassays to measure the toxicity of industrial effluents.

This book offers something for everyone--policymakers, executives, engineers, managers, and advocates--with a stake in the measurement of environmental performance and ecological conditions.

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