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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Bits of Power: Issues in Global Access to Scientific Data. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5504.
×

Index

A

Access to scientific data. See International access to scientific data;

    Data, unrestricted access

Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), 58, 123

Africa, 42, 46, 70, 107

African Data Dissemination Service (ADDS), 107

Agencies. See Federal government science agencies

Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), 150, 154-156, 161, 170, 178, 183-184

Alloy Phase Diagram International Commission, 209

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 92, 94, 109

American Astronomical Society, 66

American Geophysical Union, 64

American Institute of Physics, 64

American Meteorological Society, 64

American Society for Mechanical Engineers, 96

Animation, 4, 57, 65, 67-68, 196

Anticompetitive exclusive property rights. See Exclusive property rights

Antitrust law, 142, 164

Applied research, 1, 18, 20, 133

Archives, 5, 59-60, 72, 82-83, 196.

    See also Long-term data sets;

    Retention, long-term;

    Retrospective data sets

Argentina, 54

Association for Progressive Communications, 42, 46

Association of American Geographers, 64

Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), 117, 213

Astronomical Data Center, 66

Astronomical sciences, 1, 19, 34, 53-54, 66

Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 66

Astronomy and Astrophysics,66

Astrophysical Journal, 66

Astrophysics Data System (ADS), 66, 71

Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), 25, 32, 35, 196

Atmospheric sciences, 55, 57, 78, 216-218

Australia, 66

Australian Oceanographic Data Centre, 118

Authentication issues, 13, 43

Automatic license, 164

B

Balancing divergent interests, 2, 139-145, 162, 164-170

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Bits of Power: Issues in Global Access to Scientific Data. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5504.
×

Barriers to access, 3, 4, 8, 76, 89.

    See also Economic factors and trends;

    International access to scientific data;

    Legal infrastructure

Basic research, 1-2, 7, 9, 17-18, 97, 133, 163-164

Beilstein databases, 61, 211

Belgium, 205

Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works , 9, 135, 145, 155, 160-161, 170, 183

"Big science." See "Megascience" programs

Bilateral agreements, 81

Biological data, 56, 72-74, 84

Biological sciences, 1, 5, 11, 19, 56-57, 73, 83-88

Books. See Publishers, commercial

Brazil, 54

Broadband transmission, 28, 30, 197

Bromley Principles, 79, 82

Brookhaven National Laboratory, 63, 205

"Browsing," 29, 143, 197

C

Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre, 211, 219

Canada, 206

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), 71, 105, 215, 219

Center for Information and Numerical Data Analysis and Synthesis (CINDAS), 119

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 120

Chemical Abstracts Service, 211, 219

Chemical sciences, 50-51, 210

Chile, 41

China. See People's Republic of China

Circular A-130, 126, 131, 163, 187

Climate. See Global climate change

CODATA. See Committee on Data for Science and Technology

CODATA Commission on Standardized Terminology for Access to Biological Data Banks, 11, 85, 88, 101

CODATA Task Group on Fundamental Constants, 88

CODATA Task Group on Outreach, Education, and Communication, 108

Cold War, end of, 4, 21, 77, 111, 214

Collaborative research, 6, 14, 21, 29, 31-32, 45, 63, 97-100, 207 -208

Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF), 207, 218

Commercialization of data, 29, 31, 99, 111, 168-169.

    See also Markets

Commercial users, 120, 167

Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 8, 145-148, 154-155 , 164

Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA), viii, 1-2, 19, 88, 219

Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), 94-95

Committee on Geophysical and Environmental Data, 79

Committee on Science and Technology in Developing Countries (COSTED) , 108

Communications.

    See also Wireless communication

    costs of, 27-28, 41, 42, 44

    two-way, 6, 13

Compact Disk-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM), 34, 45, 64, 98, 126, 141

Competitiveness, 7, 9, 116, 148, 162.

    See also Exclusive property rights;

    Unfair competition laws

Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, 60, 81

Compulsory license, 147, 159, 169

Computational Materials Science,67

Computer science research, 13, 43

Computers, 13, 40-42, 44, 102, 110.

    See also Personal computers

    hybrid analog/digital, 26

    scientific requirements for, 36, 39

Computing, costs of, 27-28

Conflicts of law.

    See Legislation

Congressional Budget Office, 58-61, 104

Consortium for International Earth Sciences Information Network (CIESIN) , 94, 99, 108

Constants. See Fundamental constants;

    Natural constants

Constitution. See U.S. Constitution

Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), 107-108

Contracts, 135

    harsh terms of, 159

Copying. See Photocopying

Copyright Act of 1976, 140, 143-144

Copyright law, 16, 48, 136-140, 143-144, 156.

    See also Fair use;

    Noncopyrightable databases;

    Royalties

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Bits of Power: Issues in Global Access to Scientific Data. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5504.
×

Costs. See Computing;

    Data;

    Reproduction and distribution

Council of Ministers, 148, 152, 154-156

Cyberspace, 9, 143, 145, 161, 197

D

Data, 4-6, 21-22.

    See also Networks

    accessing (See International access to scientific data;

    Full and open exchange of data)

    acquiring, 82

    analog, 196

    collecting, 27-28, 30, 62, 198

    compatibility of, 5, 88-90

    cost of, 6

    (See also Data, pricing)

    declassification of, 77-78

    describing, 36, 38, 49-51

    digitizing, 2, 11, 73, 101, 111

    distributing, 4, 6-7, 62-64, 114-116, 129

    evaluating, 199

    exchanging, 21, 83, 198

    growing volume of, 4, 58

    historical, 11, 71, 101

    indexing, 36, 38

    interfacing, 75

    managing, 10, 11, 13, 61-64, 198

    modeling, 65, 70

    nondiscriminatory availability, 79

    nonproprietary, 79

    preserving, 57, 61-62, 71

    pricing, 7, 14, 124-126

    primary, 21, 49, 202

    privatizing, 6-7, 14, 111, 116, 120-124, 202

    (See also Intranets)

    processing, 50, 198

    providing (See Sole-source data providers)

    purging, 82

    raw, 202

    remote access, 203

    rescuing, 13, 98

    retaining (See Data, storing)

    retrieval, 83, 206

    sources of, 11

    spectral, 203

    storing, 4, 21, 38, 82, 110

    transferring, 198

    transnational exchange of, 19, 21, 83, 97-100

    unique, 163

    universality of, 48

    unrestricted access, 83

    using (See Documentation of data sets)

    validating, 198, 204

    verifying, 100, 204

Database industry, 153

Database publishers. See Publishers

Databases, 199.

    See also Genome databases;

    Noncopyrightable databases

    commercial value of, 168

    converting, 89

    electronic, 8

    "insubstantial parts of," 152, 157-158

    managing, 198

    relational, 203

    vulnerability of, 140-142

Data centers, 5, 21, 60, 83

Data integrity, 198

Data Management Center (DMC), 216

Decryption, 198.

    See also Encryption

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 48, 56, 73, 212

Derivative work rights, 139, 151

DETHERM, 211

Developing countries, 6, 12, 40-42, 90-100

    accessing data from, 97-100

Digital versus analog data, 20

Digital versatile disk (DVD), 34, 45

Digitizing. See Data

Directive on the Legal Protection of Databases, European, 9, 142, 148-160

Distributed networks of data centers, 83

Documentation of data sets, 5, 11, 76-77, 106

E

eApJ. See Astrophysical Journal

Earth Interactions, 64

Earth Observation Satellite Company (EOSAT), 121

Earth Observing System (EOS), 30, 45, 80

Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS), 57, 58, 62, 106, 118, 215, 219

Earth sciences, 5, 54-56, 69, 75

Earth system processes, 6, 54, 97

Earthquakes, 55.

    See also Seismic arrays and stations

Ecological Society of America, 64

Economic factors and trends, 1, 6-8, 110-131, 132-133

    decreasing computing costs, 3, 27

    restrictions and barriers, 3, 91-92

Education. See Science education

Electronic publication, 64-65, 142, 165, 199

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Bits of Power: Issues in Global Access to Scientific Data. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5504.
×

Electronic storage media, 4, 21

    rapid obsolescence of, 36, 38, 72, 74

Encryption, 43, 156, 159-160, 199

Engineering applications, 51

England. See United Kingdom

Environmental sciences, 5.

    See also Observational environmental sciences

E-print archive, 199, 208-209

European Bioinformatics Institute, 212

European Community, 93, 134, 145-148, 154

European Dictionaire Automatique, 33

European Directive on Databases. See Directive on the Legal Protection of Databases

European Molecular Biology Organization, 212

European Southern Observatory, 54

European Space Agency (ESA), 54, 118, 213

European Space Information System, 117

Evaluated Nuclear Data File/B (ENDF/B), 119, 206

Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF), 52, 205-206

Exclusive property rights, 136-137, 146

Extraction, 157-158

    unauthorized, 158

    unfair, 147

''Extraction right," 154

    social costs, 154, 162

F

Fair use, 8-9, 12, 15-16, 143-144, 167-168, 171

Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) system, 120

Federal government science agencies, 2-3, 13, 20, 44.

    See also individual agencies

Federation of Digital Seismographic Networks (FDSN), 59, 216

Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural Telephone Service Co.,8, 16, 139 , 154

Fiber-optic communication, 24, 26

Fidonet, 42

File transfer protocol (FTP), 131

First Amendment. See U.S. Constitution

Flexible image transport system (FITS), 34

Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), 86, 93

Foreign aid, 12-13, 44, 92

France, 206

Freedom of scientific inquiry, 2, 17

    Full and open exchange of data, 3, 7, 9-10, 15, 17, 22, 81-82, 101, 199

Fundamental constants, 56

Fundamental research. See Basic research

G

Gemini project, 54

Genbank, 117

Genome databases, 56, 117, 212-213

Geographic Information System (GIS), 75-76

Geological sciences, 1, 19.

    See also Earth sciences;

    Environmental sciences;

    Observational environmental sciences

Geophysical data, 75, 214-218

Global Atmospheric Research Program, 218

Global Atmospheric Watch, 69

Global Change Research Information Office, 55, 69, 79, 82

Global climate change, 6, 55

Global Climate Observing System, 69, 105

Global data sharing. See International access to scientific data

Global observational data sets, 97

Global Ocean Observing System, 69, 105

Global Terrestrial Observing System, 69-70, 105

Government science agencies. See Federal government science agencies

Great Britain. See United Kingdom

"Group of Seven" nations, 10, 101

H

High density-read only memory (HD-ROM), 45

High Energy Astrophysical Observatory2, 60

High-energy physics (HEP), 206-208

High-performance parallel interface (HIPPI), 30

Historical data. See Data

House. See U.S. House of Representatives

H.R. 3531. See U.S. Database Investment and Intellectual Property Antipiracy Act

Hubble Space Telescope (HST), 4, 60, 110, 113, 117, 120, 213-214, 219

Human Genome Project, 4, 23, 27, 120, 213, 219

HyperText Mark-up Language (HTML), 33-34

I

Icarus, 66

Iceland, 183

Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF), 214

Incompatibilities. See Standardization

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Bits of Power: Issues in Global Access to Scientific Data. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5504.
×

Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), 57-59, 119, 215-216, 219

Incremental cost pricing, 14, 125-126

Indonesia, 42

Information Infrastructure Task Force (IITF) White Paper, 143, 155-156, 159-161

Information Market Policy Action (IMPACT) program, 145

Information technology, 3-4, 24, 110

    trends in, 24-46

Infrared Astronomical Satellite, 60

Innovations, 1, 133, 136, 140

    subpatentable, 137

In situ measurements, 75, 97

Institute of Physics (U.K.), 64

"Insubstantial parts." See Databases

Intangible property, 161

Integrated services digital network (ISDN) services, 32

Intellectual property rights (IPR), 5, 8-10, 48, 132-188

Interdisciplinary research, 74-76

Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, 70

Intergovernmental organizations, 63, 93.

    See also individual organizations

International access to scientific data, 2, 40-42, 90-100

    developments affecting, 2-10, 17

    safeguarding, 7-10, 166-169

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 52, 205

International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses, 85

International cooperation, 19, 83

International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), 10-13, 44, 55, 88, 99, 101-103, 108, 214, 219

International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction, 75

International Foundation for Science (IFS), 108

International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), 4, 22, 27, 55, 69, 77, 106

International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 46

International organizations, 6, 12, 93.

    See also individual organizations

International research, 58-61

International Research and Exchange Board (IREX), 94, 109

International Science Foundation, 109

International Telecommunications Union, 13, 44

International Ultraviolet Explorer, 60

International Union of Biological Sciences, 85

International Union of Microbiological Sciences, 88

International Union of Pharmacology, 85

Internet, 3, 29, 31, 42, 65, 68, 200.

    See also World Wide Web

    congestion on, 8, 26, 35-37, 126-128

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), 12, 32, 34, 43

Internet Protocol Next Generation (IPng), 35, 45

Internet II, 13, 35

    Intranets, 4, 29, 35, 200

Investment, 9, 154, 168.

    See also Profit;

    Return on investment;

    "Substantial investment" incentives for, 141

Italy, 207

J

Japan, 205

Journals. See Scientific journals

K

Kenya, 42

"Knowbots," 26, 33, 200

Kuwait, 205

L

Laboratory physical sciences, 5, 51-52, 205

    data compatibility in, 88-90

    data exchanges in, 205-212

Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992, 121

Landsat, 77, 111, 121-123, 163

Language translation, 33

Large research programs. See "Megascience" programs

LaTeX, 65, 88, 200, 207-208

Laws. See Legislation

Legal infrastructure, 1, 8-10, 139

    restrictions and barriers, 3, 9, 136

Legislation, 132.

    See also Antitrust law;

    Copyright law;

    Trade secret law;

    Trademark laws;

    Unfair competition laws;

    individual laws

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Bits of Power: Issues in Global Access to Scientific Data. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5504.
×

    conflicts in, 161

    pending, 9-10, 160-161, 171

Legislative process, 8, 15

Liability principles, 137, 148, 164

Liability regime, 136

Libraries, 8, 145

Licenses, 151,154.

    See also Automatic license;

    Compulsory license

Licensing fees, 165

Liechtenstein, 183

Long-term data sets, 82.

    See also Archives;

    Retention, long-term;

    Retrospective data sets

Los Alamos National Laboratory, 30-31, 45, 208

M

Machine translation, 29

Manufacturing applications, 18, 51

Marginal cost pricing, 7, 14, 126

Market forces, 3, 162-164, 168

Market power, 151, 164

    abuses of, 154

Market price system, 113

Markets, 9, 111-114, 139, 140, 162-164.

    See also Competitiveness

Materials sciences, 67, 106-107, 211

Media. See Electronic storage media;

    Print media

"Megascience" programs, 19, 23, 58-61

Metadata, 106, 201.

    See also Documentation of data sets

Metals Information Analysis Center (MIAC), 119

Meteorology, 79, 216

Mexico, 76, 98

Microbiology, 96

Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), 25

Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE), 193

Modeling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering,67

Molecular biology, 67, 212

Monopolies

    profit-making, 7, 151-152, 158, 162

    public, 116

    regulated, 124

    unrestricted, 7

Moore's Law, 28, 44, 201

Multicast broadcast backbone network (MBone), 31-32, 45

Multinational authorship, 21

N

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 34, 45, 54, 64, 80-81, 93, 117, 213-214

    data availability policy, 80-81

National Cancer Institute, 41

National Center for Atmospheric Research, 117

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), 212, 219

National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), 72, 119, 217

National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), 72, 214

National Human Genome Research Institute, 22

National information infrastructure, 193

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 89

National Institutes of Health (NIH), 41, 117

National Land Remote Sensing Satellite Data Archive, 62

National Library of Medicine (NLM), 41

National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), 52, 63-64, 206

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 62, 98, 116 , 119, 121, 214, 217-218

National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), 98, 217-218

National Optical Astronomy Observatories, 214

National Research Council (NRC), 20, 38, 45-46, 54, 68-69, 7475, 103-109

National Science Foundation (NSF), 31, 54, 85

National security issues, 77

National Space Policy 1996, 62, 79

National Space Sciences Data Center, 117

Natural constants, 50

Natural language processing, 4, 29, 32-33

Natural sciences, 1, 4, 16, 19, 111, 201

Netherlands, 205

Networks, 13, 28-30, 83.

    See also Fidonet;

    InternetII;

    Real-time monitoring and controlling, 4, 29, 34-35

    vulnerability of, 36, 39, 140-142

NGOs. See Nongovernmental organizations

Niche markets, 139

Nomenclature, 11, 83-88.

    See also Taxonomic definitions;

    Terminology

Noncopyrightable databases, 146-147

Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 81, 94-96.

    See also individual organizations

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Bits of Power: Issues in Global Access to Scientific Data. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5504.
×

Nonvoluntary licensing. See Compulsory license

Nordic catalogue rule, 146, 179

Norway, 46, 183

Nuclear Database (NUDAT), 206

Nuclear Information Service, 118

O

Observational environmental sciences, 69-83

Observational sciences, 5-6, 50, 53, 201

Observations, simultaneous, 53

Obsolescence. See Electronic storage media

Oceanographic Society of America, 64, 216

Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 126, 131, 159

Office of Science and Technology Policy, 11, 15, 90, 102, 171

Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), 176

On-line transmissions, 156

Open publication. See Publication, open

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 10, 20, 27, 101

Organization of American States (OAS), 93, 108

P

Paleoclimatology World Data Center, 119

Pan American Health Organization, 93

Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, 135, 145, 170, 178

Patent and copyright systems, 8.

    See also Copyright law;

    Subpatentable innovations

Patent and Trademark Office (PTO), 156, 160

Peer review, 11, 101

People's Republic of China, 72-73, 205

Personal computers (PCs), 35, 110

Photocopying, 132-134, 155

Physical sciences, 1, 4, 19, 51-52

"Plain old" telephone service (POTS), 32

Policy. See Public policy;

    Science policy

Population issues, 74

Portable Operating System Interface for Computer Environments (POSIX) , 33

Post, telephone, and telegraph ministries (PTTs), 40

Predigital status quo, 135-139.

    See also Digital versus analog data

Price ceiling, 14, 126, 129

Price differentiation, 6-7, 124-126, 129, 167-168

Price discrimination, 14, 116, 124-125, 129

Price of data. See Data

Print media, 140.

    See also Publishers;

    Scientific journals

Privacy issues, 48, 103

Private investment, 9

    incentives for, 141

Private monopolies, 116, 142

Private sector, 93, 96, 116, 120

Privatizing data. See Data

Processing data. See Data

Product differentiation, 14, 116

Professional societies, 5, 11, 49

Profit, 132-133, 166

Property rights.

    See also Intangible property;

    Intellectual property exclusive (See Exclusive property rights)

    protectionist, 14

Proprietary period, 11, 79

Proprietary rights, 48, 151, 162.

    See also Data, nonproprietary

Protectionist strategy, 155-156

    possible consequences of, 165

Publication, open, 17.

    See also Electronic publication;

    Professional societies;

    Publishers;

    Scientific journals

Public domain, 8, 166

Public good, 7, 15, 164-170, 202

    defined, 112-113

Public health and safety, 6, 56

Public interest, 5-6, 9, 17-18, 161

    exceptions to, 152, 158

Public investment, 14, 115, 128-129, 133

Public monopolies, 116

Public policy, 1, 7, 62, 124.

    See also Science policy

    debate over, 22

Public rights versus private rights, 8, 139-145

Publicly funded research and data, 3, 7, 17, 110-131, 133

Publishers, 135, 142, 154, 166, 168

    commercial, 5, 52, 135

    database, 139, 166

Q

Quality control and assurance, 5, 11, 71, 101

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Bits of Power: Issues in Global Access to Scientific Data. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5504.
×

R

Ramsey pricing, 124

Reciprocity clause, 155

    Recommendations, 10-15, 22, 43-44, 81, 83, 100-103, 128-129, 171

Regulatory approaches, differing, 145

Remote sensing, 204

Reproduction and distribution.

    See also Photocopying

    cost of, 79, 91

Research. See Applied research;

    Basic research;

    Collaborative research;

    International cooperation;

    International research;

    Publicly funded research and data;

    Users of research data

Retention, long-term, 5.

    See also Archives;

    Long-term data sets;

    Retrospective data sets

Retrospective data sets, 78.

    See also Archives;

    Long-term data sets;

    Retention, long-term

Return on investment, 48, 168

Reverse-engineering, 147, 156

Ribonucleic acid (RNA), 73, 212

Rights. See Derivative work rights;

    Intellectual property rights;

    Property rights;

    Proprietary rights;

    Public rights versus private rights

Royalties, 144

Russia, 205, 206

S

Sabre Foundation, 94, 109

Satellites, 25, 41, 58, 95, 110

Science agencies. See Federal government science agencies

Science and Technology Network International (STN), 211

Science education, 9, 13, 15, 92-93

Science Group Thermodata Europe, 209

Scientific data.

    See also Data accessing (See International access to scientific data)

    defined, 16

    rapid growth of, 3, 17, 57-58

Scientific issues, 47-109

    defined, 47-49

    progress in, 3

Scientific journals, 5, 12, 48-49, 52

Scientific research. See Applied research;

    Basic research;

    Collaborative research;

    International research;

    Publicly funded research;

    Users of research data

Scientific understanding, 82

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 118

Search capabilities, 89

Secondary users of data, 106, 203

    supporting (See Documentation of data sets)

Seismic arrays and stations, 215

Semiconductor Chip Protection Act of 1984, 155

Shoemaker-Levy Comet, 36, 54

SIMBAD (set of identifications, measurements, and bibliography for astronomical data), 71

Simple Message Transfer Protocol (SMTP), 33

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), 33-34

Simulations, 52, 65, 67

Soil science, 85

Soil Taxonomy system, 86

Soils and Terrain Digital Database (SOTER), 85-87

Sole-source data providers, 147

Space sciences, 53-54, 66, 71-72

Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), 196, 213-214

Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), 213-214

Specialized Agencies of the United Nations, 10, 13, 44, 101

SPECINFO, 211

Standard Generalized Mark-up Language (SGML), 33

Standardization, 4, 11, 29, 33-34

Storage of data. See Data

Stratospheric ozone depletion, 55

Subpatentable innovations, 137

"Substantial investment," 151, 157

Sui generis regime, 137, 145-147, 149-160, 162, 164, 166-169, 203

Sweden, 205

Switzerland, 209

T

T-2. See Nuclear Information Service

Taiwan, 205

Taxonomic definitions, 11, 84.

    See also Nomenclature;

    Terminology

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Bits of Power: Issues in Global Access to Scientific Data. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5504.
×

Technical factors and trends, 1, 3, 24-40

    advances in, 4, 25-26

    concerns over, 35-40

Telecommunications. See Communications

Terminology, 83-88

TeX, 65, 88, 200, 208-209

Textual format, 20, 45

Thematic Mapper (TM), 122-123

Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS), 96, 108

Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. See Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

Trade secret law, 136

Trademark laws, 150

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), 33, 42

Transnational data flow. See Data, transnational exchange of

Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Program, 70

Turkey, 183

U

Unauthorized use, 158

Unfair competition laws, 139

Uniform resource locators (URLs), 66

    problems with, 23

Uniform resource name (URN), 23, 66

United Kingdom, 54, 66

United Nations Commission on Economic Development (UNCED), 44

United Nations Development Programme, 93

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 86, 92-93, 108

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 44, 85, 93, 99

United Nations Industrial Development Organization, 44, 96

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), 46, 93, 96, 107

U.S. Constitution, 8, 172

    enabling clause, 157

    First Amendment concerns, 139

U.S. Database Investment and Intellectual Property Antipiracy Act (H.R. 3531), 157-160, 185

U.S. Department of Agriculture, 93, 107

U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC), 119

U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), 31

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 73, 215

U.S. Department of State, 93

U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), 118

U.S. federal government science agencies. See Federal government science agencies

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 57-58

U.S. government, 93.

    See also individual government agencies

U.S. House of Representatives, 8, 155-157

U.S. National Committee for CODATA (USNC-CODATA), x, 23

U.S. Supreme Court, 8, 154

Users of research data, 115-116, 125, 163, 169.

    See also Commercial users;

    Secondary users of data

    size of community, 14, 129

V

Value-added products, 7, 133, 140, 152, 164

Vietnam, 96

Volunteers in Technical Assistance (VITA), 94

W

Wireless communication, 4, 24, 28, 30

World Bank, 13, 44, 93

World Data Centers (WDCs), 10, 79, 94, 98, 101, 214-215, 219

World Health Organization (WHO), 93

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), 9, 15, 134, 142143, 146, 155-156, 158, 170-171, 184

World Meteorological Organization (WMO), 55, 70, 93, 116, 216-219

World Trade Organization (WTO), 15, 155-156, 161, 170-171

World Weather Watch, 69-70, 216-218

World Wide Web (WWW), 26, 30, 42, 65, 68, 127, 204, 206

X

X. 400, 33

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Bits of Power: Issues in Global Access to Scientific Data. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5504.
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Bits of Power: Issues in Global Access to Scientific Data Get This Book
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Since Galileo corresponded with Kepler, the community of scientists has become increasingly international. A DNA sequence is as significant to a researcher in Novosibirsk as it is to one in Pasadena. And with the advent of electronic communications technology, these experts can share information within minutes. What are the consequences when more bits of scientific data cross more national borders and do it more swiftly than ever before? Bits of Power assesses the state of international exchange of data in the natural sciences, identifying strengths, weaknesses, and challenges. The committee makes recommendations about access to scientific data derived from public funding. The volume examines:

  • Trends in the electronic transfer and management of scientific data.
  • Pressure toward commercialization of scientific data, including the economic aspects of government dissemination of the data.
  • The implications of proposed changes to intellectual property laws and the role of scientists in shaping legislative and legal solutions.
  • Improving access to scientific data by and from the developing world.

Bits of Power explores how these issues have been addressed in the European Community and includes examples of successful data transfer activities in the natural sciences. The book will be of interest to scientists and scientific data managers, as well as intellectual property rights attorneys, legislators, government agencies, and international organizations concerned about the electronic flow of scientific data.

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