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Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
×

Wood in Our Future

Proceedings of a Symposium Environmental Implications of Wood as a Raw Material for Industrial Use

Board on Agriculture

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1997

Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
×

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

This study was supported by the Forest Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, under Cooperative Agreement No. FP-94-2341. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

A limited number of copies is available from:

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National Research Council

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Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
×

STEERING COMMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF WOOD AS A RAW MATERIAL FOR INDUSTRIAL USE

ERIC ELLWOOD, Chair,

Dean Emeritus, North Carolina State University

JOHN ANTLE,

Montana State University

GREGORY EYRING, Energy and Materials Consultant,

Washington, D.C.

PETER SCHULZE,

Austin College, Sherman, Texas

Staff

CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER, Program Officer

SHIRLEY THATCHER, Senior Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
×

BOARD ON AGRICULTURE

DALE E. BAUMAN, Chair,

Cornell University

JOHN M. ANTLE,

Montana State University

SANDRA S. BATIE,

Michigan State University

MAY R. BERENBAUM,

University of Illinois

LEONARD S. BULL,

North Carolina State University

WILLIAM B. DELAUDER,

Delaware State College

ANTHONY S. EARL,

Quarles & Brady Law Firm, Madison, Wisconsin

ESSEX E. FINNEY, JR.,

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Mitchellville, Maryland

CORNELIA FLORA,

Iowa State University

GEORGE R. HALLBERG,

University of Iowa

RICHARD R. HARWOOD,

Michigan State University

T. KENT KIRK,

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Madison, Wisconsin

HARLEY W. MOON,

Iowa State University

WILLIAM L. OGREN,

University of Illinois

GEORGE E. SEIDEL, JR.,

Colorado State University

JOHN W. SUTTIE,

University of Wisconsin

JAMES J. ZUICHES,

Washington State University

PAUL GILMAN, Executive Director

MICHAEL J. PHILLIPS, Director

Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
×

PREFACE

At the request of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service, the Board on Agriculture convened a symposium on "Environmental Implications of Wood as a Raw Material for Industrial Use" in March 1996 to explore issues related to the use of life-cycle analysis methodologies. Ten symposium papers are included in this report and they address several major topics:

  • critical analysis of strengths and weaknesses of life-cycle methodologies;
  • emerging issues related to life-cycle assessments of environmental impacts of wood used as a raw material;
  • global perspectives, including methodologies used in other countries; and
  • potential impacts of methodologies on public policy and international standardization.

The ten papers in this report, as well as the round table rapporteur's perspectives, reflect the authors' viewpoints and do not represent general overall opinions or findings of the symposium steering committee and symposium participants.

ERIC ELLWOOD

JOHN ANTLE

GREGORY EYRING

PETER SCHULZE

SYMPOSIUM STEERING COMMITTEE

Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
×

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is acting president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and interim vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
×
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
×
Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
×

TABLES AND FIGURES

Tables

1-1

 

Typical composition of wood

 

12

1-2

 

Typical ranges for wood calorific values

 

14

2-1

 

Net U.S. imports of selected materials as a percentage of apparent consumption, and by major foreign sources

 

23

3-1

 

Impact categories and chains

 

31

3-2

 

Sample impact matrix

 

32

3-3

 

Hazard potential

 

32

3-4

 

Hypothetical valuation structure

 

34

4-1

 

Environmental problem types

 

44

7-1

 

Environmental parameters examined for the recycled- and virgin-fiber-based systems

 

58

7-2

 

Energy, air emissions, solid waste outputs, waterborne wastes, and water use associated with component activities of three methods for managing newsprint

 

67

8-1

 

ISO Type III label performance indicators

 

76

9-1

 

Assessment methods for elements in the product system model

 

82

9-2

 

Enhancements to the life-cycle inventory

 

89

Figures

1-1

 

Materials flows in the wood and paper products system

 

13

3-1

 

Flow of materials and products associated with lumber

 

29

3-2

 

Equivalence factors for acid gas emissions impacts in the continental United States

 

33

4-1

 

System boundaries

 

38

4-2

 

Steps in the forest system boundary

 

39

4-3

 

A tree and its environment: main physical inflows and outflows

 

40

7-1

 

Total, purchased, and fossil fuel energy use for component activities of paper production and management

 

61

7-2

 

Average energy use and environmental releases for managing newsprint by recycled production + recycling vs. virgin production + waste management (landfilling and incineration)

 

62

8-1

 

Forest Conservation Program label

 

74

8-2

 

Eco-Profile label

 

75

9-1

 

Model for the product system

 

81

9-2

 

Product stewardship

 

88

9-3

 

Expanded product responsibility within the sustainable development structure

 

89

A-1

 

Useful components of a life-cycle inventory

 

119

Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
×

THE STEERING COMMITTEE ACKNOWLEDGES the outstanding contributions of all symposium speakers and participants representing academia, industry, environmental organizations, professional societies, and other associations throughout North America and Europe. Special thanks is extended to Frank Beall and Joseph Fiksel for their service and coordination of the symposium program.

Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
×
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Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
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Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
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Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
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Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
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Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
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Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
×
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Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
×
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Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
×
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Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5734.
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The United States produces 25% of the world's wood output, and wood supports a major segment of the U.S. industrial base. Trees provide fiber, resins, oils, pulp, food, paper, pharmaceuticals, fuel, many products used in home construction, and numerous other products. The use of wood as a raw material must consider production efficiencies and natural resource conservation as well as efficient, profitable use of solid wood, its residues, and by-products.

To better assess the use of wood as a raw material, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service asked the National Research Council's Board on Agriculture to bring together experts to review the analytical techniques used to follow the life-cycle of wood production--from tree to product--and assess the environmental impacts. This resulting book provides a base of current knowledge, identifying what data are lacking, where future efforts should be focused, and what is known about the methodologies used to assess environmental impacts. The book also focuses on national and international efforts to develop integrated environmental, economic, and energy accounting methologies.

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