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Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

APPENDIX D
Tables

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE D-1 Percent Working Full Time in Academia of All Ph.D.s and All Ph.D.s Who Are Working Full Time, by Sex, Field and Year of Survey

 

1973

1979

1989

1995

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Engineering

% of Ph.D.s

36.7

32.3

34.5

37.4

33.3

37.3

28.5

35.8

n

33442

127

47329

422

68482

1852

82512

4447

% of FT

38.7

47.1

36

43.1

36.1

41.3

32.4

42.2

n

31717

87

45315

367

63212

1671

72496

3778

Mathematics

% of Ph.D.s

76.2

63.5

68.2

59.2

62.1

57.8

54.9

50

n

11719

869

16180

1397

22966

2659

27727

4008

% of FT

81.7

88

72.4

73.1

66.1

67.7

61.3

60.9

n

10925

627

15241

1132

21570

2270

24827

3290

Physical Science

% of PhDs

38.3

38.4

37.2

36.7

34.2

32.8

31.7

32.9

n

61358

2864

75878

4235

95396

8540

104500

12860

% of FT

42

60.6

40.1

48

38.5

39.4

38

40.1

n

55990

1814

70367

3239

84777

7095

87228

10543

Life Sciences

% of Ph.D.s

59.5

48.3

57.7

52.5

50.3

51.4

46

50.4

n

50438

7119

68133

11773

96767

27498

109811

40987

% of FT

65.4

70.2

62.2

68

56.3

62.1

53.6

60.3

n

45874

4893

63157

9078

86440

22754

94175

34263

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

Social and Behavioral Sciences

% of Ph.D.s

63.1

45.7

57.4

46.8

49.4

39.8

43

37.2

n

47296

8407

69802

17458

99780

40768

99024

51986

% of FT

70.5

66

62.3

59.8

55.9

51.2

50.5

48.2

n

42365

5817

64267

13655

88135

31660

84233

40095

Combined Fields

% of Ph.D.s

51.2

46.3

48.6

47.8

43.7

43.5

38.9

41.8

n

204253

19386

277322

35285

383391

81317

423574

114288

% of FT

55.9

67.8

52.2

61.4

48.7

54

45.4

52

n

186871

13238

258347

27471

344134

65450

362959

91969

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE D-2 Percent and Number of Full-Time Academic Labor Force Who Are Women, by Field and Year of Survey

 

1973

1979

1989

1995

Engineering

% Women

0.3

1.0

2.9

6.3

n Women

41

158

690

1593

n Total

12,312

16,468

23,506

25,117

Mathematics

% Women

5.8

7.0

9.7

11.6

n Women

552

827

1537

2003

n Total

9,481

11,867

15,789

17,214

Physical Science

% Women

4.5

5.2

7.9

11.3

n Women

1100

1555

2798

4229

n Total

24,594

29,796

35,438

37,369

Life Sciences

% Women

10.3

13.6

22.5

29.0

n Women

3436

6175

14124

20663

n Total

33,438

45,457

62,807

71,150

Social and Behavioral Sciences

% Women

11.4

16.9

24.8

31.2

n Women

3841

8163

16221

19341

n Total

33,698

48,201

65,468

61,899

Combined Fields

% Women

7.9

11.1

17.4

22.5

n Women

8970

16878

35370

47829

n Total

113,523

151,789

203,008

212,749

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE D-3 Number of Full-Time Scientists Working in Academia by Carnegie Type of Institution, Sex, Field and Year of Survey

 

1973

1979

1989

1995

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Engineering

Research I

6675

17

8121

78

11714

399

11303

663

Research II

1632

2

2219

8

2997

50

2476

123

Doctoral

1901

9

2092

23

3052

58

3430

258

Master’s

998

6

1169

12

1915

102

2532

198

Baccalaureate

172

0

156

2

306

15

340

52

Medical

121

0

370

9

602

28

874

96

Engineering

159

0

182

0

401

4

305

28

Other

169

2

127

2

458

0

321

19

Missing

444

5

1874

24

1371

34

1943

156

Total

12271

41

16310

158

22816

690

23524

1593

Mathematics

Research I

3705

146

4533

271

5515

441

5142

576

Research II

956

37

974

55

1308

98

1337

191

Doctoral

1187

61

1428

95

1950

206

2041

242

Master’s

1909

186

2318

227

3502

497

4287

474

Baccalaureate

828

96

981

102

1225

192

1392

276

Medical

19

2

144

19

103

47

241

95

Engineering

66

0

43

0

120

5

105

57

Other

68

1

72

12

118

14

232

0

Missing

191

23

547

46

411

37

434

92

Total

8929

552

11040

827

14252

1537

15211

2003

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

 

1973

1979

1989

1995

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Physical Sciences

Research I

9857

376

10549

514

12473

1171

12773

1587

Research II

2174

56

1965

115

2278

181

2208

272

Doctoral

2807

99

2961

120

3105

235

3788

293

Master’s

4252

253

4328

259

5467

438

5288

800

Baccalaureate

2273

165

2827

209

3313

335

3012

425

Medical

520

64

1053

181

1598

202

1723

290

Engineering

214

0

225

2

125

8

232

15

Other

139

9

266

8

183

14

355

87

Missing

1258

78

4067

147

4098

214

3761

460

Total

23494

1100

28241

1555

32640

2798

33140

4229

Life Sciences

Research I

14375

1287

15375

2147

19102

5249

18384

6574

Research II

2819

198

3219

232

4475

834

4340

1231

Doctoral

2527

236

2399

446

3593

1070

3304

1602

Master’s

3785

550

4486

798

5295

1596

5789

2774

Baccalaureate

1547

266

1896

445

2014

648

2274

1040

Medical

3847

734

9659

1773

13112

4454

14156

6429

Engineering

24

0

66

5

88

0

107

22

Other

65

11

63

7

148

34

211

129

Missing

1013

154

2119

322

856

239

1922

862

Total

30002

3436

39282

6175

48683

14124

50487

20663

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

Social and Behavioral Sciences

Research I

11838

1264

13873

2868

16260

5524

12481

6243

Research II

3213

243

3668

532

4121

1358

3615

1368

Doctoral

4016

480

5801

1081

6761

1732

6042

2240

Master’s

6556

1146

9449

1775

13184

3569

11280

4346

Baccalaureate

2711

428

3447

836

5185

1810

4566

2114

Medical

601

147

1746

718

2446

1711

2384

2330

Engineering

0

3

74

0

95

0

42

0

Other

232

17

221

103

581

265

526

215

Missing

690

113

1759

250

614

252

1622

485

Total

29857

3841

40038

8163

49247

16221

42558

19341

Combined Fields

Research I

46450

3090

52451

5878

65064

12784

60083

15643

Research II

10794

536

12045

942

15179

2521

13976

3185

Doctoral

12438

885

14681

1765

18461

3301

18605

4635

Master’s

17500

2141

21750

3071

29363

6202

29176

8592

Baccalaureate

7531

955

9307

1594

12043

3000

11584

3907

Medical

5108

947

12972

2700

17861

6442

19378

9240

Engineering

463

3

590

7

829

17

791

122

Other

673

40

749

132

1488

327

1645

450

Missing

3596

373

10366

789

7350

776

9682

2055

Total

104553

8970

134911

16878

167638

35370

164920

47829

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE D-4 Number of Full-Time Scientists With and Without Tenure-Track Positions by Carnegie Type of Institution, Sex, Field, and Year of Survey

 

1979

1989

1995

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Engineering

 

Research I

Off-track

1277

24

984

65

1726

85

On-track

6628

50

9447

271

8850

431

Research II

Off-track

50

4

150

2

274

0

On-track

2118

4

2717

48

2137

111

Doctoral

Off-track

209

10

176

4

450

43

On-track

1883

11

2715

51

2914

202

Master’s

Off-track

211

0

302

4

262

0

On-track

958

12

1492

96

2246

198

Baccalaureate

Off-track

0

0

42

1

29

26

On-track

140

2

247

14

311

26

Medical

Off-track

146

5

146

7

454

60

On-track

143

2

367

16

305

6

Engineering

Off-track

75

0

52

0

70

16

On-track

107

0

315

4

235

12

Total

 

13945

124

19152

583

20263

1216

Mathematics

 

Research I

Off-track

519

78

563

74

734

166

On-track

3916

185

4305

321

4223

294

Research II

Off-track

77

17

48

8

16

18

On-Track

895

38

1147

82

1244

173

Doctoral

Off-track

85

23

50

20

84

32

On-track

1328

72

1797

179

1903

210

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

Master’s

Off-track

126

27

158

12

106

43

On-track

2177

200

3097

456

4164

415

Baccalaureate

Off-track

164

23

39

14

156

18

On-track

817

79

1142

168

1218

258

Medical

Off-track

39

6

37

18

84

32

On-track

62

11

62

20

125

43

Engineering

Off-track

0

0

2

0

0

8

On-track

43

0

118

5

105

49

Total

 

10248

759

12565

1377

14162

1759

Physical Sciences

 

Research I

Off-track

1977

193

2147

346

3154

492

On-track

7167

174

7652

433

7006

575

Research II

Off-track

216

46

297

32

292

98

On-track

1637

41

1649

89

1575

151

Doctoral

Off-track

406

21

243

41

499

112

On-track

2409

76

2645

160

2998

181

Master’s

Off-track

323

46

340

52

413

143

On-track

3970

208

4786

338

4741

657

Baccalaureate

Off-track

359

62

434

37

509

138

On-track

2390

145

2729

289

2500

287

Medical

Off-track

255

82

441

79

634

157

On-track

719

38

792

67

835

16

Engineering

Off-track

92

0

9

0

42

0

On-track

119

2

116

4

175

15

Total

 

22039

1134

24280

1967

25373

3022

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

 

1979

1989

1995

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Life Sciences

 

Research I

Off-track

2519

641

2644

1359

3592

1896

On-track

11122

893

12411

2436

11972

3065

Research II

Off-track

280

59

387

168

569

195

On-track

2801

130

3631

507

3404

818

Doctoral

Off-track

216

79

358

201

387

329

On-track

2100

340

2796

806

2753

1167

Master’s

Off-track

488

117

396

166

752

350

On-track

3946

668

4541

1356

4960

2402

Baccalaureate

Off-track

219

88

130

78

399

175

On-track

1670

342

1766

526

1875

809

Medical

Off-track

1970

612

3043

1595

4316

2374

On-track

5922

676

7431

1658

7986

2526

Engineering

Off-track

7

0

0

0

37

0

On-track

52

5

88

0

70

22

Total

 

33312

4650

39622

10856

43072

16128

Social and Behavioral Sciences

 

Research I

Off-track

1587

555

1900

1303

2189

1898

On-track

11860

2103

13185

3710

9947

3893

Research II

Off-track

523

107

303

273

539

360

On-track

3091

423

3328

968

3023

988

Doctoral

Off-track

778

221

429

281

724

567

On-track

4985

839

5841

1322

5296

1643

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

Master’s

Off-track

965

200

797

470

860

573

On-Track

8451

1565

11667

2869

10368

3773

Baccalaureate

Off-track

345

211

659

413

647

486

On-Track

3084

602

4176

1263

3919

1628

Medical

Off-track

560

274

915

680

1015

1394

On-Track

1026

268

1123

626

1254

599

Engineering

Off-track

29

0

40

0

22

0

On-Track

45

0

55

0

20

0

Total

 

37329

7368

44418

14178

39823

17802

Combined Fields

 

Research I

Off-track

7879

1491

8238

3147

11395

4537

On-Track

40693

3405

47000

7171

41998

8258

Research II

Off-track

1146

233

1185

483

1690

671

On-Track

10542

636

12472

1694

11383

2241

Doctoral

Off-track

1694

354

1256

547

2144

1083

On-Track

12705

1338

15794

2518

15864

3403

Master’s

Off-track

2113

390

1993

704

2393

1109

On-Track

19502

2653

25583

5115

26479

7445

Baccalaureate

Off-track

1087

384

1304

543

1740

843

On-Track

8101

1170

10060

2260

9823

3008

Medical

Off-track

2970

979

4582

2379

6503

4017

On-Track

7872

995

9775

2387

10505

3190

Engineering

Off-track

203

0

103

0

171

24

On-Track

366

7

692

13

605

98

Total

 

116873

14035

140037

28961

142693

39927

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE D-5 Logit Analysis on Whether a Scientist Has a Tenure-Track Position by Sex and Year of Survey, b Indicates Regression Coefficient; z Indicates Value of z-test.

 

1979

1989

1995

Variable

 

Women

Men

Women

Mmen

Women

Men

Married

b

–0.212

0.223

–0.163

0.344

–0.053

0.119

z

2.09

2.02

2.04

3.72

0.58

1.43

Children <6 at Home

b

–0.105

0.086

0.087

–0.040

0.021

0.308

z

0.78

0.96

0.83

0.45

0.18

3.99

Not a US Citizen

b

–0.457

–0.495

–0.159

–0.279

–0.377

–0.218

z

2.33

3.41

1.05

2.14

2.33

2.17

Career Year

b

0.118

0.281

0.125

0.099

0.115

0.144

z

6.10

18.85

8.70

6.81

7.17

13.40

Career Year2

b

–0.002

–0.005

–0.002

–0.001

–0.002

–0.002

z

2.76

11.65

5.20

1.52

5.02

8.19

Engineering vs. Social/Behavioral Sciences

b

–0.092

–0.160

0.961

0.588

0.992

0.250

z

0.32

0.83

4.84

3.97

4.02

2.32

Math vs. Social/Behavioral Sciences

b

0.001

0.281

0.701

0.570

0.684

0.771

z

0.01

1.84

4.65

3.70

3.51

5.33

Physical Sciences vs. Social/Behavioral Sciences

b

–0.948

–0.584

–0.537

–0.525

–0.399

–0.624

z

7.31

4.62

4.78

4.53

2.51

6.19

Life Sciences vs. Social/Behavioral Sciences

b

–0.274

–0.315

–0.296

–0.104

0.031

–0.260

z

2.12

2.70

2.73

0.92

0.32

2.93

Medical vs. Research I

b

–0.546

–0.391

–0.556

–0.515

–0.582

–0.485

z

3.95

3.77

5.46

5.46

5.23

6.09

Research II vs. Research I

b

0.221

0.536

0.820

0.810

0.695

0.736

z

1.16

3.41

5.09

5.45

3.78

6.00

Doctoral vs. Research I

b

0.763

0.397

0.939

0.992

0.753

0.966

z

4.72

2.93

6.82

7.01

5.13

8.59

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

Master’s vs. Research I

b

1.192

0.731

1.407

1.230

1.314

1.365

z

8.32

5.95

11.41

9.57

9.83

12.86

Baccalaureate vs. Research I

b

0.826

0.885

1.450

0.971

1.029

0.985

z

4.87

5.01

9.13

6.17

6.07

7.32

Private vs. Research I

b

–0.582

–0.508

–0.632

–0.631

–0.405

–0.624

z

5.88

5.97

7.94

8.40

4.55

9.71

Ph.D. Prestige

b

0.071

0.043

0.191

0.280

0.246

0.291

z

1.28

0.84

3.94

5.84

4.40

7.33

Time from Baccalaureate to Ph.D. >10 Years

b

0.251

0.093

0.041

–0.288

0.117

–0.415

z

2.09

0.81

0.44

2.91

1.22

5.14

Missing Data on Having Young Children

b

–0.089

0.297

0.235

–0.102

 

z

0.49

1.83

1.81

0.90

Missing Data on Prestige of Ph.D.

b

–0.116

–0.023

0.342

–0.029

z

1.02

0.27

3.67

0.37

Constant

b

0.201

–0.560

–0.549

–0.573

–0.978

–1.086

z

0.82

2.40

2.55

2.55

4.01

5.56

Unweighted Observations

 

10,078

7,168

4,912

7,801

3,279

8,853

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE D-6 Number of Full-Time Scientists on Tenure Track With and Without Tenure by Carnegie Type of Institution, Sex, Field, and Year of Survey

 

1979

1989

1995

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Engineering

 

Research I

Untenured

1063

32

2198

166

1961

310

Tenured

5565

18

7249

105

6889

121

Research II

Untenured

464

2

659

28

293

45

Tenured

1654

2

2058

20

1844

66

Doctoral

Untenured

442

5

789

23

760

107

Tenured

1441

6

1926

28

2154

95

Master’s

Untenured

276

0

390

60

660

92

Tenured

682

12

1102

36

1586

106

Baccalaureate

Untenured

0

2

92

8

102

13

Tenured

140

0

155

6

209

13

Medical

Untenured

76

2

118

14

134

6

Tenured

67

0

249

2

171

0

Engineering

Untenured

0

0

89

2

28

12

Tenured

107

0

226

2

207

0

Total

 

11977

81

17300

500

16998

986

Mathematics

 

Research I

Untenured

755

97

837

109

830

129

Tenured

3161

88

3468

212

3393

165

Research II

Untenured

133

11

235

28

182

108

Tenured

762

27

912

54

1062

65

Doctoral

Untenured

322

26

492

83

291

96

Tenured

1006

46

1305

96

1612

114

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

Master’s

Untenured

339

55

764

126

930

153

Tenured

1838

145

2333

330

3234

262

Baccalaureate

Untenured

212

20

299

65

357

136

Tenured

605

59

843

103

861

122

Medical

Untenured

13

11

5

2

73

0

Tenured

49

0

57

18

52

43

Engineering

Untenured

0

0

0

0

37

0

Tenured

43

0

118

5

68

49

Total

 

9238

585

11668

1231

12982

1442

Physical Sciences

 

Research I

Untenured

1121

54

1261

174

1202

231

Tenured

6046

120

6391

259

5804

344

Research II

Untenured

269

6

240

29

128

44

Tenured

1368

35

1409

60

1447

107

Doctoral

Untenured

389

21

485

66

455

73

Tenured

2020

55

2160

94

2543

108

Master’s

Untenured

499

39

470

109

713

340

Tenured

3471

169

4316

229

4028

317

Baccalaureate

Untenured

614

52

512

149

490

126

Tenured

1776

93

2217

140

2010

161

Medical

Untenured

246

11

327

37

329

16

Tenured

473

27

465

30

506

0

Engineering

Untenured

32

2

0

4

3

15

Tenured

87

0

116

0

172

0

Total

 

18411

684

20369

1380

19830

1882

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

 

1979

1989

1995

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Life Sciences

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Research I

Untenured

2436

453

2560

1181

2047

1254

Tenured

8686

440

9851

1255

9925

1811

Research II

Untenured

488

54

568

168

634

289

Tenured

2313

76

3063

339

2770

529

Doctoral

Untenured

657

181

542

327

558

500

Tenured

1443

159

2254

479

2195

667

Master’s

Untenured

609

243

704

395

1076

886

Tenured

3337

425

3837

961

3884

1516

Baccalaureate

Untenured

294

175

157

142

442

292

Tenured

1376

167

1609

384

1433

517

Medical

Untenured

1725

345

2048

843

2634

1320

Tenured

4197

331

5383

815

5352

1206

Engineering

Untenured

0

0

29

0

9

0

Tenured

52

5

59

0

61

22

Total

 

27613

3054

32664

7289

33020

10809

Scial and Behavioral Sciences

 

Research I

Untenured

2247

1116

2363

1343

1754

1405

Tenured

9613

987

10822

2367

8193

2488

Research II

Untenured

640

141

338

381

276

410

Tenured

2451

282

2990

587

2747

578

Doctoral

Untenured

1297

399

840

467

1181

761

Tenured

3688

440

5001

855

4115

882

Master’s

Untenured

1731

521

1872

1010

1994

1175

Tenured

6720

1044

9795

1859

8374

2598

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

Baccalaureate

Untenured

673

314

1286

387

701

525

Tenured

2411

288

2890

876

3218

1103

Medical

Untenured

420

146

374

228

384

251

Tenured

606

122

749

398

870

348

Engineering

Untenured

0

0

0

0

0

0

Tenured

45

0

55

0

20

0

Total

 

32542

5800

39375

10758

33827

12524

Combined Fields

 

Research I

Untenured

7622

1752

9219

2973

7794

3329

Tenured

33071

1653

37781

4198

34204

4929

Research II

Untenured

1994

214

2040

634

1513

896

Tenured

8548

422

10432

1060

9870

1345

Doctoral

Untenured

3107

632

3148

966

3245

1537

Tenured

9598

706

12646

1552

12619

1866

Master’s

Untenured

3454

858

4200

1700

5373

2646

Tenured

16048

1795

21383

3415

21106

4799

Baccalaureate

Untenured

1793

563

2346

751

2092

1092

Tenured

6308

607

7714

1509

7731

1916

Medical

Untenured

2480

515

2872

1124

3554

1593

Tenured

5392

480

6903

1263

6951

1597

Engineering

Untenured

32

2

118

6

77

27

Tenured

334

5

574

7

528

71

Total

 

99781

10204

121376

21158

116657

27643

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE D-7 Logit Analysis on Whether a Scientist in a Tenure-Track Position Has Tenure by Sex and Year of Survey. b Indicates Regression Coefficient; z Indicates Value of z-test.

 

1979

1989

1995

Variable

 

Women

Men

Women

Women

Men

Men

Married

b

–0.297

0.131

–0.026

0.297

0.154

0.386

z

2.13

0.86

0.24

2.28

1.17

3.15

Children <6 at Home

b

0.023

–0.109

0.039

0.042

–0.098

–0.078

z

0.12

1.01

0.29

0.37

0.64

0.81

Not a US Citizen

b

0.279

0.11

–0.427

–0.331

–0.256

–0.219

z

0.92

0.51

1.89

1.69

0.96

1.59

Career Year

b

0.569

0.731

0.562

0.638

0.487

0.62

z

18.5

27.44

21.06

24.65

15.76

26.9

Career Year2

b

–0.011

–0.013

–0.009

–0.01

–0.008

–0.01

z

12.14

17.66

10.73

13.15

7.83

15.91

Engineering vs. Social/Behavioral Sciences

b

–0.46

–0.503

0.163

–0.26

0.307

0.422

z

1

1.99

0.74

1.39

1.11

2.97

Math vs. Social/Behavioral Sciences

b

–0.31

0.026

0.328

0.011

0.462

0.56

z

1.61

0.15

1.95

0.06

1.99

3.28

Physical Sciences vs. Social/Behavioral Sciences

b

–0.347

–0.601

–0.383

–0.504

0.04

–0.265

z

1.75

3.56

2.32

3.13

0.16

1.65

Life Sciences vs. Social/Behavioral Sciences

b

–0.86

–0.814

–0.255

–0.45

–0.217

–0.734

z

4.86

5.49

1.71

2.98

1.55

5.44

Medical vs. Research I

b

–0.365

–0.546

–0.922

–1.166

–0.729

–1.207

z

1.56

3.68

5.44

7.9

3.82

8.64

Research II vs. Research I

b

0.551

0.203

0.42

0.248

0.086

0.347

z

1.91

1.09

2.16

1.41

0.36

2.13

Doctoral vs. Research I

b

0.283

–0.099

0.11

0.029

–0.043

0.015

z

1.38

0.59

0.65

0.18

0.21

0.11

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

Master’s vs. Research I

b

0.765

0.727

0.405

0.255

0.42

–0.121

z

4.54

4.96

2.93

1.76

2.57

0.96

Baccalaureate vs. Research I

b

0.318

0.665

0.483

0.301

0.557

0.405

z

1.34

3.2

2.53

1.51

2.43

2.03

Private vs. Research I

b

–0.51

–0.709

–0.482

–0.536

–0.512

–0.733

z

3.56

6

4.23

4.95

3.84

7.41

Ph.D. Prestige

b

–0.104

0.014

0.029

0.062

–0.187

–0.047

z

1.4

0.22

0.43

0.98

2.32

0.83

Time from Baccalaureate to Ph.D. >10 Years

b

1.219

1.423

0.973

0.619

0.861

0.397

z

7.4

8.87

7.54

4.3

6.21

3.14

Missing Data on Having Young Children

b

–0.046

–0.219

–0.105

0.154

 

z

0.18

1.04

0.65

0.97

Missing Data on Prestige of Ph.D.

b

0.459

0.393

0.361

0.199

z

2.79

3.54

2.86

1.86

Constant

b

–3.082

–4.066

–4.383

–4.834

–3.365

–4.456

z

8.94

12.55

13.11

14.41

8.75

14.31

Observations

 

8242

6113

3773

6664

2296

7105

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE D-8 Number of Full-Time Scientists on Tenure Track by Rank, Carnegie Type of Institution, Sex, Field, and Year of Survey

 

1979

1989

1995

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Engineering

 

1

 

Research I

Instructor

16

0

16

0

27

0

Asst. Prof.

807

31

1785

164

1647

295

Assoc. Prof.

1833

16

2263

55

2426

103

Full Prof.

3972

3

5383

52

4738

33

Research II

Instructor

15

0

0

0

0

0

Asst. Prof.

251

2

597

32

286

45

Assoc. Prof.

629

0

619

16

617

37

Full Prof.

1223

2

1501

0

1234

29

Doctoral

Instructor

34

0

9

0

0

0

Asst. Prof.

325

5

548

20

647

93

Assoc. Prof.

435

4

528

26

1128

82

Full Prof.

1089

2

1630

5

1139

27

Master’s

Instructor

16

0

17

0

0

0

Asst. Prof.

87

1

250

54

408

97

Assoc. Prof.

484

2

533

24

819

45

Full Prof.

371

9

692

18

1019

56

Baccalaureate

Instructor

0

0

0

0

0

0

Asst. Prof.

0

0

92

8

68

13

Assoc. Prof.

42

2

49

5

144

13

Full Prof.

98

0

106

1

99

0

Medical

Instructor

0

0

0

5

0

0

Asst. Prof.

76

2

24

9

93

6

Assoc. Prof.

0

0

130

2

63

0

Full Prof.

67

0

213

0

149

0

Engineering

Instructor

76

0

46

0

30

0

Asst. Prof.

0

0

35

2

23

12

Assoc. Prof.

0

0

132

2

125

0

Full Prof.

31

0

102

0

57

0

Total

 

11977

81

17300

500

16986

986

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

 

1979

1989

1995

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Mathematics

 

Research I

Instructor

29

5

0

2

59

0

Asst. Prof.

762

90

834

98

794

120

Assoc. Prof.

1243

62

1017

136

1068

107

Full Prof.

1882

28

2454

85

2302

67

Research II

Instructor

0

0

0

0

0

0

Asst. Prof.

142

13

174

29

164

111

Assoc. Prof.

265

15

338

31

514

58

Full Prof.

488

10

635

22

566

4

Doctoral

Instructor

8

0

0

2

0

0

Asst. Prof.

342

26

457

83

286

76

Assoc. Prof.

481

33

588

52

897

102

Full Prof.

497

13

752

42

720

32

Master’s

Instructor

36

2

0

2

17

0

Asst. Prof.

466

69

761

131

838

127

Assoc. Prof.

875

74

1093

174

1481

126

Full Prof.

787

55

1243

149

1828

162

Baccalaureate

Instructor

0

0

17

0

0

0

Asst. Prof.

188

22

267

61

343

115

Assoc. Prof.

377

22

311

54

368

53

Full Prof.

252

35

547

53

507

90

Medical

Instructor

0

0

0

0

0

0

Asst. Prof.

28

9

5

4

57

0

Assoc. Prof.

0

2

17

9

52

10

Full Prof.

26

0

40

7

16

33

Engineering

Instructor

0

0

0

0

0

0

Asst. Prof.

0

0

0

0

37

0

Assoc. Prof.

15

0

50

5

0

32

Full Prof.

28

0

68

0

68

17

Total

 

9217

585

11668

1231

12982

1442

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

 

1979

1989

1995

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Physical Sciences

 

Research I

Instructor

56

5

180

23

38

39

Asst. Prof.

883

51

1013

144

1041

216

Assoc. Prof.

1773

70

1332

145

1583

155

Full Prof.

4423

48

5127

121

4240

148

Research II

Instructor

0

0

0

1

0

3

Asst. Prof.

269

7

214

26

129

44

Assoc. Prof.

291

9

277

38

326

10

Full Prof.

1077

25

1158

24

1104

94

Doctoral

Instructor

12

0

31

0

19

0

Asst. Prof.

285

23

348

66

401

70

Assoc. Prof.

986

34

732

47

690

94

Full Prof.

1126

19

1534

47

1888

17

Master’s

Instructor

36

3

34

3

55

0

Asst. Prof.

460

36

428

112

655

357

Assoc. Prof.

1548

103

1325

86

1309

176

Full Prof.

1917

66

2999

137

2722

124

Baccalaureate

Instructor

14

3

37

2

0

0

Asst. Prof.

437

39

473

142

468

136

Assoc. Prof.

798

42

527

56

565

81

Full Prof.

1138

61

1692

89

1448

70

Medical

Instructor

0

0

0

0

0

0

Asst. Prof.

157

16

161

23

244

7

Assoc. Prof.

319

18

256

28

94

9

Full Prof.

224

4

375

16

497

0

Engineering

Instructor

0

0

10

0

30

0

Asst. Prof.

32

2

0

4

0

15

Assoc. Prof.

8

0

41

0

60

0

Full Prof.

79

0

65

0

82

0

Total

 

18348

684

20369

1380

19688

1865

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

 

1979

1989

1995

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Life Sciences

 

Research I

Instructor

173

13

144

57

63

9

Asst. Prof.

2030

389

2339

1110

1731

1115

Assoc. Prof.

3142

279

3094

762

3169

1075

Full Prof.

5753

201

6834

505

6892

838

Research II

Instructor

67

2

0

4

0

3

Asst. Prof.

501

46

500

159

595

310

Assoc. Prof.

765

45

1054

245

795

298

Full Prof.

1455

37

2077

99

1999

207

Doctoral

Instructor

0

2

17

0

8

18

Asst. Prof.

584

141

511

272

484

452

Assoc. Prof.

756

130

1029

385

881

426

Full Prof.

760

67

1239

149

1380

271

Master’s

Instructor

39

10

0

0

0

27

Asst. Prof.

512

219

541

391

828

747

Assoc. Prof.

1347

215

1016

437

1231

824

Full Prof.

2048

219

2984

526

2901

786

Baccalaureate

Instructor

44

11

8

0

0

0

Asst. Prof.

208

166

166

163

379

265

Assoc. Prof.

706

96

386

208

294

296

Full Prof.

712

69

1163

155

1150

248

Medical

Instructor

48

12

0

12

56

9

Asst. Prof.

1412

353

1616

658

2221

1103

Assoc. Prof.

1947

211

2399

644

2075

857

Full Prof.

2494

98

3394

344

3634

553

Engineering

Instructor

0

0

0

0

0

0

Asst. Prof.

0

5

29

0

9

0

Assoc. Prof.

52

0

0

0

0

0

Full Prof.

0

0

59

0

61

22

Total

 

27555

3036

32599

7285

32836

10759

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

 

1979

1989

1995

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Social/Behavioral Sciences

 

Research I

Instructor

149

9

82

43

77

100

Asst. Prof.

2302

1117

2246

1215

1556

1268

Assoc. Prof.

2648

585

3444

1394

2800

1113

Full Prof.

6758

375

7413

1058

5514

1390

Research II

Instructor

0

16

0

31

0

0

Asst. Prof.

610

178

383

390

276

410

Assoc. Prof.

921

122

1143

380

941

370

Full Prof.

1560

107

1802

167

1806

208

Doctoral

Instructor

136

4

5

0

0

0

Asst. Prof.

1088

388

791

448

1164

659

Assoc. Prof.

2068

255

2423

543

1482

521

Full Prof.

1652

191

2590

331

2633

463

Master’s

Instructor

59

26

27

45

0

22

Asst. Prof.

1701

581

1545

1024

1555

1184

Assoc. Prof.

2872

602

3481

873

2655

1592

Full Prof.

3711

348

6614

927

6061

917

Baccalaureate

Instructor

111

16

53

4

0

3

Asst. Prof.

796

287

774

355

625

559

Assoc. Prof.

748

187

1318

524

1070

653

Full Prof.

1429

107

2031

380

2172

413

Medical

Instructor

41

17

0

2

5

37

Asst. Prof.

385

131

247

219

300

130

Assoc. Prof.

248

59

262

215

418

201

Full Prof.

352

61

614

190

508

231

Engineering

Instructor

0

0

0

0

0

0

Asst. Prof.

0

0

0

0

0

0

Assoc. Prof.

45

0

55

0

20

0

Full Prof.

0

0

0

0

0

0

Total

 

32390

5769

39343

10758

33638

12444

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

 

1979

1989

1995

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Combined Fields

 

Research I

Instructor

423

32

422

125

264

148

Asst. Prof.

6784

1678

8217

2731

6769

3014

Assoc. Prof.

10639

1012

11150

2492

11046

2553

Full Prof.

22788

655

27211

1821

23686

2476

Research II

Instructor

82

18

0

36

0

6

Asst. Prof.

1773

246

1868

636

1450

920

Assoc. Prof.

2871

191

3431

710

3193

773

Full Prof.

5803

181

7173

312

6709

542

Doctoral

Instructor

190

6

62

2

27

18

Asst. Prof.

2624

583

2655

889

2982

1350

Assoc. Prof.

4726

456

5300

1053

5078

1225

Full Prof.

5124

292

7745

574

7760

810

Master’s

Instructor

186

41

78

50

72

49

Asst. Prof.

3226

906

3525

1712

4284

2512

Assoc. Prof.

7126

996

7448

1594

7495

2763

Full Prof.

8834

697

14532

1757

14531

2045

Baccalaureate

Instructor

169

30

115

6

0

3

Asst. Prof.

1629

514

1772

729

1883

1088

Assoc. Prof.

2671

349

2591

847

2441

1096

Full Prof.

3629

272

5539

678

5376

821

Medical

Instructor

89

29

0

19

61

46

Asst. Prof.

2058

511

2053

913

2915

1246

Assoc. Prof.

2514

290

3064

898

2702

1077

Full Prof.

3163

163

4636

557

4804

817

Engineering

Instructor

76

0

56

0

60

0

Asst. Prof.

32

7

64

6

69

27

Assoc. Prof.

120

0

278

7

205

32

Full Prof.

138

0

294

0

268

39

Total

 

99487

10155

121279

21154

116130

27496

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE D-9 Percent With a Given Rank by Sex, Field, and Year of Survey

 

Men

Women

Difference

1979

1989

1995

1979

1989

1995

1979

1989

1995

Engineering

Asst. Prof.

14.0

19.4

19.0

51.2

58.8

56.9

–37.2

–39.4

–37.9

Assoc. Prof.

28.7

24.7

31.3

30.0

26.0

28.4

–1.3

–1.3

2.9

Full Prof.

57.3

55.9

49.7

18.8

15.2

14.7

38.5

40.7

35.0

n

11,907

17,228

16,986

80

500

986

 

Mathematics

Asst. Prof.

21.9

21.6

20.0

40.3

33.5

38.1

–18.4

–11.9

–18.1

Assoc. Prof.

35.5

29.3

33.7

35.6

37.4

33.8

–0.1

–8.1

–0.1

Full Prof.

42.6

49.1

46.3

24.1

29.1

28.1

18.5

20.0

18.2

n

9,125

11,648

12,982

585

1,231

1,442

 

Physical Sciences

Asst. Prof.

14.4

14.4

15.6

27.0

39.6

47.6

–12.6

–25.2

–32.0

Assoc. Prof.

31.3

21.9

23.5

40.4

29.0

28.2

–9.1

–7.1

–4.7

Full Prof.

54.3

63.8

60.9

32.6

31.4

24.3

21.7

32.4

36.6

n

18,277

20,245

19,688

684

1,380

1,865

 

Life Sciences

Asst. Prof.

20.5

18.0

19.4

45.1

38.8

37.7

–24.6

–20.8

–18.3

Assoc. Prof.

31.6

27.6

25.7

32.2

36.7

35.1

–0.6

–9.1

–9.4

Full Prof.

48.0

54.5

54.9

22.8

24.4

27.2

25.2

30.1

27.7

n

27,392

32,577

32,836

3,035

7,274

10,759

 

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

Social and Behavioral Sciences

Asst. Prof.

22.8

15.6

16.5

48.2

35.1

35.1

–25.4

–19.5

–18.6

Assoc. Prof.

29.4

30.8

27.9

31.2

36.5

35.8

–1.8

–5.7

–7.9

Full Prof.

47.8

53.6

55.6

20.6

28.4

29.1

27.2

25.2

26.5

n

32,310

39,274

33,638

5,743

10,756

12,444

 

Combined Fields

Asst. Prof.

19.5

17.2

17.9

45.4

37.1

37.9

–25.9

–19.9

–20.0

Assoc. Prof.

30.8

27.4

27.7

32.4

35.9

34.6

–1.6

–8.5

–6.9

Full Prof.

49.7

55.4

54.4

22.2

27.0

27.5

27.5

28.4

26.9

n

99,011

120,972

116,130

10,127

21,141

27,496

 

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE D-10 Percent With a Given Rank by Sex, Carnegie Type, and Year of Survey

 

Men

Women

Difference

1979

1989

1995

1979

1989

1995

1979

1989

1995

Research I

Asst. Prof.

17.9

18.4

16.9

50.7

39.8

38.5

–32.8

–21.4

–21.6

Assoc. Prof.

26.3

23.9

26.6

29.9

34.8

31.2

–3.6

–10.9

–4.6

Full Prof.

55.8

57.7

56.5

19.4

25.4

30.3

36.4

32.3

26.2

n

40790

47578

42367

3384

7180

8289

 

Medical

Asst. Prof.

27.6

21.0

28.4

54.3

39.0

40.6

–26.7

–18.0

–12.2

Assoc. Prof.

32.2

31.4

25.8

29.2

37.6

33.8

3.0

–6.2

–8.0

Full Prof.

40.2

47.6

45.8

16.4

23.3

25.6

23.8

24.3

20.2

n

7757

9748

10482

992

2387

3186

 

Research II

Asst. Prof.

17.3

15.0

12.8

41.5

39.7

41.3

–24.2

–24.7

–28.5

Assoc. Prof.

27.3

27.5

28.1

30.0

41.9

34.5

–2.7

–14.4

–6.4

Full Prof.

55.3

57.5

59.1

28.5

18.4

24.2

26.8

39.1

34.9

n

10441

12469

11352

636

1694

2241

 

Doctoral

Asst. Prof.

22.3

17.0

19.0

44.1

35.4

40.2

–21.8

–18.4

–21.2

Assoc. Prof.

37.0

33.7

32.0

34.1

41.8

36.0

2.9

–8.1

–4.0

Full Prof.

40.6

49.4

49.0

21.8

22.8

23.8

18.8

26.6

25.2

n

12607

15684

15847

1336

2514

3403

 

Master’s

Asst. Prof.

17.6

14.1

16.5

35.9

34.5

34.8

–18.3

–20.4

–18.3

Assoc. Prof.

36.9

29.0

28.4

37.6

31.1

37.5

–0.7

–2.1

–9.1

Full Prof.

45.6

56.9

55.1

26.5

34.4

27.8

19.1

22.5

27.3

n

19318

25497

26382

2631

5106

7369

 

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

Baccalaureate

Asst. Prof.

22.2

18.7

19.4

47.4

32.5

36.3

–25.2

–13.8

–16.9

Assoc. Prof.

33.0

25.9

25.2

29.4

37.5

36.4

3.6

–11.6

–11.2

Full Prof.

44.8

55.4

55.4

23.2

30.0

27.3

21.6

25.4

28.1

n

8098

9996

9700

1148

2260

3008

 

All Types

Asst. Prof.

19.5

17.2

17.9

45.4

37.1

37.9

–25.9

–19.9

–20.0

Assoc. Prof.

30.8

27.4

27.7

32.4

35.9

34.6

–1.6

–8.5

–6.9

Full Prof.

49.7

55.4

54.4

22.2

27.0

27.5

27.5

28.4

26.9

n

99011

120972

116130

10127

21141

27496

 

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE D-11 Percent of Scientists in Given Types of Positions Who are Female by Field and Year of Survey.

 

Engineering

Mathematics

Physical Sciences

Life Scicences

Social/Behavioral Sciences

Percent Women

Deviation from % Full Time

Percent Women

Deviation from % Full Time

Percent Women

Deviation from % Full Time

Percent Women

Deviation from % Full Time

Percent Women

Deviation from % Full Time

Full Time

1979

0.9

 

6.9

 

5.0

 

12.3

 

16.5

 

1989

2.9

9.8

7.5

21.3

24.1

1995

5.7

11.0

10.6

27.2

30.9

Off-Track

1979

2.1

1.2

14.7

7.8

11.0

6.0

21.9

9.6

24.7

8.2

1989

4.3

1.4

14.0

4.2

13.1

5.6

33.9

12.6

40.4

16.3

1995

6.6

0.9

21.2

10.2

17.1

6.5

34.6

7.4

46.8

15.9

On-Track

1979

0.7

–0.2

6.0

–0.9

3.6

–1.4

10.0

–2.3

15.1

–1.4

1989

2.8

–0.1

9.5

–0.3

6.3

–1.2

18.2

–3.1

21.5

–2.6

1995

5.5

–0.2

10.0

–1.0

8.7

–1.9

24.7

–2.5

27.0

–3.9

Untenured

1979

1.8

0.9

11.0

4.1

5.5

0.5

18.9

6.6

27.3

10.8

1989

6.5

3.6

13.6

3.8

14.7

7.2

31.6

10.3

35.0

10.9

1995

12.9

7.2

18.7

7.7

20.3

9.7

38.0

10.8

41.9

11.0

Tenured

1979

0.4

–0.5

4.7

–2.2

3.2

–1.8

7.0

–5.3

11.0

–5.5

1989

1.5

–1.4

8.3

–1.5

4.5

–3.0

14.0

–7.3

17.7

–6.4

1995

3.0

–2.7

7.4

–3.6

5.9

–4.7

19.7

–7.5

22.5

–8.4

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

Assistant Professor

1979

2.6

1.7

10.6

3.7

6.5

1.5

20.1

7.8

28.0

11.5

1989

8.0

5.1

14.0

4.2

16.4

8.9

32.6

11.3

37.9

13.8

1995

15.0

9.3

17.9

6.9

22.3

11.7

39.0

11.8

43.5

12.6

Associate Professor

1979

0.7

–0.2

6.0

–0.9

4.6

–0.4

10.1

–2.2

15.9

–0.6

1989

3.0

0.1

11.9

2.1

8.2

0.7

23.0

1.7

24.5

0.4

1995

5.0

–0.7

10.0

–1.0

10.2

–0.4

30.9

3.7

32.2

1.3

Full Professor

1979

0.2

–0.7

3.4

–3.5

2.2

–2.8

5.0

–7.3

7.1

–9.4

1989

0.8

–2.1

5.9

–3.9

3.2

–4.3

9.1

–12.2

12.7

–11.4

1995

1.7

–4.0

6.3

–4.7

3.6

–7.0

14.0

–13.2

16.2

–14.7

NOTE: Deviation from percent full time is the difference between the percent women in a given category and the percent women working full time in that field. Positive values indicate proportionally more women in that category than the representation of women in that field.

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE D-12 Multinomial Logit Analysis on Academic Rank, by Sex and Year of Survey. b Indicates Regression Coefficient; z Indicates Value of z-test

 

1979

1989

1995

Variable

 

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Married

b

–0.297

0.131

–0.026

0.297

0.154

0.386

z

2.13

0.86

0.24

2.28

1.17

3.15

Children <6 at Home

b

0.023

–0.109

0.039

0.042

–0.098

–0.078

z

0.12

1.01

0.29

0.37

0.64

0.81

Not a US Citizen

b

0.279

0.11

–0.427

–0.331

–0.256

–0.219

z

0.92

0.51

1.89

1.69

0.96

1.59

Career Year

b

0.569

0.731

0.562

0.638

0.487

0.62

z

18.5

27.44

21.06

24.65

15.76

26.9

Career Year2

b

–0.011

–0.013

–0.009

–0.01

–0.008

–0.01

z

12.14

17.66

10.73

13.15

7.83

15.91

Engineering vs. Social/Behavioral Sciences

b

–0.46

–0.503

0.163

–0.26

0.307

0.422

z

1

1.99

0.74

1.39

1.11

2.97

Math vs. Social/Behavioral Sciences

b

–0.31

0.026

0.328

0.011

0.462

0.56

z

1.61

0.15

1.95

0.06

1.99

3.28

Physical Sciences vs. Social/Behavioral Sciences

b

–0.347

–0.601

–0.383

–0.504

0.04

–0.265

z

1.75

3.56

2.32

3.13

0.16

1.65

Life Sciences vs. Social/Behavioral Sciences

b

–0.86

–0.814

–0.255

–0.45

–0.217

–0.734

z

4.86

5.49

1.71

2.98

1.55

5.44

Medical vs. Research I

b

–0.365

–0.546

–0.922

–1.166

–0.729

–1.207

z

1.56

3.68

5.44

7.9

3.82

8.64

Research II vs. Research I

b

0.551

0.203

0.42

0.248

0.086

0.347

z

1.91

1.09

2.16

1.41

0.36

2.13

Doctoral vs. Research I

b

0.283

–0.099

0.11

0.029

–0.043

0.015

z

1.38

0.59

0.65

0.18

0.21

0.11

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

Master’s vs. Research I

b

0.765

0.727

0.405

0.255

0.42

–0.121

z

4.54

4.96

2.93

1.76

2.57

0.96

Baccalaureate vs. Research I

b

0.318

0.665

0.483

0.301

0.557

0.405

z

1.34

3.2

2.53

1.51

2.43

2.03

Private vs. Research I

b

–0.51

–0.709

–0.482

–0.536

–0.512

–0.733

z

3.56

6

4.23

4.95

3.84

7.41

Ph.D. Prestige

b

–0.104

0.014

0.029

0.062

–0.187

–0.047

z

1.4

0.22

0.43

0.98

2.32

0.83

Time from Baccalaureate to Ph.D. >10 Years

b

1.219

1.423

0.973

0.619

0.861

0.397

z

7.4

8.87

7.54

4.3

6.21

3.14

Missing Data on Having Young Children

b

–0.046

–0.219

–0.105

0.154

 

z

0.18

1.04

0.65

0.97

Missing Data on Prestige of Ph.D.

b

0.459

0.393

0.361

0.199

z

2.79

3.54

2.86

1.86

Constant

b

–3.082

–4.066

–4.383

–4.834

–3.365

–4.456

z

8.94

12.55

13.11

14.41

8.75

14.31

Observations

 

8242

6113

3773

6664

2296

7105

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

TABLE D-13 Multinomial Logit Analysis on Academic Rank, by Sex and Year of Survey. b Indicates Regression Coefficient; z Indicates Value of z-test

Panel A: 1979

 

Women

Men

Asst. Prof. vs Full Prof.

Assoc. Prof. vs Full Prof

Asst. Prof. vs Full Prof

Assoc. Prof. vs Full Prof

Career Yr.

–0.841

–0.363

–1.015

–0.404

20.33

10.22

33.83

16.02

Career Yr Squared

0.016

0.006

0.019

0.005

15.41

6.52

27.25

7.69

Engineering1

0.171

0.011

–0.434

–0.202

0.27

0.02

1.53

1.13

Mathematics1

0.537

0.211

0.502

0.385

2.31

1.14

2.61

2.88

Physical Sciences1

0.818

0.602

0.498

0.431

3.49

3.38

2.66

3.44

Biological Sciences1

0.392

0.095

0.629

0.447

2.00

0.59

4.07

4.22

Medical School2

1.273

0.638

0.851

0.574

4.09

2.36

5.05

4.81

Research II2

–0.785

–0.592

–0.355

–0.310

2.37

2.35

1.75

2.24

Doctoral2

–0.542

–0.141

0.494

0.536

2.17

0.72

2.66

4.31

Master’s2

–0.996

–0.412

–0.796

–0.173

4.95

2.62

5.02

1.62

Baccalaureate2

–0.748

–0.617

–0.193

0.114

2.83

2.85

0.87

0.74

Constant

7.109

4.094

7.176

3.791

19.32

12.09

27.12

16.55

Observations

2129

2129

6113

6113

NOTE: 1-Comparison is to Social/Behavioral Sciences. 2-Comparison is to Research I University. Absolute value of z-statistics in parentheses.

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

Panel B: 1989

 

Women

Men

Asst. Prof. vs Full Prof.

Assoc. Prof. vs Full Prof

Asst. Prof. vs Full Prof

Assoc. Prof. vs Full Prof

Career Yr.

–0.846

–0.349

–1.032

–0.384

24.37

11.10

32.94

14.83

Career Yr Squared

0.015

0.005

0.018

0.005

16.90

6.18

25.10

7.54

Engineering1

–0.559

–0.342

–0.506

–0.454

1.77

1.21

2.25

2.87

Mathematics1

–0.020

0.165

0.066

0.100

0.10

1.17

0.33

0.82

Physical Sciences1

0.581

0.177

0.434

–0.026

3.07

1.25

2.37

0.22

Biological Sciences1

–0.197

0.052

0.360

0.024

1.26

0.45

2.22

0.24

Medical School2

0.741

0.354

1.077

0.545

3.51

2.09

6.42

4.82

Research II2

0.027

0.400

–0.364

–0.036

0.11

2.08

1.82

0.28

Doctoral2

–0.133

0.285

0.088

0.474

0.65

1.88

0.47

4.12

Master’s2

–0.867

–0.428

–0.597

–0.051

5.38

3.60

3.71

0.52

Baccalaureate2

–0.757

–0.436

–0.245

–0.137

3.54

2.70

1.12

0.95

Constant

8.101

4.361

8.850

4.512

23.35

13.53

28.79

17.05

Observations

3779

3779

6681

6681

NOTE: 1-Comparison is to Social/Behavioral Sciences. 2-Comparison is to Research I University. Absolute value of z-statistics in parentheses

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×

Panel C: 1995

 

Women

Men

Asst. Prof. vs Full Prof.

Assoc. Prof. vs Full Prof

Asst. Prof. vs Full Prof

Assoc. Prof. vs Full Prof

Career Yr.

–0.827

–0.345

–1.013

–0.391

18.05

8.56

35.53

17.01

Career Yr Squared

0.014

0.005

0.017

0.005

11.42

4.78

27.01

9.00

Engineering1

–0.892

–0.709

–0.660

–0.069

2.20

1.93

3.67

0.55

Mathematics1

–0.674

–0.052

–0.008

0.264

2.17

0.22

0.04

2.13

Physical Sciences1

0.044

–0.160

0.355

–0.006

0.13

0.59

1.91

0.05

Biological Sciences1

–0.108

–0.051

0.628

0.035

0.59

0.36

3.96

0.36

Medical School2

0.717

0.302

1.678

0.595

2.83

1.45

10.20

5.17

Research II2

0.221

0.278

–0.144

0.034

0.67

1.04

0.74

0.26

Doctoral2

–0.158

0.282

0.407

0.502

0.59

1.32

2.44

4.46

Master’s2

–0.708

–0.076

–0.217

0.072

3.37

0.46

1.47

0.75

Baccalaureate2

–0.164

0.225

–0.131

–0.058

0.57

0.99

0.58

0.40

Constant

8.387

4.493

9.133

4.863

18.91

10.99

31.12

19.50

Observations

2300

2300

7114

7114

NOTE: 1-Comparison is to Social/Behavioral Sciences. 2-Comparison is to Research I University. Absolute value of z-statistics in parentheses.

Suggested Citation:"D: Tables." National Research Council. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5363.
×
Page 271
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×
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Although women have made important inroads in science and engineering since the early 1970s, their progress in these fields has stalled over the past several years. This study looks at women in science and engineering careers in the 1970s and 1980s, documenting differences in career outcomes between men and women and between women of different races and ethnic backgrounds.

The panel presents what is known about the following questions and explores their policy implications: In what sectors are female Ph.D.s employed? What salary disparities exist between men and women in these fields? How is marital status associated with career attainment? Does it help a career to have a postdoctoral appointment? How well are female scientists and engineers represented in management?

Within the broader context of education and the labor market, the book provides detailed comparisons between men and women Ph.D.s in a number of measures: financial support for education, academic rank achieved, salary, and others. The study covers engineering; the mathematical, physical, life, and social and behavioral sciences; medical school faculty; and recipients of National Institutes of Health grants.

Findings and recommendations in this volume will be of interest to practitioners, faculty, and students in science and engineering as well as education administrators, employers, and researchers in these fields.

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