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Biographical Memoirs: V.46 (1975)

Chapter: 10. Cyril Norman Hugh Long

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Suggested Citation:"10. Cyril Norman Hugh Long." National Academy of Sciences. 1975. Biographical Memoirs: V.46. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/569.
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CYRIL N ORMAN H U GH LON G June 19, 1901-July 6, 1970 BY 0. L. K. SMITH AND J. D. HARDY CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG, the elder son of John Edward and Rose Fanny (Langdill) Long, was born on June 19, 1901, in a village in Wiltshire, England. Most of his youth, however, was spent near Manchester, where his family had set- tled in the industrial town of Wigan. He spoke of his childhood often, as if it were of some special importance to the rest of his life. Mr. John Long was the son of an impressive Color Sergeant ire the Scots' Guards. He had shown great academic promise as a boy, but for some reason failed to pursue the life of a scholar or scientist, to which he might have been well suited, and instead entered government service, becoming a Tax Surveyor. As such he was known for his rigid honesty and retiring dispo- sition. On the other hand, he pursued at home a lively interest in history and literature, and his creative energies poured forth in a number of hobbies. Wearing a white coat he experimented in the making of perfumes and jams or inlaid delicate wood- work. He collected rare books and knew some authors per- sonally, notably Joseph Conrad. It may be imagined that his son inherited unusual intellectual ability, versatility, curiosity, and manual dexterity from his father, who encouraged him to be a serious student and to become a scientist. It also seems likely that the Long family set high standards for both moral character and achievement. 265

266 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Mrs. Long was more of a companion to her two boys than their father. Cyril, as be was then known, often mentions in his diaries (191~1917) "going out with mother," perhaps to the library, sometimes to tea or even the theater. He was said to resemble her physically, and it may have been the gentle good nature and flexibility inherited from her that were to distin- guish him in later life in the role of teacher and administrator. The Longs were conservative people, and one can only specu- late as to how much they might have felt the effects of changing times in England at the turn of the century, but it is worthy of note that they were living near the city of Dickens' Hard Times, the cradle of a great liberal tradition, during a period of social reform and of expanding interest in education. Intel- lectual life in Edwardian England as a whole, moreover, as has been pointed out recently by J. B. Priestley, had some unique qualities that influenced its youth—first, a distinct optimism that Priestley has termed "an atmosphere of hopeful debate" and, second, a peculiar climate "in which English genius, talent and generosity of mind could flourish." As to his own education, Dr. Long was fond of describing to his American grandsons the Wigan Grammar School, where he and his brother Reggie began their studies, as a strict old- fashioned British boys' school. It was then directed by a Rev- erend Chambres, a scholar himself, who had the gift of inter- esting others in learning. Classes were small, especially in the upper grades, and the group became quite competitive, doing well in their outside examinations. Cyril was developing a keen interest in history and soon became known for his excep- tional memory and ability to write good essays. The latter he afterward attributed to early experience with corporal punish- ment, but memories of hard work and even canings seem to have been mellowed by those of the headmaster's charming wit and of pleasant holidays. For the legendary Mr. Chambres, after a strenuous academic term, would take his boys on a

CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 267 bicycle or camping trip at his own retreat in Wales rather than seek relaxation for himself. These were pleasant days. Even World War I was. remote, although the boys did participate in some civilian volunteer activities and Cyril's first experience in a hospital was probably that of writing letters for wounded soldiers. Little guessing that his love of sports was to have an unex- pected part in his future, Cyril was a skillful and enthusiastic player of soccer or cricket after school. In fact, his father some- times had to remind him to return home to study. Like most boys, he also loved such robust activities as "tenting," hiking, or bicycle tours. Wet days found him building models or in the library reading—Jules Verne or historical novels, for he was naturally too precise to enjoy literature as an art. His boyhood diaries give glimpses, too, of the early development of certain other familiar aspects of their writer's personality. Facts and figures, such as cricket scores, everyone's term grades, cash flow "in" at a birthday and "out" afterward, are carefully recorded in a boyish hand, observation without comment, much as in the laboratory notebooks that followed in later years. His growing interest in stamp collecting and Photography shows the sci- 1 ~ A ~ ~ ~ entrust s taste for doing things by himself and also for arranging things each in its own place. No wonder that he became addicted to crossword puzzles in later life. Stamps continued to interest him for many years, so that his final collection was of such high value that eventually it was lost through an unsolved burglary in 1968. He became a skillful and artistic photogra- pher, producing both landscapes and portraits of professional quality. It is interesting to note in view of later events that at the age of fifteen he was already developing his own pictures. He was generally well liked and had several close friends, typically from among the top-ranking students at school. He was always friendly, but most attracted to those with the keenest minds. He said in his mature years that his membership in the Ameri-

268 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS can Philosophical Society gave him great pleasure because of the variety of distinguished scholars it brought together. Cyril continued to do well in school, in such subjects as English, mathematics, French and Latin, geography, Bible, and history. He placed fourth in his class in 1917. In that year, however, he also discovered chemistry, in which he rose imme- diately to the top of the class. Perhaps it was only natural talent and previous experience in the darkroom that accounted for this new interest, but many years later, when considering the ~ . . . . selection and training of young scientists, he wrote of the pri- mary importance of contact with inspiring teachers, "I was attracted at an early age to chemistry, largely by my own for- tunate contact in an English school with a science master, who . . . was not a distinguished investigator, but had an enthusi- asm for his subject, and a way of teaching it that was so effective that a large number of his students have become scientists." Thus it was that Long embarked upon what he later called the "exciting life adventure" of science. On completion of gram- mar school he enrolled immediately in the Honours School of Chemistry at nearby Manchester University. His choice, according to a description hv ~ F Falcon we ~ ~ 1 ~ ·, ~ ~ ~ --rig ~ Jo -I a school wltn a long and alstlngulshed record, especially in the training of men. Founded by Dalton early in the 19th century, such chemists as Sir William Roscoe and Carl Schor- lemmer later added great lustre to the school, Schlorlemmer's chair being the first in organic chemistry in England. In the 20th century it helped to produce men like W. H. Perkin, Waynflete Professor of Chemistry at Oxford and his successor at Oxford, Robert Robinson who was appointed in 1930. Long had part of his training under Robinson but principally under . . . Arthur Lapworth." Years later, when Long had become a champion of acceler- ated education for talented young American scientists, he wrote that in the British universities "in order to accommodate those

CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 269 students who enter the University solely for the purpose of obtaining competence in a particular field the Honors Schools are provided. To my mind this is an excellent way to recruit scientists, and while it is true that they may emerge somewhat deficient in what is called a liberal arts education, they are likely to be exceedingly competent in their area of study. You may also be sure that only those who want to do nothing else but pursue their life work in a particular field will be attracted to such an exacting course of study." Long might have become a different sort of young man if he had gone to Cambridge, which was at first considered, but he seems to have been satisfied to commute to Manchester and to live at home with father and mother. At any rate he obtained a thorough training in both inorganic and organic chemistry, prepared his first two publications on the subject of the Friedel- Crafts reaction, and received his Bachelor of Science degree with first class honors in chemistry in 1921. Now twenty years of age, he was apparently well on the way to a career as an organic chemist when something unexpectedly set him off in quite a different direction. His own version of what happened is as follows: "During my years in the School of Chemistry I had become interested in organic chemistry, particularly in that of carbo- hydrates, and had thought that I might devote myself to this subject after Graduation. ~ However, one day in 1921, I was asked to see A. V. Hill, the newly appointed Professor of Physi- ology at the University. He told me that he was working on the physical and chemical changes underlying muscular contrac- tion, and that the latter was associated with the breakdown of glycogen to lactic acid. He needed the assistance of a chemist to follow these changes both in animals and in the blood of humans who were exercising. I must say that my first reaction was not too enthusiastic, I had had but little experience in biology, and in those days the efforts of the so-called biochem-

270 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS ists were not held in too high regard by many of their colleagues in pure chemistry. I was used to dealing with substances that could be crystallized, whose physical constants and chemical properties were predictable. The heterogeneous, messy and unknown properties of extracts of cells or of blood which this investigation required me to analyze seemed to offer nothing but a struggle against large odds. Nevertheless, as Professor Hill talked about the enormous possibilities for the understand- ing of living processes that the methods of chemistry and physics were able to offer, I began to be caught up in his enthusiasm and vision. I accepted the great opportunity he offered me and in due course wondered why I had not had the sense to see for myself the challenge and excitement that these 'messes' offered to young students of chemistry and physics; that they were indeed the only keys that would unlock the mysteries of living cells and organisms.... ~ ~ ~ V ~ 5 "When I began my work with Hill and his colleague Lup- ton, I soon began to suspect that their interest in me had not been entirely due to my extensive training in chemistry. I was at that time an enthusiastic player of football, field hockey, and cricket and this interest was soon put to practical uses by my superiors for I found myself running up and down stairs, or round the professor's garden while at intervals healthy samples of blood were withdrawn from my arms. When I had recovered from my exertions I was asked to sit down and analyze these for lactic acid." Professor Hill's story is a little different and gives Long credit for more initiative: "Long came and joined me in 1922 in Manchester. It.was his own idea. He had just got a first class degree in chemistry there and I think he possessed a microscope which set him think- ing about biology.... "Long was a charming fellow to work with—there was quite a party of us—and enjoyed attempts to break world records of

CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 271 rate of oxygen consumption during a total oxygen debt after severe exercise to which my colleagues and I were rather addicted." Hill's reputation must have preceded him to Manchester, and in view of later patterns of behavior it seems quite likely that Long got up courage to seek him out. He knew the use of a microscope well, for they had studied one at Wigan Grammar School, and he had taken bacteriology as an undergraduate. He was, in addition, probably familiar with some other biology courses offered the chemists. The classical work done in 1907 by F. G. Hopkins and W. Fletcher (who had been Hill's tutor at Cambridge), describing the production of lactic acid from glycogen during contraction of the isolated frog muscle, must have excited his curiosity, especially since he was already inter- ested in the chemistry of carbohydrates. Although neither account mentions it specifically, Long's next course of study took him to the medical school at Man- chester where, having received a scholarship, he began his work in October of 1921. We now know that although he was study- ing for his M.Sc., Hill encouraged him to qualify also for the medical examinations because he could see his young associate's "mind was already bending towards medicine." In the meanwhile the conversion of Long the chemist to Long the physiologist took place rapidly and, after receiving his master's degree from Manchester in 1923, he continued on with Hill to join Starling's department at University College, Lon- don, for the next two years. Of this move he wrote: "tThere was] freedom in those days to take advantage of unexpected opportunities and to choose one's own course. Today's young scientist may find himself working in a very limited area.... There are tremendous pressures on him, mainly financial ones, to stay within a specialized area. When I was a Demonstrator in physiology fat University College] in London, my salary was equivalent to only $250 a year, but I was free to work in any

272 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS area of physiology that interested me. I think it would be impossible to duplicate my career today." Eight papers were published by Long alone or in collabora- tion with Hill and others on correlating what was then known about the chemistry and physiology of isolated muscle with what could be observed after exercise in the whole animal. particularly man, and later on about more clinical aspects of the same subject. It is interesting to note that this early work was also carried out under the watchful eye of Walter Fletcher, by now director of the Medical Research Council, and that the papers were usually submitted to the exacting Professor I. N. Langley of Cambridge (owner and editor of the Journal of Physiology), who wouldn't have hesitated to return them com- pletely written over in red pencil! A further connection with Cambridge was made during a summer when Long worked in Joseph Barcroft's laboratory. The years with Hill were important, too, not only for acquir- ing technical training, but also for leading to the development of a philosophy. The growth of biological science in England at the turn of the century owed much to the Cambridge school of physiologists, under Michael Foster and later Langley, where Hill had received his own training. Under Fletcher's super- vision Hill had worked in an odoriferous, unglamorous cellar side by side with Lucas and others, for the physiology labora- ~ory at ~amor~c~ge In those days was crowded with many "giants per square foot." Thus it is not surprising to find Long assimilat- ing some progressive ideas about science and education. Always a staunch adversary of Victorian utilitarianism, he quoted Sir Edward Appleton in 1955 - "Knowledge and insight are suffi- cient reward in themselves"—to express a view that has not c~Joye(1 universal popularity as the century progressed. Also, Long began to believe, as Hill and Hopkins did, that the great- est discoveries are made from astute observation as a matter of chance—"things just happen" rather than being planned. Fur- ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ , 1_ ~

CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 273 ther, he believed that the function of the scientific mind is. simply as it says in the dictionary. to revise "accented conclu- s~ons In the light of newly discovered facts." All of this means that the most important piece of equipment in the laboratory is the scientist himself, and it demands that the scientist be given, as Long would say, the minimum of requirements and the maximum opportunity. This was the state that suited his own temperament so well. It might also be observed that such individualized endeavors thrive best in a climate of friendship and the strong personal bonds that were to provide an impor- tant ingredient in the course of Long's own career. Leaving his home district and parents for the first time may nave been difficult for Long, but once settled in London he soon made many new friends. ~ gala farewell party a few years later at the Astoria tells of their high regard for him, and his fondness for his companions is recorded in many snapshots showing them in the laboratory, enjoying parties, or boating together. It was not long before his interests widened, and his responsibilities were increased when it became evident that their colleague Harvey Lupton was dying of cancer. Interest- ingly enough, a letter from Lupton from the nursing home suggests that some of their techniques for studying exercise in man be applied to diabetic patients. It is not unlikely that Long was himself already thinking about the subject that was ever after on his mind: the syndrome of diabetes and how the various endocrine glands play upon metabolism during its development. He had a great admiration for Ernest Starling, and it is possible that his interest in diabetes dates from 1924 when a photograph of Long was taken with a dog depancreatized by the professor (Banting's and Best's dis- covery of insulin was still only three years old and was receiving much attention throughout the world). Having appreciated the . . . . . advantages of applying chemistry to physiology, Long again began to apply what he knew of one discipline to another,

274 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS clinical medicine. The result was "The Metabolism of the Diabetic Individual During and After Muscular Exercise," written with K. S. Hetzel from the Department of Medicine. About this time he discovered Graham Lusk's The Science of Nutrition, which was to influence his work for many years to come. He was also seeing a great deal of his friend Alan Parkes, who was studying medicine. Their discussions together led to another clinical paper, on fetal reabsorption, Parkes's interest at the time. Accordingly, A. V. Hill arranged an opportunity for Long to return to his medical studies: "In 1925 Jonathan Meakins, Professor of Experimental Medicine at McGill University, Montreal, asked me if I could recommend somebody to join his team there. This led to Long going to McGill where he continued experimental studies in the intervals during his study of clinical medicine." During the next two years Long held the post of lecturer in medical research in the Department of Biochemistry at McGill. Upon receiving his M.D.C.M. degree, in 1928, he took charge of the medical laboratory at the Royal Victoria Hospital for the Department of Medicine, becoming assistant professor of medi- cal research at McGill in 1929. Writing of the talented and kindly Meakins in an obituary in 1959 he said, "My acceptance of this opportunity was perhaps the most fortunate decision I have made in my scientific career." While it would have been easy for Long to enjoy moderate fame (a contemporary news- paper article refers to him as a "noted physiologist"), he had detected in the McGill offer, quite apart from the opportunity to get his medical degree, some of his favorite ingredients. First of all, Dr. Meakins had written that there would be "no interference on the part of others" with one's own laboratory work. In acldition, Dr. Meakins, who had lately arrived himself as the first full-time chief of medicine at McGill, had some interesting new ideas about the future of medicine. His posi-

CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 275 tion included the directorship of the University Clinic, which, as it turned out, was "one of the earliest attempts to integrate the rapidly developing basic medical sciences into the fabric of internal medicine." Nowadays, when the sick enjoy daily the fruits of such collaboration, it is hard to believe that the con- cept of a laboratory where the clinician could work side by side with the pure scientist was, in 1925, a revolutionary idea. As might be expected, Long's previous success as a chemist ventur- ing into other fields made him quick to appreciate the potential of the new facilities at the Royal Victoria Hospital. Finally, might he not find congenial and stimulating companions in the new world? He was not disappointed. Mrs. Meakins met him at the ship, installing him as a houseguest until he could get settled. In- deed, his laboratory notebook was hardly interrupted by its trip across the Atlantic. While the publications of the next seven years covered a variety of topics as Long gained knowledge of medicine and collaborated with others on the staff, it is inter- esting to note that throughout he was still preoccupied with the fate of lactic acid in health and disease and the neuroendocrine control of carbohydrate metabolism. "These were fruitful and exciting days," he wrote, "as we pursued our particular interests and at the same time exchanged ideas and talked shop among ourselves and clinicians and medical students who gradually began to drop in." Typically, he became treasurer of the Fund for Afternoon Tea, a daily social function that attracted a variety of stimulating associates and was to become a ritual in all his future laboratories. Hill came to visit and later reported to Long's proud father, "He is extremely happy and doing very well indeed.... All his colleagues seem to love him and they have great hopes for his future. He seems to be taking to his clinical work like a fish to water." Hill also tells how Long's playful colleagues asked him questions they knew he couldn't answer on his final

276 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS medical examinations, filling him with "dismay," only to an- nounce later that he had "passed with Aggregate Honours!" Certainly his ability was appreciated. Dean Charles Martin was able to describe him in a recommendation as "excellent teacher, pleasing and stimulating personality, fertile mind, original work speaks for itself." The easy informality on the new continent apparently agreed well with Long. Perhaps that is why he became "Hugh" instead of "Cyril" to his new friends. The "heartily democratic" manners "according to Priestley) of the people from manufac- turing towns like Manchester during the early twentieth cen- tury may explain why Long later adapted more readily to life in the United States than do many of the British and why he seemed happily disinterested in class distinctions. He gained some reputation for youthful gaiety among his fellow medical students, although one can hardly imagine his having much time for such things considering the burden of work he carried at the time. He was changing, too, becoming more teacher than student, more leader than follower, and guiding his first graduate students. One must agree with Yale colleague John Fulton that "his educational career has been peculiarly felicitous," for he now superimposed on his basic chemical and physiological modus operandi the clinical point of view, which became his perma- Dent outlook, although he was not to enter the practice of medicine. He was always the medical man first, and a quietly compassionate one, sometimes exasperating his more zealous, less humanitarian associates. Years later (1950) his final admo- nition to the medical educators of Japan was to remember "the doctor is the servant of the sick and must endeavor to get him well." It maY be pointed out here that Long's first ties in the United States were with the clinical societies (he was president of the American Society of Clinical Investigation in 1944) and

CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 277 that he soon became known for his ability to restate the prob- lems of disease more clearly to physicians in biochemical or physiological terms. Driven by the curiosity that earlier had sent him to Hill, the young medical student, unabashed, had struck up a correspondence with some famous figures—Carl Cori, W. B. Cannon, and Graham Lusk himself. It was with some annoyance that he received a typical reply from Lusk in which this hero casually discounted Long's meticulous results as due to a leaky apparatus! Nevertheless he had gained enough confidence in his own accomplishments to present a paper to Manchester University for a D.Sc., which was bestowed on him in 1932, shortly before he left McGill. Dr. Meakins was to make one further contribution to Long's happiness, that of introducing him to Hilda Jarman, who was to become his wife. Having encountered a group of attractive young women from Calgary starting out on a holiday abroad, and knowing Long was on his way home to England for a visit by the same ship, Meakins couldn't resist arranging what devel- oped into a shipboard romance. The wedding was at the bride's summer home in Vancouver in 1928. Hilda Long, an attrac- tive, intelligent, and practical person, was to have an unusual appreciation of her husband's important contributions to sci- ence and human welfare. In addition, she shared his enjoy- ment of the social side of life, and she was to bestow gentle concern and friendship in the future on hundreds of his stu- dents and associates. Although those who knew Long were convinced of his future success, the newly formed George S. Cox Research Insti- tute at the University of Pennsylvania would perhaps have seemed an unlikely spot from which to make an important scientific discovery when he left McGill to become its director in 1932. The new arrivals were greeted by a modest suite of rooms, walls bare except for a plaque advising the occupants that the purpose of the institute was to "find a cure for dia-

278 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS betes." "A rather overwhelming assignment for a young man," Long recalled later. Undaunted he immediately set about exploiting the advantages of this position as he saw them: great freedom, continued close contact with clinical medicine with- out, however, direct responsibility for patient care, and, finally, the stimulating association with physiologists A. N. Richards and Detlev W. Bronk, friends of his in the preclinical science departments. (The Longs had renewed ties with physiologists in 1929 when returning from a trip to England by the same ship that brought Hill and all the other noted Europeans to attend the International Physiological Congress in Boston.) His responsibilities in the laboratory, moreover, were to be shared with a skillful clinician from the department of medi- cine, Francis Lukens. In spite of evidence to the contrary it was generally agreed in those days that all the symptoms of diabetes mellitus were simply due to the underutilization of sugar because of an insufficient supply of insulin. Although Long came from a school that upheld the pancreatic origin of diabetes, he imme- diately appreciated the importance of the discovery a few years before by Bernardo Houssay that the removal of the pituitary gland produced a remarkable amelioration of experimental diabetes, clearly demonstrating the participation of at least one extrapancreatic factor in the diabetic syndrome. Thinking of the task ahead, Long and Lukens remembered the clinical ob- servation that diminished function of the cortical portion of the adrenal gland lowers the blood sugar. Knowing also that removal of the pituitary is followed by adrenal atrophy, they set about investigating the possible role of the adrenal cortex in the Houssay preparation. By early 1934 Dr. Lukens was able to prepare cats not only pancreatectomized but having both adrenals removed as well. To the two scientists' delight, the first such cat lived eleven days, or about twice as long as the usual diabetic cat; its blood

CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 279 sugar values were actually lower than normal in spite of its receiving no insulin whatsoever. They knew immediately that they were on the right track. Long said afterwards, "Our feelings of achievement and excitement in those spring days now nearly 30 years ago rsic], when we saw those cats alive and well long after their controls had died, are still very vivid in my mind. It is one of the great though far too infrequent rewards of research to realize that you have made a lasting, albeit small contribution to knowl- edge. To be privileged to do so is an experience that remains with you long after your work has been expanded and incorpo- rated in the greater achievements of your successors." A short note appeared in Science in June 1934; as news of their discovery spread in the months that followed, Long and Lukens carefully extended and confirmed their observations. The evidence suggested that (1) the amelioration of diabetes in their animals was because the cortex of the adrenal had been removed, not the medullary or "nervous" portion of the gland as had usually been suggested and (2) that indeed the lessening after adrenalectomy of the copious amounts of sugar in the body so typical of diabetes might best be attributed after all to a reduction in sugar production from other sources, notably body protein. These conclusions have since been confirmed many times, not only in Long's own laboratory, as more highly puri- fied hormones became available, but also, as the years have passed, by the work of others throughout the world. At the time, however, these were conclusions that might not be accepted joyfully by all. The history of the study of diabetes is one of intermittent bitter contests, often unfortunately sparked by speculation on inconclusive evidence. But Long, by temperament and training, was never inhibited by old ideas. On the contrary, he delighted in the assumption of a new point of view, refuting erroneous work and bolstering his arguments with sound facts. He was an instant success as a speaker, sharp -

280 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS in debate but modest as he faced the first imposing scientific meetings. His success prompted a new friend (also a biochemist turned physician), J. P. Peters of Yale, to write, "I hear about your talks at every corner from those who have been stimulated by them. It was good to have someone with a really objective attitude discuss an endocrine subject." tong-e most Important contribution, then, was not that he ~ , . . .. . and Lukens had "cured diabetes" by adrenalectomy—for such a naive idea was never entertained—but rather that the syndrome of diabetes itself was reconsidered in the light of newer knowl- edge of the parts played by the pituitary and other ductless glands in the events that follow pancreatectomy in animals. Long gave substance to the concept that the "balance of the endocrine glands" was related to the "diseases of metabolism." In 1936 he proposed to the American College of Physicians that "the clinical condition that follows hypo- or hyperfunction of an endocrine organ is not merely due to the loss or plethora of that particular internal secretion but is a result of the disturb- ance of the normal hormonal equilibrium of the body"—still, almost forty years later perhaps the most important single idea in endocrine research. The rooms of the new institute in Philadelphia were well filled now. Working in the laboratory were Lukens, Gerald Evans, and a young physiology student, Edith Fry, as well as other students and visitors. Long's "office" was a desk at the end of a corridor where he received the distinguished guests who came to observe, C. H. Best and H. M. Evans as well as Professor Houssay. He received invitations from many places, including one to visit Elliot Joslin in Boston. Professor of Medicine Alfred Stengel wrote him later that those four years at the Cox were nothing short of "a brilliant performance." It was inevitable that Long would attract the attention of those seeking a candidate for the chair at Yale University vacated recently by the death of the celebrated biochemist

CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 281 Lafayette Mendel. As a result of the efforts of Peters, who was specializing in diabetes in the Department of Medicine, and of the distinguished neurophysiologist John Fulton, Long moved to New Haven in the fall of 1936 as professor of physiological chemistry. Although Fulton's report for the committee praised his teaching and administrative ability' which had already be- . . come evident at the Cox Institute, it is most interesting for its evaluation of his scientific work. It states that Long has "per- haps more than any other contributed to the disentanglement of the confusion that reigned between the functions of the `~rimilc Pncl~rrine ~l~ncic ~nr1 ,~,^~ v ~ ~ . . . metabolism and had put this on a sound scientific basis." For his part, Long wrote this rather interesting acceptance to Dean Stanhope Bayne-Jones: "Not only my own future but also that of the subjects in which I am interested are to be best served by accepting your invitation." Privately he felt some trepidation. He was only thirty-five years old, and his accom- plishments were unknown to many outside his field. Neverthe- less, as A. V. Hill correctly predicted in a congratulatory letter, he need not have feared to follow the famous Professor Mendel, for his own interdisciplinary training uniquely fitted him for the needs of the future. . Longs remained at Yale until his retirement thirty-three years later, first as professor and chairman of the Department of Physiological Chemistry, receiving the appointment as Sterling Professor in 1938. (His department, renamed the Department of Biochemistry in 1952, was the first department of biochem- istry in the United States.) Later, Long became chairman of the Department of Physiology, having twice assumed responsi- bility also for the Department of Pharmacology as interim chairman, as well as serving as chairman of the university's Division of Biological Sciences. From 1947 to 1959 he served as dean of the School of Medicine, having already been acting dean briefly in 1943. From the first he took an active part in

282 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS the affairs of the School of Medicine and joined in the life of the Yale community, being immediately well liked and re- spected. His department published fifty-seven papers in 1937- 1938 and entered into many new outside activities under his leadership. Long's years at Yale saw changes in the university, some the result of World War II, others economic and social, but it was fortunate perhaps that his early years and a good part of his deanship corresponded with the presidency of Charles Seymour. They had much in common, and Cambridge-educated Seymour appreciated his British colleague. Furthermore, the Seymour administration was noted for its enthusiastic support of science in general, a fact that on at least one occasion kept Long at Yale. Long participated in the overall reorganization of the teaching of biology at the university and gave promise that he would be as inventive and unconventional in administration as he had been in the laboratory. He became an ardent supporter of plans to unify the basic science departments of the university so that undergraduates, graduate students, and medical students would be enrolled side by side, perhaps not even deciding what degree to take until a later date. These plans were carried out only in part. He consistently urged the support of unusually gifted students, to free them from required work and from pressures (mainly financial) to finish quickly, and to allow each to chart his own course. Admittedly, the champions of such freedom were to suffer mounting frustrations in the mid-century United States as the young scientist became more and more lost in vast impersonal projects, often entirely taken out of private hands by the government. Long found much to do at Yale in the thirties and forties and much to admire, chiefly those elements introduced previ- ously under that dynamic innovator in medical education, Mil- ton C. Winternitz, dean from 1920 to 1935. The so-called "Yale system," with its emphasis on individual achievement

CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 283 and self-reliance, was of course very much Long's own style. His arrival coincided with a period of modernization of teach- ing in the preclinical years in which he took an active part. He worked assiduously for his belief that the chemistry and physics of cellular function were the future of medicine and must be taught to the students on an advanced level. Fortunately he was also wary of teaching too many facts: "independence of thought and a capacity to form judgments will be required of the physician all his life, while techniques and the interpreta- tion of information are always changing" and "the secret of success in medicine is an enquiring mind. Take nothing for granted, see and find out for yourself" rather than rely on the authorities, who don't, after all, have a "monopoly on all future ideas." Long usually participated in the teaching of courses in his departments and also continued to meet with small groups of students until his retirement. Sometimes, he admitted, these conferences lapsed into an unscientific discussion of baseball, for he was still an avid sports fan. He once declined a strictly research post because "teaching is an important task." Of lec- turing he admitted in 1942, "Indeed I can honestly say that since I have started to teach I have worked harder at elementary biochemistry than I ever did when a student." The fruits of this labor were lectures, later covering endocrinology, that were attended by such large audiences that around 1950 they had to be moved to a special auditorium. His lectures may have been a shock to the neophyte for whom they were intended, however, because of his preoccupation with the history of endocrinology and various unorthodox points of view. Surprisingly, the sense of humor that animated his private conversations, often making him a genial host or welcome arrival at a dull party, almost never surfaced in his formal lectures. In this he was in marked contrast to some of his lively contemporaries at the school. Perhaps he wished merely to emphasize the seriousness with

284 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS which those of his training viewed their task. His interest in medical education was not a transient one, and he followed the careers of the medical students after graduation. He was proud of their high marks in National Board Examinations and cele- brated their other achievements as much as he did those of junior members in his own departments. He took particular satisfaction in the large numbers of both groups of former stu- dents who became professors and department chairmen at other schools throughout the country, for he thought that the most important responsibility of the school to the community was to provide leadership in teaching and research. That his own leadership should ultimately be recognized by the endowment of a chair in his name at Yale devoted to endocrinology and metabolism was therefore one of the most gratifying of the many honors he received. One cannot consider the list of his former students, moreover, without being impressed by the large number of professional women whom he encouraged and trained, starting with his first graduate student in Montreal, Eleanor yenning. At that time women were not accepted uni- versally in the laboratory nor as physicians. Maintaining high standards in education and research had not been easy during World War II, and the pressures of the postwar period on medical schools were combined with mount- ing economic problems. Thus when Long was asked to become dean in 1947, the School of Medicine was facing a grave crisis. In fact, there were rumors that it might close entirely—hardly happy circumstances under which the new dean was to take office! Needless to say, the school did not close, largely because of extraordinary efforts to reach a compromise on the question of how to relieve the university of the responsibility for the entire deficit of the New Haven Hospital, which was becoming an alarming drain on Yale's educational funds. Dean Long was one of the architects of that agreement and was responsible as well for numerous other improvements in service and econ- omy, notably the centralization of clinical laboratories.

CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 285 While the most striking accomplishment of Long's term as dean was the lowering of the school's deficit by one-half, there were many other advances, for example: 1) the broadening of the responsibility of the School of Medicine in the community both by the offering of postgraduate medical education and by the initiation of measures to establish the school as the medical center of Connecticut, and 2) the improvement of personal rela- tionships within the school itself. Perhaps this latter was due to the sincere attempts to reach a consensus among the faculty on important questions without overlooking anyone's private opinion, an awesome task considering what strong personalities were involved. It would have been an impossible one without the maximum of mutual respect that fortunately seems to have prevailed. In describing Long's term of office one of his former colleagues singled out his sympathy for a fellow department chairman's problems (for the deanship was only a part-time job in those days), his availability in spite of "onerous burdens," and his continued interest in the care of patients, particularly where basic research applied to clinical problems. For the future Long hoped for medical curriculum revisions, including a forward-looking expansion of the sections on epi- demiology and public health. He was the first dean to express concern for the health of the medical students then living in tenements and pointed out the urgent need for a modern dor- mitory. Although it made newspaper headlines, one of his more radical proposals to provide more and younger doctors never gained acceptance by the university. The proposal was for a cooperative program between the School of Medicine and Yale College to grant the M.D. degree after only five years of study instead of the usual eight. Similar plans are now being adopted by many medical schools throughout the country. Since the school had been on the brink of disaster, it is amazing to hear from Long's professor of surgery that the five years of his deanship were "thoroughly happy years profes- sionally, perhaps in part because we were both new in our

286 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS respective positions with high hopes for the School and a mini- mum of accumulated frustrations." Another associate described the hospital crisis thus: "I am impressed with the stimulation, fun and pleasure that both Hugh and I got out of our adminis- trative responsibilities. I recognize that this is almost incon- ceivable today...." Perhaps, after all, what he gave to that difficult term of office was a little of the "atmosphere of hopeful debate." No description of those days of stringent economy would be complete without reference to the semblance of a gracious social life that the Longs and their friends somehow continued to bring to Cedar Street. Thus the traditional afternoon teas popular since the Winternitz days at the medical school were enthusiastically continued. Faculty wives presided, and the refreshments were provided by funds raised annually at a gala ball arranged by the students. It all required some effort, but succeeded in bringing the medical community together in ways that were not entirely academic. Where Long's term elapsed, in 1952, he left with relief, for he believed the deanship should be a full-time job. At this time he moved from biochemistry to the physiology department where he served as chairman until 1964, remaining as Sterling Professor until he became emeritus in 1969. There, he could be found in an office typical of his Yale days. It was, like him- self, a blend of old and new styles. Visitors sat upright on ~ ~ _: ~~ 1~ 1 _ 1_ _ - allUlUllL, QUI-~U1C cnalrs that scraped on bare floors because elaborate furnishings were considered extravagant. Shiny office machinery, on the other hand, had been selected from the latest models. One saw him over a very neat but undistinguished desk, hair prematurely white since the thirties above a rather long, thin face with sharp, closely set dark eyes and a slightly deviated nose, the result of his athletic past. An adroit prac- titioner of the art of conversation, he was a restless talker, lean- ing back gently in his chair to pick a book from the shelf, or

CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 287 pacing about the room, stopping periodically to assume a char- acteristic pose—bent at the waist, one hand on hip, the other busy with pencil or chalk. Although administrative responsibilities took more and more of the actual work out of Long's hands, there can be no doubt that he continued to play a large part in the direction of his laboratories at Yale. He enjoyed the company of his co-workers and sought them out to discuss problems. His special flair for the application of a new or unusual method to an old question continued to characterize his work, and he drove his young associates to thorough calculation and recalculation, interpretation and reinterpretation. Gowland Hopkins, he had the tolerance for youth and inexperi- ence that is a mark of greatness, the ability to listen patiently to salvage something worthwhile from the most inept presenta- tion. The audiences were always amazed at his respect for the value of the older medical literature, of which he had an ency- clopedic knowledge. Final evidence over the years that he maintained full command of his subject is found in the series of sparkling, unbiased review articles and talks with which he inspired a new generation of endocrinologists. He developed a worldwide audience, and in recognition of his accomplish- ments was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1948. At the same time, like He participated actively in a number of professional societies, but served none more faithfully than the Endocrine Society,. of which he was president in 1947-1948. The central theme of Long's research remained the endo- crine control of metabolism, which is "far more complex than appeared possible a few years ago." On the basis of work car- ried out with Miss Fry, who had come with him from Philadel- phia, and a medical student, B. Katzin, he was able to describe quantitatively for the first time the biological properties of the adrenal cortical hormones, and a classic paper was published on this subject in Endocrinology in 1940. The availability of

288 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS more highly purified hormones and the use of partially depan- createctomized rats made possible the demonstration of exacer- bation of the diabetes previously attenuated by adrenalectomy. This work, moreover, definitely established the effects of the glucocorticoids on protein as well as on carbohydrate metabo- lism, laying the foundation for future studies on the popular topic, the therapeutic effects of cortisone and related drugs on man. Reexamination of the possible hypophyseal factors par- ticipating in the diabetic syndrome also led toward the isolation of prolactin (with A. White), of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (with G. E. Sayers), and of growth hormone by Alfred and Jane (Russell) Wilhelmi; furthermore, the development of the adre- nal ascorbic acid bioassay for pituitary adrenocortical hormones in Long's laboratory and the resulting studies of the latter con- tinued for many years to constitute some of his most important contributions. During World War II his group, under Franl: Engel, investigated the role of the catabolic effects of the adrenal cortex in hemorrhagic shock. Afterward the laboratory returned to diabetes and related topics, particularly obesity, and con- tinued the search for the nature of the effects of the adrenal cortical hormones on intermediary metabolism. The work of Long's later years, moreover, is distinguished by a surprisingly youthful originality. For example, undaunted by the most formidable procedures devised' by physiologists, he described with T. Hiroshige in 1964 a procedure for the "visceral prepa- ration" in the rat. With students in all parts of the globe, with activities in remarkably varied professional societies, and with the wide recognition he received for his achievements in basic science, Hugh Long was destined to have more than a local influence on the course of medical science in his time. Some measure of this was a consequence of the service he gave to the government of his adopted country, which urgently needed him as a consultant during World War II. His desire for citizenship in the United States was granted in 1942. The story is told that, according to

CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 289 his usual custom, he came to the examination for naturalization very well prepared. When asked some minor questions about American history, he astounded his audience with a twenty- minute scholarly talk on the subject. No native-born American scientist gave his energies more willingly to the task of advising the government on medical research. Long worked under various government offices start- ing in 1937, when he had first joined the Endocrine Research Committee of the National Research Council. His post as deputy chief of the Division of Physiology of the Office of Scientific Research and Development assured permanent con- tact with physiologists and took him to visit many of their laboratories (for example in 1943) where a great deal of the best work in endocrine research was then in progress. While pri- marily concerned with subjects relating to the endocrine glands, his involvement broadened as he became more experienced in the administration of medical research and education. Long had witnessed at close range the postwar surge of pub- lic interest in research in medicine, which was responsible in part, it must be admitted, for the success of laboratories like his own. He had, nevertheless, several opportunities to survey the less fortunate effects of government support of science and of medical research. Among them he cited the tendency of the government to focus funds on the eradication of certain dis- eases, diverting doctors from teaching and the practice of medi- cine and neglecting the general support of institutions engaged in the discovery and training of the gifted new scientists neces- sary for more basic research. Long took some memorable trips abroad in the interest of medical education. The first was as leader of a harrowing (be- cause of the outbreak of the Korean War) but successful ad- visory mission to Japan in 1950. In 1965 he joined a similar mission to Egypt for the Agency for International Development. An invitation to return to Japan for the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission was also gratefully accepted, since he was an enthu-

290 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS siastic tourist and had ties in both Japan and Hawaii. He took a rare sabbatical to assist in the founding of a new medical school in Honolulu in 1964. Such assignments were rewarding in new associations, ideas, and friendships, but were time-consuming and exhausting and performed at considerable sacrifice. Following one trip to Washington in October of 1960, after a strenuous summer of meetings abroad, Long entered the hospital with a severe myo- cardial infarction. He recovered in time, however, to receive in person an honorary degree from McGill University in June of the next year. He lived almost ten years longer, a life some- times dissatisfying professionally as the elements of his philoso- phy were inevitably challenged, but full of honor and never dull. Upon reaching the age of retirement, in 1969, he was appointed a fellow of the John B. Pierce Foundation's Yale- affiliated laboratory, where he continued his research in the endocrine control of metabolism as related to environmental physiology. Although suffering increasing physical limitations he took pleasure as usual from work, friendship, and family life, for he was always happiest at home or traveling abroad with his two daughters. His close relationship with them is more evi- dence of his extraordinary strength and discipline when one considers the heavy demands of his work during the years of their childhood. One of his proudest moments was when his younger daughter, Diana, received her Ph.D. in the History of Science and Medicine from Yale. After his daughters married and he became the delighted grandfather of six grandchildren, summers in Maine continued to unite him with his children. There, while fishing with a young grandson on a beautiful summer day, his heart finally stopped, ending a remarkable career. In accounting for a life so full of meaning and accomplish- ment one is struck in the first place not only with the optimism but also the good will, tolerance, and mutual enjoyment with which this older generation, particularly in Britain, endowed

CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 291 its scientific work. It was before, as Priestley observes, "we had to move into a world largely alien to the English temperament." Second, while the old world was small enough for individuals to have importance, it was large enough to accommodate the freedom that Long so valued and used to such advantage in his own career. At every crossroad he consistently chose freedom over security and material gain. Third, much of Long's success, both in the laboratory and as an administrator, stemmed from his breadth of knowledge, his appropriate choice and effective promotion of the original, neglected ideas of others. He was a nonspecialist with the broader understanding possible before the current necessity of specialization. While today, because of overwhelming advances in the body of scientific knowledge itself, there is "more emphasis on the accumulation of facts than on the ability to comprehend them (D. W. Bronk)," it seems highly unlikely that Long and Lukens would ever have fully appreciated the relationship of the endocrine glands to the biochemical changes of diabetes mellitus if they had not had wide experience in clinical medicine. Fourth, in Hugh Long's day there was more leisure for maturing, more time for con- templation and, finally, no one was ashamed, in the words of A. N. Whitehead, to take "an active interest in the simple occurrences of life for their own sake." FOR ASSISTANCE in the preparation of this biographical memoir, the authors are particularly indebted to G. B. Darling, A. V. Hill, G. E. Lindskog, T. W. Shaw, A. W. Snake, and to the Long family, who generously provided the complete memorabilia, including the collection now at the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. Quotations from current books are from: Bronk, D. W., in Britannica Yearbook of Science and the Future Chicago, Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 1971. Hill, A. V., Trials and Trails in Physiology, London, Edward Arnold (Publisher) Ltd., 1965. Priestley, I. B., The Edwardians, New York, Harper & Row Pub- lishers, 1 970.

292 1901 1918 1921 1923-1925 1925-1932 1928 1928 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS CHRONOLOGY AND MEMBERSHIPS Born {une 19, Nettleton, Wiltshire, England Wigan Grammar School B.Sc., Manchester University; M.Sc., 1923; D.Sc., 1932 Demonstrator in Physiology, University College, Lon- don Lecturer and Assistant Professor of Medical Research, McGill University M.D., C.M., McGill University Married to Hilda Gertrude {arman. Children: Bar- bara Rosemary (Mrs. Richard P. Simons), Diana Eliza- beth (Mrs. David D. Hall). 1928-1932 In charge, Medical Laboratories, Royal Victoria Hos- pital, Montreal 1932-1936 Director, George S. Cox Medical Research Institute, and Assistant Professor of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania 1942 Became an American citizen 1936-1970 Yale University: Chairman, Department of Physiologi- cal Chemistry, 1936-1951; Professor of Physiological Chemistry, 1936-1938; Sterling Professor of Physiologi- cal Chemistry, 1938-1951; Director of Graduate Stud- ies, Department of Physiological Chemistry, 1937-1948; Chairman, Department of Pharmacology, 1939-1941, 1952-1953; Chairman, Division of Biological Sciences, 1939-1942; Fellow, Calhoun College, 1940-1970; Dean, School of Medicine, 1947-1952; Chairman, Department of Physiology, 1951-1964; Sterling Professor of Physi- ology, 1951-1969; Director of Graduate Studies, De- partment of Physiology, 1952-1961. M.A. (Hon.), Yale University Sc.D. (Hon.), Princeton University Army-Navy Certificate of Appreciation Squibb Award, Endocrine Society 1936 1946 1948 1950 1951 Banting Memorial Medal of the American Diabetes Association 1955-1956 Fellow, John S. Guggenheim Memorial Foundation

CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 293 1956 1959 1959 1961 1962 1964 1964 1964 1966 Schering Scholar, Endocrine Society Modern Medicine Award Scientific Award of the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers . . Association Sc.D. (Hon.), McGill University M.D. (Hon.), University of Venezuela Medal of Hiroshima University (Japan) Visiting Professor, University of Hawaii Faculty of Medicine plaque, Tokyo University C.N.H. Long Professorship established, Yale University 1969-1970 Fellow, John B. Pierce Foundation 1970 Died July 6 Member American Diabetes Association, American Philosophical Society, American Physiological Society, American Society for Clinical Investigation, Argentine Society of Biology, Association of American Physicians, The~Biochemical Society (Great Britain), British Diabetic Association, Connecticut Diabetes Association Inc., Connecticut State Medical Society, Endocrine Society, Fulton Society, Horseshoe Club (London), International Brain Research Association, Interurban Clinical Club, National Academy of Sci- ences of the United States of America, Peripatetic Club, Physio- logica1 Society (Great Britain), Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, Yale Medical Society. Editorial Board of American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology, Journal of Applied Physi- ology, Physiological Reviews, Proceedings of the Society for Ex- perimental Biology and Medicine, Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. Board of Governors, Methods in Medical Research. Committee member or Consultant for Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, Atomic Energy Commission, Armed Forces Quartermaster's Food and Container Institute, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Insti- tute for Defense Analyses, National Research Council, National Science Foundation, Once of Scientific Research and Develop- ment, President's Scientific Advisory Committee, United States Army, United States Public Health Service. Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences and College of Physicians of Philadelphia.

294 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Articles and obituaries about Dr. Long are to be found in Yale Medicine 1, 12, 1966; Yale ]. Biol. Med. 41, 95, 1968; Year Book of the American Philosophical Society, 1970, p. 143; Endocri- nology 88, 537, 1971; and Nature 229, 356, 1971.

CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG BIBLIOGRAPHY KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS 295 Am. [. Med. Sci.—American Journal of the Medical Sciences Am. i. Physiol.—American journal of Physiology Ann. Intern. Med. Annals of Internal Medicine Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.—Arsenals of the New York Academy of Science Ann. Rev. Physiol. Annual Review of Physiology Biochem. l. Biochemical journal Can. l. Biochem. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology Ergeb. Physiol. Ergebnisse der Physiologie Fed. Proc. Federation Proceedings Jap. J. Physiol. Japanese Journal of Physiology I. Biol. Chem. journal of Biological Chemistry I. Endocrinol.—[ournal of Endocrinology J. Exp. Med. _ Journal of Experimental Medicine J. Physiol. (Lond. ) Journal of Physiology (London) Proc. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis. = Proceedings of the Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease Proc. Congr. Int. Diabetes Fed. Proceedings of the Con- gress of the International- Diabetes Federation Proc. Int. Congr. Endocrinol. _ Proceedings of the Inter- national Congress on Endocrinology Proc. ~ Int. Congr. Physiol. Proceedings of the International Congress of Physiology Proc. Meet. Endocr. Soc. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Endocrine Society Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.), Ser. B Proceedings of the Royal Society (London): Biological Sciences Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine Recent Prog. Horrn. Res. Recent Progress in Hormone Research Yale J. Biol. Med. Yale journal of Biology and Medicine 1923 With A. V. Hill and H. Lupton. Proceedings of the Physiological Society. l. Physiol. (Land.), 57:xliv-xlv. With H. Lupton. The removal of lactic acid during recovery from muscular exercise in man. Proceedings of the Physiological Society. I. Physiol. (Lond.), 57:1xvii-lxviii. Lactic acid in human muscle.

296 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1924 With A. V. Hill and H. Lupton. The effect of fatigue on the rela- tion between work and speed, in the contraction of human arm muscles. J. Physiol. (Land.), 58:334-37. The lactic acid in the blood of a resting man. I. Physiol. (Lond.), 58:455-60. With A. S. Parkes. J., 18:800-805. With A. V. Hill and H. Lupton. Muscular exercise, lactic acid, and the supply and utilization of oxygen. Parts I-III. Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.), Ser. B. 96:438-75. With K. Furusawa, A. V. Hill, and H. Lupton. Muscular exercise, lactic acid, and the supply and utilization of oxygen. Parts VII- VIII. Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.), Ser. B. 97:155-76. With A. V. Hill and H. Lupton. Muscular exercise, lactic acid, and the supply and utilization of oxygen. Parts IV-VI. Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.), Ser. B. 98:84-138. On the nature of fQeta1 reabsorption. Biochem. 1925 With A. V. Hill. Muscular exercise, lactic acid, and the supply and utilization of oxygen. Ergeb. Physiol., 24:43-51. With L. N. Katz. A comparison of the lactic acid contents of the mammalian heart and skeletal muscle after stimulation and in rigor mortis. Proceedings of the Physiological Society. l. Physiol. (Lond.), 60: iii-iv. With L. N. Katz. Lactic acid in mammalian cardiac muscle. Part I. The stimulation maximum. Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.>, Ser. B. 99: 8-20. With H. J. G. Hines and L. N. Katz. Lactic acid in mammalian cardiac muscle. Part II. The rigor mortis maximum and the normal glycogen content. Proc. R. Soc. (Land.), Ser. B. 99:20-26. With L. N. Katz and P. T. Kerridge. Lactic acid in mammalian cardiac muscle. Part III. Changes in hydrogen-ion concentra- tion. Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.), Ser. B. 99:26-27. 1926 Muscular exercise, lactic acid, and the supply and utilization of oxygen. Part XIV. The relation in man between the oxygen intake during exercise and the lactic acid content of the muscles.

CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 297 Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.), Ser. B. 99:167-72. With K. S. Hetzel. The metabolism of the diabetic individual during and after muscular exercise. Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.), Ser. B. 99:279-306. 1927 With I. Meakins. Oxygen consumption, oxygen debt and lactic acid in circulatory failure. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 4:273-93. 1928 The effect of anesthesia on the recovery process in mammalian skeletal muscles. l. Biol. Chem., 77:563-79. 1930 With G. R. Brow. Biochemical changes in the heart during anes- thesia. Current Research in Anesthesia and Analgesia, 9: 193-97. With l. Beattie and G. R. Brow. The hypothalamus and the sym- pathetic nervous system. In: The Vegetative Nervous System, vol. IX, pp. 249-316. Proc. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis., New York, Dec. 27 and 28, 1928. Baltimore, The Williams 8c Wilkins Co. With T Beattie and G. R. Brow. Physiological and anatomical evidence for the existence of nerve tracts connecting the hypo- thalamus with spinal sympathetic centres. Proc. R. Soc. (Land.), Ser. B. 106:253-75. With G. R. Brow and i. Beattie. Irregularities of the heart under chloroform. Journal of the American Medical Association, 95:715-16. With R. Grant. The recovery process after exercise in the mammal. I. Glycogen resynthesis in the fasted rat. I. Biol. Chem., 89 553-65. 1931 With E. M. Hill and D. Slight. Plasma fats in some cases of mental depression. l. Biol. Chem., 92: 1xxxi-lxxxii. 1932 With F. L. Horsfall, fir. The recovery process after exercise in the mammal. II. The conversion of infused d-lactic acid into mus-

298 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS cle glycogen. J. Biol. Chem., 95:715-33. With E. M. yenning. The alleged increase in plasma fats after the injection of epinephrine. J. Biol. Chem., 96:397~04. With G. T. Evans. Glycogen content of the rat heart. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 30:186-89. 1933 With E. G. Fry. The effect of vagotomy on muscle glycogen re- synthesis. Am. J. Med. Sci., 185:884. With F. D. Lukens and E. G. Fry. Glycogen restoration after exer- cise in depancreatized cats. Am. J. Med. Sci., 186:153. With D. Slight. Plasma lipoids in mental depression. American Journal of Psychology, 13: 141-50. 1934 With F. D. W. Lukens. Observations on adrenalectomized depan- creatized cats. Science, 79: 569-71. With F. D. W. Lukens. Observations upon hypophysectomized- depancreatized cats. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 32:326-28. With F. D. W. Lukens. Observations on a dog maintained for five weeks without adrenals or pancreas. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 32:392-94. 1935 With F. D. W. Lukens. Observations on adrenalectomized-depan- creatized and hypophysectomized-depancreatized cats. J. Biol. Chem., 109: lvi-lvii. With F. D. W. Lukens. Effect of adrenalectomy and hypophysec- tomy upon experimental diabetes in the cat. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 32:743~5. Recent advances in carbohydrate metabolism with particular refer- ence to diabetes mellitus. Ann. Intern. Med., 9:166-74. With J. B. Collip, R. L. Katz, and D. L. Thomson. Acute fatty liver following partial hepatectomy. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 33:689. 1936 . . With F. D. W. Lukens. The effects of adrenalectomy and hypo- physectomy upon experimental diabetes in the cat. J. Exp. Med., 63:465-90. With F. D. W. Lukens and E. G. Fry. The effect of adrenalectomy

CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 299 and hypophysectomy upon the fatty infiltration of the liver fol- lowing total pancreatomy in the cat. Am. i. Physiol., 116:96. Disturbances of the endocrine balance and their relation to diseases of metabolism. Ann. Intern. Med., 9: 1619-27. The interrelationships of the glands of internal secretion concerned with metabolism. (Newbold Lecture) Am. I. Med. Sci., 191: 741-59. With F. D. W. Lukens. The effects of hypophysectomy and adrena- lectomy upon pancreatic diabetes. Transactions of the Associa- tion of American Physicians, ~ 1: 123-28. Tl~e relation of the anterior pituitary to carbohydrate metabolism. Proc. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 17:276-86. 1937 With F. D. W. Lukens and F. C. Dohan. Adrenalectomized-depan- creatized dogs. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 36:553-54. Studies on the "diabetogenic" action of the anterior pituitary. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 5:344-56. With S. Zuckerman. Relation of the adrenal cortex to cyclical changes in the female accessory reproductive organs. Nature, 139: 1106-7. The interrelationships between the pituitary, pancreas and adrenal glands. In: Practitioners Handbook, chap. III, pp. 20-32. New York, D. Appleton & Company. The influence of the pituitary and adrenal glands upon pancreatic diabetes. Harvey Lectures, 1936-1937, pp. 194-228. With A. White and H. R. Catchpole. A crystalline protein with high lactogenic activity. Science, 86:82-83. With A. White. Intermediary carbohydrate metabolism. Physiol., 40: 164-203. 1938 With B. Katzin. Effect of adrenal cortical hormone on carbo- hydrate stores of fasted hypophysectomized rats. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 38: ~ 16-18. With B. Katzin. The effect of the adrenal cortical hormone on the liver and muscle glycogen of normal fasting mice and rats. Am. J.Physiol.,123:113-14. With E. G. Fry and K. W. Thompson. The effect of adrenalectomy and adrenal cortical hormones upon pancreatic diabetes in the rat. Am. J. Physiol., 123:130-31.

300 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With R. A. Shipley. I. The relation of ketonaemia to ketonuria in the rat. II. A method for the assay of the ketogenic activity. III. The nature of the ketogenic principle. Biochem. l., 32: 2242-56. The adrenal cortex and carbohydrate metabolism. Sigma Xi Quar- terly, 26: 175-86. 1939 Diabetes mellitus in the light of our present knowledge of metabo- lism. (Hatfield Lecture) Transactions Sc Studies of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 7:21-46. With E. G. Fry and H. B. Ritter. The aggravation of pancreatic diabetes by adrenal cortical extract. Am. i. Physiol., 126:497. With H. C. Harrison. The effect of anterior pituitary extract on the metabolism of fasting normal and adrenalectomized rats. Am. J. Physiol., 126:526-27. With B. Katzin. The effect of adrenal cortical extract on the carbo- hydrate and protein metabolism of the rat. Am. l. Physiol., 126:551. With K. W. Thompson and B. F. Lyons. The effect of hypophysec- tomy on the hypercholesterolemia of the thyroidectomized dogs. Am. .T- Physiol., 126:643-44. 1940 Recent research on the control of metabolism by the endocrine glands. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 16:395- 406. With B. Katzin and E. G. Fry. The adrenal cortex and carbo- hydrate metabolism. Endocrinology, 26:309-44. With H. C. Harrison. The distribution of ketone bodies in tissues. I. Biol. Chem., 133:209-18. With H. C. Harrison. Effects of anterior pituitary extracts in the fasted rat. Endocrinology, 26:971-78. Evidence for and against control of carbohydrate metabolism by the hypothalamus. Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease, Research Publications, 20:486-500. 1941 With l. R. Brobeck. The influence of hypothalamic lesions on pancreatic diabetes. Am. l. Physiol., 133:224.

CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG With K. W. Thompson. 301 The effect of hypophysectomy upon hyper- cholesterolemia of dogs. Endocrinology, 28:715-22. With C. A. Elvehjem and E. V. McCollum. Nutrition. In: The End ocrine Control of Metabolism, pp. 13-33. University of Pennsylvania Bicentennial Conference. Philadelphia, Univer- sity of Pennsylvania Press. 1942 Pituitary hormones influencing growth in higher animals. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 10:91-103. Carbohydrate metabolism. In: Diseases of Metabolism, chap. II, pp. 19-72. 1st ed. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Co. Etiology, diabetes mellitus. In: Diseases of Metabolism, chap. XVI, pp. 711-21. 1st ed. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Co. With W. R. C. Golden. The influence of certain hormones on the carbohydrate levels of the chick. Endocrinology, 30:675-86. A discussion of the mechanism of action of adrenal cortical hor- mones on carbohydrate and protein metabolism. Endocrinol- ogy, 30:870-83. Metabolic functions of the endocrine glands. Ann. Rev. Physiol., 4:465-502. With E. G. Fry and M. Miller. The "corticomimetic" action of stilbestrol on carbohydrate and protein metabolism. Endo- crinology, 30: S1029-30. With A. White and R. W. Bonsnes. Prolactin. J. Biol. Chem., 143:447~4. With W. R. C. Golden. Absorption and disposition of glucose in the chick. Am. i. Physiol., 136:244~9. The endocrine control of carbohydrate metabolism and its relation to diabetes in man. Proceedings of the American Diabetes Association, 2:99-115. 1943 With G. Sayers, M. A. Sayers, and A. White. Effect of pituitary adrenotropic hormone on cholesterol content of rat adrenal glands. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 52:200-202. The growth and metabolic hormones of the anterior pituitary. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 43:383-426. With i. Tepperman and F. L. Engel. A review of adrenal cortical hypertrophy. Endocrinology, 32:373~02.

302 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With J. Tepperman and F. L. Engel. Effect of high protein diets on size and activity of the adrenal cortex in the albino rat. Endocrinology, 32: 403-9. With F. L. Engel and M. G. Winton. Biochemical studies on shock. I. The metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrate during hemorrhagic shock in the rat. l. Exp. Med., 77: 397~10. With I. R. Brobeck and I. Tepperman. Experimental hypothala- mic hyperphagia in the albino rat. Yale T. Biol. Med., 15: 831-53. With J. Tepperman and J. R. Brobeck. mic hyperphagia and of alterations metabolism of the albino rat. Yale With V. C. Dickerson and l. Tepperman. The effects of hypothala- in feeding habits on the J. Biol. Med., 15: 855-73. The role of the liver in the synthesis of fatty acids from carbohydrate. Yale I. Biol. Med., 15:875-92. With l. R. Brobeck and I. Tepperman. The effect of experimental obesity upon carbohydrate metabolism. Yale i. Biol. Med., 15: 893-904. With G. Sayers and A. White. Preparation and properties of pitui- tary adrenotropic hormone. I. Biol. Chem., 149:425-36. 1944 With G. Sayers, M. A. Sayers, E. G. Fry, and A. White. The effect of the adrenotrophic hormone of the anterior pituitary on the cholesterol content of the adrenals. Yale I. Biol. Med., 16: 361-92. With G. Sayers, M. A. Sayers, and H. L. Lewis. Effect of adreno- tropic hormone on ascorbic acid and cholesterol content of the adrenal. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 55:238-39. With i. A. Russell and F. L. Engel. Biochemical studies on shock. II. The role of the peripheral tissues in the metabolism of pro- tein and carbohydrate during hemorrhagic shock in the rat. J. Exp. Med., 79: 1-7. With F. L. Engel and H. C. Harrison. Biochemical studies on shock. III. The role of the liver and the hepatic circulation in the metabolic changes during hemorrhagic shock in the rat and the cat. l. Exp. Med., 79:9-22. With i. A. Russell and A. E. Wilhelmi. Biochemical studies on

CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 303 shock. IV. The oxygen consumption of liver and kidney tissue from rats in hemorrhagic shock. i. Exp. Med., 79:23-33. 1945 With H. N. Harkins. Metabolic changes in shock after burns. Am..~. Physiol., 144:661-68. With G. Sayers, M. A. Sayers, and T.-Y. Liang. The cholesterol and ascorbic acid content of the adrenal, liver, brain and plasma following hemorrhage. Endocrinology, 37:96-110. With A. E. Wilhelmi, I. A. Russell, and M. G. Engel. Some aspects of the nitrogen metabolism of liver tissue from rats in hemor- rhagic shock. Am. J. Physiol., 144:674-82. With A. E. Wilhelmi, I. A. Russell, and F. L. Engel. The effects of hepatic anoxia on the respiration of liver slices in vitro. Am. J. Physiol., 144: 683-92. Edith E. G. Fry. Effect of epinephrine on adrenal cholesterol and ascorbic acid. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 59:67-68. With M. A. Sayers, G. Sayers, M. G. Engel, and F. L. Engel. Eleva- tion of plasma amino nitrogen as an index of the gravity of hemorrhagic shock. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 60:20-22. With H. C. Harrison. I. Biol. Chem., 161: 545-57. The regeneration of liver protein in the rat. 1946 Biochemical changes associated with the activity of the adrenal cortex. Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, 78:317-21. With G. Sayers, M. A. Sayers, and T.-Y. Liang. The effect of pituitary adrenotrophic hormone on the cholesterol and ascorbic acid con- - tent of the adrenal of the rat and the guinea pig. Endocri- nology, 38:1-9. With M. A. Sayers and G. Sayers. The standardization of hemor- rhagic shock in the rat: observation on the effects of transfusions of whole blood and some blood substitutes. Am. i. Physiol., 147: 155-64. With i. A. Russell. Amino nitrogen in liver and muscle of rats in shock after hemorrhage. Am. I. Physiol., 147:175-80. With A. E. Wilhelmi and M. G. Engel. The influence of feeding on the effects of hepatic anoxia on the respiration of liver slices in vitro. Am. I- Physiol., 147: 181-90.

304 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1947 The conditions associated with the secretion of the adrenal cortex. Fed. Proc., 6:461-71. Recent studies on the function of the adrenal cortex. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 23:260-82. The relation of cholesterol and ascorbic acid to the secretion of the adrenal cortex. Recent Prog. Horm. Res., 1: 99-122. 1948 Presidential address at thirtieth annual meeting of the Association for the Study of Internal Secretions. Endocrinology, 43:89-96. With H. Gershberg. The activation of the adrenal cortex by insu- lin hypoglycemia. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology, 8:587-88. With A. E. Wilhelmi. Metabolic changes associated with hemor- rhage. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 49:605-21. 1949 The adrenal gland, a regulatory factor. In: The Chemistry and Physiology of Growth, chap. X, pp. 266-84. Princeton, Prince- ton University Press. With G. B. Pinchot and V. P. Close. Adrenal changes produced in rats by infection with B. tularense and B. coli. Endocri- nology, 45: 135~2. Factors regulating the adrenal cortical secretion. In: Pituitary- A drenal Function, pp. 24-30. Washington, D.C., American Association for the Advancement of Science. Report of the Dean of the School of Medicine, Yale University. 1950 With W. V. McDermott, E. G. Fry, and J. R. Brobeck. Release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone by direct application of epineph- rine to pituitary grafts. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 73:609-10. With H. Gershberg, E. G. Fry, and i. R. Brobeck. The role of epinephrine in the secretion of the adrenal cortex. Yale J. Biol. Med., 23:32-51. With W. V. McDermott, E. G. Fry, and J. R. Brobeck. Mechanism of control of adrenocorticotrophic hormone. Yale I- Biol. Med., 23:52-66.

CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 305 Problems in planning medical education. cal Journal, 14:313-15. With H. Mankin, l. A. F. Stevenson, i. R. Brobeck, and D. Stetten, Jr. The turnover of body fat in obesity resulting from hypo- thalamic injury studied with the aid of deuterium. Endocri- nology, 47:443~7. 1951 With M. T. Oesterlina. Connecticut State Medi- Adrenal cholesterol in the scorbutic guinea pig. Science, 113: 241~2. With J. C. Opsahl and E. G. Fry. Chronic gonadotrophin, ACTH, and the adrenalhyaluronidase relationship. Yale I. Biol. Med., 23:399~06. With i. C. Opsahl. Identification of ACTH in human placental tissue. Yale I. Biol. Med., 24: 199-209. The endocrine regulation of carbohydrate metaholi.sm an`] its Anti cation to the problems of diabetes mellitus. rr-+ Proceedings of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, Sept. 28 and 29. The adrenal mechanism in relation to shock. Symposium on Shock at the Army Medical Service Graduate School, May 7, pp. XII-1- XII-16. 1952 The endocrine control of the blood sugar. (Banting Lecture— American Diabetes Association) Diabetes, 1:3-11. The endocrine control of the blood sugar. (Banting Lecture, Lon- don) Lancet, February 16, pp. 325-29. Regulation of ACTH secretion. Recent Prog. Horm. Res., 7:75- 105. With W. W. Winternitz. Participation of adrenal cortex in altera- tions in carbohydrate metabolism produced by epinephrine. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 81:683-85. The role of epinephrine in the secretion of the adrenal cortex. In: Ciba Foundation Colloquia on Endocrinology, vol. IV, p. 139 London, Churchill & Co. 1953 Regulation of ACTH secretion. Annual Lectures, National Insti- tute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases, May 25, pp. 73-87.

306 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Influence of the adrenal cortex on carbohydrate metabolism. In: Ciba Foundation Colloquia on Endocrinology, vol. VI, p. 136. London, Churchill & Co. The adrenals and growth hormone diabetes. In: Experimental Diabetes and Its Relation to Clinical Medicine, p. 172. Oxford, Blackwell. 1954 The hormones and metabolism. In: Symposium on Problems of Gerontology, pp. 106-19. Nutrition Symposium Series, no. 9. New York, The National Vitamin Foundation. 1955 Closing remarks. In: The Hypophyseal Growth Hormone, Nature and Actions, ed. by R. W. Smith, ir., O. H. Gaebler, and C. N. H. Long, chap. 30, pp. 573-76. International symposium. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co. With F. Ulrich. The effects of propylthiouracil and thyrotropic hormone on the uptake of radioactive thallium by the rat thy- roid. Yale I. Biol. Med., 27:371-78. With W. W. Winternitz and R. Dintzis. The effect of adrenal corti- cal hormones on the carbohydrate metabolism of the liver. Yale J. Biol. Med., 27:381-83. With D. Abelson and F. Ulrich. Identification of 20 beta-hydroxy- hydrocortisone in rat plasma after administration of hydrocorti- sone. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 89:386-88. The selection, care and preservation of research scientists. Pedi- atrics, 15: 203-10. With A. Brodish. Blood ACTH estimation by a cross-circulation technique. Fed. Proc., 14:18. (A) 1956 Pituitary-adrenal relationships. Ann. Rev. Physiol., 18:409-32. With A. Brodish. Changes in blood ACTH under various experi- mental conditions studied by means of a cross-circulation tech- nique. Proc. 20th Int. Congr. Physiol., p. 260, Brussels. (A) With E. G. Fry. The function of ocular and kidney transplants of pituitary tissue in the hypophysectomized rat. Proc. 20th Int. Congr. Physiol., p. 324, Brussels. (A) With A. Brodish. A technique of cross-circulation in the rat which

CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 307 permits accurate control of blood volume transfers. Yale l. Biol. Med., 28: 644-49. With A. Brodish. Estimation of blood ACTH by means of a cross- circulation technique. Yale I. Biol. Med., 28:650-56. With F. Ulrich. Effects of stress on serum Ci4 levels in rats follow- ing administration of hydrocortisone-4-Ci4 and corticosterone-4- Ci4. Endocrinology, 59: 170-80. With A. Brodish. Changes in blood ACTH under various experi- mental conditions by means of a cross-circulation technique. Endocrinology, 59:666-76. 1957 Studies on experimental obesity. J. Endocrinol., 15: vi-xv). With M. F. M: Bonnycastle. The rate of discharge of adrenocorti- cotrophic hormone as determined by timed hypophysectomy in the rat. Can. J. Biochem., 35: 929-33. With W. W. Winternitz and R. Dintzis. Further studies on the adre- nal cortex and carbohydrate metabolism. Endocrinology, 61: 724-41. With A. Brodish. Evidence of an ACTH-releasing neurohumor in peripheral blood. Proc. 39th Meet. Endocr. Soc., p. 31. (A) 1958 With A. Brodish. Mechanism of inhibition of ACTH release by hydrocortisone. Proc. 40th Meet. Endocr. Soc., p. 38. (A) With l. R. Paul. John Punnett Peters. In: Biographical Memoirs' vol. 31, pp. 347-75. Washington, D.C., National Academy of ~ - ~clences. The adrenal cortex and carbohydrate metabolism. Proc. 3d. Congr. Int. Diabetes Fed., pp. 6-7. Dusseldorf. Stuttgart, Georg Thieme Verlag. (A) Recent observations on the role of the adrenal cortex in carbo- hydrate metabolism. Proc. 3d. Congr. Int. Diabetes Fed., pp. 41- 47. Dusseldorf. Stuttgart, Georg Thieme Verlag. 1959 With O. K. Smith. Acute effects of adrenalectomy and hydrocorti- sone on glucose tolerance of diabetic and eviscerated rats. Proc. 41st Meet. Endocr. Soc., p. 54. (A)

308 With A. Brodish. BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1960 Characteristics of the adrenal ascorbic acid response to adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in the rat. Endocrinology, 66: 149-59. With E. G. Fry and M. F. M. Bonnycastle. The effect of cortisol on carbohydrate deposition and urea nitrogen excretion in adre- nalectomized rat. Proc. First Int. Congr. Endocrinol., Copen- hagen, ed. by F. Fuchs, no. 411, p. 819. (A) With O. K. Smith. The effect of adrenalectorny and cortisol on alloxan diabetic rats. Proc. First Int. Congr. Endocrinol., Co- penhagen, ed. by F. Fuchs, no. 651, p. 1293. (A) N\lith O. K. Smith and E. G. Fry. Actions of cortisol and related compounds on carbohydrate and protein metabolism. In: Metabolic Effects of Adrenal Hormones, pp. 4-24. Ciba Founda- tion Study Group no. 6. London, Churchill & Co. Medical science and the future. Yale J. Biol. Med., 33:227-34. 1962 With O. K. Smith. Some recent studies on the adrenal cortex and carbohydrate metabolism. In: The Human Adrenal Cortex, pp. 268-93. Edinburgh & London, E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. With A. Brodish. ACTH-releasing hypothalamic neurohumor in peripheral blood. Endocrinology, 71: 298--306. With A. Arimura. The influence of a small dose of vasopressin upon the pituitary-adrenal activation in the rat. .Jap. J. Physiol., 12:411-22. With A. Arimura. Effect of intracarotid injection of pitressin, pitocin, epinephrine and acetyl choline on ACTH release in rats. Jap. J. Physiol., 12:423-28. With A. Arimura. Influence of various vaso-active materials upon the hypophyseal portal vessels of rats: observation in situ. Jap. J. Physiol., 12:429-32. 1964 With T. Hiroshige. Effect of insulin on the visceral organism in the rat. Fed. Proc., 23:461. (A) With T. Hiroshige. Effect of dexamethasone on gluconeogenesis in the visceral organism. Proc. 46th Meet. Endocr. Soc., p. 100. (A) With T. Hiroshige. The preparation, maintenance and use of a

CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 309 visceral organism for metabolic studies in the rat. Yale .T- Biol. Med., 37: 75-92. 1965 With T. Hiroshige. Effect of dexamethasone and insulin on gluco- neogenesis in the adrenalectomized-diabetic visceral organism. Proc. 23d Int. Congr. Physiol., Tokyo, p. 259. With O. K. Smith. The effects of cortisol on the eviscerated adre- nalectomized-diabetic rat. Proc. 47th Meet. Endocr. Soc., p. 128. (A) 1967 With O. K. Smith. Effect of cortisol on the plasma amino nitrogen of eviscerated adrenalectomized-diabetic rats. Endocrinology, 80:561-66. In memoriam: lane A. Russell. Endocrinology, 81:689-92. 1970 With C. Rosendorff and l. Mooney. Sites of action of leucocyte pyrogen in the genesis of fever in the conscious rabbit. Fed. Proc., 29:523, no. 1547. (A) 1971 With O. K. Smith. Renal gluconeogenesis in eviscerated diabetic rats. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 68: 1618-22.

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Biographic Memoirs Volume 46 contains the biographies of deceased members of the National Academy of Sciences and bibliographies of their published works. Each biographical essay was written by a member of the Academy familiar with the professional career of the deceased. For historical and bibliographical purposes, these volumes are worth returning to time and again.

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