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Premature Death in the New Independent States (1997)

Chapter: Front Matter

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Premature Death in the New Independent States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5530.
×

Premature Death in the New Independent States

José Luis Bobadilla, Christine A. Costello, and Faith Mitchell, editors

Committee on Population

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1997

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Premature Death in the New Independent States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5530.
×

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

This project was supported by the Office of Health, U.S. Agency for International Development. Any opinions, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 97-67217

International Standard Book Number 0-309-05734-5

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Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Cover: Trends in life expectancy at birth for males in selected New Independent States and the European Union. Figure 2.3 in Health in Europe: The 1993/1994 Health for All Monitoring Report. WHO regional publications, European series, no. 56. World Health Organization, 1994.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Premature Death in the New Independent States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5530.
×

COMMITTEE ON POPULATION 1994-1997

RONALD D. LEE (Chair),

Department of Demography, University of California, Berkeley

CAROLINE H. BLEDSOE,

Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University

* JOSÉ LUIS BOBADILLA,

Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, D.C.

JOHN BONGAARTS,

The Population Council, New York

JOHN B. CASTERLINE,

The Population Council, New York

KENNETH H. HILL,

Department of Population Dynamics, Johns Hopkins University

DEAN T. JAMISON,

Center for Pacific Rim Studies, University of California, Los Angeles

LINDA G. MARTIN,

RAND, Santa Monica, California

JANE MENKEN,

Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania

ROBERT A. MOFFITT,

Department of Economics, Johns Hopkins University

MARK R. MONTGOMERY,

The Population Council, New York

W. HENRY MOSLEY,

Department of Population Dynamics, Johns Hopkins University

ALBERTO PALLONI,

Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison

ANNE R. PEBLEY,

RAND, Santa Monica, California

RONALD R. RINDFUSS,

Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

JAMES SMITH,

RAND, Santa Monica, California

BETH J. SOLDO,

Department of Demography, Georgetown University

MARTA TIENDA,

Population Research Center, University of Chicago

AMY O. TSUI,

Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

JOHN G. HAAGA, Director

BARNEY COHEN, Research Associate

CHRISTINE COSTELLO, Program Officer

TRISH DeFRISCO, Senior Project Assistant

JOEL ROSENQUIST, Senior Project Assistant

M. FAITH MITCHELL, Division Director

JANINE BILYEU, Division Administrative Associate

*  

Deceased

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Premature Death in the New Independent States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5530.
×

CONTRIBUTORS

BARBARA A. ANDERSON, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan

EDUARDO E. ARRIAGA, Center for International Research, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C.

*JOSÉ LUIS BOBADILLA, Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, D.C.

CHRISTINE A. COSTELLO, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

W. WARD KINGKADE, Center for International Research, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C.

ALAN D. LOPEZ, Programme on Substance Abuse, World Health Organization, Geneva

FRANCE MESLÉ, Institut National d'Études Démographiques, Paris

CHRISTOPHER J.L. MURRAY, Center for Population and Development, Harvard University

ALEXANDER NEMTSOV, Institute of Psychiatry, Health Care Ministry of the Russian Federation, Moscow

RAJESH V. PATEL, Albany Medical College

THOMAS A. PEARSON, Mary Imogene Bassett Research Institute, Columbia University

JOHN P. PIERCE, Cancer Prevention and Control Program, University of California, San Diego

BARRY POPKIN, Carolina Population Center and Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

ALEXANDER PROKHOROV, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas

PEKKA PUSKA, Division of Health and Chronic Disease, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki

VLADIMIR M. SHKOLNIKOV, Institute for Forecasting the National Economy, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow

BRIAN D. SILVER, Department of Political Science, Michigan State University

VLADIMIR G. TREML, Department of Economics, Duke University

JACQUES VALLIN, Institut National d'Études Démographiques, Paris

SERGEI A. VASSIN, Institute for Forecasting the National Economy, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow

NAMVAR ZOHOORI, Carolina Population Center and Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

*  

Deceased

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Premature Death in the New Independent States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5530.
×

Contents

 

 

Preface

 

vii

 

 

Dedication

 

ix

1

 

Premature Death in the New Independent States: Overview
José Luis Bobadilla and Christine A. Costello

 

1

I

 

Mortality Profiles

 

 

 

 

Mortality Levels, Patterns, Trends, and Quality of Data

 

 

2

 

Recent Trends in Life Expectancy and Causes of Death in Russia, 1970-1993
Vladimir M. Shkolnikov, France Meslé, and Jacques Vallin

 

34

3

 

Spatial, Age, and Cause-of-Death Patterns of Mortality in Russia, 1988-1989
Sergei A. Vassin and Christine A. Costello

 

66

4

 

Issues of Data Quality in Assessing Mortality Trends and Levels in the New Independent States
Barbara A. Anderson and Brian D. Silver

 

120

 

 

Cause-of-Death Contributions to Loss of Potential Life

 

 

5

 

Mortality in the New Independent States: Patterns and Impacts
W. Ward Kingkade and Eduardo E. Arriaga

 

156

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Premature Death in the New Independent States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5530.
×

6

 

Epidemiological Transitions in the Former Socialist Economies: Divergent Patterns of Mortality and Causes of Death
Christopher J.L. Murray and José Luis Bobadilla

 

184

II

 

Adult Health Interventions

 

 

 

 

Alcohol

 

 

7

 

Soviet and Russian Statistics on Alcohol Consumption and Abuse
Vladimir G. Treml

 

220

8

 

The Anti-Alcohol Campaign and Variations in Russian Mortality
Vladimir M. Shkolnikov and Alexander Nemtsov

 

239

 

 

Tobacco

 

 

9

 

Mortality from Tobacco in the New Independent States
Alan D. Lopez

 

262

10

 

Cigarette Smoking and Priorities for Tobacco Control in the New Independent States
Alexander V. Prokhorov

 

275

11

 

Tobacco Control Policy Strategies: Lessons from Western Developed Countries
John P. Pierce

 

287

 

 

Diet

 

 

12

 

Nutritional Risk Factors in the Former Soviet Union
Barry Popkin, Namvar Zohoori, Lenore Kohlmeier, Alexander Baturin, Arseni Martinchik, and Alexander Deev

 

314

13

 

Chronic Disease Prevention in the New Independent States: Finnish Experiences
Pekka Puska

 

335

14

 

Diet Modification and Food Policy Strategies: What Works?
Thomas A. Pearson and Rajesh V. Patel

 

355

 

 

Appendix Workshop Agendas

 

375

 

 

Index

 

381

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Premature Death in the New Independent States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5530.
×

Preface

With support from the Office of Health and Nutrition and the NIS Bureau of the U.S. Agency for International Development, the Committee on Population of the National Research Council organized two workshops to discuss premature death in the New Independent States and policies for controlling excess mortality. The Workshop on Mortality and Disability in the New Independent States and the Workshop on Adult Health Priorities and Policies in the New Independent States were held in September and November 1994, respectively. This volume includes an overview and revised versions of 13 of the papers that were presented; the workshop agendas are presented as appendices.

The National Research Council Committee on Population has a sustained interest in changes in mortality profiles among developing countries. In the late 1980s, the committee organized a workshop to analyze the measurement of adult mortality in developing countries. In 1991, a workshop was held to discuss the policy and planning implications of the epidemiological transition in developing countries, and a volume of selected workshop papers was published. In 1992, the committee convened a small group of experts to examine measures for controlling noncommunicable diseases. The present volume builds on these previous activities, with a regional focus on the New Independent States.

The volume is organized in two parts, following the sequence of the two workshops: the first deals with the magnitude, trends, and causes of premature death, while the second addresses the proximate determinants of the diseases and injuries that cause the greatest number of premature deaths and measures for their reduction. The overview presents the basic concepts used to structure the vol-

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Premature Death in the New Independent States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5530.
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ume, provides contextual information on the New Independent States, and summarizes the main findings of the chapters that follow.

Health policymakers of the New Independent States and international health organizations interested in the social development of the region are an important audience of this volume. With them in mind, discussions of the quality of the data and methods used to estimate mortality are included in many chapters because of the uncertainty surrounding the availability and reliability of vital statistics in the region. Demographers and epidemiologists will also find these sections useful. This volume should be of interest as well to health specialists and decision makers in other middle-income countries where chronic diseases and injuries are increasing in their importance on the public health agenda.

The committee wishes to thank the Office of Health and Nutrition of the U.S. Agency for International Development for supporting the workshops. Catherine Gordon, Julie Klement, Petra Reyes, and James Sheppard of USAID provided both insight and support for the project. A planning meeting, at which the foundation of the workshops was developed, included José Luis Bobadilla, Nicholas Eberstadt, Robert Emery, Ward Kingkade, Julie Klement, Ronald Lee, Christopher Murray, Barry Popkin, Scott Radloff, Petra Reyes, James Sheppard, Brian Silver, Beth Soldo, and Anatoly Zoubanov. We are especially grateful to the workshop participants, who were responsible for the papers, presentations, and discussions. José Luis Bobadilla chaired the meetings. Yuri M. Komarov provided valuable guidance on the NIS perspective at the meetings. The committee is grateful to Christine Costello, John Haaga, and Faith Mitchell for their time and effort in developing the workshops and this volume. Christine Costello organized the original planning meeting, and Susan Shuttleworth provided administrative assistance. Trish DeFrisco, Paula Melville, and Joel Rosenquist ably performed logistical tasks for the workshops and administrative tasks for the project. Gregory Ioffe helped with translations and editing of several papers, as well as contributing to the workshop discussions. Rona Briere edited the volume for greater clarity; Tracy Armstrong, Janine Bilyeu, and Christine McShane prepared it for publication.

RONALD D. LEE, CHAIR

COMMITTEE ON POPULATION

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Premature Death in the New Independent States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5530.
×

José Luis Bobadilla

1955-1996

This volume is dedicated to our colleague José Luis Bobadilla, who died as it neared completion.

José Luis Bobadilla Fernandez was born in Mexico City. He received his medical and surgical degree from the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico in 1978, and a Master of Science in Community Medicine and Ph.D. in Health Care Epidemiology from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in 1986. He served as chief of the Health Statistics Department in the Mexican budget and planning agency during and for a short time after his medical studies. From 1984 till 1991 he worked at the Center for Research in Public Health at the Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica (INSP) in Mexico City, first as a researcher and then as center director. He was also a professor in the medical faculty of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma. In 1991 he went to the World Bank as senior health specialist, and in March 1996 he joined the Inter-American Development Bank as principal health specialist.

José Luis had an exceptionally active career as scholar, teacher, and policy adviser. He wrote his doctoral dissertation on the quality of perinatal medical care in Mexico City, and for years was one of the leading researchers in the neglected field of perinatal mortality in developing countries. Much of his work dealt with evaluations of the effectiveness of antenatal, obstetric, and neonatal

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Premature Death in the New Independent States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5530.
×

health care. He was one of the first to document the harmful effects of inappropriate use of obstetric interventions. With colleagues at the INSP and the World Bank, he wrote several important analyses of the epidemiologic transition in Latin America. He was a coauthor of the influential 1993 World Development Report, Investing in Health , and in recent years was one of the leaders in both developing and applying new ways to use mortality and disability statistics and cost-effectiveness analysis for health planning in developing countries.

José Luis was a particularly energetic and constructive member of the National Research Council's Committee on Population and its Panel on Reproductive Health. He valued professional and public service and was a member and fellow of many special committees and associations. His tragically early death was mourned by friends he had made among colleagues all over the world, in an astounding number of different institutions and policy and research networks. He combined an ability to carry out research and an ability to discern the important points for health policy in a way that very few can equal. We particularly remember him as a friend who always steered the discussion toward important topics, never losing sight of the goal: to make a difference in public health.

RONALD D. LEE, CHAIR

COMMITTEE ON POPULATION

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Premature Death in the New Independent States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5530.
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Premature Death in the New Independent States

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In recent years there have been alarming reports of rapid decreases in life expectancy in the New Independent States (former members of the Soviet Union). To help assess priorities for health policy, the Committee on Population organized two workshops--the first on adult mortality and disability, the second on adult health priorities and policies. Participants included demographers, epidemiologists, public health specialists, economists, and policymakers from the NIS countries, the United States, and Western Europe. This volume consists of selected papers presented at the workshops. They assess the reliability of data on mortality, morbidity, and disability; analyze regional patterns and trends in mortality rates and causes of death; review evidence about major determinants of adult mortality; and discuss implications for health policy.

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