National Academies Press: OpenBook

Alluvial Fan Flooding (1996)

Chapter: B Sources of Data

« Previous: A Characteristics and Hazards Reported in Published and Unpublished Accounts of Alluvial Fan Flooding
Suggested Citation:"B Sources of Data." National Research Council. 1996. Alluvial Fan Flooding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5364.
×

Appendix B
Sources of Data

Suggested Citation:"B Sources of Data." National Research Council. 1996. Alluvial Fan Flooding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5364.
×

Source Agency

Extent of Data/Information Content

1. U.S. Bureau of Land Management

 

 

The following types of photography are available:

Western United States:

National Applied Resource Science Center

DFC, Bldg. 50 RS-120

P.O. Box 25047 Denver, CO 80225-0047

Tel. (303) 236-7991

FAX (303) 236-7990

Resource photography: Flown over large area generally at scales of 1:12,000 or 1:24,000. Film may be black-and-white, natural color, or false color-infrared.

For information about coverage in Alaska contact:

Alaska State Office

222 W. 7th Avenue, #13

Anchorage, AK 99513-7599

Tel. (907) 271-5063

Riparian photography: Flown over small stream segments generally at scales of 1:2,400, 1:4,800, or 1:6,000. Primarily false color-infrared film.

 

Photogrammetric photography: Generally flown at scales ranging from 1:2,400 to 1:12,000 for photogrammetric applications.

2. U.S. National Park Service (NPS)

 

Maps may be ordered by writing to the superintendent of each National Park Service unit. For more information, contact the Regional Office in your area of interest or the NPS Office of Public Inquiries, Room 1013, Washington, D.C., 2024, or NPS, Denver Service Center, 655 Parfet Street, P.O. Box 25287, Denver, CO, 80225.

NPS maps use United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps as a base for planimetrically accurate data. The parks then supplement the base with up-to-date information— new road and trail alignments, building locations, etc. The information is focused towards the needs of park visitors, including road access, recreation, major topographic features, administrative boundaries, and other points of interest. Each park has its own focus—recreation, historic, ecosystems, general information, or interpretation.

 

Many park maps have shaded relief art, an artist's rendering of topographic features derived from USGS contour lines on the base map.

 

Scales and revision cycles vary from map to map.

 

The NPS also contracts for aerial photography over and adjacent to U.S. national park lands and other areas such as national monuments and national recreational areas. They are available through the EROS Data Center in Sioux Falls.

3. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)

 

Aerial Photographs and Satellite Photographs

 

Earth Science Information Center

U.S. Geological Survey

507 National Center

Multiple aerial photographic coverage of the United States; satellite hand-held photos along paths in the United States and other parts of the world. Indexes

Suggested Citation:"B Sources of Data." National Research Council. 1996. Alluvial Fan Flooding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5364.
×

Source Agency

Extent of Data/Information Content

Reston, VA 22092

Tel. (703) 648-6045

FAX (703) 648-5548

Toll-free number 1-800-USA-MAPS

are available for NAPP, NHAP, and satellite hand-held photographs. The Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) provides data on current and photo coverage of the United States.

Sioux Falls ESIC

U.S. Geological Survey

EROS Data Center

Sioux Falls, SD 57198

Tel. (605) 594-6151

FAX (605) 594-6589

Aerial photos at various scales, with different emulsions, and information on camera characteristics, cloud cover and sources for obtaining copies. Hand-held satellite photos in black-and-white and color.

Flood-Prone Area Maps

 

Flood-prone area maps, although not a published series, are available, by quadrangle name, from the USGS Water Resources Division District Office in the state of interest.

Flood-prone areas are outlined on standard USGS topographic quadrangles at a scale of 1:24,000 as part of the national program for managing flood losses in urban areas mandated by the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the recommendations of the Task Force on Federal Flood Control Policy (89th Congress). Efforts to produce these maps began in 1969. As of Fiscal Year 1976, over 12,000 quadrangles had been mapped.

Locations of the USGS Water Resources Division district offices can be obtained by contacting

 

U.S. Geological Survey

Hydrologic Information Unit

419 National Center

Reston, VA 22902

Tel. (703) 648-6817

 

Orthophotoquads

 

Earth Science Information Center U.S. Geological Survey 507 National Center Reston, VA 22092 Tel. (703) 648-6045 FAX (703) 648-5548 Toll-free number 1-800-USA-MAPS

Orthophotoquads contain no symbolized features, and a minimal number of names. Because they show a wealth of planimetric details and land use and land cover information that is not symbolized on conventional line maps, they make excellent supplements to the published maps. Pilot projects have demonstrated that digital scanning of aerial photos and rectification of scanned imagery to horizontal and vertical ground control can produce orthophoto digital data bases from which orthophotoquads at 1:12,000 and 1:24,000 are generated.

Quadrangle Format Maps

 

Earth Science Information Center

U.S. Geological Survey 5

07 National Center

Reston, VA 22092

Tel. (703) 648-5920

FAX (703) 648-5548

7.5-minute map series: conterminous United States, Hawaii, and territories at 1:24,000 or 1:25,000; Puerto Rico at 1:20,000

15-minute map series: Alaska at 1:63,360.

Suggested Citation:"B Sources of Data." National Research Council. 1996. Alluvial Fan Flooding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5364.
×

Source Agency

Extent of Data/Information Content

Toll-free number 1-800-USA-MAPS

30- by 60-minute map series: conterminous United States and Hawaii at 1:100,000.

U.S. Geological Survey Map Distribution

Federal Center, Box 25286

Denver, CO 80225

Tel. (303) 202-4700

Quadrangle format maps are a multicolored topographic base map series of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Most USGS topographic maps use contours to show the shape and elevation of the terrain. Elevations are usually shown in feet, but on some maps they are in meters. Contour intervals vary, depending mainly on the scale of the map and the type of terrain. The maps show and name prominent natural and cultural (manmade) features. Those at scales of 1:24,000 show an area in detail. Such detail is useful for engineering, local area planning. Less detail is shown at scales of 1:63,360 and 1:100,000. They cover land areas and are used in land management and planning. Maps at a scale of 1:250,000 cover very large areas on each sheet and are used in regional planning.

Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States

 

Earth Science Information Center

U.S. Geological Survey

507 National Center

Reston, VA 22092

Tel. (703) 648-6045

FAX (540) 648-5548

Toll-free number 1-800-USA-MAPS

Multicolored maps on topographic bases in 4- by 6-degree quadrangle units; scale 1:1 million; show regional distribution of Quaternary (surficial) geologic materials in the conterminous United States and adjoining areas.

U.S. Geological Survey

Information Services

Bldg. 810

Denver Federal Center, Box 25286

Denver, CO 80225

Tel. (303) 202-4700

Maps are available for 18 of the 53 proposed quadrangles in the atlas, and another 12 maps have been approved for publication and are currently in production. The rest are being compiled. Most of the maps available or in production are in the eastern and central United States. For availability, see sources listed under Miscellaneous Investigations Series (I Series) maps.

Water Data

 

Information about water data is available on request from

Water quantity and quality data for geographic regions of the United States are available in print form and are machine-readable files.

The Assistant Chief Hydrologist for Operations

441 National Center

Reston, VA 22092

Tel. (703) 648-5305

Data are available for all parts of the nation where the USGS has a data collection program. Availability can vary by state, according to the program of the USGS District Office for that state.

Water data questions may also be directed to the National Water Information Clearinghouse (NWIC): 1-800-426-9000.

 

Suggested Citation:"B Sources of Data." National Research Council. 1996. Alluvial Fan Flooding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5364.
×

Source Agency

Extent of Data/Information Content

General information on water data and referrals to field offices may be obtained from

 

U.S. Geological Survey

Hydrologic Information Unit

419 National Center

Reston, VA 22092

Tel. (703) 648-6817

 

Or contact the District Chief in the state of interest to obtain data.

 

Water Data Reports may be purchased from:

 

The National Technical Information Service

5285 Port Royal Road

Springfield, VA 22161

Tel. (703) 487-4763

 

Bulletins, Professional Papers, Water-Supply Papers and Other Book Series

 

Earth Science Information Center

U.S. Geological Survey

507 National Center

Reston, VA 22092 Tel. (703) 648-6045

FAX (703) 648-5548 T

oll-free number 1-800-USA-MAPS

Bulletins: Reports on the results of resource studies and of geologic and topographic investigations, as well as collections of short papers related to a specific topic; generally more limited in scope or geographic coverage than professional papers. Some contain geologic or geophysical maps.

U.S. Geological Survey

Information Services

Denver Federal Center, Box 25286

Denver, CO 80225

Tel. (303) 202-4200

Professional papers: Comprehensive reports on the results of resource studies and of geologic, hydrologic, and topographic investigations. Also include collections of related papers addressing different aspects of a single scientific topic. Many contain geologic or geophysical maps.

Random products available are catalogued in the following sources:

Other: The USGS publishes a wide variety of reports containing the results of water resources investigations, many of which depict maps of the areas studied.

''Publications of the Geological Survey, 1879–1961," "Publications of the Geological Survey, 1962–1970," "Publications of the Geological Survey, 1971–1981," and annual supplements for 1982 and later years. New bulletins are listed in the monthly catalog, "New Publications of the U.S. Geological Survey."

Also available are catalogues of USGS publications. A monthly list of new USGS publications is available free from

U.S. Geological Survey

582 National Center

Reston, VA 22092

Suggested Citation:"B Sources of Data." National Research Council. 1996. Alluvial Fan Flooding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5364.
×

Source Agency

Extent of Data/Information Content

In addition, geologic maps published as plates or figures in bulletins are catalogued in the following sources:

 

• GEOINDEX, a computerized data base produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that contains bibliographic information for published geographic maps.

 

• USGS Geologic Map Indexes (GMIs) for the 50 states and several territories.

 

These sources are available at Earth Science Information Center offices, in USGS libraries, and may be available at other earth science libraries, such as those of universities.

 

4. USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA)

 

USDA FSA Aerial Photography Field Office

Sales Branch

2222 West 2300 South

P.O. Box 30010

Salt Lake City, UT 84130-0010

Tel. (801) 975-3503

Aerial photography is available for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, and portions of Alaska. Contact the Sales Branch for details or for a comprehensive listing of available coverage.

Aerial photography is available from various types of film (black-and-white, natural color, color-infrared) at scales from 1:6,000 up to 1:120,000. The precise visual information provided by aerial photography can be used in many ways. The myriad of applications include conservation practices, locating field boundaries, tax assessment, urban development, pollution studies, and watershed studies.

5. U.S. Forest Service

 

Reports and Wilderness and Special Area Maps

 

Regional Offices:

Northern Region

Federal Building

200 East Broadway Street

P.O. Box 7669

Missoula, MT 59807

Tel. (406) 329-3511

The Special Area Maps coincide with USGS 7.5-minute quadrangle maps but may conform to other geographic lines or to topographic or cultural features. Because of the wide variety of needs and interest found within special areas, there is no specific standard scale for the wilderness and special area maps.

Intermountain Region

Information Center

2501 Wall Avenue

The USFS contracts for and acquires aerial photographic coverage over national forest lands and other areas related to their mandates. A variety of scales and film types have been employed. Most of these photographs are available through the USDA

Suggested Citation:"B Sources of Data." National Research Council. 1996. Alluvial Fan Flooding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5364.
×

Source Agency

Extent of Data/Information Content

Union Station

Ogden, UT 84401

Tel. (801) 625-5306

ASCS Aerial Photography Field Office in Salt Lake City.

Southern Region

Information Center

Suite 154

1720 Peachtree Road,

NW Atlanta, GA 30309

Tel. (404) 347-2384

The USFS has nine regions with regional headquarters where regional aerial photographic coverage can often be viewed and ordered. Consult the government section of your telephone book for details.

Rocky Mountain Region

740 Sims Avenue

P.O. Box 25127

Lakewood, CO 80225

Tel. (303) 275-5350

Inquiries may also be referred to Division of Engineering, U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C., 20250.

Pacific Southwest Region

630 Sansome Street

San Francisco, CA 94111

Tel. (415) 705-2874

 

Eastern Region

310 West Wisconsin Avenue

Room 500

Milwaukee, WI 53203

Tel. (414) 297-3290

 

Southwestern Region

Public Affairs Office

Federal Building

517 Gold Avenue SW

Albuquerque, NM 87102

Tel. (505) 842-3292

 

Pacific Northwest Region

333 SW First Street

Portland, OR 97204

Tel. (503) 666-0771

 

Alaska Region

Public Services Section

Federal Office Building

709 West Ninth Street

P.O. Box 21628

Juneau, AK 99802-1628

Tel. (907) 586-8806

 

Suggested Citation:"B Sources of Data." National Research Council. 1996. Alluvial Fan Flooding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5364.
×

Source Agency

Extent of Data/Information Content

6. U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service

 

Soil Surveys and Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO)

Digitizing is done by line segment (vector) format in accordance with NRCS digitizing standards and specifications. The mapping bases used meet national map accuracy standards and are either orthophotoquads or 7.5-minute quadrangles. SSURGO data are collected and archived in 7.5-minute quadrangle units, and distributed as complete coverage for a county or area usually consisting of 10 or more quad units. Soil boundaries ending at quad neatlines are joined by computer to adjoining orthophotoquad maps to achieve an exact match.

To obtain SSURGO soil spatial and attribute data, contact

 

National Cartographic and Geospatial Center

USDA—Natural Resources Conservation Service

P.O. Box 6567

Fort Worth, TX 76115

Tel. (817) 334-5559

FAX (817) 334-5469

Toll-free number 1-800-672-5559

 

SSURGO data are available for selected counties and areas throughout the United States and its territories. A soil survey digitizing status map and list of surveys digitized are available.

To obtain soil surveys and technical information about the use of soils data, please contact a NRCS state soil scientist in your state or contact

National Soil Survey Center

USDA—Natural Resources Conservation Service

Federal Building, Room 152

100 Centennial Mall,

North Lincoln, NE 68508

Tel. (402) 437-5423

SSURGO is linked to a Soil Interpretations Record, an attribute relational data base, which gives the proportionate extent of the component soils and their properties for each map unit. SSURGO contains one to three components. The Soil Interpretations Record data base includes over 25 soil, physical, and chemical properties for approximately 18,000 soil series recognized in the United States. Information on soil survey reports that can be queried from the data base includes available water capacity, soil reaction, salinity, flooding, water table, bedrock, and interpretation for septic tank limitations, engineering, cropland, woodland, and recreation development.

7. National Ocean Service (NOS)

 

NOAA, National Ocean Service

HSB, Data Control Section, N/CG243

WSCI, Room 404

6001 Executive Boulevard

Rockville, MD 20852

Tel. (301) 443-8408

Topographic maps represent a unique and comprehensive record of the coastline and the adjacent waters, showing conditions existing on particular dates and a record of the changes that have occurred from both natural and artificial causes. Most of the shoreline maps have been compiled at scales of 1:10,000 or 1:20,000. A number of harbor areas have been completed at 1:5,000 scale.

 

Topographic and photogrammetric surveys (shoreline maps) are surveys of the land features of an area. As their extent is limited by varying nautical chart requirements, they generally cover a distance of 1 to 10 kilometers inland from the shoreline. Topographic surveys vary not only in coverage but also in content.

Suggested Citation:"B Sources of Data." National Research Council. 1996. Alluvial Fan Flooding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5364.
×

Source Agency

Extent of Data/Information Content

8. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)

 

USACE Publications Department

2803 52nd Avenue

Hyattsville, MD 20781

Tel. (301) 394-0081

USACE Publication Distribution Center

2800 Eastern Boulevard

Baltimore, MD 21220-2896

Tel. (410) 682-8524

Technical information on the Corps of Engineers' involvement with specific alluvial fans can be obtained by contacting individual district offices where that fan is located. General information on Corps policy programs or research can be obtained by contacting the distribution center.

9. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

 

For information on the digital products, contact

Assistant Administrator

Federal Insurance Administration

Office of Risk Assessment

500 C Street, SW

Washington, DC 20472

Digital thematic overlay and analog maps of flood hazards. These products map delineating areas expected to be inundated by the 1 percent chance per year flood event, base flood elevation, floodway, and other flood risk data.

For information on the analog products, contact

 

Service Center

P.O. Box 1038 Jessup,

MD 20794-1038

Tel. 1-800-358-9616

 

10. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

 

Aerial photographs, topographic maps, orthophotoquads, and reports

Black-and-white panchromatic, color and color-infrared aerial photographs of areas within the Tennessee Valley Region at various dates from 1933 to the present time.

TVA Map Sales

HB1A

1101 Market Street

Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801

Tel. (423) 751-MAPS (6277)

National series, large-scale base cartographic data in cooperative mapping program administered by the United States Geological Survey. This series is at 1:24,000 scale. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) produces, revises, and maintains 805 71/2-minute quadrangles in this series.

 

This series of orthophotoquads is currently being developed. The orthophotoquads will be produced at 1:12,000 scale, in 3¾-minute quarter quadrangle format.

Suggested Citation:"B Sources of Data." National Research Council. 1996. Alluvial Fan Flooding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5364.
×

Source Agency

Extent of Data/Information Content

11. National Archives and Record Service (NARS)

 

Reference Services Staff of the National Archives and Records Administration may be contacted at

National Archives and Records Service

Cartographic Branch Rm 3320

8601 Adelphi Road

College Park, MD 20740-6001

Tel. (301) 713-7030

The NARS archives historical federal geographic data products including a variety of photo and map data and, in particular, aerial photographs flown by the government previous to 1942. Generally, one or two dates of aerial photography coverage are available for counties in the United States. They publish a pamphlet that describes available coverage and provides ordering details.

12. Library of Congress

 

The division can be reached at (202) 707-MAPS.

The Map and Geography Division of the Library of Congress has an extensive collection of current and historical geographic data products from federal and nonfederal sources.

13. State geologists or geological surveys

 

Contact state geologist in your state.

Several state geological information agencies have maps and reports of geologic features.

14. State floodplain management agencies

 

Contact state agency.

A variety of geographic data products are available for inspection at some state agencies. Most state agencies have water and flood data and information on federal and state floodplain management. Some agencies have large-scale topography for limited areas.

15. University Libraries and academic institutions

 

Contact your state university.

A wide variety of geographic data products and reports. Many universities have an extensive collection of aerial photographs, topographic maps, geologic maps and other maps of other geographic information.

16. County floodplain management agencies

 

Contact your local agency.

Often the best source of detailed topography, flood data, and flood maps. A variety of geographic data products area available for inspection at some county agencies

17. Long-time residents

Can be good source of historical information on the frequency and severity of flooding problems.

Suggested Citation:"B Sources of Data." National Research Council. 1996. Alluvial Fan Flooding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5364.
×

Source Agency

Extent of Data/Information Content

18. Newspapers

Often a good source of historical information.

19. Technical journals

A wide variety of information related to flooding.

20. University theses

A wide variety of information related to alluvial fan flooding. The specific location and availability will vary, but would include libraries of colleges or departments of agriculture, water resources, geography, etc.

Suggested Citation:"B Sources of Data." National Research Council. 1996. Alluvial Fan Flooding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5364.
×
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Suggested Citation:"B Sources of Data." National Research Council. 1996. Alluvial Fan Flooding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5364.
×
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Suggested Citation:"B Sources of Data." National Research Council. 1996. Alluvial Fan Flooding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5364.
×
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Suggested Citation:"B Sources of Data." National Research Council. 1996. Alluvial Fan Flooding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5364.
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Suggested Citation:"B Sources of Data." National Research Council. 1996. Alluvial Fan Flooding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5364.
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Suggested Citation:"B Sources of Data." National Research Council. 1996. Alluvial Fan Flooding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5364.
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Suggested Citation:"B Sources of Data." National Research Council. 1996. Alluvial Fan Flooding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5364.
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Suggested Citation:"B Sources of Data." National Research Council. 1996. Alluvial Fan Flooding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5364.
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Suggested Citation:"B Sources of Data." National Research Council. 1996. Alluvial Fan Flooding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5364.
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Suggested Citation:"B Sources of Data." National Research Council. 1996. Alluvial Fan Flooding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5364.
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Suggested Citation:"B Sources of Data." National Research Council. 1996. Alluvial Fan Flooding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5364.
×
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Alluvial fans are gently sloping, fan-shaped landforms common at the base of mountain ranges in arid and semiarid regions such as the American West. Floods on alluvial fans, although characterized by relatively shallow depths, strike with little if any warning, can travel at extremely high velocities, and can carry a tremendous amount of sediment and debris. Such flooding presents unique problems to federal and state planners in terms of quantifying flood hazards, predicting the magnitude at which those hazards can be expected at a particular location, and devising reliable mitigation strategies. Alluvial Fan Flooding attempts to improve our capability to determine whether areas are subject to alluvial fan flooding and provides a practical perspective on how to make such a determination. The book presents criteria for determining whether an area is subject to flooding and provides examples of applying the definition and criteria to real situations in Arizona, California, New Mexico, Utah, and elsewhere. The volume also contains recommendations for the Federal Emergency Management Agency, which is primarily responsible for floodplain mapping, and for state and local decisionmakers involved in flood hazard reduction.

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