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Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

APPENDIX B
Tables

Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE B-1 Total Number of Ph.D.s in the Labor Force, by Sex, Field, and Year of Survey

 

1973

1979

1989

1995

Engineering

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Biomedical

317

5

870

10

1373

94

1913

205

Chemical

5427

19

7497

43

11004

322

11879

714

Electrical

7962

21

10375

68

14438

249

19513

704

Industrial

815

5

1312

18

1304

107

2110

307

Materials Science

178

0

691

14

1768

153

3558

521

Other

18743

77

26584

269

38595

927

43552

1996

Total

33442

127

47329

422

68482

1852

82525

4447

Mathematical Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Computer Science

571

33

1428

104

3950

484

6942

1133

Probability & Statistics

2399

191

4003

434

5655

1066

6525

1479

Mathematics

9883

766

12661

1079

15995

1698

17100

2204

Total

12853

90

18092

1617

25600

3248

30567

4816

Physical Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Astronomy

1023

99

1627

127

2478

240

2866

224

Physics

18944

395

23792

628

30319

1236

33781

2058

Chemistry

34784

2198

41278

3058

49102

5814

52841

8478

Oceanography

583

10

922

46

1516

167

1724

310

Geosciences

6024

162

8259

376

11981

1083

13288

1790

Total

61358

2864

75878

4235

95396

8540

104500

12860

Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

Life Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Agricultural

10009

163

13750

399

19273

1704

21059

2906

Medical

35416

6356

47014

9979

64361

19499

80407

29511

Biological

5013

600

7369

1395

13121

6295

8345

8570

Total

50438

7119

68133

11773

96755

27498

109811

40987

Social/Behavioral Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Psychology

18964

4942

28766

9975

43169

24400

47473

34677

Anthropology

1378

343

2528

1026

4101

2374

4727

3305

Economics

9755

603

12175

1102

16782

2185

16809

2737

Sociology

4910

1134

7177

2222

9254

4330

8745

5024

Other

12289

1385

19156

3133

26474

7479

21270

6243

Total

47296

8407

69802

17458

99780

40768

99024

51986

Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE B-2 Number of Full-Time Scientists and Engineers, by Sex, Field, and Year of Survey

 

1973

1979

1989

1995

Engineering

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Biomedical

307

2

778

10

1314

84

1729

135

Chemical

4835

13

6696

33

9410

257

9574

504

Electrical

7317

17

9578

53

12595

213

16422

601

Industrial

720

4

1007

12

901

75

1590

279

Materials Science

146

0

599

12

1587

138

3304

366

Other

16883

46

23860

218

32631

791

36394

1704

Total

30208

82

42518

338

58438

1558

69013

3589

Mathematical Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Computer Science

540

30

1330

92

3670

397

6501

933

Probability & Statistics

2233

130

3710

318

5067

798

5165

1175

Mathematics

8866

517

10871

780

13610

1304

14045

1620

Total

11639

677

15911

1190

22347

2499

25711

3728

Physical Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Astronomy

930

64

1531

89

2310

175

2578

202

Physics

16424

220

20603

427

25577

982

26977

1473

Chemistry

28936

1236

34990

2105

39788

4426

39773

6251

Oceanography

523

6

888

37

1336

132

1537

212

Geosciences

5355

111

7287

292

9857

809

10508

1367

Total

52168

1637

65299

2950

78868

6524

81373

9505

Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

Life Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Agricultural

8766

86

12093

297

15569

1354

15688

2053

Medical

30916

4131

41403

7218

54025

14699

63815

22452

Biological

4371

381

6724

1078

11490

4955

5595

5380

Total

44053

4598

60220

8593

81084

21008

85098

29885

Social/Behavioral Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Psychology

16048

3060

24690

7005

34961

16818

36317

22833

Anthropology

1226

246

2193

756

2914

1441

3419

2283

Economics

7359

376

9261

781

11907

1654

11659

2063

Sociology

4018

753

5649

1592

6575

2717

6255

3536

Other

9434

778

14058

1820

18501

4251

14633

4218

Total

38085

5213

55851

11954

74858

26881

72283

34933

Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE B-3 Labor Force Participation Status by Sex, Field, and Year of Survey

 

1973

1979

1989

1995

Engineering

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.931

.695

.909

.818

.897

.848

.906

.813

Full Time out of Science

.047

.042

.060

.070

.073

.061

.046

.043

Part Time

.012

.136

.021

.061

.021

.063

.029

.066

Seeking Work

.008

.051

.005

.022

.006

.011

.011

.039

Not Seeking Work

.003

.076

.005

.029

.002

.016

.009

.039

n

32443

118

46765

413

65149

1838

76200

4416

Mathematical Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.947

.765

.905

.784

.910

.800

.908

.795

Full Time out of Science

.029

.048

.066

.064

.068

.080

.042

.050

Part Time

.008

.123

.021

.083

.016

.078

.030

.108

Seeking Work

.013

.018

.003

.019

.003

.010

.009

.006

Not Seeking Work

.003

.045

.005

.049

.002

.033

.012

.041

n

11191

771

15684

1335

22038

2580

26137

3891

Physical Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.898

.641

.897

.732

.903

.799

.872

.774

Full Time out of Science

.066

.069

.070

.072

.068

.070

.063

.084

Part Time

.018

.154

.023

.103

.020

.070

.041

.055

Seeking Work

.014

.054

.008

.030

.006

.020

.012

.022

Not Seeking Work

.004

.082

.002

.063

.003

.041

.012

.065

n

58068

2554

72808

4029

87354

8164

93274

12285

Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

Life Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.933

.744

.925

.779

.913

.803

.853

.759

Full Time out of Science

.039

.048

.045

.044

.060

.067

.091

.111

Part Time

.019

.105

.020

.087

.017

.080

.032

.066

Seeking Work

.006

.039

.008

.031

.007

.015

.012

.014

Not Seeking Work

.003

.064

.003

.059

.003

.035

.011

.050

n

47218

6176

65137

11027

88785

26152

99706

39379

Social/Behavioral Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.870

.697

.832

.713

.810

.685

.796

.694

Full Time out of Science

.098

.081

.125

.101

.144

.122

.132

.103

Part Time

.024

.164

.030

.128

.036

.148

.059

.159

Seeking Work

.007

.031

.008

.025

.008

.019

.006

.008

Not Seeking Work

.002

.028

.004

.032

.002

.026

.008

.036

n

43793

7480

67100

16761

92385

39230

90829

50313

Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE B-4 1973 Labor Force Participation Status, by Sex, Field, and Cohort

 

1940 Ph.D.s

1950 Ph.D.s

1960 Ph.D.s

Total

Engineering

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.889

.667

.919

.444

.942

.745

.934

.695

Full Time out of Science

.072

.000

.063

.222

.039

.011

.047

.042

Part Time

.028

.000

.009

.222

.009

.128

.010

.136

Seeking Work

.008

.000

.008

.111

.007

.043

.008

.051

Not Seeking Work

.003

.333

.001

.000

.002

.074

.002

.076

n

2174

6

6667

18

23032

94

31873

118

Mathematical Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.963

.732

.966

.817

.948

.761

.953

.768

Full Time out of Science

.023

.070

.028

.063

.028

.042

.028

.049

Part Time

.007

.127

.000

.079

.005

.122

.004

.115

Seeking Work

.007

.014

.006

.000

.015

.025

.012

.019

Not Seeking Work

.000

.056

.000

.040

.004

.050

.003

.049

n

828

71

2326

126

7487

523

10641

720

Physical Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.871

.596

.911

.662

.915

.656

.907

.649

Full Time out of Science

.093

.135

.067

.089

.053

.048

.064

.07

Part Time

.016

.175

.007

.132

.014

.149

.012

.149

Seeking Work

.015

.023

.014

.043

.014

.070

.014

.057

Not Seeking Work

.005

.070

.001

.075

.004

.077

.003

.075

n

8579

342

15409

562

29534

1509

53522

2413

Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

Life Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.905

.719

.932

.737

.953

.759

.941

.75

Full Time out of Science

.054

.091

.048

.062

.028

.036

.037

.047

Part Time

.030

.099

.013

.094

.010

.107

.013

.103

Seeking Work

.008

.029

.003

.036

.006

.044

.006

.041

Not Seeking Work

.003

.062

.003

.072

.002

.054

.003

.059

n

5580

615

13076

1280

25263

3939

43919

5834

Social/Behavioral Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.815

.708

.861

.677

.894

.709

.876

.702

Full Time out of Science

.144

.101

.111

.093

.079

.073

.095

.079

Part Time

.034

.174

.021

.178

.017

.156

.020

.162

Seeking Work

.005

.009

.005

.031

.009

.034

.007

.031

Not Seeking Work

.003

.009

.003

.021

.001

.028

.002

.025

n

4274

576

12433

1536

25439

5130

42146

7242

Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE B-5 1979 Labor Force Participation Status, by Sex, Field, and Cohort

 

1950 Ph.D.s

1960 Ph.D.s

1970 Ph.D.s

Total

Engineering

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.868

.769

.902

.625

.930

.857

.914

.822

Full Time out of Science

.079

.000

.071

.089

.047

.070

.058

.071

Part Time

.032

.231

.023

.143

.013

.041

.018

.061

Seeking Work

.003

.000

.002

.071

.007

.015

.005

.022

Not Seeking Work

.018

.000

.002

.071

.003

.018

.004

.024

n

4971

13

15127

56

25880

342

45978

411

Mathematical Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.884

.762

.918

.765

.907

.809

.908

.796

Full Time out of Science

.084

.143

.068

.088

.061

.043

.066

.060

Part Time

.027

.060

.008

.078

.023

.081

.019

.079

Seeking Work

.000

.012

.000

.000

.005

.028

.003

.020

Not Seeking Work

.005

.024

.006

.068

.004

.04

.005

.045

n

1504

84

5055

294

8533

906

15092

1284

Physical Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.865

.687

.902

.683

.932

.780

.909

.744

Full Time out of Science

.103

.118

.070

.101

.047

.051

.066

.072

Part Time

.024

.089

.017

.126

.010

.078

.015

.091

Seeking Work

.005

.016

.010

.034

.008

.034

.008

.032

Not Seeking Work

.003

.091

.001

.056

.003

.057

.002

.061

n

12911

451

23403

968

31363

2402

67677

3821

Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

Life Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.900

.668

.928

.742

.944

.824

.932

.791

Full Time out of Science

.068

.104

.051

.043

.032

.033

.044

.042

Part Time

.018

.076

.013

.141

.012

.060

.013

.080

Seeking Work

.010

.061

.007

.023

.008

.031

.008

.032

Not Seeking Work

.004

.091

.000

.050

.004

.051

.003

.054

n

10777

953

18451

2446

33295

7210

62523

10609

Social/Behavioral Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.797

.682

.835

.720

.845

.721

.835

.719

Full Time out of Science

.151

.134

.130

.113

.115

.094

.124

.100

Part Time

.046

.140

.024

.117

.026

.126

.028

.125

Seeking Work

.001

.016

.008

.018

.011

.028

.008

.025

Not Seeking Work

.005

.028

.003

.031

.004

.030

.004

.030

n

9775

900

17372

2955

38455

12507

65602

16362

Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE B-6 1989 Labor Force Participation Status, by Sex, Field, and Cohort

 

1960 Ph.D.s

1970 Ph.D.s

1980 Ph.D.s

Total

Engineering

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.870

.714

.884

.796

.943

.867

.902

.848

Full Time out of Science

.107

.125

.081

.097

.044

.050

.074

.062

Part Time

.015

.107

.025

.077

.007

.057

.016

.062

Seeking Work

.003

.036

.010

.011

.003

.011

.006

.011

Not Seeking Work

.005

.018

.000

.019

.003

.016

.002

.016

n

14213

56

25783

362

22368

1415

62364

1833

Mathematical Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.899

.754

.917

.809

.929

.812

.917

.804

Full Time out of Science

.078

.119

.070

.078

.059

.069

.068

.078

Part Time

.018

.077

.007

.071

.010

.079

.011

.076

Seeking Work

.003

.021

.003

.007

.002

.009

.003

.010

Not Seeking Work

.002

.028

.002

.034

.000

.032

.001

.032

n

4923

285

8846

970

7197

1270

20966

2525

Physical Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.896

.746

.895

.782

.939

.832

.910

.807

Full Time out of Science

.076

.099

.085

.086

.041

.049

.068

.066

Part Time

.025

.088

.012

.082

.007

.054

.014

.067

Seeking Work

.001

.010

.005

.014

.010

.026

.005

.020

Not Seeking Work

.002

.057

.003

.036

.002

.039

.002

.040

n

21906

879

32027

2420

25329

4528

79262

7827

Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

Life Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.909

.705

.901

.779

.940

.838

.918

.808

Full Time out of Science

.073

.108

.075

.087

.037

.047

.060

.065

Part Time

.013

.145

.010

.087

.014

.063

.012

.078

Seeking Work

.002

.010

.011

.014

.005

.018

.007

.016

Not Seeking Work

.003

.033

.002

.033

.004

.034

.003

.034

n

16330

2111

34684

8078

31891

15359

82905

25548

Social/Behavioral Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.801

.696

.823

.661

.818

.698

.817

.686

Full Time out of Science

.156

.143

.145

.150

.142

.105

.145

.122

Part Time

.035

.128

.024

.131

.027

.158

.027

.147

Seeking Work

.005

.011

.007

.017

.013

.021

.009

.019

Not Seeking Work

.003

.021

.002

.041

.000

.019

.002

.027

n

15764

2553

38771

12921

32248

23054

86783

38528

Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE B-7 1995 Labor Force Participation Status, by Sex, Field, and Cohort

 

1970 Ph.D.s

1980 Ph.D.s

1990 Ph.D.s

Total

Engineering

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.874

.864

.929

.803

.952

.811

.918

.813

Full Time out of Science

.069

.000

.042

.041

.025

.050

.046

.043

Part Time

.031

.089

.012

.065

.010

.064

.018

.066

Seeking Work

.011

.047

.015

.059

.010

.027

.012

.040

Not Seeking Work

.015

.000

.003

.032

.002

.047

.007

.038

n

21947

361

23688

1480

19655

2553

65290

4394

Mathematical Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.900

.794

.927

.698

.909

.911

.911

.801

Full Time out of Science

.053

.031

.028

.093

.052

.024

.044

.052

Part Time

.034

.096

.021

.176

.021

.045

.026

.107

Seeking Work

.004

.026

.009

.000

.015

.000

.009

.006

Not Seeking Work

.009

.054

.015

.034

.004

.020

.010

.033

n

8396

897

7508

1416

6179

1389

22083

3702

Physical Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.875

.702

.917

.769

.894

.830

.895

.780

Full Time out of Science

.076

.150

.044

.089

.052

.051

.059

.087

Part Time

.025

.049

.013

.051

.030

.052

.022

.051

Seeking Work

.011

.015

.013

.011

.016

.034

.013

.021

Not Seeking Work

.013

.083

.013

.079

.009

.033

.012

.062

n

30327

2267

25962

4753

15716

4474

72005

11494

Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

Life Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.848

.733

.886

.75

.892

.792

.873

.762

Full Time out of Science

.104

.114

.09

.116

.076

.105

.092

.112

Part Time

.019

.089

.007

.067

.015

.046

.013

.064

Seeking Work

.012

.011

.010

.014

.014

.016

.012

.014

Not Seeking Work

.016

.053

.006

.053

.003

.040

.009

.048

n

32398

7809

32230

15867

18892

13797

83520

37473

Social/Behavioral Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Full Time in Science

.808

.671

.814

.703

.813

.705

.811

.696

Full Time out of Science

.140

.125

.133

.098

.134

.091

.136

.102

Part Time

.041

.158

.039

.156

.039

.162

.039

.158

Seeking Work

.003

.007

.009

.005

.011

.009

.007

.007

Not Seeking Work

.009

.039

.006

.040

.003

.033

.007

.037

n

33058

11125

29532

21113

13966

15578

76556

47816

Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE B-8 Reasons for Part-Time Employment, by Sex and Year of Survey

1989

No Job Available

No Need to Work

Family Obligations

n

Men

.296

.527

.047

7917

Women

.187

.319

.470

8573

1995

No Job Available

No Need to Work

Family Obligations

n

Men

.246

.316

.042

15377

Women

.188

.416

.518

11992

TABLE B-9 Reasons for Part-Time Employment, by Cohort, Sex, and Year of Survey

 

1989

Older

Middle

Younger

Men

No Job

.312

.375

.470

No Need

.519

.455

.300

Family

.075

.055

.043

N

1561

2232

1694

Women

No Job

.212

.179

.189

No Need

.488

.348

.257

Family

.203

.466

.539

N

730

2656

4887

 

1995

Older

Middle

Younger

Men

No Job

.308

.475

.577

No Need

.282

.221

.212

Family

.060

.112

.023

N

3655

2137

1630

Women

No Job

.198

.160

.236

No Need

.462

.432

.354

Family

.388

.629

.549

N

2678

4948

3614

Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE B-10 Reasons for Part-Time Employment, Field, Sex, and Year of Survey

 

Engineering

Mathematical Sciences

Physical Sciences

Life Sciences

Social/Behavioral Sciences

1989

Men

No Job

.285

.102

.355

.371

.257

No Need

.515

.625

.475

.454

.581

Family

.042

.050

.058

.037

.048

N

1345

323

1729

1362

3158

Women

No Job

.181

.193

.222

.239

.164

No Need

.060

.278

.258

.259

.354

Family

.724

.503

.508

.456

.465

N

116

187

563

2032

5675

1995

Men

No Job

.302

.197

.324

.162

.225

No Need

.328

.432

.291

.281

.335

Family

.042

.028

.023

.043

.057

N

2193

773

3822

3226

5363

Women

No Job

.366

.362

.202

.229

.157

No Need

.414

.298

.331

.430

.425

Family

.493

.431

.432

.487

.540

N

292

420

673

2591

8016

Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE B-11 Reasons for Part-Time Employment, by Field, Cohort, Sex, and Year of Survey

 

Older

Middle

Younger

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

1989

Engineering

No Job

.248

.833

.352

.000

.503

.175

No Need

.371

.000

.486

.179

.252

.025

Family

.190

.167

.000

.821

.112

.750

N

210

6

640

28

143

80

Mathematics

No Job

.182

.200

.000

.215

.246

.174

No Need

.477

.350

.552

.369

.261

.163

Family

.000

.450

.448

.415

.043

.609

N

88

20

29

65

69

92

Physical Sciences

No Job

.517

.338

.499

.161

.538

.230

No Need

.383

.442

.298

.327

.321

.071

Family

.083

.182

.100

.528

.011

.690

N

540

77

379

199

184

239

Life Sciences

No Job

.173

.225

.356

.240

.713

.242

No Need

.631

.376

.413

.247

.226

.191

Family

.000

.281

.054

.479

.041

.544

N

214

306

315

691

442

937

Social/ Behavioral Sciences

No Job

.202

.159

.358

.158

.343

.172

No Need

.684

.623

.512

.393

.345

.295

Family

.063

.118

.063

.449

.040

.520

N

509

321

869

1673

856

3539

1995

Engineering

No Job

.308

.375

.633

.281

.610

.415

No Need

.375

.125

.076

.500

.346

.421

Family

.104

.625

.080

.677

.000

.360

N

672

32

275

96

205

164

Mathematics

No Job

.256

.302

.076

.378

.515

.516

No Need

.463

.465

.335

.341

.400

.000

Family

.060

.221

.000

.586

.038

.161

N

285

86

158

249

130

62

Physical Sciences

No Job

.509

.196

.762

.128

.741

.343

No Need

.196

.723

.053

.370

.211

.197

Family

.066

.438

.062

.716

.000

.292

N

745

112

341

243

464

233

Life Sciences

No Job

.291

.266

.619

.182

.469

.327

No Need

.180

.405

.164

.476

.197

.385

Family

.029

.350

.044

.627

.114

.512

N

611

692

226

1071

290

633

Social/ Behavioral Sciences

No Job

.214

.162

.378

.136

.495

.185

No Need

.291

.473

.303

.428

.126

.365

Family

.050

.404

.164

.625

.000

.603

N

1342

1756

1137

3289

541

2522

Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE B-12 Predicted Probabilities of Working, by Familial Status and Year of Survey. Based on Multinomial Logit Analyses of Labor Force Participation Status

 

Full Time in Science

Full Time Outside Science

Part Time

Seeking Work

Not Seeking Work

Men

1979

Single

.894

.053

.029

.017

.008

Married

.920

.057

.016

.005

.002

Older Children

.927

.058

.010

.004

.001

Younger Children

.921

.060

.015

.003

.001

1989

Single

.888

.075

.019

.012

.006

Married

.911

.070

.012

.005

.002

Older Children

.920

.069

.006

.004

.001

Younger Children

.925

.061

.010

.003

.001

1995

Single

.854

.085

.024

.023

.014

Married

.907

.064

.015

.009

.006

Older Children

.916

.061

.011

.008

.004

Younger Children

.914

.061

.011

.010

.005

 

Full Time in Science

Full Time Outside Science

Part Time

Seeking Work

Not Seeking Work

Women

1979

Single

.837

.083

.054

.016

.011

Married

.770

.065

.100

.030

.035

Older Children

.674

.058

.169

.027

.071

Younger Children

.559

.051

.198

.044

.148

1989

Single

.860

.088

.034

.011

.008

Married

.804

.081

.077

.017

.021

Older Children

.697

.074

.152

.017

.061

Younger Children

.642

.061

.192

.019

.087

1995

Single

.822

.115

.037

.013

.013

Married

.789

.096

.067

.011

.037

Older Children

.714

.089

.124

.010

.062

Younger Children

.646

.068

.167

.013

.106

Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE B-13 1979 Mean Work Experience, by Sex, Year of Ph.D., and Marital Status

 

Men

Women

Total

Single

Married without Children

Children at Home

Total

Single

Married without Children

Cat Home hildren

Ph.D. Year.

Mean

n

Mean

n

Mean

n

Mean

n

Mean

n

Mean

n

Mean

n

Mean

n

57

21.9

2704

21.7

293

21.9

1352

21.9

1059

20.7

199

21.8

91

20.9

68

17.6

40

58

20.6

4115

20.4

428

20.7

1330

20.7

2357

18.8

268

20.6

122

18.7

58

16.3

88

59

19.7

4144

18.7

496

19.9

1352

19.7

2296

17.6

273

19.6

98

18.2

58

15.6

117

60

18.8

4439

18.6

485

18.9

1055

18.8

2899

16.9

300

17.9

164

17.6

59

14.2

77

61

17.7

5304

17.8

607

17.6

1296

17.8

3401

16.1

326

17.5

161

17.6

75

12.3

90

62

16.4

5282

16.0

544

16.9

1201

16.3

3537

15.2

391

16.9

155

16.7

81

12.6

155

63

15.6

5886

14.9

453

15.7

1044

15.6

4389

13.6

563

14.7

215

15.4

100

12.0

248

64

14.6

6951

14.7

746

14.3

1123

14.7

5082

13.2

557

14.3

195

13.0

115

12.3

247

65

13.7

7657

13.6

770

13.8

1223

13.6

5664

12.3

699

13.4

261

13.1

129

10.9

309

66

12.8

9343

12.8

1335

12.9

1544

12.7

6464

11.2

863

12.4

288

12.1

156

10.0

419

67

11.8

9417

11.7

880

11.9

1302

11.8

7235

10.2

1022

11.5

343

11.6

147

8.9

532

68

10.7

10146

10.9

1410

10.8

1033

10.7

7703

9.4

1044

10.2

388

10.6

194

8.3

462

69

9.6

11793

9.4

1829

9.6

1370

9.7

8594

8.6

1246

9.0

421

9.0

302

7.9

523

70

8.7

12846

8.5

2188

8.8

1543

8.7

9115

7.9

1339

8.4

508

8.4

273

7.2

558

71

7.7

14044

7.5

1904

7.6

2017

7.8

10123

7.3

1674

7.6

503

7.7

439

6.8

732

72

6.7

13066

6.5

1907

6.7

2006

6.8

9153

6.2

2022

6.3

709

6.3

529

6.0

784

73

5.6

11630

5.4

1725

5.4

1789

5.7

8116

5.4

1937

5.7

647

5.4

448

5.2

842

74

4.8

11892

4.7

2318

4.7

2334

4.9

7240

4.5

2216

4.7

927

4.5

505

4.3

784

75

3.8

11037

3.8

2689

3.8

2134

3.8

6214

3.6

2509

3.7

913

3.5

782

3.5

814

76

2.8

10003

2.8

2461

2.6

2223

2.9

5319

2.8

2379

2.8

1054

2.8

544

2.7

781

77

1.9

10808

1.8

2872

1.9

3446

1.9

4490

1.9

2514

1.9

995

1.9

615

1.9

904

78

1.0

6862

0.9

1876

1.0

1852

1.0

3134

0.9

1804

1.0

667

0.9

552

0.9

585

Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE B-14 1989 Mean Work Experience, by Sex, Year of Ph.D., and Marital Status

 

Men

Women

Total

Single

Married without Children

Children at Home

Total

Single

Married without Children

Cat Home hildren

Ph.D. Year.

Mean

n

Mean

n

Mean

n

Mean

n

Mean

n

Mean

n

Mean

n

Mean

n

67

21.4

10083

21.0

1326

21.6

5870

21.0

2887

18.2

1002

20.3

336

18.0

472

15.3

194

68

20.3

12044

20.2

1334

20.3

6902

20.4

3808

17.5

1071

18.6

370

17.9

422

15.2

279

69

19.4

13321

19.1

1056

19.4

7146

19.5

5119

17.4

1265

18.4

424

17.0

488

16.9

353

70

18.2

14773

17.6

1888

18.3

6891

18.4

5994

16.4

1469

17.8

562

15.6

550

15.5

357

71

17.5

15462

17.5

1491

17.4

7215

17.7

6756

15.9

1946

16.3

622

16.3

816

15.0

508

72

16.4

14738

16.1

1807

16.5

6694

16.2

6237

15.1

2180

16.0

669

15.3

906

13.8

605

73

15.3

13656

14.8

1823

15.6

5004

15.3

6829

14.0

2387

14.5

731

13.9

872

13.6

784

74

14.4

14637

14.0

1810

14.4

5793

14.4

7034

13.5

2495

13.7

782

14.1

848

12.6

865

75

13.5

12904

12.9

1561

13.6

4081

13.6

7262

12.0

2830

13.2

829

11.6

991

11.4

1010

76

12.4

11995

11.6

1964

12.4

3539

12.5

6492

11.5

3009

11.9

918

11.6

936

11.1

1155

77

11.3

13865

10.7

1781

11.5

4499

11.4

7585

10.5

3024

11.0

843

11.1

1007

9.7

1174

78

10.4

12763

10.1

1806

10.4

3497

10.5

7460

9.3

3601

9.6

1022

9.6

1092

8.9

1487

79

9.5

12094

9.1

1871

9.6

3472

9.6

6751

8.8

3703

9.2

1217

9.0

1202

8.4

1284

80

8.5

12823

8.2

1850

8.5

3681

8.5

7292

8.0

4085

8.4

1305

7.9

1081

7.8

1699

81

7.6

12190

7.5

1830

7.6

2941

7.7

7419

7.1

4172

7.6

1393

7.2

1133

6.5

1646

82

6.6

12244

6.4

2424

6.4

3257

6.7

6563

6.1

4524

6.2

1182

6.2

1498

5.9

1844

83

5.4

12311

5.2

2543

5.3

3281

5.6

6487

5.0

4799

5.4

1340

5.2

1421

4.7

2038

84

4.6

11580

4.4

2865

4.8

2916

4.6

5799

4.3

4578

4.5

1502

4.5

1350

3.8

1726

85

3.7

11810

3.6

3075

3.6

3436

3.8

5299

3.5

4906

3.7

1916

3.4

1333

3.4

1657

86

2.7

11740

2.7

3379

2.7

3523

2.8

4838

2.6

5249

2.7

1656

2.6

2122

2.4

1471

87

1.8

12700

1.8

4224

1.9

3763

1.8

4713

1.7

5519

1.8

2117

1.8

2031

1.6

1371

88

1.1

7062

1.0

2371

1.1

2418

1.1

2273

1.0

3011

1.0

1155

1.0

1134

0.9

722

Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
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Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
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Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
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Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
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Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
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Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
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Suggested Citation:"B: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Get This Book
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Although women have made important inroads in science and engineering since the early 1970s, their progress in these fields has stalled over the past several years. This study looks at women in science and engineering careers in the 1970s and 1980s, documenting differences in career outcomes between men and women and between women of different races and ethnic backgrounds.

The panel presents what is known about the following questions and explores their policy implications: In what sectors are female Ph.D.s employed? What salary disparities exist between men and women in these fields? How is marital status associated with career attainment? Does it help a career to have a postdoctoral appointment? How well are female scientists and engineers represented in management?

Within the broader context of education and the labor market, the book provides detailed comparisons between men and women Ph.D.s in a number of measures: financial support for education, academic rank achieved, salary, and others. The study covers engineering; the mathematical, physical, life, and social and behavioral sciences; medical school faculty; and recipients of National Institutes of Health grants.

Findings and recommendations in this volume will be of interest to practitioners, faculty, and students in science and engineering as well as education administrators, employers, and researchers in these fields.

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