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Nonconventional Concrete Technologies: Renewal of the Highway Infrastructure (1997)

Chapter: Chemical Formulas of Cement Materials

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Suggested Citation:"Chemical Formulas of Cement Materials." National Research Council. 1997. Nonconventional Concrete Technologies: Renewal of the Highway Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5560.
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Chemical Formulas of Cement Materials

C

CaO

H

H2O

S

SiO2

SO3

A

Al2O3

N

Na2O

F

Fe2O3

K

K2O

M

MgO

C3S

3CaO·SiO2 = tricalcium silicate = alite

C2S

2CaO·SiO2 = dicalcium silicate = belite

C3A

3CaO·Al2O3 = tricalcium aluminate

C4AF

4CaO·Al2O3·Fe2O3 = calcium alumino ferrite

C-S-H

Calcium silicate hydrate, a colloidal and mostly amorphous gel with a variable composition; this is the major hydration product of Portland cement, constituting approximately 70 percent of the paste, and is the phase providing most of the strength and binding

CH

Calcium hydroxide, a hydration product constituting approximately 20 percent of the paste and, while contributing little to the overall strength, buffers the paste pore solution to a pH of approximately 12.5

Afm

Tetra-calcium aluminate trisulfate hydrate, usually with some substitution of Al by Fe and SO4 substituting for hydroxyl

 
Suggested Citation:"Chemical Formulas of Cement Materials." National Research Council. 1997. Nonconventional Concrete Technologies: Renewal of the Highway Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5560.
×

Aft

Ettringite, a calcium trialuminate hydrate, usually with some substitution of Al by Fe

Monosulfate

(Afm with complete SO4 substitution)

w/c or w/b

Mass ratio of water to cement or binder (cement + mineral admixtures)

Suggested Citation:"Chemical Formulas of Cement Materials." National Research Council. 1997. Nonconventional Concrete Technologies: Renewal of the Highway Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5560.
×
Page 107
Suggested Citation:"Chemical Formulas of Cement Materials." National Research Council. 1997. Nonconventional Concrete Technologies: Renewal of the Highway Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5560.
×
Page 108
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Nonconventional Concrete Technologies: Renewal of the Highway Infrastructure identifies research and development opportunities in innovative, nonconventional materials and processes that have the potential to accelerate the construction process, improve the durability of highway pavement and bridges, and enhance the serviceability and longevity of new construction under adverse conditions.

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