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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Science Teaching Reconsidered: A Handbook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5287.
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Index

(Page numbers in italics refer to text in sidebars.)

A

Active learning

effective teaching styles for, 40

in large classes, 10-11

in lecture setting, 5

ongoing assessment, 24

providing context for exploration, 24

scientific research model, 23

student transition to, 10-11

American Association of Physics Teachers, 13, 63

American Chemical Society, 13, 66

Animal behavior, 17

Arizona State University, 11

Arrowsmith, Ramon, 11

Assessment and evaluation of students, 34-35

in active learning, 24

attitudes toward math and science, 58

laboratory reports, 19

students' prior knowledge, 33-34

See also Grading;

Testing

Assessment of teaching

characteristics of effective teachers, 33

by classroom videotape, 36-37

ongoing, 35

peer evaluation for, 37

by portfolio, 36

by self-evaluation, 36-37

by student opinion, 35-36, 37-38

B

Biological sciences, 10, 13

C

Class size. See Large classes

Collaboration

in syllabus design, 4

for teacher evaluation, 37

Collaborative learning, 15-16

peer instruction, 22

Community of learners, 4

scientific research model, 23

Concept maps, 30

Conceptual understanding, 4

advanced by class discussion, 14

obstacles to teaching for, 5

proposing explanations, 25

reading and writing assignments to enhance, 25

student misconceptions as obstacles to, 27

Content

courses for nonscience majors, 3-4, 5, 6

in instructor-centered teaching, 3

in student-centered teaching, 3

student' s advancement in field and, 3

teaching style driven by, 2-3

See also Course design

Cooperative learning, 15-16

in laboratory work, 18

Course design

collaborative syllabus design, 4

consideration of student learning styles, 6, 22-23

goal identification for, 5-6

for nonscience majors, 3-4, 5, 6

selection of instructional materials, 47, 48

syllabus planning, 5-6

textbook selection, 49-50

See also Content

D

Demonstrations, 13-14

Dickinson College, 41

Discipline-centered teaching, 2-3

application, 4

circumstances leading to adoption of, 5

information overload in, 4

Discussions

applications, 14

benefits of, 14

guiding, 15

handling student questions, 12-13

planning, 15

sociocultural sensitivity in, 14-15

student engagement, 15

student preparation for, 14

teacher skills for, 14

Diversity, 58, 60

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Science Teaching Reconsidered: A Handbook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5287.
×

E

E-mail, 52-53, 56

Education of future teachers

conceptual approaches, 7

importance of, 7

G

Gender differences, 58, 60-61

Genetics, 13

Geology, 11

Goals

as component in syllabus planning, 5-6

for discussion sessions, 15

for laboratory work, 16-17

for nonscience majors, 3-4

student diversity, 3

student testing, 41

student's understanding of science as multi-disciplinary,7

for teaching, 9

Gould, James L., 17

Grading

bonus points, 45

criterion-referenced systems, 44

on a curve, 44

of homework assignments, 39, 40-41

inherent subjectivity in, 45

norm-referenced systems, 44-45

teacher attitudes, 39, 44

test goals and, 39, 45

See also Assessment and evaluation of students;

Testing

Grant, Rosemary, 6

Group work

collaborative learning, 15-16

context for exploration, 24

disadvantages, 16

discussion sessions, 14-15

grading, 40

H

Handouts, laboratory work, 18

Harvard University, 22

Homework

grading, 40-41

take-home tests, 42

I

Information overload

problems of discipline-centered approach, 4

in instructional resources, 47

Information technology

educational resources, 47, 51-54

interactive software, 53

Internet, 51

in laboratory work, 18

software selection, 53

teaching resources, 52

World Wide Web, 52

Inquiry, 23

Inquiry-based labs, 73-74

Interdisciplinary courses, 5, 6, 7

Internet, 51

Introductory courses, 4

alternatives/enhancements to lecturing, 10-11

grading policy, 44

J

Jones, Maitland, 6

L

Laboratory work

computer use, 18

context for exploration, 24

cooperative learning in, 18

grading, 39-40

handling student questions, 12-13

improving effectiveness of, 16-19

inquiry-based, resources for, 73-74

planning considerations, 18-19

resources for planning, 17-18

safety, publications on, 75

significance of, for science, 16

student reports, 19, 25

teaching assistants in, 19-20

teaching goals, 16-17

teaching technique, 18

use of handouts, 18

Large classes

alternatives to lecturing, 10-11

demonstration projects for, 14

discussion sections, 14

Learning

allowing time for reflection, 24

best methods for, 4

collaborative/cooperative, 15-16

current conceptualization, 21-22

from exams, 44

fundamental misconceptions as obstacles to, 27, 28-29

overcoming misconceptions, 24

process conceptualizations,

research on, 26

relationship with teaching, 2

responsibility for, 55

student evaluations of teachers and, 38

student-teacher relations and, 55-56

styles of, 22-23

teacher's goals for students, 3

traditional conceptualizations of, 21

See also Active learning

Lecturing

active learning in, 5

alternatives, 10-11

with discussion sections, 14

handling student questions, 12-13

limitations of, 9

opportunities for improving, 11-12

use of demonstration projects, 13-14

Long, Sharon, 10, 13

M

Mazur, Eric, 22

Mentoring, 60-61

Minority students, 59, 60-61

Misconceptions

as challenges to learning, 27, 28-29

examples, 29, 30

helping students confront, 29-30

helping students overcome, 30-31

identifying, 29

as impediment to learning, 24

resources for dealing with, 32

science fear and math anxiety, 57-58

teaching strategies for dealing with, 29

types of, 27-28

Molecular biology, 13

Multimedia presentations, 11

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Science Teaching Reconsidered: A Handbook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5287.
×

N

Nonscience majors

course design for, 3-4, 5, 6

grading considerations, 44

laboratory course, 18

O

Office hours, 53, 56

Oral presentations, 40

P

Peer evaluation, 37

Peer instruction, 22

Perlmutter, Daniel D., 5

Physical resources

determinants of teaching style, 4-5

for inquiry-based labs, 73-74

professional publications, 69-72

selection of instructional materials, 47, 48

textbook use, 48-51

Physics, 22

Planning

demonstrations, 13-14

discussions, 15

laboratory work, 16-18, 18-19

selection of instructional materials, 47, 48

syllabus, 5-6

tests, 42

See also Course design

Princeton University, 6, 17

Q

Questioning

effective use of, 12-13

study questions with reading assignments, 24, 25

R

Reading assignments, 24, 25

Recruitment of science students, 60

Reflection, 24

by writing, 25

Religious beliefs, scientific misconceptions in, 28

S

Scientific method

proposing explanations, 25

teacher education model, 7

teaching/learning model, 23

in textbook presentations, 49

Social sciences, 5

Sociocultural sensitivity

conceptual thinking, 59

in discussion sessions, 14-15

motivations of students, 59

social attitudes toward science, 61

teaching practice, 59-61

Special services for students, 56-57

Stanford University, 10, 13

Student-centered teaching, 3, 4

discussion sections in, 14

instructional resources, 47

Student-teacher relations

accommodating student differences, 59-61

electronic communications technology for, 53

helping students succeed, 56-57

importance of, 55

learning and, 55-56

learning students' names, 56

mentoring relationships, 60-61

office hours, 53, 56

Students

cultural motivations, 59

determinants of syllabus design, 6

determinants of teaching style, 4

English as second language for, 59

gender differences in classroom behavior, 60

names of, 56

older, 58

overcoming science fear and math anxiety, 57-58

participation in design of lecture format, 12

participation in discussions, 15

perception of good teaching, 2

questions of, teaching opportunities in, 12-13

responses to poor teaching, 2

ridiculing of science by, 61

teacher evaluation by, 35-36, 37-38

teacher's goals for, 3

textbook use, 50, 51

transition to active learning, 10-11

use of electronic communications technologies, 53

Subject matter expertise

for instructor-centered teaching style, 3

teaching and, 1

Suggestion boxes, 53

Syllabus. See Course design

T

Teacher-student relations. See Student-teacher relations

Teachers

education of future, 7

Teaching

collaborative syllabus design, 4

continuum of activities in, 2

conveying science as human endeavor, 61

dealing with student misconceptions, 28-32

demonstration projects, 13-14

education and training of teachers, 7, 19-20

effective assessment practices, 33

engaging students, 23-24

experimentation with, 1

gender bias, 60

goals, 9

handling student questions, 12-13

helping students prepare for tests, 43

information technologies for, 51-54

knowledge requirements for, 3

methods, 9.

See also specific method

rapid delivery of information, 47

relationship to learning, 2

resources for improving, 1-2

student learning styles and, 6, 22-23

student perception of, 2

subject matter expertise and, 1

textbook use, 48-51

See also Assessment of teaching;

Teaching style(s)

Teaching assistants, 19-20

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Science Teaching Reconsidered: A Handbook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5287.
×

Teaching load

assessment activities and, 33

as determinant of teaching style, 4

Teaching style(s)

for active learning, 4

common features, 3, 9

considerations in selection of, 4-5

development of, 2, 3-5

discipline-centered, 2-3, 4

instructor-centered, 3, 4, 14, 47

integrative approach, 3, 5

student-centered, 3, 4

teaching goals and, 3

types of, 2

See also Teaching

Testing

assessment alternatives, 34-35

electronic communications

technology for, 53

essay questions, 42

frequency of, 43

goals, 41

of group work, 40

helping students learn from exams, 44

helping students prepare for, 43

of laboratory activities, 39-40

multiple choice questions, 41, 42

open-book tests, 43

oral presentations for, 40

problem solving questions, 42

reporting results to students, 43-44

short answer questions, 41-42

student perceptions of, 39

take-home tests, 42

test formats, 41-42

written work for, 40, 41

See also Assessment and evaluation of students;

Grading

Textbooks

ancillary products, 50

customized, 50-51

effectiveness of, 49

good qualities, 48

helping students use, 50, 51

historical development, 48-49

limitations, 48

selection, 49-50

text presentation, 49

Thinking aloud pair problem solving, 24

Tilghman, Shirley, 6

Tutoring, 56-57

U

University of Pennsylvania, 5

V

Videotape, for analysis of teaching practice, 36-37

W

Wilkinson, David, 6

World Wide Web, 52

Writing assignments

draft reports, 40

essay questions on tests, 42

grading, 40, 41

learning to write research papers, 25

for understanding, 25

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Science Teaching Reconsidered: A Handbook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5287.
×
Page 85
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Science Teaching Reconsidered: A Handbook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5287.
×
Page 86
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Science Teaching Reconsidered: A Handbook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5287.
×
Page 87
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Science Teaching Reconsidered: A Handbook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5287.
×
Page 88
Science Teaching Reconsidered: A Handbook Get This Book
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Effective science teaching requires creativity, imagination, and innovation. In light of concerns about American science literacy, scientists and educators have struggled to teach this discipline more effectively. Science Teaching Reconsidered provides undergraduate science educators with a path to understanding students, accommodating their individual differences, and helping them grasp the methods--and the wonder--of science.

What impact does teaching style have? How do I plan a course curriculum? How do I make lectures, classes, and laboratories more effective? How can I tell what students are thinking? Why don't they understand? This handbook provides productive approaches to these and other questions.

Written by scientists who are also educators, the handbook offers suggestions for having a greater impact in the classroom and provides resources for further research.

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