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ION PROCESSES, NEUTRAL CHEMISTRY, AND THERMOCHEMICAL DATA 57 Some currently available sources of relevant thermochemical data are listed in the references.34 FINDINGS 1. The database for ion-molecule and neutral-neutral chemistry varies considerably. For some species and reactions, the data are good. This is especially true for cases in which there is overlap with processes occurring in the upper atmosphere or in some cases in chemical vapor deposition processes. In other cases, however, most notably for etching processes, few data are available. 2. Thermochemical data are sketchy for many species of interest in plasma processing. These data are important in helping to establish boundaries for reaction pathways and in estimating reaction rate coefficients. Techniques, both experimental and computational, are generally available to obtain these quantities, but few efforts are under way at present to meet these needs. REFERENCES 1. H.W. Ellis et al., Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 7:177 (1976); â 22:179 (1978); â 31:113 (1984). 2. L.W. Sieck and S.G. Lias, "Rate Coefficients for Ion-Molecule Reactions. I. Ions Containing C and H," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 5:1123 (1976). 3. D.L. Albritton, "Ion-Neutral Reaction-Rate Constants Measured in Flow Reactors Through 1977," Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 22:1 (1978). 4. Y. Ikezoe, S. Matsuoka, M. Takebe, and A. Viggiano, Gas Phase Ion-Molecule Reactions Rate Constants Through 1986 (Ion Reaction Research Group of the Mass Spectroscopy Society of Japan). 5. R. Morris, A.J. Viggiano, and J.F. Paulson, J. Phys. Chem. 97:6208 (1993); R. Morris, A.J. Viggiano, J.M. Van Doren, and J.F. Paulson, J. Phys. Chem. 96:3051 (1992). 6. M. Tsuji, T. Fumatsu, H. Kouno, and Y. Nishimura, Chem. Phys. Lett. 192:362 (1992); H. Obase, M. Tsuji, and Y. Nishimura, J. Chem. Phys. 99:111 (1985). 7. D.K. Bohme, "Chemistry Initiated by Atomic Silicon Ions in the Gas Phase: Formation of Silicon Bearing Ions and Molecules," Int. or. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 100:719 (1990). 8. M. Mandich and R. Reents, J. Chem. Phys. 95:7360 (1991). 9. R. Johnsen, J. Chem. Phys. 85:3869 (1986). 10. M.E. Weber and P. Armentrout, J. Phys. Chem. 93:1596 (1989); E.R. Fisher and P.B. Armentrout, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 101:R1 (1990); E.R. Fisher, B.L. Kickel, and P.B. Armentrout, J. Phys. Chem. 97:10204 (1993). 11. B.H. Boo, J.L. Elkind, and P.R. Armentrout, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112:2803 (1990). 12. J. Moseley, R.E. Olson, and J.R. Peterson, Case Stud. At. Phys . 5:1 (1975). 13. J.B.A. Mitchell, Phys. Rep. 186:215 (1990). 14. J.G. Adams, Int. or. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 132:1 (1994). 15. J.S. Chang, R.M. Hobson, Y. Ichikawa, T. Kaneda, N. Maruyama, and S. Teii, J. Phys. B 22:L665 (1989). 16. A. Phelps, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 20:557 (1991); â 21:883 (1992). 17. See, for example, W. Tsang and R.F. Hampson, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 15:1087 (1986); R. Atkinson, D.L. Baulch, R.A. Cox, R.F. Hampson, J.A. Kerr, and J. Troe, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 18:881 (1989); F. Westley, J.T. Herron, R.J. Cventanovic, R.F. Hampson, and W.G. Mallard, NIST Chemical Kinetics Database (1994). 18. M.J. Kushner, J. Appl. Phys. 63:2532 (1988); M.E. Coltrin, R.J. Kee, and G.H. Evans, J. Electrochem. Soc. 136:819 (1989). 19. M.J. Kushner, J. Appl. Phys. 74:6538 (1993). 20. C.J. Guinta, J.D. Chapple-Sokol, and R.G. Gordon, J. Electrochem. Soc. 137:3237 (1990). 21. G. Lucovksy, D. Tsu, and R. Markunas, ch. 16 in Handbook of Plasma Processing Technology, eds. S.M. Rossnagel, J.J. Cuomo, and W.D. Westwood (Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, N.J., 1990). 22. M.J. Kushner, J. Appl. Phys. 71:4173 (1992). 23. D.L. Smith, A.S. Alimonda, and F.J. von Pressig, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8:551 (1990). 24. D.R.F. Burgess, M.R. Zachariah, W. Tsang, and P.R. Westmoreland, NIST Technical Note 1412 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, July 1995). 25. p. Armentrout, Science 251:175 (1991). 26. J.E. Velasco, J.H. Kolts, and D.W. Setset, J. Chem. Phys. 69:4357 (1978).
ION PROCESSES, NEUTRAL CHEMISTRY, AND THERMOCHEMICAL DATA 58 27. H. Chatham, D. Robertson, and A. Gallagher, J. Chem. Phys. 79:1301 (1983). 28. Semiconductor Industry Association, The National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (SEMATECH, Austin, Tex., 1994). 29. Y.F. Wang and R. Pollard, J. Electrochem. Soc. 142:1712 (1995). 30. M.W. Chase, Jr., C.A. Davies, J.R. Downey, Jr., D.J. Frurip, R.A. McDonald, and A.N. Syverud, JANAF Thermochemical Tables, 3rd edn., J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, suppl. 1 (1985). 31. See, for example, P. Ho and C.F. Melius, J. Phys. Chem. 94:5120 (1990). 32. D.R.F. Burgess, M.R. Zachariah, W. Tsang, and P.R. Westmoreland, NIST Technical Note 1412 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, July 1995); M.R. Zachariah, W. Tsang, P.R. Westmoreland, and D.R.F. Burgess, J. Phys. Chem. 99:12512-12519 (1995). 33. See, for example, J.R. Whetstone et al, White Paper for a Chemical Kinetics Database to Support Integrated Circuit (IC) Manufacture, SEMATECH Technology Transfer #94072443A.XFR (September 1994). 34. M.W. Chase, Jr., C.A. Davis, J.R. Downey, Jr., D.J. Frurip, R.A. McDonald, and A.N. Syverud, JANAF Thermochemical Tables, 3rd edn., J. Phys. Chem. Ref Data 14, suppl. 1 (1985) [see NIST/SRD Products Catalogue SP 782 for hard-copy, floppy disk, and on-line versions of this and other databases]; L.V. Gurvich et al., Thermodynamic Properties of Individual Substances, 3rd edn. (English) (Nauka, Moscow, 1978) [similar to JANAF, this reference summarizes rules for estimating thermochemical data from structure]; S.G. Lias, J.E. Bartmess, J.F. Liebman, J.L. Holmes, R.D. Levin, and W.G. Mallard, "Gas-Phase Ion and Neutral Thermochemistry," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 17, suppl. 1 (1988) [see NIST/SRD SP 782 for an updated version on floppy disk]; R.J. Kee, F.M. Rupley, and J.A. Miller, The Chemkin Thermodynamic Data Base, Sandia National Laboratories Report SAND87-8215B (1990) [specific heats, standard state enthalpies, and entropies of species and reactions related to combustion and to CVD of silicon from silane; part of the Chemkin chemical kinetics code; available from the authors; also see Report SAND89-8009B (1993)]; M.E. Jacox, "Vibrational and Electronic Energy Levels of Polyatomic Transient Molecules," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data monograph 3 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1994); K.P. Huber and G. Herzberg, Constants of Diatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, New York, 1979).