National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: FINDINGS
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1996. Database Needs for Modeling and Simulation of Plasma Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5434.
×
Page 29
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1996. Database Needs for Modeling and Simulation of Plasma Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5434.
×
Page 30
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1996. Database Needs for Modeling and Simulation of Plasma Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5434.
×
Page 31
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1996. Database Needs for Modeling and Simulation of Plasma Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5434.
×
Page 32

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

RADIATIVE PROCESSES AND DIAGNOSTICS 29 4. Database development and review provide common reference points and save individual researchers the task of reviewing the primary literature. In addition, substantial benefits will accrue from new, electronic database technologies: searchability and compatibility with plotting and analysis software, not to mention compact storage of previously unwieldy amounts of data. There is little doubt that the electronic availability of a wide range of spectral data would stimulate the development of new diagnostic techniques and the wider application of existing methods. REFERENCES 1. G. Hancock, L. Lanyi, J.P. Sucksmith, and B.K. Woodcock, ''Atoms, Radicals and Ions Observed in Plasmas— Their Gas Phase and Surface Chemistry,'' Pure Appl. Chem. 66:1207 (1994); P.B. Davies and P.M. Martineau, "Diagnostics and Modeling of Silane and Methane Plasma CVD Processes," Adv. Mater. 4:729 (1992); M. Konuma, "Plasma Diagnostics," ch. 4 of Film Deposition by Plasma Techniques (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1992); B.L. Preppernau and T.A. Miller, "Laser-Based Diagnostics of Reactive Plasmas," in Glow Discharge Spectroscopies, ed. R.K. Marcus (Plenum Press, New York, 1993), pp. 483-508; O. Auciello and D.L. Flamm, eds., Plasma Diagnostics (Academic Press, Boston, 1989); R.W. Dreyfus, J.M. Jasinski, R.E. Walkup, and G.S. Selwyn, "Optical Diagnostics of Low Pressure Plasmas," Pure Appl. Chem. 57:1265 (1985); R.F. Karlicek, Jr., V.M. Donnelly, and W.D. Johnston, Jr., "Laser Spectroscopic Investigation of Gas-Phase Processes Relevant to Semiconductor Device Fabrication," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 17:151 (1983); I.P. Herman, Optical Diagnostics of Thin Film Processing (Academic Press, Boston, 1996). 2. J.R. Fuhr, G.A. Martin, and W.L. Wiese, "Atomic Transition Probabilities," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 17, suppl. 4 (1988); R.L. Kelly, "Atomic and Ionic Spectrum Lines Below 2000 Angstroms," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 16, suppl. 1 (1987); J. Reader, C.H. Corliss, W.L. Wiese, and G.A. Martin, Wavelengths and Transition Probabilities for Atoms and Atomic Ions, NSRDS-NBS 66 (U.S. Department of Commerce, December 1980). 3. J. Fuhr, National Institute of Standards and Technology Atomic and Molecular Physics Database 24, NIST Atomic Transition Probabilities Data Files (Scandium Through Nickel), available from Standard Reference Data, NIST, Bldg. 221/Room A320, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (1994); J.W. Gallagher, National Institute of Standards and Technology Atomic and Molecular Physics Database 38, NIST Spectroscopic Properties of Atoms and Atomic Ions Database, available from Standard Reference Data, NIST, Bldg. 22 I/Room A320, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (1995). 4. P.S. Doidge, "A Compendium and Critical Review of Neutral Atom Resonance Line Oscillator Strengths for Atomic Absorption Analysis," Spectrochim. Acta B 50:156 (1995). 5. K.-P. Huber and G. Herzberg, Constants of Diatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, New York, 1979). 6. J.W. Gallagher, National Institute of Standards and Technology Atomic and Molecular Physics Database 48, NIST Spectroscopic Properties of Diatomic Molecules Database, available from Standard Reference Data, NIST, Bldg. 221/Room A320, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (1995). 7. G. Herzberg, Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, New York, 1950, reprinted by Krigger, Malabar, Fla., 1985); G. Herzberg, Infrared and Raman Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, New York, 1945); G. Herzberg, Electronic Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, New York, 1966). 8. J.M. Hollas, Modern Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1986); J.I. Steinfeld, Molecules and Radiation: An Introduction to Modern Molecular Spectroscopy (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1981). 9. S.N. Suchard, ed., Spectroscopic Data (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1975). 10. V.A. Boyko, Spectroscopic Constants of Atoms and Ions (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1994). 11. R.W.B. Pearse and A.G. Gaydon, The Identification of Molecular Spectra, 4th edn. (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1976). 12. R.F. Barrow and P. Crozet, "Gas Phase Molecular Spectroscopy," Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Roy. Soc. Chem. 89C:353 471 (1992); P.B. Davies, "High Resolution Tunable Infrared Laser Spectroscopy of Transient Molecules," Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Roy. Soc. Chem. 89C:89-110 (1992). 13. P.F. Bernath, "High Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Transient Molecules," Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 41:91-122 (1990). 14. M.A.H. Smith, C.P. Rinsland, B. Fridovich, and K.N. Rao, "Intensities and Collision Broadening Parameters from Infrared Spectra," in Molecular Spectroscopy: Modern Research, vol. III, ed. K.N. Rao (Academic Press, New York, 1985), pp. 112-248.

RADIATIVE PROCESSES AND DIAGNOSTICS 30 15. J.M. Brown and M.R. Purnell, "Spectroscopic Parameters for Triatomic Free Radicals and Ions," in Molecular Spectroscopy: Modern Research, vol. III, ed. K.N. Rao (Academic Press, New York, 1985), pp. 249-296. 16. M.E. Jacox, "Vibrational and Electronic Energy Levels of Polyatomic Transient Molecules," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, monograph 3 (1994). 17. M.E. Jacox, National Institute of Standards and Technology Atomic and Molecular Physics Database 26, NIST Vibrational and Electronic Energy Levels of Small Polyatomic Transient Molecules (VEEL version 4.0), available from Standard Reference Data, NIST, Bldg. 221/Room A320, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (1995). 18. M.A.H. Smith, C.P. Rinsland, B. Fridovich, and K.N. Rao, "Intensities and Collision Broadening Parameters from Infrared Spectra," in Molecular Spectroscopy: Modern Research, vol. III, ed. K.N. Rao (Academic Press, New York, 1985), pp. 112-248. 19. L.S. Rothman, R.R. Gainache, R.H. Tipping, C.P. Rinsland, M.A.H. Smith, D.C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S.T. Massie, L.R. Brown, and R.A. Toth, "The HITRAN Molecular Database: Editions of 1991 and 1992," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 48:469 (1992). 20. S.T. Massie and A. Goldman, "Absorption Parameters of Very Dense Molecular Spectra for the HITRAN Compilation," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 48:713 (1992). 21. S.E. Stein, National Institute of Standards and Technology Atomic and Molecular Physics Database 35, NIST/EPA Gas Phase Infrared Database , available from Standard Reference Data, NIST, Bldg. 22 I/Room A320, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (April 1992). 22. C.J. Pouchert, ed., The Aldrich Library of FT-IR Spectra, edn. I, vol. 3, "Vapor Phase" (Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc., Milwaukee, Wisc., 1989); W.A Warr, "Spectral Databases," Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 10:279 (1991). 23. D.S. Early and B.H. Blake, Infrared Spectra of Gases and Vapors (The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Mich., March 1965); R.H. Pierson, A.N. Fletcher, and E.S. Gantz, "Catalog of Infrared Spectra for Qualitative Analysis of Gases," Anal. Chem. 28:1218 (1956). 24. H. Okabe, Photochemistry of Small Molecules (Wiley, New York, 1978). 25. H. Kanamori, Y. Endo, and E. Hirota, "Infrared Diode Laser and Microwave Kinetic Spectroscopy," in Dynamics of Excited Molecules, ed. K. Kuchitsu (Elsevier, New York, 1994); E. Hirota, High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Transient Molecules (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985); E. Hirota and K. Kawaguchi, "High Resolution Infrared Studies of Molecular Dynamics," Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 36:53-76 (1985). 26. R.S. McDowell, "Infrared Laser Spectroscopy, 1980-1983," Proc. SPIE 380:494 (1983); R.S. Eng and R.T. Ku, "High Resolution Linear Laser Absorption Spectroscopy—Review," Spec. Lett. 15:803 (1982). 27. T. Shimanouchi, Tables of Molecular Vibrational Frequencies, NSRDS-NBS monograph 39 (Washington, D.C., 1972); T. Shimanouchi, "Tables of Molecular Vibrational Frequencies. Consolidated Volume II," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 6:993 (1977); L.M. Sverdlov, M.A. Kovner, and E.P. Krainov, Vibrational Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules (Halstead Press, New York, 1974). 28. M.W. Chase, Jr., C.A. Davies, J.R. Downey, Jr., D.J. Frurip, R.A. McDonald, and A.N. Syverud, JANAF Thermochemical Tables, 3rd edn., J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, suppl. 1 (1985). 29. J. Wormhoudt, A.C. Stanton, and J. Silver, "Spectroscopic Techniques for Characterization of Gas Phase Species in Plasma Etching and Vapor Deposition Processes," Proc. SPIE 452:88 (1983). 30. H. Schlossberg, "Fluorine-Atom Probe Techniques for Chemical Lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 47:2044 (1976); A.C. Stanton and C.E. Kolb, "Direct Absorption Measurement of the Spin-Orbit Splitting and 2p1/2 Radiative Lifetime in Atomic Fluorine (2p5)," J. Chem. Phys. 72:6637 (1980); A.C. Stanton, "A Measurement of the Radiative Lifetime of Cl (3p5 2p1/2)," Chem. Phys. Lett. 122:385 (1985); J. Wormhoudt, A.C. Stanton, A.D. Richards, and H.H. Sawin, "Atomic Chlorine Concentration and Gas Temperature Measurements in a Plasma Etching Reactor," J. Appl. Phys. 61:142 (1987); J. Wormhoudt, "Radical and Molecular Product Concentration Measurements in CF4 and CH4 Radio Frequency Plasmas by Infrared Diode Laser Absorption,'' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8:1722 (1990); J. Wormhoudt, K.E. McCurdy, and J.B. Burkholder, ''Measurements of the Strengths of Infrared Bands of CF2," Chem. Phys. Lett. 158:480 (1989); J.J. Orlando and D.R. Smith, "Time-Resolved Tunable Diode Laser Detection of Products of the Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation of Hexafluoroacetone: A Line-Strength and Band-Strength Measurement for CF3," J. Phys. Chem. 92:5147 (1988); P.B. Davies, W. Lewis-Bevan, and D.K. Russell, "Infrared Diode Laser Spectrum of the v1 Band of CF2," J. Chem. Phys. 75:5602 (1981); C. Yamada and E. Hirota, "Infrared Diode Laser Spectroscopy of the CF3 v3 Band," J. Chem. Phys.

RADIATIVE PROCESSES AND DIAGNOSTICS 31 78:1703 (1983); K. Takahashi, M. Hori, K. Maruyama, S. Kishimoto, and T. Goto, "Measurements of the CF, CF2 and CF3 Radicals in a CHF3 Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L394 (1993); K. Maruyama, A. Sakai, and T. Goto, "Measurements of the CF3 Radical Using Infrared Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 26:199 (1993); K. Maruyama and T. Goto, ''Variation of CF3, CF2 and CF Radical Densities with RF CHF3 Discharge Duration," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 28:884 (1995). 31. L.G. Piper and G.E. Caledonia, "Kinetics of Silane Decomposition by Atomic and Molecular Nitrogen Metastables," J. Phys. Chem. 95:698 (1991). 32. R.L. Farrow and D.J. Rakestraw, "Detection of Trace Molecular Species Using Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing," Science 257:1894 (1992); S. Williams, D.S. Green, S. Sethuraman, and R.N. Zare, "Detection of Trace Species in Hostile Environments Using Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing: CH in an Atmospheric-Pressure Flame," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114:9122 (1992); G.J. Germann, A. McIlroy, T. Dreier, R.L. Farrow, and D.J. Rakestraw, "Detection of Polyatomic Molecules Using Infrared Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing,'' Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97:1630 (1993); T.J. Butenhoff and E.A. Rohlfing, "Resonant Four-Wave Mixing Spectroscopy of Transient Molecules in Free Jets," J. Chem. Phys. 97:1595 (1992). 33. S.M. Rossnagel, J.J. Cuomo, and W.D. Westwood, eds., Handbook of Plasma Processing Fundamentals, Etching, Deposition, and Surface Interactions (Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, N.J., 1990); D.M. Manos and D.L. Flamm, eds., Plasma Etching: An Introduction (Academic Press, Boston, 1989); G.E. McGuire, ed., Semiconductor Materials and Process Technology Handbook (Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, N.J., 1988); T. Vicsek, Fractal Growth Phenomena (World Scientific, River Edge, New Jersey, 1992); C.R.M. Grovenor, Microelectronic Materials (A. Hilger, Philadelphia, 1989); A. Zangwill, Physics at Surfaces (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988). 34. Y.J. Chabal, "Surface Infrared Spectroscopy," Surface Science Reports 8:211 (1988); E.S. Aydil, R.A. Gottscho, and Y.J. Chabal, "Real- Time Monitoring of Surface Chemistry During Plasma Processing," Pure Appl. Chem. 66:1381 (1994); G.M.W. Kroesen and F.J. de Hoog, "In-Situ Diagnostics for Plasma Surface Processing," Appl. Phys. A 56:479 (1993); P. Hollins, "Surface Infrared Spectroscopy," Vacuum 45:705 (1994); P. Jakob and Y.J. Chabal, "Chemical Etching of Vicinal Si(111): Dependence of the Surface Structure and the Hydrogen Termination on the pH of the Etching Solutions," J. Chem. Phys. 95:2897 (1991); P. Jakob, Y.J. Chabal, K. Raghavachari, P. Dumas, and S.B. Christman, "Imperfections on the Chemically Prepared, Ideally H-Terminated Si(111)-(l×l) Surfaces," Surface Science 285:251 (1993); Z.-H. Zhou, E.S. Aydil, R.A. Gottscho, Y.J. Chabal, and R. Reif, "Real-Time, In Situ Monitoring of Room-Temperature Silicon Surface Cleaning Using Hydrogen and Ammonia Plasmas," J. Electrochem. Soc. 140:3316 (1993); K.B. Koller, W.A. Schmidt, and J.E. Butler, "In Situ Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopic Characterization of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposited SiO2 Films," J. Appl. Phys. 64:4704 (1988); M. McGonigal, V.M. Bermudez, and J.E. Butler, "Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy Study of the Chemisorption of Small Molecules (H2, O2 and H2O) on Silicon," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 54/55:1033 (1990); P. Spiberg, R.L. Woodin, J.E. Butler, and L. Dhar, "In Situ Fourier Transform IR Emission Spectroscopy of Diamond Chemical Vapor Deposition," Diamond and Related Materials 2:708 (1993). 35. p. Ho, W.G. Breiland, and R.J. Buss, "Laser Studies of the Reactivity of SiH with the Surface of a Depositing Film," J. Chem. Phys. 91:2627 (1989). 36. K. Tachibana, T. Shirafuji, Y. Hiyashi, and S. Maekawa, "In-Situ Ellipsometric Monitoring of the Growth of Polycrystalline Si Thin Films by RF Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33:4191 (1994). 37. C.C. Cheng, K.V. Guinn, V.M. Donnelly, and I.P. Herman, "In-Situ Pulsed, Laser-Induced Thermal Desorption Studies of the Silicon Chloride Layer During Silicon Etching in High Density Plasmas of Cl2 and Cl2/O2 Mixtures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12:2630 (1994).

RADIATIVE PROCESSES AND DIAGNOSTICS 32

Next: STATE OF THE DATABASE »
Database Needs for Modeling and Simulation of Plasma Processing Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $47.00 Buy Ebook | $37.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

In spite of its high cost and technical importance, plasma equipment is still largely designed empirically, with little help from computer simulation. Plasma process control is rudimentary. Optimization of plasma reactor operation, including adjustments to deal with increasingly stringent controls on plant emissions, is performed predominantly by trial and error. There is now a strong and growing economic incentive to improve on the traditional methods of plasma reactor and process design, optimization, and control. An obvious strategy for both chip manufacturers and plasma equipment suppliers is to employ large-scale modeling and simulation. The major roadblock to further development of this promising strategy is the lack of a database for the many physical and chemical processes that occur in the plasma. The data that are currently available are often scattered throughout the scientific literature, and assessments of their reliability are usually unavailable.

Database Needs for Modeling and Simulation of Plasma Processing identifies strategies to add data to the existing database, to improve access to the database, and to assess the reliability of the available data. In addition to identifying the most important needs, this report assesses the experimental and theoretical/computational techniques that can be used, or must be developed, in order to begin to satisfy these needs.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!