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Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests (1997)

Chapter: B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests

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Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

APPENDIX B
SUMMARY OF DOSES AND CONCENTRATIONS OF ZINC CADMIUM SULFIDE PARTICLES FROM THE ARMY'S DISPERSION TESTS

PREPARED BY

EDMUND CROUCH

CAMBRIDGE ENVIRONMENTAL, INC.

CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

SUMMARY OF DOSES AND CONCENTRATIONS OF ZINC CADMIUM SULFIDE PARTICLES FROM THE ARMY'S DISPERSION TESTS

I.
INTRODUCTION

This document has been prepared for the Subcommittee on Zinc Cadmium Sulfide to summarize some estimates of concentrations and potential exposures (time-integrated concentrations) of zinc cadmium sulfide (ZnCdS) that were achieved during the use of this compound in certain air-dispersion tracer tests. The basic source materials were a subset of the references included in an appendix entitled "Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Testing Documents," which listed all known Army-sponsored ZnCdS tests. All reference numbers herein refer to the list for this appendix. The description of the aim of this report is best described by the scope of work:

A. SCOPE OF WORK (CAMBRIDGE ENVIRONMENTAL INC.)

Dr. Bakshi has provided Cambridge Environmental Inc. with approximately 50 documents (see the reference list for this appendix), most of which contain details of various U.S. Army-sponsored tests using ZnCdS tracer (some provide details of multiple tests in one or more series).

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Cambridge Environmental, Inc., reviewed these documents and abstracted summaries of them, providing the following details for each test or series of tests whenever such details were available in the documentation:

Name of test;

Reference;

Principal object of test;

Number of and naming conventions for releases;

A summary of the test conditions (method of release, location of release, mode of release, release vehicle, sampling station information, and so forth);

Test material;

Place of release;

Communities that were affected by measurable concentrations of tracer;

Date of releases;

Time of day of releases;

Period of time during which releases occurred;

Distance of releases to affected communities;

A summary of weather conditions during the releases;

Total quantities of ZnCdS released;

Total quantities of any other materials co-released;

Maximum time-integrated concentration (microgram-minutes per cubic meter) due to each release;

Maximum time-integrated concentration due to each release in any populated area;

Maximum concentrations during the releases;

Maximum concentrations during the releases in any populated area;

Other comments.

Not all such details were available in all cases, although certain details always appear to have been provided. In all cases examined, measurements and estimates were made of time-integrated concentrations at various locations.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

The two measurements of exposure-time—integrated concentration and concentration—are those required for estimating risks using the standard paradigms. In all cases, the release times were relatively short (<24 h), so the maximum concentration was compared with a short-term safety standard. Estimates of lifetime cancer risk are generally made using

where R is the lifetime risk estimate, U is the unit risk (m3/µg), T is a standard lifetime (70 years), C is the time-varying concentration, and t is time. This estimate involves the time-integrated concentration directly.

B. MISCELLANEOUS NOMENCLATURE

Throughout this document, various abbreviations and standard nomenclatures are used. The most important of these are the terms used to describe the two measurements of exposure or potential exposure evaluated. These two terms are

Concentration

The mass of ZnCdS tracer material per unit volume of air, averaged over a relatively short period (generally 10 s to 2 h, depending on the experiment). All concentrations are reported here in units of microgram per cubic meter.

Exposure

The time integral of the instantaneous concentration of ZnCdS at a single point of measurement, reported in microgram-minutes per cubic meter.

All the documents examined use the nomenclature "dose" to represent the time-integral of the concentration measured in particles of ZnCdS per unit volume (usually measured as particle-minutes per liter).

An attempt has been made to distinguish between concentrations and exposures measured in (humanly) populated areas and in unpopulated areas, although this attempt necessarily is limited by the available information.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Individuals, particularly those involved in the experiments, might have been subjected to the concentrations or exposures listed as being in unpopulated areas; in some cases, no one might have been subjected to the concentrations and exposures listed as being in populated areas.

The material of interest is fluorescent ZnCdS. This nomenclature is used for convenience only. The material used should probably be considered an alloy of zinc and cadmium sulfides, with the fluorescence color determined by minor additions of other elements. The stoichiometry is approximately Zn0.8Cd0.2S, but all masses used in this document refer to the total mass of the ZnCdS—no correction to obtain a mass of cadmium (the principal component of concern to the subcommittee) has been applied.

Some of the abbreviations used in the following summaries are

ppg

particles per gram

BG

Bacillus globigii

MMD

mass mean diameter

SM

Serratia marcescens

QR

quarterly report

C2

Aspergillus fumigatus

BMR

bimonthly report

Conc.

concentration

JQR

joint quarterly report

Max.

maximum

SAL

Stanford Aerosol Laboratory

Exp.

exposure

2.
SUMMARY OF RESULTS

The entries in Table B-1 are the following:

Ref.

Reference number in the listing of reports

Place

Location of the releases

Name

Any known name given to the operation in which releases occurred

Start date

Date of first release

End date

Date of last release

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

TABLE B-1 Exposure Data on ZnCdS Dispersion Tests

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Populated Areas

Unpopulated Areas

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Quantity of ZnCdS, kg

Max. Exp., µg-min/m3

Max. Conc., µg/m3

Max. Exp., g-min/m3

Max. Conc., µg/m3

 

 

 

 

 

No. of Releases

Ref.

Place

Name

Start Date

End Date

Approximate area affected, square miles

Releases not at Dugway Proving Ground

2

Camp Cooke, Calif.

 

1955

 

39

2.3

<173

<7

60,136

55,650

 

 

 

 

 

 

<10

<10

<1

<1

8

North Carolina, S. Carolina, Georgia

DEW I

03/26/52

04/21/52

5

630

98

0.34

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

<100,000

<10,000

 

 

13

Corpus Christie, Tex.

WINDSOC

08/13/59

02/22/60

13

~1,600

?

?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

<100,000

<10,000

 

 

16

Oklahoma

 

06/04/62

06/16/62

9

204

39

0.75

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

<1,000

<1,000

 

 

16

Texas

 

06/24/62

06/29/69

9

204

36

0.82

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

<1,000

<1,000

 

 

16

Washington

 

10/02/62

10/21/62

9

204

6.7

0.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

<1,000

<1,000

 

 

16

Nevada

 

10/31/62

11/05/62

8

181

23

1.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

<1,000

<1,000

 

 

17& 43

St. Louis

 

05/27/63

03/17/65

42

984

7,400

40

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

<10

<10

 

 

19

Chippewa National Forest, Minn.

 

01/25/64

08/07/64

24

330

1,620

3

2,779

9.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

<1,000

<1,000

<100

<100

20

San Francisco

 

03/25/64

04/23/67

18

27.75

<1,900

<170

1,900

170

 

 

 

 

 

 

<10

<1

<10

<1

22

Fort Wayne, Ind.

 

02/02/64

02/04/66

75

~1,650

410

<20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

<1,000

<1,000

 

 

24

Oceanside, Calif.

Onshore Offshore releases

06/23/67

07/17/67

45

237

694

1,741

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

<1

<1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

149

1.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

<1,000

<1,000

 

 

27

Pack Forest, Wash.

 

10/15/68

09/05/69

33

1.7

 

 

?

?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

<0.1

<0.1

28

Green Brier Swamp, Md.

MATE

08/01/69

10/29/69

111

2.7

<42

~0.03

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

<1

<1

 

 

30

Camp Detrick, Md.

SELTZER

02/18/53

02/24/53

4

0.022

71

9

785

93

 

 

 

 

 

 

<10

<1

<1

<1

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Populated Areas

Unpopulated Areas

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Quantity of ZnCdS, kg

Max. Exp., µg-min/m3

Max. Conc., µg/m3

Max. Exp., μg-min/m3

Max. Conc., µg/m3

 

 

 

 

 

No. of Releases

Ref.

Place

Name

Start Date

End Date

Approximate area affected, square miles

30

Biltmore Beach

WHITEHORSE

03/24/53

05/02/53

12

9.7

150,000

4,800

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

<0.1

<0.1

 

 

33

Dallas

 

04/01/61

08/31/61

37

 

?

?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

<1,000

<1,000

 

 

35

St. Louis

 

01/19/53

10/18/53

35

 

2,000

340

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

<10

<0.1

 

 

35

Minneapolis

 

05/20/53

06/23/53

102

7.9

2,600

300

17,200

1,100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

<10

<0.1

 

 

35

Winnipeg

 

07/09/53

08/01/53

36

5.8

5,600

1,000

920

130

 

 

 

 

 

 

<10

<0.1

<1

<1

 

36

Stanford University, Calif.

 

10/15/47

10/15/47

1

0.00083

5

2

 

 

37

Palo Alto, Calif.

 

03/10/50

03/14/50

2

0.976

2.4

0.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

<100

<100

 

 

37

San Francisco

 

10/20/50

10/27/50

6

22.44

436

15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

<100

<100

 

 

41

Palo Alto. Calif.

 

01/26/62

11/16/62

28

1.4

1,676

?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

<0.1

<0.1

 

 

Releases at Dugway Proving Ground

3

Dugway

 

05/04/53

06/03/53

2

5.534

 

 

<77

 

4

Dugway

 

01/21/54

03/14/54

4

0.0348

 

 

<2,000

 

6

Dugway

 

05/18/55

05/18/55

2

0.0424

 

 

<6,00

 

18

Dugway

 

05/17/63

08/15/63

9

29.6

 

 

1,044

 

29

Dugway

GOOF

08/23/55

11/01/55

5

0.8

<409

 

14,300

 

31

Dugway

 

04/03/58

04/22/58

4

0.0534

 

 

 

 

32

Dugway

 

02/70 to 03/7/06

 

0.21

 

 

<137,000

 

37

Dugway

 

07/01/50

08/04/50

9

8.244

0.03

 

<80

0.5

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Total quantity

Quantity released in all known releases, including corrections for missing data

Number of releases

Total number of known releases of ZnCdS

Populated areas

Concentrations or exposures in populated communities, or, for Dugway, at the limits of the measurement array

Unpopulated areas

Concentrations or exposures in unpopulated areas

Max. Exp.

The maximum exposure (time integral of concentration) of ZnCdS measured

Max. Conc.

The maximum concentration of ZnCdS measured or es-timated

Approx. area affected

An order of magnitude estimate of the area affected within exposure.

See the summary reports that follow for important caveats on all the reported values. In particular, all exposures are likely to be accurate to a factor of 2 at best, all concentrations will be substantially less accurate than that, and the magnitude of the values given often depends strongly on the placement of the sampling devices. All exposures and concentrations represent the total mass of ZnCdS present. (There is no correction to the mass of only cadmium.)

Exposure and concentration values are not directly comparable between experiments because of the different areas affected and the different placement of sampling points. To give an idea of the variation, the table includes (for the non-Dugway releases) some order of magnitude estimates for the areas affected within approximately an order of magnitude of the maximum concentrations or exposures reported. The areas given are approximate upper bounds on the areas affected, rounded up to the nearest power of 10.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

A missing entry generally indicates a lack of, or irrelevance of, a measurement or estimate for that entry (e.g., exposures to unpopulated areas are irrelevant for releases made over populated areas).

In Chapter 5, Table 5-1 is derived from Table B-1. To obtain the cadmium dose, the maximal exposure of ZnCdS (expressed as µg-min/m3 as shown in Table 5-1) is multiplied by 0.0166 m3/min (the volume of air inhaled by an active person in one minute). The product is then multiplied by 0.156 (the mass fraction of cadmium in ZnCdS). The corresponding cadmium doses are 6.8 µg in Minnesota, 14.5 µg in Winnipeg, 24.4 µg in St. Louis, and 390 µg in Biltmore Beach.

APPROACH AND METHODS

A. BASIC APPROACH

An initial scan of the approximately 50 documents available showed that there were too many and too varied a set of experiments to be able to perform complex or even simple analyses beyond those performed by the original experimenters and reported in the references. As far as possible, this report therefore contains simple abstracts of the most relevant data from the references, with as little interpolation as possible, and with only the simplest extrapolations.

The original researchers usually provided substantial documentation. A much more thorough job of reconstruction of exposures would in most cases be possible with substantially more resources, but, in view of the orders of magnitude of the exposures, such a reconstruction would probably not add much value for the committee.

B. PURPOSE OF ORIGINAL EXPERIMENTS

In the references examined, there were two principal purposes for the experiments performed:

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×
  • Experimental confirmation of the practicality of dispersion of biologic warfare agents, empirical observations of the ranges and exposures that might be achieved, and obtaining correlations between the dispersal of biologic agents and inert aerosols. The fluorescent tracer was used as safe indicator of the potential extent of spread of biologic organisms under similar meteorologic conditions.

  • Tracer tests in the atmosphere, to determine how the atmosphere behaves and derive correlations relating the dispersion of gases and aerosols to observable meteorologic conditions.

Of course, if correlations could be obtained between dispersal of biologic organisms and inert aerosols, the second purpose would also serve the first, although the second also has much wider application.

C. THE TYPICAL EXPERIMENT

The fluorescent-particle (FP) tracer technique is extensively described in Ref. 48. The idea is to release into the atmosphere a very large number of small particles as an aerosol that then disperse. The concentration of these particles after dispersion downwind is then measured by counting the individual particles collected by a collection device that samples a known volume of air. ZnCdS, originally developed as a fluorescent paint pigment, was found to be suitable for this application. The useful particle size range is about 0.5 to 5 µm, with the lower end limited by the detectability of the particles, and the upper end limited by the rate of fall-out from the air. The typical experiment used particles with a mass mean diameter of 1 to 2 µm, and an effective dispersal rate of around 1 x 1010 particles per gram (ppg).

It was found that the best available fluorescent ZnCdS particles could be reliably detected by eye under an optical microscope (with ultraviolet illumination to excite the fluorescence) at sizes down to around 0.3 µm diameter, allowing measurement of concentrations by counting individual particles collected on filters or other collection devices. Background counts in most areas were very low. No automatic particle-counting

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

methods were described in the references examined. All particle counts were apparently obtained by human microscopic observations, although mechanical methods to improve the efficiency of sample preparation and presentation to the human observer are mentioned.

In a typical experiment, grams to kilograms of ZnCdS powder would be released over periods ranging from seconds to hours using an air-driven dispenser designed to efficiently produce an aerosol cloud. The dispenser would be mounted at a particular location (point source), or on the back of a moving vehicle (line source)—trucks, aircraft, and boats were used. The method of dispersion affected the dispersion efficiency, a measure of how much clumping of the particles occurred during release. Typical particles-per-gram values for particular manufacturers' lots of ZnCdS were apparently1 obtained by a standardized test involving the dispersal of a small quantity of the material in an enclosed chamber. The particle count would then be obtained by sampling the aerosol with a filter-type sampler. The dispersion efficiency in an experiment is then the ratio of the particles per gram achieved in the experiment to the standardized value. A blending agent was typically used to improve the flow characteristics of the ZnCdS powder and reduce clumping, but environmental conditions could obviously affect the dispersion efficiency attained.

Downwind of the release point or line, sampling stations were set up at locations of interest. These sampling stations sampled the air by drawing a known volume flow rate (typically 6 liters (L)/min) through a filter (an approach that collects practically 100% of the particles on the filter) or by using a Rotorod collector. The latter consists of an H shaped wire (0.016 x 1/16 in.) with vertical members approximately 2.5 in. long, and crossbar 4.75 in. long, rotated upright about the center of the cross-bar. Particle collection is by impact on the 0.016-in.-wide leading edge of the vertical members of the H, which were coated with silicone (vacuum) grease to improve collection efficiency. The effective volume swept by the

1  

This description is inferential because no detailed description of the test method was located in the available material.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Rotorod was about 40 L/min, and collection efficiencies (which were calibrated against filter collectors) ranged from 30% to 80%, depending on the ZnCdS particle size distribution. Two independent samples could be obtained on each Rotorod by reversing the direction of rotation and using the other edge of the wire to obtain the second.

Sampling was typically started just before the release, and continued for a period lasting longer than the expected time during which any cloud of particles would be expected to be present. In some cases the time course of the cloud of aerosol was followed by using a sequential drum sampler, a type of filter sampler with a set of filters that could be automatically sequenced mechanically.

Filters and Rotorods would then be taken to a laboratory, and the collected particles counted. Reported results were always given in terms of exposure—typically as particle-minutes per liter.

The advantages of the FP tracer technique include its very high sensitivity, and its applicability over a wide range of scales. Statistically reliable particle counts require only 40 detected particles (for 15-20% accuracy), and with a collection volume flow rate of 6 L/min, this corresponds to an exposure of around 6 particle-min/L. At a count of 1 x 1010 ppg, this corresponds to 0.6 µg-min/m3, or an average of 0.04 µg/m3 for a 15-min sampling period. The technique was applied over scales that ranged from almost backyard to multistate.

D. METHODS USED IN THIS DOCUMENT TO ESTIMATE EXPOSURES AND CONCENTRATIONS

I. EXPOSURES

All the references examined reported exposures in particle-minutes per liter or gave tabular data of raw particle counts (e.g., particles per filter). These values were, in general, taken at their face values (in one case (Ref. 19) a clearly incorrect description of tabular data was corrected). Reported values of particle-minutes per liter had generally been corrected

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

for the collection efficiency of the sampling device, and these corrections were not questioned. Where only raw particle counts were given, the collection efficiency was also available, so that a correction could be applied for collection efficiency. The Dugway Proving Ground tests often gave only raw count data, but in the references examined these always used filter-type collectors with effectively 100% collection efficiency. In some of these cases, the sampling rate for the filter sampler was not given, and was assumed similar to the sampling rate in previous or subsequent experiments. Details are given in the individual summaries that follow.

The conversion from particle-minutes per liter to microgram-minutes per cubic meter (the unit of exposure used throughout this document) requires a particles-per-gram measurement for the dispersed aerosol in each experiment. Where this value was provided in the references, it was used, taking account also of any cited or cross-referenced dispersion efficiency for the device used in the particular experiment.2 Where no dispersion efficiency was cited, but only a particles-per-gram count was given, that particles-per-gram count was generally taken to be the effective particles-per-gram count for the experiment (i.e., incorporating the dispersion efficiency), provided that this interpretation was consistent with the language of the reference and the result was within a reasonable range. Where no particles-per-gram count or dispersion efficiency was given, generic estimates based on the ZnCdS lot number or supplier and other experimental results were used to estimate the effective particles per gram of the dispersed aerosols. More details are given where necessary in the individual summaries that follow.

The estimates of particles per gram for the dispersed aerosols is necessarily approximate, and applying this estimate to the aerosols that were collected is doubly so. For these reasons, the exposure estimates are not considered accurate to better than a factor of two even in the best circum-

2  

The dispersion efficiency depends on the device, the vehicle from which the dispersion is taking place, and other conditions of the dispersion. Some fullscale tests of dispersion efficiency were done for some of the aerial line-source releases, using the vertical grid at Dugway Proving Ground.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

stances. All exposure estimates in this document have thus been scaled (to microgram-minutes per cubic meter) to take account of both dispersion and collection efficiencies.

Exposures were often measured at many points, and the exposures varied substantially with location—particularly with distance from the sources. All exposure estimates given in this document correspond as closely as possible to the maximum exposures measured at any given point in any particular experiment. Where there were multiple releases, the exposures due to each release were summed at each measurement point, and the value abstracted here is the maximum of those sums. In a few cases, documented in the summaries that follow, it was impossible3 to obtain the sum of the exposures at every measured point. In such cases, the best estimate available, or a conservative overestimate, for the maximum sum at any given point was used instead (e.g., in some cases, the maximum exposures—at different points—from each release were summed to obtain an overestimate of the maximum that could occur at any point).

In several cases, no tabular data were available, and it was necessary to estimate maximum exposures from contour data plotted on maps. Although individual measurement points were always also plotted, such individual points were often unreadable with the copies of the maps available. Because the contours plotted were widely spaced (often only in decades of particle-min per liter) and not completely consistent from map to map (some maps interpolated extra contours between some decades of particle-min per liter) and because the legends were often unreadable, this technique necessarily introduced further errors. The combined errors of reading from maps could amount to a factor of 5 in the exposure estimate in some cases.

The convention of using the highest measured value results in substantial

3  

Either the data were not available in the reference or obtaining the sum was logistically impractical with current resources because of the large quantity of data available.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

variability due to the selection of sampling points. Exposures might vary dramatically with distance from a source, particularly from ground-level point or line sources, and particularly at small distances from the source. However, this approach was adopted because it requires the minimum extrapolation from the reported data. As mentioned in the Introduction, it would probably be possible in many cases to perform modeling to obtain a more standardized value for exposure, but such an approach would require resources beyond those available for this document.

Where appropriate and possible, separate estimates have been made for exposures in populated and unpopulated areas. Unpopulated areas were defined as areas not containing any buildings or street layouts indicating a built-up area on contemporary maps (if they were provided in the original reference) or on a modern computerized street map. ''Unpopulated'' areas included Dugway Proving Ground, the middle of a national forest, and the middle of a desert area. Caveats about such interpretations are provided in the individual summaries that follow.

II. CONCENTRATIONS

The methods used in these references did not allow direct measurements of concentrations, so that some inferences are required to provide estimates of concentration. The approach generally was to use as little extrapolation as possible, so that the concentration estimates are based as closely as possible on the measurements. However, the uncertainties in maximum concentrations are necessarily substantially larger than those in exposures.

For the purposes of this committee, the instantaneous concentration is of little consequence, since all concentrations are sufficiently low that no acute effects are expected under any circumstances (see Ref. 48 in Section 4.2, for example, where a short discussion of potential toxicity is abstracted from Ref. 48). Thus, whenever time-resolved data from an experiment were presented in the references, those data were used to estimate average concentrations over the resolution period of the data, even though the resolution varied from 10 s to 6 min.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

The varied data collection and presentation methods given in the references necessitated varied approaches to estimating concentrations. The following techniques, or combinations of them, were used in different cases to estimate the maximum concentration that occurred during any single release at any measurement point. The methods used in each case are mentioned in slightly greater detail in the summaries that follow.

  • If time-resolved data were available, those data were used. Time resolution varied from 10-s to 6-min averages, and those data were obtained with drum samplers. Where the time-resolved data did not coincide with the maximum exposure, the time-resolved data were adjusted upwards in proportion to relative exposures. This technique assumes a similar concentration-versus-time variation at both such points.

  • For extended period point sources, the release periods were used to estimate the time the aerosol cloud could be present at any particular sampling point, and the exposures measured at those sampling points divided by the time periods to obtain an average concentration.

  • For some instantaneous point sources, measured plume sizes allowed an estimate of the cross-wind standard deviation (σy) for an assumed gaussian shape. A similar standard deviation (σy = σx) was assumed for the downwind direction. Combining an assumption of downwind gaussian shape with the measured wind speed then allows an estimate for the peak concentration.

  • For short releases from point or line sources, a combination of the two previous methods was applied. The release period was increased by twice the estimated downwind standard deviation in time (standard deviation in space divided by wind speed) to estimate the period the aerosol cloud might be present, and the average concentration obtained by dividing exposure by this period.

  • Where no time-resolved data or aerosol-cloud-size data could be estimated from the measurements, but meteorologic data were available,

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

the cloud was assumed to be gaussian in time, and the standard deviation in time of the concentration estimated by dividing σx by the wind speed, obtaining σx by assuming σy = σx, and estimating the former σy using the meteorologic conditions (using the standard estimates used in all EPA air-dispersion models).

  • If no other methods could be used and some measurements of plume spread and wind speed were available, a standard line-source dispersion model was used for long-distance plume travel under inversion conditions from a line source. The measured value of σy was matched to the model to select the stability class, or the total exposure was matched to the measured exposure, and the model then provided an estimate of maximum concentration.

These approaches do not exhaust all possibilities used, because almost all references required a slightly different approach. For example, some methods used can be summarized as follows:

Reference Method

No. 2

Cloud widths, wind speed, combination approach.

No. 5

2-h averages (samples).

No. 16

Standard dispersion model from line source, assume gaussian time shape and σx = 1,000 m (C stability at relevant distance).

No. 17

Reference shows concentrations—choose largest.

No. 18

15-min averages given.

No. 22

Approximate matching of measured σy and total exposure, using dispersion programs.

No. 24

Gaussian plume shape, total exposure, measured σy for point sources; total exposure, measured plume speed and duration for line sources.

No. 28

Rough empirical correlation provided in reference, plus total mass released.

No. 30

Total exposure, plume release time plus estimated σx.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×
III. AREAS AFFECTED

An estimate of the area affected was not included within the original scope-of-work, and much less effort has been devoted to these estimates, which are provided only in the summary table in Section 2 for the non-Dugway releases. The estimates of areas affected have been obtained by roughly estimating the length by width of the measured or inferred plumes in each experiment (or the angle and radius affected for point sources). The area so obtained (in square miles) was rounded up to the nearest power of 10, and entered in the table with a "less than" (<) indication. Where plumes went in substantially different directions in different releases, the area affected listed in the "Exposure" column in the table might be larger than that in the "Concentration" column, the latter indicating the size of individual plumes. The "size" of an aerosol plume is fairly arbitrary, since it depends on the definition given to the edge of the plume—much of the material in these plumes could travel over thousand mile distances if not rained out. As a rough approximation, wherever an explicit bound was needed, the distance to a concentration or exposure approximately 10 times lower than the maximum was used.

There are some cases in which a rough estimate of the plume size can be made (by using details of the experimental design), even though no estimate can be made of the concentration or exposure.

3.
MISCELLANEOUS NOTES

A. REFERENCES THAT ARE NOT EVALUABLE OR WHERE MORE DATA ARE NEEDED

These references are probably available.

No. 1

Central Alaska. Volume 2B available. Need Volumes 1 and 2A for any useful report. No estimate made.

No. 13

Only 18 pages of more than 73 are available. The remainder, particularly the appendix, is needed. No estimates made.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

No. 17

A short paper presentation to the annual meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association. Should be more information available somewhere. Only graphs with some particle concentrations and particle counts. No mass release or particle conversion information. See also Ref. 43. Single point estimate made, but not very useful.

No. 23A

This is Vol. 2, Part B. Need Vol. 1 and Vol. 2A. No data on where, what, or how much. Results for trials 10 through 17, but generally uninterpretable without Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, Part A. No estimate made.

No. 25

A theoretic discussion of the analyses that would be applied to the Woodlot series. No data were available at the time of this report, and only the first part of the experimental series had actually been carried out. The number of releases in the first part of the experimental period (Sept. 25 to Dec. 15, 1967) is given, but no information on quantity of release or exposures measured is reported. No estimate made.

No. 33

Only two title pages, three summary pages, and three document pages available. The full volumes 1 and 2 are required for analysis. No estimate made.

No. 43

Published version of Ref. 17 (above).

b. REFERENCES THAT ARE NOT DIRECTLY RELEVANT

No. 14

Only zinc sulfide disseminated. No zinc cadmium sulfide.

No. 15

Continuation of Report 14. Theoretic analysis of previous results.

No. 21

Vol. 3 only. Mathematic model only. No measurements, or any specific trial. Mentions the Jungle Canopy experiment.

No. 26

Matagorda Deposition Trials. Tracer materials were glass beads and fluorescent tagged cork (using 8% Velva Glo). No further information on the fluorescent material is given. The data appendices are missing. A technical report on the same experiment is attached.

No. 38

A 1967 abstract of a paper on the FP tracer technique. No data. References to literature on the technique.

No. 39

The experiments mentioned used sulfur dioxide gas. No ZnCdS.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

No. 40

A discussion of washout of particles and gases by rain. A reference is given to a paper describing 20 experiments with FPs.

No. 42

A 1965 paper on the FP technique from Metronics (Leighton, Perkins, Grinnell, and Webster). Describes various products mentioned in the other references: Valron Estersil (blended with ZnCdS pigments at 0.5% to improve flow), which is a hydrophobic silica product manufactured by DuPont (U.S. Patent No. 2,657,149, issued 27 Oct. 1953); and FP 2266, which was made by New Jersey Zinc (NJZ) Company and is now made by U.S. Radium Corp. (USRC). FP 2267 is the same as 2266, except that it has been selected to have a maximum number of particles between 0.75 µm and 3.0 µm in diameter and has been treated to improve flow. Particle-size distributions are given for two lots of 2266: Lot A, mass mean diameter 3 µm, number median diameter 1.8 µm, ppg of 1.7 x 1010; and Lot B, mass mean diameter 3.2 µm, number median diameter 1.4 µm, ppg of 1.4 x 1010 (but distribution unacceptable for tracer technique).

There is evidence in the paper that experiments up to 10 years old have been re-examined, but no data are presented.

Rotorod efficiencies observed to range from 28% to 73% for FP 2266 with different particle-size distributions. First for MMD of 1.8 µm, 7.9 x 1010 ppg, second for MMD 3.1 µm and 1.6 x 1010 ppg.

Several tables contain particle counts per gram.

Material

Lot

ppg

Uncertainty

NJZ 2266

9BM5

5.94 x 1010

2.9%

USRC 2267

WS-11

1.33 x 1010

2.5%

USRC 2267

128

1.56 x 1010

2.4%

USRC 2267

140

1.56 x 1010

4.3%

USRC 2267

142

1.38 x 1010

5.2%

USRC 3206

129

1.62 x 1010

3.2%

USRC 3206

141

2.24 x 1010

5.3%

USRC 3206

143

1.64 x 1010

6.6%

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

USRC 3206

145

1.33 x 1010

4.4%

NJZ 2266

8BG505

3.3 x 1010

 

USRC 2267

1339-2

1.7 x 1010

 

USRC 2267

WS-11

0.97 x 1010

 

USRC 2267

12-21

1.2 x 1010

 

USRC 2210

0067

1.35 x 1010

 

Field Experiment

Lot

ppg

138

H324-2

3.3 x 1010

139

DPG12-21

1.2 x 1010

140

1339-2

1.6 x 1010

No. 46

A 1967 revision of a technical manual (originally published 1963, revised 1964) for the FP tracer technique. Describes the assessment of particle collections on membrane filters and impactors (Rotorods).

No. 47

QR SAL 448-4 (July-Sept. 1960) of the Stanford Aerosol Laboratory (SAL), Stanford University. Mention is made of an Operation LAC, with four trials mentioned (A-1, A-2, A-3, B-1), and references are given--apparently those trials were conducted at Dugway, because the sampling data are included in a report entitled "Data Supplement to DPGTR 227." (Dugway Proving Ground Technical Report). There are indications of use of >50 lb of FPs in tower trials at Dugway. Particles-per-gram counts are given for several lots. It is mentioned that the ppg for WINDSOC Lots 7 through 13 are listed in a previous report (QR SAL 448-3). These were obtained through aerosolization tests, the nature of which is not discussed.

Test

FP Material

ppg

34A & B

2266 Lot CEP 8000-0002

4.51 x 1010

42A & B

2267 Lot 14 WINDSOC

1.34 x 1010

43A & B

2267 Lot 15 WINDSOC

0.92 x 1010

44A

2267 Lot 11 WINDSOC

1.34 x 1010

44B

2267 Lot 11 WINDSOC

1.28 x 1010

44C

2267 Lot 11 WINDSOC

1.26 x 1010

45A & B

2210 Lot 0067 Experimental

1.35 x 1010

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

The last lot is described as being used extensively by the GE Hanford group. The report mentions a series of small-scale trials (SAL FE 132, 29 Aug. 1960) (FE, field experiment) in which mixtures of FP 2267 and FP 2210 were aerosolized and sampled downwind. These were to be described in a subsequent report. Six releases were completed in an afternoon, involving release rates of 2-3 g/min (period not specified) with samplers 700 ft downwind.

No. 48

June 1955 Operational Manual (reprinted 1958) for the Stanford Fluorescent-particle Technique. Some discussion of the toxicity of ZnCdS. For example,

"When the aerosol generator shortly to be described is operated near its maximum output, i.e., about 10 g of FP material per minute, the above dosage tolerance figure of 1010 particle-minutes per liter could only be reached by an individual who breathed directly in the effluent air stream from the generator for a period of several hours.

"During any reasonable operation of the equipment described in this manual, there is a safety factor of 1,000 to 1,000,000 or more between the dosages which could possibly be encountered by personnel in the neighborhood of the operations and the dosages which have been experimentally demonstrated (with nearly equivalent material) to be absolutely harmless.

"Atmospheric FP tracer experiments may be run hundreds of times over the same populated area without subjecting any inhabitant to more than one millionth of the proven safe dosage.

"The potentially toxic effects of any surface depositions of FP material produced by the experimental operations are nil."

No. 61

A 1970 review by GCA Corp. of meteorologic aspects of a high altitude release of ZnCdS over the West Coast of the United

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

 

States. No information on actual releases. Contains a discussion of the potential air pollution and deposition hazards, and some estimates of maximum human exposures to cadmium that could arise, coupled with comparisons that show these exposures are negligible compared with human daily intakes of cadmium.

No. 71

Duplicate of No. 48.

Unnumbered

W.D. Crozier and B.K. Seely. Concentration distributions in aerosol plumes three to twenty-two miles from a point source. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 36 (1955) 42-52. This describes results of dispersion studies in the plains of New Mexico in June and July of 1952, and some work in Australia, using pigment No. 2210 from NJZ. This pigment is described as ZnS, not ZnCdS.

Pigment 2210 is mentioned in Nos. 42, 47, and 27. The first is just a measurement of ppg. The second is a measurement of ppg, together with a small-scale aerosolization test. The third is a set of experiments on dispersion into a forested area.

C. REFERENCES THAT ARE NOT AVAILABLE FOR THIS REPORT

No. 4(e)

Dugway Proving Ground, 7 Apr. 1954.

No. 5

Dugway Proving Ground, Oct. 1954.

No. 6

Evaluation of the Cluster B133 Filled BG (12 pp.) "Operation Polka Dot"

No. 7

Dugway Proving Ground.

No. 8

DEW II. An experimental study of long range aerosol cloud travel involving ground deposition of biologic spore material (113 pp.).

No. 9

Minneapolis, Minn., St. Louis, Mo. 15 Jan.-24 Mar. 1953. Behavior of aerosol clouds within cities (82 pp.). Almost certainly refers to the same studies as Ref. 35.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

No. 10

Rosemont, Minn. Sept.-Oct. 1953. Preliminary field trials of the aerosol X1A. Abn dry agent dissemination unit (78 pp.).

No. 11

San Francisco Bay, Redwood City, Calif. 21 and 26 Mar. 1956.

No. 12

Continental U.S. East of Rocky Mountains. 30 Nov. 1957, 6 Feb. 1958, 25 Apr. 1958, 20 Mar. 1958.

No. 13

WINDSOC. Most of the documentation is missing.

No. 23

Victoria Diffusion Trials, Vol. 1 (and also Vol. 2, Part A).

No. 34

Operation Moby Dick, San Francisco Bay, Calif. Sept. 1950.

No. 44

A repeat of the first volume of Ref. 19.

No. 45

Preliminary air pollution survey of cadmium and its compounds, Y.C. Athanassiadis, Contract PH 22-68-25, Oct. 1969, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. 235 pp.

D. A CHRONOLOGY OF THE EARLIEST EXPERIMENTS

Stanford University (Grinnell, Perkins, Webster, later Hutchison)

Jan. 1946

Contract W-18-035-CWS-1256

Original 2-year contract, running 1/1/46 through 12/31/47

June 1947

Contract W-18-035-CM-147

Next 2-year contract

Dec. 1947

Contract W-18-035-CWS-1256

Original contract extended to 2/28/48 (Ref. 36 covers the results of Contract W18-035-CWS-1256 through the end of 1947.)

Feb. 1948

Contract W-18-035-CM-147 Both contracts combined to run under this number until 12/31/49

The results obtained in W-18-035-CM-147 are not documented in any of the available reports. From subsequent experiment numbering and discussions, it appears that up to 14 experiments were performed over populated areas (numbered FE 1 through FE 14), probably in Palo Alto.

In Ref. 37, the following bimonthly reports are referred to: BMR 4, Oct.-

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Nov. 1948; BMR 9; BMR 11, Apr.-May 1949; BMR 13; BMR 14, Oct.-Nov.-Dec. 1949.

Ref. 37 also mentions that experiments FE 13 and FE 14 showed the feasibility of using FPs in 1-lb quantities for a dispersion over a distance of 4 miles or more.

Feb. 1950 Contract DA-18-108-CML-450 Continuation of studies under W-18-035-CM-147.

These are documented in Ref. 37 quarterly reports. However, QR 4 is missing, and any quarterly reports beyond QR 7 are also missing (including any final report).

E. CHRONOLOGY AND CROSS-REFERENCING OF THE EXPERIMENTS

This chronology incorporates many of the loose ends that were noticed but is almost certainly not complete. It was compiled by noting in each reference any cross-references to other experiments. All dates are said to be those of FP releases described in the cross-reference, or of documents that are said to describe FP releases in the cross-reference. In some cases, there are guesses based on nomenclature, indicated by a ? under the reference.

The notation ?(5) indicates a cross-reference to some release, and it is possible that the unavailable reference given in the parentheses corresponds to that cross-reference. It is also possible that these two are distinct.

The list below shows the following: (1) a range of dates during which releases were said to take place, (2) the reference-list number (Ref.) in which that set of releases is described in detail, or (3) the reference-list number (XRef.) in which that release is mentioned but is not described in detail. A reference number in parentheses indicates that the reference is in the list but was not in the set of references available for this report.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

The unnumbered reference is indicated with an asterisk (*).

Note that the people originally at Stanford subsequently or concurrently founded or worked at or for Metronics.

Dates

Ref

XRef.

Comments

1/46-12/47

36

 

Stanford: Contract W-18-035-CWS-1256. Original experiments at SAL. One release 10/47.

6/47-?/49

 

37

Stanford: Contract W-18-035-CM-147. Possible field experiments FE 1 through FE 12. Certainly field experiments FE 13 and FE 14 involving pound quantities.

2/50-?

37

 

Stanford: Contract DA-18-108-CML-450. Field experiments FE 18 through FE 30. Last available QR is Oct. 1951.

1950

 

2

Dugway. Summer. FP, BG, and API generated simultaneously.

10/50

 

2

Dugway. Special Report 142. San Francisco.

1951

 

2

Dugway test. FP with AB 1 and bacterium Tularense (more than four trials)

3/52-4/52

8

 

DEW I. N. and S. Carolina, and Georgia.

1952

(8)

2

DEW II. N. and S. Carolina, and Georgia

6/52-7/52

 

*

New Mexico (FP 2210, possibly not ZnCdS).

1/53-10/53

35

 

Minneapolis, St. Louis, and Winnipeg. Aerosol clouds in cities. Contracts DA-18-064-CML-1856 (Stanford) and DA-18-064-CML-2282 (Parsons).

2/53-3/53

30

 

SELTZER (Dugway), and WHITEHORSE (Florida).

5/53-6/53

3

 

Dugway tests BW 6-52 and BW 5-52.

9/53-10/53

(10)

 

Rosemont, Minn.

1953

 

2, 41

Stanford. Contract DA-42-007-403-CML-111.

1953

 

2

Stanford. Contract DA-18-108-CML-450: ''Dispersion of aerosols and travel of aerosol clouds.'' This contract number is the same as given above (see 2/50-?), so it might be the final report for the contract.

1953

 

2

Stanford. Contract DA-18-064-CML-1856.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

 

 

 

"Research concerning the propagation of air-borne agents for work over cities."

1/54-3/54

4

 

Dugway tests BW 8A-1-54 through BW 8A-5-54, omitting 8A-3-54.

1/54-3/54

?(4e)

4

Dugway test BW 8A-3-54; suggested by nomenclature of XRef.

1954

?4

2

Dugway. "A number of trials producing aerosols of BG and FP."

1954

(34)

2

MOBY DICK, Calif.

1954/55

?(5)

6

Trials BW 8B-1-54 through BW 8B-6-54 suggested by numbering.

5/55

6

 

TROUBLE MAKER. Dugway trials BW 8B-7-54 and BW 8B-8-54.

7/55

(6)

 

POLKA DOT.

8/55-11/55

29

 

GOOF. Dugway. Trials BW 1A-1-56 through BW 1A-5-56.

1955

2

 

Camp Cooke, Calif.

1955

?

2

Unexplained reference to "St. Jo munitions expenditure panel" might indicate a named operation, possibly the Camp Cooke operation.

3/56

(11)

 

San Francisco Bay, Redwood City, Calif.

1956

(7)

 

Dugway Proving Ground.

11/57-3/58

(12)

 

Continental U.S., east of Rocky Mountains. 30 Nov. 1957, 6 Feb. 1958, 25 Apr. 1958, 20 Mar. 1958.

4/58

31

 

Dugway. BW 398-A Trials 8, 9, 10, 11.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

FP use appears to be routine and hardly commented on at Dugway by this time.

Dates

Ref

XRef

Comments

8/59-2/60

13

 

WINDSOC. Contract DA-42-007-403-CMI- 432.

before 9/60

 

47

LAC. Dugway (?). Four trials mentioned (A-1, A-2, A-3, B-1). "Data Supplement to DPGTR 227" is said to contain the FP sampling data. Also, Stanford Semiannual Report SALR 111-19, June 1959 is Part 1, and Technical Report No. 86, Analysis of LAC-58 Trials B-1 and A-3, Sept. 1960, is Part II of a report on Operation LAC.

before 9/60

 

47

Forest canopy trials (Test plan 486).

8/60

 

47

Mention of field experiment. SAL FE 132. At least six releases.

?

 

41

Dugway Trial 507 B-7 is said to have used an FP discussed in Ref. 41 (presumably occurs before Trial 508—see 1/61 below).

1/61

 

18, 47

Dugway. DPGTM 1045, Field calibration of the L 23 FP Disseminator, Bio 508A. At least five releases. Ref. 47 mentions "BW Trial 508-3" and "Trial 508-9," and indicates the possible use of>50 lb FP in this trial.

4/61-8/61

33

 

Dallas Tower Studies. Texas. Contract DA-42-007-CML-504.

8/61-1/63

 

19, 21

Bendix Corp. Bendix Systems Division. Jungle Canopy Penetration. Vol. 1. Diffusion Measurements. Contract DA42-007-530. Final Report (Aug. 1961-Jan. 1963) (by Hamilton et. al., according to p. 1-32 of text of Ref. 19).

1/62-11/62

41

 

Palo Alto. Contract DA 42-007-CML-543. Field experiments FE 134 through FE 140. Metronics FP efficiency test of Rotorods.

6/62-11/62

16

 

Oklahoma, Texas, Washington, Nevada.

7/62

 

18

Dugway. DPGTM 1052. Calibration of the

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

 

 

 

Model D- dry particulate disseminator designed for the L-20 aircraft, Bio 508B. July 1962. At least three releases.

5/63-8/63

18

 

Dugway.

5/63-3/65

17, 43

 

St. Louis

8/63

 

18

Dugway. DPGTM 1058, Drone Delivery System AN/USD-2 (XAE-3), Phase III, biologic studies. Aug. 1963. At least five releases.

11/63

 

19

Meteorology Research, Inc. Report 63-FR-108. Dissemination and Evaluation of a Tracer Material Release (Big Jack) (U), Vol. 1, by T.B. Smith and F. Vukovich. Contract DA42-007- AMC-15(X). Final Report (29 Nov. 1963). AD 347, 791. CONFIDENTIAL. (Text of Ref. 19, p. 1-31 indicates authors as Smith and Leavengood).

1/64-8/64

19

 

Chippewa Forest, Minn. Deciduous Forest Diffusion Study. Contract DA-42-007-AMC- 48(R).

6/64-8/64

 

21

Diffusion under a Jungle Canopy (Ref. 21 is Vol. 3, theoretic analysis only. Vols. 1 and 2 are not available.)

2/64-2/66

22

 

Fort Wayne. Urban Diffusion Project. Contract DA-42-007-AMC-37(R).

3/64

 

19

Geophysics Corp. of America. Technical Reniques and Data System, by H.E. Cramer et. al. Contract DA42-007-CML-552. Final Report. AD444, 197.

3/64

 

20

Metronics. Field experiments FE 146 mentioned.

1/64-2/65

1

 

Central Alaska.

6/65-6/66

(23)

 

Victoria, Tex. Diffusion trials. July-Aug. 1965, 9-29 July 1966.

10/65-5/67

20

 

San Francisco. Contract DA-42-007-AMC-2-40(R). From Metronics. Field experiments FE 151 through 157.

1966

 

19

1.A. Smith and M.E. Singer. Personal conversa-

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

 

 

 

tions. (Text of Ref. 19 indicates experiments at Brookhaven National Laboratory.)

6/67-7/67

24

 

Oceanside, Calif. Oceanside diffusion shoreline project. Contract DA 42-007-AMC-180(R)

8/67

 

24

T.B. Smith, and K.M. Beesmer. Bolsa Island Meteorological Investigation. MRI Report FR-650 for Bechtel Corp., 58 pp., 1967. Eight releases mentioned.

9/67-12/67

25

 

WOODLOT.

6/68

 

32

Dugway Proving Ground. "T3-665" trials testing the dissemination efficiency of the Mark IX disseminator. Final Report. Technology test of FP fluidizers, by W.A. Brown and J.E. Frese, RDT&E Project 1V025001A128, June 1968.

10/68-9/69

27

 

Pack Forest, Wash. Forest diffusion. Grant DA-AMC-28-043-68-G8.

8/69-10/69

28

 

MATE. First field test. Contract DA 42-007-AMC-339(Y)

2/70-3/70

32

 

Dugway. Check test of West Vertical Grid.

F. COMMENTS ON CHRONOLOGY AND CROSS-REFERENCING

The series of field experiments named FE 1 upwards was started by Stanford, and apparently continued by Metronics. Note that there are gaps in the numbering in the documents available.

Ref. 32 used a Mark IX disseminator and refers to the "T3-665" trials testing the efficiency of this disseminator. However, there is little, if any, reference to earlier "Mark" disseminators. Other references are to the D- (L-20) and the L-23 disseminators or to a Stanford generator or a Skil blower.

4.
REFERENCE LIST

  1. T.B. Smith and K.M. Beesmer. 1967. Dissemination and Evaluation of

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

a Tracer Material Release. West Site (U) Vol. 2—Part B. Report to Deseret Test Center, Fort Douglas, Utah, from Meteorology Research, 464 West Woodbury Road, Altadena, Calif. Project DESERET. Contract DA 42-007-AMC-162(Y) Phase II. MRI Document MR165 FR288. Mar. 1967.

  1. Special Report 273. Comparison of Simulant Decay Rates in Field Tests (U). Program Research, Field Operations and Meteorology Branches, Assessment Division, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md., Nov. 1956 (supersedes Assessment Division Test Report A-294).

  2. Comparative Diffusion of Dissimilar Agents. PGR 149 W5, 6-52. Downwind travel of simulant agents released simultaneously, BW 5 and 6-52. Dugway Proving Ground Report 149. Projects 4-98-05-005 and 4-98-01-001. 5 Feb. 1954.

  3. Trial Reports from Dugway Proving Ground, Relationship of Dosages to Source Strength for BG and an Inert Tracer. 24 Feb. 1954.

    Report DPG, BW 8A-1-54, 24 Feb. 1954

    Report DPG, BW 8A-2-54, 9 Mar. 1954

    Report DPG, BW 8A-4-54, 22 Mar. 1954

    Report DPG, BW 8A-5-54, 12 Apr. 1954

  4. Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. Oct. 1954 (not available for this report).

  5. Trial Report from Dugway Proving Ground. BWAL, BW 8B-7 and 854, Operation "Trouble Maker." Relationship of dosages to source strength for BG and an inert tracer. BWALTR 27. 18 July 1955.

  6. Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. 1956 (not available for this report).

  7. An Experimental Study of Long Range Aerosol Cloud Travel. Special Report 162. U.S. Army Chemical Corps Biological Laboratories, Camp Detrick, Frederick, Md., 1 Aug. 1952.

  8. Behavior of Aerosol Clouds Within Cities (Classified) (82 pp.). Minneapolis, Minn., 15 Jan.-24 Mar., St. Louis, Mo., 1953 (not available for this report).

  9. Preliminary Field Trials of the Aerosol X1A. (Classified) (78 pp.) Abn dry agent dissemination unit. Rosemont, Minn., Sept.-Oct. 1953 (not available for this report).

  10. San Francisco Bay, 21 and 26 Mar. 1956, Redwood City, Calif. (not available for this report).

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×
  1. Continental U.S., 30 Nov. 1957, East of Rocky Mountains, 6 Feb. 1958, 25 Apr. 1958, 20 Mar. 1958 (not available for this report).

  2. T.B. Smith and M.A. Wolf. Intermediate Scale Particulate Cloud Travel—Project WINDSOC—Part 1—Technical Report. Meteorology Research, 2420 N. Lake Ave., Altadena, Calif. MRI Report 6023. Prepared for U.S. Army Chemical Corps Proving Ground under Contract DA-42-007-403-CMI-432. July 1960.

  3. D.A. Haugen and J.J. Puquay, eds. The OCEAN BREEZE and DRY GULCH Diffusion Programs. Vol. 1. Research Report. Meteorology Laboratory, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Office of Aerospace Research, U.S. Air Force. AFCRL-63-719(I). Hanford Doc. HW-78435. Nov. 1963.

  4. D.A. Haugen and J.H. Taylor, eds. The OCEAN BREEZE and DRY GULCH Diffusion Programs. Vol. 2. Research Report. Meteorology Laboratory, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Office of Aerospace Research, U.S. Air Force. AFCRL-63-719(II). Dec. 1963.

  5. T.B. Smith and M.A. Wolf. Vertical Diffusion from an Elevated Line Source over a Variety of Terrains. Part A. Final Report to Dugway Proving Ground. Meteorology Research, 2420 North Lake Ave., Altadena, Calif. Contract DA-42-007-CML-545. Mar. 31, 1963.

  6. F. Pooler. A Tracer Study of Dispersion over a City. Paper 66-28 at the 59th Annual Meeting, Air Pollution Control Association, San Francisco, Calif., June 20-24, 1966 (from the Air Resources Field Research Office, ESSA, at the Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, Division of Air Pollution, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Cincinnati, Ohio).

  7. Calibration of the Model D-1 Dry Particulate Disseminator with Green Fluorescing FP, DPGTP 508C. USATECOM Project 5-39030-10. DPGTM 1060. Case File 3164. Biological Branch, Test Design and Analysis Division, Technical Plans and Evaluation Directorate, U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command, Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. Nov. 1963.

  8. Deciduous Forest Diffusion Study, Report 3004, Final Report. Applied Science Division, Litton Systems, Minneapolis, Minn. Contract DA-42-007-AMC-48(R). Project 1T062111A128, for the

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Meteorology Division, Deseret Test Center, Building 103 Soldiers Circle, Fort Dugway, Utah. June 1969.

Vol. 1: M.H. Tourin and W.C. Shen. Diffusion studies in a deciduous forest.

Vol. 2: M.H. Tourin, R.J. Rickett, and W.C. Shen. Detailed program description.

Vol. 3: M.H. Tourin and W.C. Shen. Detailed technical data supplement.

  1. J.A. Murray, T.S. Brown, and F.X. Webster. FP Tracer Co-Dispersal and Sampling Studies. Technical Report 135. Metronics Associates, 3201 Porter Drive, Stanford Industrial Park, Palo Alto, Calif. Contract DA-42-007-AMC-240(R). Task IV025001 A128, Meteorological Aspects of CB Program. U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. Dec. 1968.

  2. Diffusion under a Jungle Canopy. Final Report. Vol. 3: Mathematical Model. Meteorological Research Laboratory, Melpar, 7700 Arlington Blvd., Falls Church, Va. Contract DA 42-007-AMC33(R) for U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Dugway, Utah. Oct. 1967.

  3. G.R. Hilst and N.E. Bowne. A Study of the Diffusion of Aerosols Released from Aerial Line Sources Upwind of an Urban Complex. Vol. 1, Final Report; Vol. 2, Data Supplement. Travellers Research Center, 250 Constitution Plaza, Hartford, Conn. Contract DA-42007-AMC-37(R) under RDT&E Project 1V025001A128 Meteorological Aspects of CB Program, for U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Salt Lake City, Utah. July 1966.

  4. R.L. Miller, ed. Victoria Diffusion Trials. MR166 FR-374. Meteorology Research, 464 West Woodbury Road, Altadena, Calif. Contract DA 18-064-AMC-422(A) for Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md. May 1966.

    Vol. 1: Final Report (not available for this report)

    Vol. 2: Parts A and B (not available for this report)

  5. T.B. Smith, and B.L. Niemann. Shoreline Diffusion Program, Oceanside, Calif. Report MRI 169 FR-860. Meteorology Research, 464 W. Woodbury Road, Altadena, Calif. Contract DA 42-007-

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

AMC-180(R) for Deseret Test Center, Fort Douglas, Utah. Nov. 1969.

  1. G.R. Hilst and G.T. Csanady. Aerosol Diffusion over Woodlot Complexes. Theoretical and Empirical Assessments of Atmospheric Dispersion and Deposition Processes over Inhomogeneous Terrain (Woodlots). Phase I Report. DAAD09-67-C-0100(R). Travellers Research Center, 250 Constitution Plaza, Hartford, Conn. RDT&E Project IV025001A128 Meteorological Aspects of CB Program for U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Dugway, Utah. Aug. 1968.

  2. G.P Ettenheim, Jr. and C.L. Crum. MATAGORDA Deposition Trials. Field Report. MR167 FR-468. Meteorology Research, 464 West Woodbury Road, Altadena, Calif. Contract DA 18-064-AMC422(A) for Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md. 31 Jan. 1967.

  3. Dispersion of Air Tracers into and Within a Forested Area. College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Seattle, for U.S. Army Electronics Command, Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory, Fort Huachuca, Ariz. Grant DA-AMC-28-043-68-G8. Technical Report ECOM-68-G8-1. Sept. 1969.

    Vol. 1: L.J. Fritschen, C.H. Driver, C. Avery, J. Buffo, R. Edmonds, and R. Kinerson (objectives, methods, site description, preliminary data).

    Vol. 2: L.J. Fritschen, C.H. Driver, C. Avery, J. Buffo, R. Edmonds, R. Kinerson, and P Schless (tabulated data and dispersion patterns).

    Vol. 3: L.J. Fritschen, C.H. Driver, C. Avery, J. Buffo, R. Edmonds, R. Kinerson, and P Schless (analysis and interpretation).

  4. J.K. Allison, A.V. Duffield, and J.M. Morton. Meteorological Analog Test and Evaluation: First Field Test Operation. Final Report. Meteorological Research Laboratory, Melpar Division of American Standard, 7700 Arlington Blvd., Falls Church, Va. Contract DA 42007-AMC-339(Y), Task VIII B, for U.S. Army Deseret Test Center, Fort Douglas, Utah. June 1970.

  5. Comparison of Decay Rates for Bacillus globigii and Zinc Cadmium Sulfide. BW 1A-56, Operation "GOOF." DPGR 175. Dugway Prov-

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

ing Ground Report, BW Assessment Directorate, Project Order 0016. 27 Apr. 1956; Trial Report, BWAL, BW 1A-1, 2, and 3-56. Comparison of Decay Rates for BG and FP. Operation "GOOF." BWALTR 38. 7 Nov. 1955; Trial Report, BWAL, BW 1A-4 and 556. Operation "GOOF." CMLRE-DU-MBW. BWALTR 40. 21 Dec. 1955.

  1. An Experimental Investigation of Viable Aerosol Travel from Sea to Land. Special Report 193. U.S. Army Chemical Corps Biological Laboratories, Camp Detrick, Frederick, Md. 24 Sept. 1953.

  2. Trial Record 230, BW 398-A, Trials 8, 9, 10, and 11. Test Design and Analysis Office, Technical Operations Directorate, U.S. Army Chemical Corps Research and Development Command, U.S. Army Chemical Corps Proving Ground, Dugway, Utah. May, 1958.

  3. A.T. Hereim and J.E. Frese. Check Test of West Vertical Grid, Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. Summary Report. RDTE Project 1-X-665704-D-634-06. USATECOM Project 5-CO-413-000-013. DTC Project DTC B-008. Deseret Test Center, Fort Douglas, Utah. Oct. 1970.

  4. P.B. MacCready, T.B. Smith, and M.A. Wolf. Vertical diffusion from a low altitude line source--Dallas Tower Studies, Vol. 1. Final Report MR161 FR-33 from Meteorology Research, 2420 North Lake Ave., Altadena, Calif., for the U.S. Army Chemical Corps, Dugway Proving Ground. Contract DA-42-007-CML-504. Dec. 1961. (Note: only two title pages and pp. I-iii and 1-3 were available for this report.)

  5. Operation Moby Dick. Sept. 1950. San Francisco Bay, Calif. (not available for this report).

  6. Behavior of Aerosol Clouds within Cities. Joint quarterly reports submitted by Stanford University and the Ralph M. Parsons Company to the U.S. Army Chemical Corps. Contract Nos. DA-18-064CML-1856 (Stanford) and DA-18-064-CML-2282 (Parsons).

    A. JQR No. 1, July-Sept. 1952

    B. JQR No. 2, Oct.-Dec. 1952

    C. JQR No. 3, Jan.-Mar. 1953

    D. JQR No. 4, Apr.-June 1953 (missing some pages)

    E. JQR No. 5, July-Sept. 1953 (missing some pages)

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

F. JQR No. 6, Oct.-Dec. 1953, Vols. 1 and 2 (Vol. 2 is missing some pages)

  1. S.W. Grinnell, W.A. Perkins, F.X. Webster. Bimonthly Report 11 submitted by Stanford University to the U.S. Army Chemical Warfare Service Research and Development Program. Contract W-18035-CWS-1256, Sept.-Oct. 1947. (BMR 1 through 13 and the final report are all available. Only BMR 11 describes any field release. The others imply small (milligram quantity) releases into an air chamber, and ''field work of a minor nature.'')

  2. Quarterly reports submitted by Stanford University to the U.S. Army Chemical Corps Research and Development Program. Contract DA18-108-CML-450.

    A. QR 1, Feb.-Mar. 1950 (tests at Palo Alto)

    B. QR 2, May-June 1950 (tests at Dugway Proving Ground)

    C. QR 3 Aug.-Sept.-Oct. 1950 (San Francisco and adjacent area)

    D. QR 4, Missing

    E. QR 5, Feb.-Mar.-Apr. 1951 (measurement of urban temperature gradients)

    F. QR 6, May-June-July 1951 (meteorologic studies)

    G. QR 7, Aug.-Sept.-Oct. 1951 (meteorologic studies; FP size measurement)

  3. F.X. Webster. The FP Atmospheric Tracer Technique. Metronics Associates, Stanford Industrial Park, Palo Alto, Calif. (Abstract of paper presented at Conference on Air Pollution in California, held Oct. 30, 1967 at San Jose State College, Calif.) (see also Ref. 42).

  4. H.E. Cramer, F.A. Record, and H.C. Vaughan. The Study of the Diffusion of Gases or Aerosols in the Lower Atmosphere. AFCRC-TR58-239. ASTIA Doc. 152582. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Meteorology. Final Report. Contract AF 19(604)-1058. Sponsored by the Geophysics Research Directorate of the Air Force Cambridge Center, Air Research and Development Command. 15 May 1958.

  5. L.M. Vaughan and W.A. Perkins. The Washout of Aerosol Particles and Gases by Rain. Technical Report 88, Aerosol Laboratory, Stan-

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

ford University, Stanford, Calif. Contract DA-42-007-403-CML448. U.S. Army Chemical Corps Research and Development Program. Jan. 1961.

  1. F.X. Webster. Collection Efficiency of the Rotorod FP Sampler. Technical Report TR 98. Aerosol Laboratory, Metronics Associates, 3201 Porter Drive, Palo Alto, Calif. Contract DA 42-007-CML-543 for the U.S. Army Chemical Corps Research and Development Program. 31 Jan. 1963.

  2. P.A. Leighton, W.A. Perkins, S.W. Grinnell, and F.X. Webster. 1965. The fluorescent particle atmospheric tracer. J. Appl. Meteorol. 3:334-348.

  3. F. Pooler, Jr. 1966. A tracer study of dispersion over a city. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 16:627-631.

  4. M.H. Tourin and W.C. Shen. Diffusion Studies in a Deciduous Forest. Vol. 1, Final Report. Report 3004, AD 856703L. June 1969. 325 pp. (part of Ref. 19).

  5. Y.C. Athanassiadis. Preliminary Air Pollution Survey of Cadmium and Its Compounds. Contract PH 22-68-25. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Oct. 1969. 325 pp. (not available for this report).

  6. FP Tracer Counting Manual. Technical Manual 163-2. Aerosol Laboratory, Metronics Associates, Stanford Industrial Park, Palo Alto, Calif. Prepared for U.S. Weather Bureau, Dept. of Commerce, Contract CWB-10635. 17 May 1963 (rev., 11 Aug. 1964).

  7. QR No. 448-4. July-Sept. 1960. Aerosol Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. Contract DA-48-007-403-CML-448. U.S. Army Chemical Corps Research and Development.

  8. P.A. Leighton, director. The Stanford Fluorescent-particle Tracer Technique—An Operational Manual. Dept. of Chemistry, Stanford University. June 1955 (second printing, June 1958).

  9. H.E. Cramer, R.N. Swanson, and A.G. Tingle. Review of the Meteorological Aspects of a High Altitude Release. GCA Corp., GCA Technology Division, Bedford, Mass., for U.S. Army Deseret Test Center, Fort Douglas, Utah. 9 Sept. 1970.

  10. Duplicate of Ref. 48.

    Unnumbered. W.D. Crozier and B.K. Seely. 1955. Concentration distri-

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

butions in aerosol plumes three to twenty-two miles from a point source. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 36:42-53.

DESCRIPTION OF TEST

Name of test: Comparison of Simulant Decay Rates in Field Tests

Reference-list number: 2

Reference: Special Report 273. Comparison of Simulant Decay Rates in Field Tests (U). Program Research, Field Operations and Meteorology Branches, Assessment Division, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md. Nov. 1956 (supersedes Assessment Division Test Report A-294).

Principal object:

To obtain a definitive estimate of the downwind physical decay of aerosols of BG and FP and their relative decay rates; to compare estimates of these relationships obtained from three kinds of dissemination; to relate any differences between estimates to weather factors; to compare these estimates with those obtained elsewhere.

Site selection:

"Of the many sites considered for this test, Camp Cooke, California, offered the best combination of characteristics for efficient field testing." The principal factor was climate, but other factors included terrain, military control of the land, and operational factors. The prevailing wind from the northwest during summer ensured that trials could be run on consecutive days shortly after sunset.

Number and nomenclature of releases:

Three phases (A, B, and C) with different release mechanisms (for FP or BG) in each phase. Thirty-nine trials were conducted, numbered 1 through 39, with 1-20, 26-27 in Phase A, 21-25 in Phase B, and 28-39 in Phase C. Difficulties with the sampling of BG led to a complete dis-

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

carding of data from trials 1-4 and 9-12, with trials 5-8 considered somewhat unreliable for BG.

Test conditions:

Phase A: Two E61R4 (bomblets) filled with 40 g each of FP, and located 40 ft apart, were fired simultaneously.

Phase B: A single Stanford generator (80 g hopper) disseminated at approximately 8 g/min for 4 min at ground level. Phase C: As Phase B, but at 13 ft above ground.

Samplers were placed on a 90-degree circular sector grid at 100, 200, 400, 600, 1,200, 1,760, and 2,640 yd, with 20, 40, 60, 80, 80, 80, 120 stations at each radius, respectively. The samplers were Millipore type with a flow rate of 12.5 L/min.

Test material:

ZnCdS from New Jersey Zinc Company, CEP 8000, Lot 0002 with 2% magnesium silicate. No estimates of particles per gram or dissemination efficiencies are given in the report, but this lot was tested as having 4.51 x 1010 ppg in Ref. 47 (QR SAL 448-4; see Section 4, "Miscellaneous Notes."

Place of release:

Camp Cooke, California, in scrub-brush desert, 2.5 miles downwind from the ocean.

Dates, times, and quantities of release:

No information is given on the dates or times of releases. All that can be inferred is that they were some time in 1955. No more accurate information is given on release quantities than presented in "Test conditions:" above. With these values, each trial in Phase A (22 trials) released 80 g of FPs, and each trial in Phases B and C (17 trials) released 32 g—a total release of 2304 g.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Communities affected:

Unknown. The location of Camp Cooke was not provided.

Distances from releases to affected communities:

Greater than the maximum radius of the sampling grid, 1.5 miles.

Weather conditions:

A neutral temperature gradient prevailed consistently during the hours after sunset.

Other materials released:

There was simultaneous release of BG.

Maximum time-integrated concentrations and concentrations:

The report was concerned with estimating decay curves for FP and BG. No measured counts, concentrations or exposures were presented. Cross-wind-integrated-exposures were tabulated at each sampling radius, and cloud widths (distances between 1/10 maximum exposures) were given. These two measurements have been used to estimate the following maximum exposures and concentrations, by assuming gaussian shaped plumes and (for the instantaneous releases) equal dispersion along and across the plume. Dissemination efficiency has been assumed to be 50% for the bombs, and 100% for the Stanford generators.

The highest measured exposures and estimated concentrations occur at the 100 yd sampling line, and these are the values given for "Unpopulated areas." The upper bound for the "Populated area" was obtained from the estimates for the sampling line at greatest distance from which estimates were available, generally 1.5 miles from the dissemination point for Phase A, and 1 mile from the sampling point for Phases B and C.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

 

Unpopulated Areas

Populated Areas

(Upper Bound)

Trial

Max Exp., µg-min/m3

Max Conc., µg/m3

Max Exp., µg-min/m3

Max Conc., µg/ml

 

 

Phase A

 

 

13

7283

55,651

5.9

5.3

14

2260

16,054

9.1

4.5

15

 

 

 

 

16

4670

35,683

8.2

6.9

17

2876

23,833

0.6

1.0

18

7191

49,658

 

 

19

1859

15,172

0.8

0.9

20

3984

42,526

8.5

7.3

26

1150

4,516

6.1

1.7

27

3337

22,986

9.7

1.9

 

 

Phase B

 

 

21

1502

369

3.4

0.7

22

2048

507

5.4

1.1

23

608

148

1.0

0.2

24

1351

331

2.4

0.5

25

925

225

1.0

0.1

 

 

Phase C

 

 

28

853

210

12.9

2.8

29

870

213

8.2

1.7

30

741

182

7.6

1.7

31

1023

251

6.5

1.5

32

924

227

5.4

1.1

33

720

174

23.0

4.7

34

1147

275

3.7

0.8

35

1219

297

3.6

0.7

36

666

163

2.5

0.5

37

832

206

10.0

2.2

38

805

198

6.8

1.5

39

497

120

1.6

0.3

Cumulative

60,136

55,651

173

7

The cumulative estimates have been estimated by summing the individual exposures—the wind direction was always similar (from the north-

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

west)—and adjusting the total for Phase A by assuming that the average of the missing trial data was similar to the average of the available trial data. As usual, the "cumulative" maximum concentrations are simply the largest estimated concentrations—the trials were assumed to occur at distinct times. The large difference in concentrations between Phase A and Phases B and C is due to the different dissemination mechanisms—an instantaneous release versus a continuous release.

Other comments:

This report supersedes Assessment Division Test Report A-294. That earlier report might contain the missing raw data.

There are general references to FP use:

  • "Dispersion of Aerosols and Travel of Aerosol Clouds." Contract DA-18-108-CML-450, Chemistry Department, Stanford University, 1953.

  • "Research Concerning the Propagation of Airborne Agents for Work over Cities." Contract DA-18-064-CML-1856, Chemistry Department, Stanford University, 1953.

These describe experiments over Palo Alto and San Francisco, and so probably duplicate Ref. 37.

There are references to other operations involving FP and BG:

  • Summer of 1950, FP, BG, and AP1 generated simultaneously at Dugway.

  • 1951, at Dugway, FP with AB 1 and bacterium Tularense (more than four trials).

  • 1954, at Dugway, "A Number of Trials Producing Aerosols of BG and FP."

  • Operation MOBY DICK, "conducted in California in 1954." Special Report 237, "Moby Dick: Sea-to-Land Travel of Simulant Aerosols Generated by the XB-14B Mine (C)." Assessment Division, Camp Detrick, Frederick, Md. Aug. 1955. This is listed as Ref. 34, except that it is said to have occurred in Sept. 1950.

  • The operation off Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina is

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

referred to as Operation DEW I. The reference given is the document in Ref. 8 (Dugway Special Report 162).

  • An operation named Operation DEW II, involving release of FP and Lycopodium spores from an aircraft. This is Dugway Special Report 179 ("An Experimental Study of Long Range Aerosol Cloud Travel Involving Ground Deposition of Biological Spore Material," F&MR Division, Camp Detrick, Frederick, Md., 1 June 1953) and appears to be the second (classified) document in Ref. 8 (not available).

  • The Minneapolis, St. Louis, and Winnipeg trials are referred to as "Research Studies of Aerosol Cloud Travel over Cities." Contract DA-18-064-CML-2282, the Ralph M. Parsons Company. This appears to be the study examined in Ref. 35.

  • Other referenced trials involving FP are Special Report 142. BW trials at San Francisco, Calif., Sept. 1950, PD Division, Camp Detrick, Frederick, Md., 22 Jan. 1951. "Studies in Aerosol Cloud Behavior." Contract DA-42-007-403CML-111, Chemistry Department, Stanford University, 1953.

There is a reference (p. 3) to the "St. Jo Munitions Expenditure Panel" that might indicate a named operation.

DESCRIPTION OF TEST

Name of test: Comparative Diffusion of Dissimilar Agents

Reference-list number: 3

Reference: Comparative Diffusion of Dissimilar Agents. PGR 149 W5, 6-52. Downwind travel of simulant agents released simultaneously, BW 5 and 6-52. Dugway Proving Ground Report 149. Projects 4-98-05-005 and 4-98-01-001. 5 Feb. 1954.

Principal object:

To compare the distribution and downwind-travel characteristics of SM

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

(Serratia marcescens), C2 (Aspergillus fumigatus), and FP (2266) released simultaneously; to compare the viability and decay rates of the SM and C2 aerosols; to compare the distribution and downwind-travel characteristics of aerosols of SM, BG, and FP released simultaneously; and to compare the viability and decay rates of the SM and BG aerosols.

Site selection:

Dugway Proving Ground.

Number and nomenclature of releases:

Two releases: BW 5-52 and BW 6-52.

Test conditions:

A portion of the Crops Grid No. 2 was used. The grid sector used lies along an axis of 135° and is 13 miles long by 3.5 miles wide, with grid laterals placed at 0.5-mile intervals. It is bounded to the southwest by Simpson Buttes and Camel Back Mountain, but is flat in the sampling area. Four generators were used to simultaneously disseminate the FP in 90 to 105 s. Filter-type samplers were used.

Test material:

ZnCdS FP type 2266, with 1 x 1011 ppg.

Place of release:

Both tests: approximately 6 miles east-northeast of Simpson Buttes.

Dates, times, and quantities of release:

Test

Date

Start Time

Length, min

Amount, kg

BW 6-52

5/4/53

22:29

1.5

3.534

BW 5-52

6/3/53

00:50

1.75

2.0

Total

 

 

 

5.534

Communities affected:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Distances from releases to affected communities:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Weather conditions:

During BW 6-52, the wind was approximately south-southwest at 4 to 5 mph, carrying the FP over the sampling grid. During BW 5-52, the wind shifted and apparently carried the FP cloud west and then southwest out of the sampling grid.

Other materials released:

In BW 6-52, BG and SM were simultaneously released with the FP. In BW 5-52, AF and SM were simultaneously released with the FP.

Maximum time-integrated concentrations:

BW 6-52:61 µg-min/m3

BW 5-52:16 µg-min/m3

These were measured at 1 mile from the source. The wind shift during BW 5-52 probably resulted in a low measurement. In BW 6-52, the exposure was as high as 20 µg-min/m3 at 13 miles from the source.

Maximum time-integrated concentrations in any populated area:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Maximum concentrations:

No time-resolved data were available to allow estimation of concentration.

Maximum concentrations in any populated area:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Other comments:

The north direction arrows on figures 6 and 7 are reversed with respect to the other figures, and with respect to reality. For various reasons, not discussed here, both these tests were complete failures from the point of view of their objectives.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

DESCRIPTION OF TEST

Name of test: Relationship of Dosages to Source Strength for BG and an Inert Tracer

Reference-list number: 4

Reference: Trial Reports. Relationship of Dosages to Source Strength for BG and an Inert Tracer:

Report DPG BW 8A-1-54 24 Feb. 1954

Report DPG BW 8A-2-54 9 Mar. 1954

Report DPG BW 8A-4-54 22 Mar. 1954

Report DPG BW 8A-5-54 12 Apr. 1954

Principal object:

Not stated, except by implication in the title. The test plan (BW 8-54) was not available.

Site selection:

Dugway Horizontal grid.

Number and nomenclature of releases:

One release per report (four releases). The reports were numbered in the same way as the trials (BW 8A-1-54 through 8A-5-54, omitting 8A-354).

Test conditions:

Tests were according to a test plan that is not available (see ''Principal object'' above). A Stanford Blower was used, presumably for FP dissemination. Filter-type samplers were used.

Test material:

FP (nature unspecified). Particle counts were given as 1.96 x 1010 ppg for the last three experiments, and not specified for the first.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Place of release:

Dugway horizontal grid.

Dates, times, and quantities of release:

Test

Date

Start Time

Amount, g

BW 8A-1-54

1/21/54

15:54

9.69

BW 8A-2-54

1/27/54

15:59

7.935

BW 8A-4-54

2/17/54

19:15

8.966

BW 8A-5-54

3/14/54

19:02

8.23

Total

 

 

34.8

The dissemination time is not specified, but was probably short, since the experiments were apparently attempting to compare dispersion of FP with BG from bombs.

Communities affected:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Distances from releases to affected communities:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Weather conditions:

Test

Wind Speed at 2 m, mph

Wind Direction, deg.

Temp. at 2 m,°C

Rel. Hum., %

BW 8A-1-54

4

158

34.5

64

BW 8A-2-54

13

145

34.6

64

BW 8A-4-54

12.4

145

45.9

29

BW 8A-5-54

5.7

149

49.5

38

Maximum time-integrated concentrations:

No calibration data were provided, only the raw counts on Millipore filters. No information on the samplers was available. The following estimates of total exposure assume a sampling rate of 6.7 L/min, identical to that in the releases in May and June of 1953. The particles-per-gram count for the first experiment has been assumed to be identical to that for the other three experiments.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Test

Max. Exp., µg-min/m3

BW 8A-1-54

94

BW 8A-2-54

270

BW 8A-4-54

250

BW 8A-5-5

1390

Maximum concentrations:

No time-resolved data, or even release-timing data, were available to allow estimation of concentration.

Maximum time-integrated concentrations in any populated area:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Maximum concentrations in any populated area:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Other comments:

All data are noted as preliminary and subject to revision. Each is a 9-10-page report of a release, including raw counts for organisms and FP.

The nomenclature suggests that a report for trial 8A-3-54 is missing.

DESCRIPTION OF TEST

Name of test: Operation "Trouble Maker"

Reference-list number: 6

Reference: Trial Report. BWAL, BW 8B-7 and 8-54, Operation "Trouble Maker." Relationship of dosages to source strength for BG and an inert tracer. BWALTR 27, 18 July 1955.

Principal object:

Not specified. The test plan (test plan BW 8B-54, 29 Nov. 1954, 6 pp., amended 12 Jan. 1955, 4 pp.) was not available.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Site selection:

Dugway west vertical grid.

Number and nomenclature of releases:

Two releases: BW 8B-7-54 and BW 8B-8-54.

Test conditions:

Tests were conducted according to a test plan that is not available (see "Principal object," above). A total of 318 Millipore filters were used for FP collection. A Skil blower was used, presumably for FP dissemination.

Test material:

FP (not otherwise specified). Particle count estimated as 2 x 1010 ppg.

Place of release:

Dugway west vertical grid.

Dates, times, and quantities of release:

Test

Date

Start Time

Amount, g

BW 8B-7-54

5/18/55

17:35

21.2

BW 8B-8-54

5/18/55

19:24

21.2

Total

 

 

42.4

No information on dissemination times is provided. BG was dispersed (presumably simultaneously) from bomblets; therefore, the dissemination time is likely to have been short.

Communities affected:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Distances from releases to affected communities:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Weather conditions:

Wind was approximately from the north, with a speed of about 16 mph

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

(at 2 m) during BW 8B-7-54. It was northerly with a speed of about 11 mph (at 2 m) during BW 8B-8-54.

Other materials released:

BG was released from bomblets.

Maximum time-integrated concentrations:

No calibration data were provided, only the raw counts on Millipore filters. No information on the samplers was available. The following estimates of total exposure assume a sampling rate of 6.7 L/min, identical to that in the releases in May and June of 1953.

BW 8B-7-54: Maximum exposure, 180 µg-min/m3

BW 8B-8-54: Maximum exposure, 420 µg-min/m3

Maximum concentrations:

No time-resolved data, or even release-timing data, were available to allow estimation of concentration.

Maximum time-integrated concentrations in any populated area:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Maximum concentrations in any populated area:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Other comments:

This report was a 20-page summary, subject to revision, giving raw counts and summary meteorologic data only.

DESCRIPTION OF TEST

Name of test: Operation DEW I

Reference-list number: 8

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Reference: An Experimental Study of Long Range Aerosol Cloud Travel. Special Report 162. U.S. Army Chemical Corps Biological Laboratories, Camp Detrick, Frederick, Md. 1 Aug. 1952.

Principal object:

To test the possibility of achieving long-range aerosol-cloud travel and consequent coverage of large areas (several thousand square miles) at ground level beneath a slow-moving frontal system.

Site selection:

The southeastern states of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia were selected as a test area after "consideration of meteorologic situations, terrain and modes of dissemination."

Number and nomenclature of releases:

Five releases, named Trial 1 through Trial 5.

Test conditions:

Releases were from a naval surface craft (USS TERCEL, a converted mine sweeper) operating at 15 knots parallel to the coast and about 5 to 10 miles offshore on a line segment approximately 100-150 nautical miles long off the North Carolina, South Carolina, or Georgia coasts on the total 390 nautical miles track between Jacksonville, Fla. and Hatteras, N.C. Stanford-type aerosol generators were used. A total of 46 sampling stations were established in the coastal plain area of Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina; sampling was set up for 15 consecutive 2-h periods during each trial.

Trial 1 occurred under conditions that were not correctly anticipated, so that the plume traveled principally parallel to the coast and out to sea. Trials 2 through 4 achieved the objectives, with the plumes traveling over large areas of Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Test material:

ZnCdS (New Jersey Zinc Company, No. 2266), particle size 2.25 µm mass median diameter. Mean particle count approximately 4.2 x 1010 ppg (see "Other comments" below). Examination of this material also showed about a 1% contamination with soluble particles that fluoresced very intensely green, but were not otherwise identified.

Place of release:

For all trials, along a track about 5-10 miles offshore, between Jacksonville, Fla. and Hatteras, N.C.

Trial 1: Along 138 statute miles, starting approximately 35 statute miles from Jacksonville, northward direction of travel.

Trial 2: Along 121 statute miles, starting approximately 121 statute miles from Jacksonville, northward direction of travel.

Trial 3: Along 121 statute miles, starting approximately 173 statute miles from Jacksonville, southward direction of travel.

Trial 4: Along 121 statute miles, starting approximately 331 statute miles from Jacksonville, southward direction of travel.

Trial 5: Along 156 statute miles, starting approximately 173 statute miles from Jacksonville, southward direction of travel.

Dates, start times, and quantities of release:

Trial 1:3/26/52 0600-1400 EST 240 lb (109 kg, 4.6 x 1015 particles)

Trial 2:3/30-31/52 1900-0200 EST 250 lb (113 kg, 4.8 x 1015 particles)

Trial 3:4/4/52 1100-1800 EST 250 lb (113 kg, 4.8 x 1015 particles)

Trial 4:4/9/52 1100-1800 EST 200 lb (91 kg, 3.8 x 1015 particles)

Trial 5:4/21/52 1400-2300 EST 450 lb (204 kg, 8.6 x 1015 particles)

Total release to the environment: 1,390 lb (630 kg).

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Communities affected:

The following describes areas affected at a cumulative dosage greater than 1 particle-min/L (approximately 2.7 x 10-2 µg-min/m3). The areas are so large that only a general description can be given.

Trial 1: Approximately 1,000 square miles. Almost everywhere within approximately 5-10 miles of the coast of Georgia, and within a few miles of the southernmost 30 miles of the coast of South Carolina.

Trial 2: Approximately 21,800 square miles, covering approximately the southern half of South Carolina and an abutting swathe of east Georgia approximately 25 miles wide at the coast, widening to 75 miles at 150 miles inland.

Trial 3: Approximately 13,100 square miles, roughly encompassed by a north-south stripe across the central one-third of South Carolina.

Trial 4: Approximately 28,900 square miles covering the southern two-thirds of South Carolina, together with an abutting 60-mile-radius semicircle extending into Georgia, with its base on the state line and extending inland 120 miles from the coast.

Trial 5: Approximately 34,800 square miles, a coastal strip 75 miles wide from the southern most tip of the Georgia coast to Cape Hatteras, N.C.

Distances from releases to affected communities:

The releases were 5-10 miles offshore and 5-10 miles from the nearest affected communities. Measurable plume concentrations extended up to 175 miles inland.

Weather conditions:

The releases were designed to be released with onshore winds under frontal inversions and, taking advantage of nocturnal inversions, to ensure long-distance travel with minimum vertical dispersion. During Trial 1, the winds remained parallel to the shoreline instead of turning onshore as predicted, and so the plume missed most land. Trial 2 had

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

onshore winds and nocturnal inversions throughout the area, but no frontal inversion. Low clouds formed during the early morning, followed by showers, light rain, and drizzle. The plume (disseminated from 1900 through 0200 h) was observed to increase in area until morning when the nocturnal inversions dissipated. Trial 3 achieved substantial dissemination in the cold air under a warm front that was moving northward, accompanied by unstable air with small tornadoes, followed by rain. Measurements indicated substantial trapping under the frontal system. In Trial 4, dissemination (1100-1800 h) was into a neutral atmosphere with a weak warm front that dissipated rapidly. Coastal clouds dissipated later in the day, with clear inland weather and onshore winds. A wind shift across the weak front apparently resulted in two effective plumes from different parts of the dissemination line. Trial 5 was conducted when no frontal conditions were present, but a radiation inversion formed and was present at night (dissemination 1400-2300 h). The early part of the release moved rapidly, but the later (nocturnal) part of the release was into relatively light winds in neutral conditions. The nocturnal plume spread slowly until morning, when it dissipated rapidly as the inversion was destroyed by daytime heating.

Other materials released:

There is no mention of other releases in the unclassified document.

Maximum time-integrated concentrations:

These were measured over 30 h from the beginning of dissemination, ensuring complete plume capture (except for the very minor re-entrainment from deposited material). Measurement accuracy was of the order of ±40%, so the 2-digit precision given here is for calculation purposes only. The values shown might be underestimated by a factor of 7 (see "Other comments" below).

Trial 1:

0.33 µg-min/m3

Trial 2:

16 µg-min/m3

Trial 3:

1.0 µg-min/m3

Trial 4:

5.8 µg-min/m3

Trial 5:

91 µg-min/m3

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Combined: 98 µg-min/m3 (The maximum time-integrated concentrations for all trials at each individual measurement point.)

Maximum time-integrated concentrations in any populated area:

Same as the maximum time-integrated concentrations anywhere, because the dispersion area was so large. The highest cumulative concentration was measured at Hunter Air Force Base, Ga.

Maximum concentrations:

These concentrations are 2-h averages, as measured in the tests. Once again, accuracy is approximately ±40%, so the two digit precision given here is for calculation purposes only. The values shown might be underestimated by a factor of 7 (see "Other comments" below).

Trial 1:

1.3 x 10-3µg/m3

Trial 2:

7.0 x 10-2µg/m3

Trial 3:

8.1 x 10-3µg/m3

Trial 4:

2.4 x 10-2/ µg/m3

Trial 5:

3.4 x 10-1µg/m3

Combined:

3.4 x 10-1µg/m3 (The largest value found in any trial.)

Maximum concentrations in any populated area:

Same as the maximum concentrations anywhere, since the dispersion area was so large. Maximum concentration was measured at Hunter Air Force Base, Ga.

Other comments:

Estimates of deposition indicate that only 5 % to 6% of the material was deposited within the measurable plume area (out to 150 miles).

The calculation of number of particles released was not discussed. It appears that the cited particle "mass median" diameter of 2.25 µm was used, together with a particle density of 4 g/cm3, and an assumption of spherical particles. This gives the approximate counts cited above, but

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

it ignores the efficiency of dissemination and the difference between mean and median diameters. (Note that ''mass median'' is a misnomer—this is also the number, surface area, and every other median diameter as well.) This could have led to an underestimate of a factor of approximately 7 in the concentration and exposure estimates given above (assuming number counts and dissemination efficiencies close to Ref. 19).

DESCRIPTION OF TEST

Name of test: Project WINDSOC

Reference-list number: 13

Reference: T.B. Smith and M.A. Wolf. Intermediate Scale Particulate Cloud Travel—Project WINDSOC—Part 1—Technical Report. Meteorology Research, 2420 N. Lake Ave., Altadena, Ca. MRI Report 60-23. Prepared for U.S. Army Chemical Corps Proving Ground under Contract DA-42-007-403-CMI-432. July 1960. (Only the first 18 pages of this over 73-page report were available.)

Principal object:

Informally:

"To study particulate cloud travel under night release conditions on a distance scale intermediate between the LAC operation and the small scale diffusion studies usually performed."

Formally:

Principal objective: "To describe and determine empirically the relationships between meteorologic forces acting on elevated line sources of particulate aerosols and the resulting quantitative distribution of those particulates at ground level."

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Secondary objective: "To provide data for the extension of existing dosage predictive techniques, or the development of new techniques, appropriate for the aerial line-source dissemination of particulates."

Number and nomenclature of releases:

A total of 13 tests using FP tracer. They are referred to as Test 1 through Test 13.

Test conditions:

Release was into stable air over relatively flat terrain in central Texas. The test area (125 x 125 miles south and west of Dallas, including Dallas, Fort Worth, Waco, and Fort Hood) was selected for such weather and terrain characteristics. A total of 84 ground samplers were used in the test area, together with balloon samples at Fort Hood for some tests, five samplers (at 300, 600, 900, 1,200, and 1,400 ft above ground) on a TV tower 20 miles southwest of Dallas for Tests 9 through 13, groups of Rotorod samplers at various points on the ground for various tests, and samplers aboard four L-20 aircraft. FP tracer was released from a C-119 aircraft flying crosswind along the upwind side of the test area, at a height of 600 to 1,300 ft. above ground level, along 200 miles (i.e., extending well beyond the edges of the test area. Tests 5, 9 and 11 were not fully analyzed, since meteorologic conditions did not meet requirements.

Test material:

ZnCdS from U.S. Radium Corp. (Contract DA-18-064-404-CML-427). Average particle count per gram of five lots was 2.09 x 1010; differences between lots were not considered meaningful. The mode of the particle diameter was near 2 µm, with 10-25% outside the range 1-4 µm.

Place of release:

Along a 200-mile line over-running the 125-mile upwind edge of the test area.

Dates, times, and quantities of release:

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

The release rate varied during each test, with a maximum of 4.5 lb/mile (Test 1). From Test 3 onward, it was stabilized at approximately 3.2 lb/ mile. The implied total releases were thus:

Test 1:

Aug. 1959

900 lb

Test 2:

Aug. 1959

640 to 900 lb

Test 3:

Aug. 1959

640 lb

Test 4-8

Oct. 1959

640 lb

Test 9-13

Feb. 1960

640 lb

Other information is unavailable in the section of report obtained.

Communities affected:

All those within the 125 x 125 mile test area, including Dallas, Fort Worth, Fort Hood, and Waco. In addition, communities outside the test area but within the plume from the 200-mile release.

Other information is available in the section of the report obtained.

Distances from releases to affected communities:

Unavailable in the section of the report obtained.

Weather conditions:

Unavailable in the section of the report obtained.

Other materials released:

Unavailable in the section of the report obtained.

Maximum time-integrated concentrations:

Unavailable in the section of the report obtained.

Maximum time-integrated concentrations in any populated area:

Unavailable in the section of the report obtained.

Maximum concentrations:

Unavailable in the section of the report obtained.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Maximum concentrations in any populated area:

Unavailable in the section of the report obtained.

Other comments:

The full report contains all the information unavailable in the 18 pages that are available. Mention is made in this report of a series of 11 trials at Dugway, 21-23 Sept. 1959, to test the dissemination efficiency of the plane. Measured particle number efficiency was 13% to 72%.

DESCRIPTION OF TEST

Name of test: Vertical Diffusion from an Elevated Line Source (no code name identified)

Reference-list number: 16

Reference: T.B. Smith and M.A. Wolf. Vertical Diffusion from an Elevated Line Source over a Variety of Terrains. Part A. Final Report to Dugway Proving Ground. Meteorology Research, 2420 North Lake Ave., Altadena, Calif. Contract DA-42-007-CML-545. 31 Mar. 1963

Principal object:

Determination of the applicability of the dosage prediction technique of the Dallas Tower study under differing conditions of other areas.

Site selection:

All four selected sites were required to be in areas where adverse conditions (rain, fog, low clouds, extreme wind speeds, variable wind direction) were minimized, and where there were existing roads parallel to the persistent wind direction. Two sites, in Oklahoma and Washington, were selected on the basis of their homogeneous rolling terrain (providing greater surface roughness than the Dallas Tower study). The two other sites were selected for single features—the Texas site offers a flat coast

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

line normal to the wind flow; the Nevada site presents a cross-wind ridge on an otherwise smooth surface.

Number and nomenclature of releases:

A total of 36 releases, identified as Test 1 through Test 36, with three considered unsuccessful (Test 10, disseminator malfunction; Tests 20 and 34, wind shifts). There were nine releases at the first three sites (Oklahoma, Tests 1 through 9; Texas, Tests 11 through 19; Washington, Tests 20 through 28), and eight at the last site (Nevada, Tests 29 through 36).

Test conditions:

At each site, the releases were made from an Aero Commander airplane flying at 500 to 1300 ft. FP were metered for release at 1.5 lb/mile over a flight path of 30 miles, yielding a total mass released of 45 lb per release. Sampling was performed at 1-mile intervals along approximately 25 miles in the downwind direction, generally starting a short distance upwind of anticipated initial touchdown point of the plume.

Test material:

ZnCdS containing 1% by weight of micronized Valron Estersil for increased fluidity (Lot 14, produced Nov. 1959 by U.S. Radium Corp.). Median diameter approximately 2.4 µm. Mean particle count 2.16 x 1010 per gram, with a release efficiency assumed to be the same (39%) as in the Dallas tests, yielding a particle emission rate of 1.11 x 109 per foot.

Place of release:

Oklahoma:

Along 30-mile approximately east-west tracks, 4 to 5 miles south of the line joining Ripley, Cushing, and Drumright, centered on Cushing (and centered on Route 18, along which, to the north of Cushing, the sampling points extended).

Texas:

Along 30-mile approximately northeast-southwest tracks, 2 to 4 miles out into the Gulf of Mexico off Mustang Island, centered on Port Aransas. The sampling points were located along

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

 

the causeway from Port Aransas to Aransas Pass, continuing along the road to Gregory and then to Taft.

Washington:

Along 30-mile approximately east-west tracks, within approximately 2 miles north or south of Colfax, centered on Colfax. There were two locations for the line of samplers, both initially heading north-northeast from Colfax along the main road, the first then turning north to Rosalia, the second continuing north-northeast through Oakesdale to Tekoa.

Nevada:

Along 30-mile approximately east-west tracks, approximately 11 to 12 miles north of Goldfield, and centered on Route 95. The line of samplers extended along Route 95 from approximately 11 miles north of Goldfield to approximately 11 miles south of Goldfield.

Dates, times, and quantities of release:

Test

Date

Local time

Quantity

Oklahoma

 

 

 

1

06/04/62

18:13

50 lb (22.7 kg)

2

06/04/62

22:16

50 lb (22.7 kg)

3

06/05/62

20:42

50 lb (22.7 kg)

4

06/14/62

20:57

50 lb (22.7 kg)

5

06/15/62

19:52

50 lb (22.7 kg)

6

06/15/62

23:42

50 lb (22.7 kg)

7

06/16/62

03:48

50 lb (22.7 kg)

8

06/16/62

20:05

50 lb (22.7 kg)

9

06/16/62

23:10

50 lb (22.7 kg)

Total

 

 

450 lb (204 kg)

Texas

 

 

 

11

06/24/62

16:12

50 lb (22.7 kg)

12

06/24/62

20:09

50 lb (22.7 kg)

13

06/25/62

00:01

50 lb (22.7 kg)

14

06/27/62

19:44

50 lb (22.7 kg)

15

06/28/62

19:38

50 lb (22.7 kg)

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

16

06/28/62

23:38

50 lb (22.7 kg)

17

06/29/62

19:28

50 lb (22.7 kg)

18

06/29/62

23:37

50 lb (22.7 kg)

19

06/29/62

03:28

50 lb (22.7 kg)

Total

 

 

450 lb (204 kg)

Test

Date

Local time

Quantity

Washington

 

 

 

20

10/02/62

22:15

50 lb (22.7 kg)

21

10/06/62

14:52

50 lb (22.7 kg)

22

10/06/62

18:07

50 lb (22.7 kg)

23

10/06/62

22:19

50 lb (22.7 kg)

24

10/07/62

01:36

50 lb (22.7 kg)

25

10/15/62

18:16

50 lb (22.7 kg)

26

10/21/62

14:53

50 lb (22.7 kg)

27

10/21/62

18:05

50 lb (22.7 kg)

28

10/21/62

22:18

50 lb (22.7 kg)

Total

 

 

450 lb (204 kg)

Nevada

 

 

 

29

10/31/62

15:55

50 lb (22.7 kg)

30

10/31/62

19:18

50 lb (22.7 kg)

31

11/01/62

19:08

50 lb (22.7 kg)

32

11/01/62

22:02

50 lb (22.7 kg)

33

11/02/62

02:02

50 lb (22.7 kg)

34

11/04/62

17:33

50 lb (22.7 kg)

35

11/05/62

19:03

50 lb (22.7 kg)

36

11/05/62

21:54

50 lb (22.7 kg)

Total

 

 

400 lb(181 kg)

Communities affected:

The nearest communities (on current maps) that were potentially most affected were the following:

Oklahoma: Cushing, Ripley, Drumright, Oilton, Yale, Jennings, Hallett, Glencoe, Pawnee, and nearby towns, principally those to the north.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Texas: Port Aransas, Aransas Pass, Ingleside, Gregory, Portland, Corpus Christi, Rockport, Bayside, Taft and nearby towns, principally those to the northwest.

Washington: Colfax, Palouse, Garfield, Steptoe, Thornton, Oakesdale, Malden, Rosalia, Tekoa, Farmington, Latah, and nearby towns, principally those to the north and north-northeast.

Nevada: Goldfield, and other towns to the south.

Distances from releases to affected communities:

Oklahoma: Releases were approximately 4 or 5 miles upwind of Ripley, Cushing, and Drumright. Other towns were at least 5 miles further downwind.

Texas: Releases were approximately 2 to 5 miles from Port Aransas and at least 8 miles from other communities.

Washington: Releases were mostly slightly north (downwind) of Colfax, with apparently one release slightly (a mile or so) upwind of Colfax. Most releases were probably about 5 miles upwind of Palouse and more than 8 miles upwind of other communities.

Nevada: Releases were approximately 4 to 11 miles north (upwind) of Goldfield. Other towns were at least 30 miles downwind of the release.

Weather conditions:

In all cases, the tests were carried out in the desired clear weather, with specific meteorologic regimes that established relatively high turbulence in the lower layers of the atmosphere.

Oklahoma: Tests were conducted in typical summer weather, with southerly flow conditions (wind direction recorded as south two times, south-southeast four times, and southeast three times), when turbulence is gen-

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

erated in the lower 1,000-1,500 ft, with little turbulence above 1,000-1,500 ft. In Test 4, however, there was insufficient vertical wind shear to generate turbulence in the layers near the release height.

Texas: Tests were conducted with south to southeasterly flow conditions (wind direction recorded as southeast five times, south-southeast two times, and east-southeast two times). Solar heating and ocean conditions were such that the turbulence in the lower 1,000-1,500 ft was relatively low compared with the other test areas.

Washington: Tests were conducted in south to southwesterly wind flow conditions (wind direction recorded as south-southeast three times, south one time, south-southwest three times and southwest two times). The desired relatively high turbulence in the lower levels of the atmosphere is not typical of the area, and a 3-week period was required to complete the tests.

Nevada: The tests were conducted in the steady north to northwest flow regime that often develops in the late afternoon and night (recorded wind directions were northeast one time, north five times, and north-northwest two times). This wind flow developed despite easterly pressure-gradient winds (above 7,000 ft), and has a depth of about 2,000 ft, passing easily over the Goldfield ridge.

Other materials released:

No other materials are mentioned in the report.

Maximum time-integrated concentrations and maximum concentrations:

The report gives the measured cumulative exposure. The concentration estimates here were made by assuming a gaussian plume shape with along-wind dispersion of 1,000 m (corresponding approximately to C stability at 10 to 20 km downwind), and using the average measured wind speed at 10 m height. These estimates should thus be considered very rough estimates. Accuracy of measurements was not discussed. By com-

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

parison with other reports, the measurement accuracy cannot be better than about a factor of 2 (so the precision of the entries in the table should be retained only for checking calculations).

Test

µg-min/m3

µg/m3

Test

µg-min/m3

µg/m3

Oklahoma

 

 

Washington

 

 

1

7.19

0.57

20

0.08

0.03

2

7.98

0.70

21

2.15

0.30

3

4.77

0.39

22

0.99

0.06

4

8.67

0.50

23

0.09

0.003

5

9.33

0.75

24

1.04

0.06

6

7.37

0.58

25

0.47

0.01

7

7.09

0.63

26

4.57

0.21

8

6.40

0.71

27

0.01

0.0003

9

4.37

0.53

28

0.01

0.001

All

39.3

0.75

All

6.72

0.30

Texas

 

 

Nevada

 

 

11

3.41

0.74

29

21.4

1.6

12

5.08

0.39

30

4.34

0.29

13

3.18

0.32

31

1.27

0.14

14

*

*

32

5.76

0.37

15

*

*

33

2.65

0.11

16

5.59

0.47

34

0.12

0.003

17

5.73

0.54

35

2.88

0.46

18

6.81

0.61

36

1.90

0.16

19

9.79

0.82

 

 

 

All

35.5

0.82

All

23.2

1.6

* = page missing in report. Total (All) integrated exposure estimates have been estimated by assuming that these two tests were equivalent to the averages of the other tests.

Maximum time-integrated concentrations and maximum concentrations in any populated area:

In Oklahoma, Texas, and Washington, the density of communities is high enough in the affected area that it is likely that populated areas experienced concentrations and time-integrated concentrations as high as were

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

measured anywhere. In Nevada, the only nearby community was the town of Goldfield, which experienced time-integrated concentrations (and probably maximum concentrations) between one-third and one-fourth of the maxima reported above for Nevada.

DESCRIPTION OF TEST

Name of test: Tracer Study of Dispersion over a City (no code name identified).

Reference-list numbers: 17 and 43

Reference: F. Pooler. A Tracer Study of Dispersion over a City. Paper 6628 at the 59th Annual Meeting, Air Pollution Control Association, San Francisco, Calif.; June 20-24, 1966 (from the Air Resources Field Research Office, ESSA, at the Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, Division of Air Pollution, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Cincinnati, Ohio). Also published in 1966 in the Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association (Vol. 16, pp. 627-631). (The journal article appears to have been slightly edited.)

Principal object:

To obtain ''direct experimental evidence to indicate at least order-of-magnitude urban area dispersion parameters.''

Site selection:

"St. Louis was chosen as the experimental area for study primarily because a more general study of air pollution in the St. Louis metropolitan area was then being initiated. In addition," the city is reasonably flat and not affected by significant topographic features, the Weather Bureau Office operated a weather radar, and St. Louis was easily accessible from Cincinnati (experimenter's home office).

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

The areas principally affected by releases discussed in this reference are distinct from the areas affected by releases discussed in Ref. 35.

Number and nomenclature of releases:

Seven series of experiments, with a total of 42 releases. Each release is labeled by a series number (1 through 7) and a test number from 2 to 43. (Test 1 was a dry run with no tracer release.)

Test conditions:

Samplers used included 60 Rotorods, 30 membrane filters, and 10 pulsed drum samplers. A total of 316 sampling sites were used during some or all tests, placed in arcs around the sources at nominal distances of 0.5, 2, and 4.5 miles from Forest Park, and 1.25, 2.5, and 5 miles from the Knights of Columbus Building (see below). Two generators were available that were capable of release rates from 0.5 to 200 g/min. Forty of the 42 tests had a 1-h release time, so that the maximum release possible was 24 kg per test (2 x 0.2 kg/min x 60 min); the other two tests had a release period of 0.5 h, giving a maximum possible release of 12 kg.

Test material:

Not discussed, except by reference to the literature.

Place of release:

Releases were from a site in Forest Park (Tests 2-4, 9, 16-20, 22-25, 29, 31-41, 43) or from the roof of the Knights of Columbus Building. The available map is of low resolution, but places the release sites in the vicinity of the junction of Clayton Road and Faulkner Road in Forest Park and near the junction of S. Grand Blvd. and Gravois Ave. for the Knights of Columbus Building. Those two sites are approximately 2.8 miles apart.

Dates, times, and quantities of release:

Dates, day of week, times, and source location were the following:

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Series

Test

Date

Day

Time, Begin

CST End

Source Locationa

1

2

05/27/63

Mon

14:10

14:40

A

 

3

05/28/63

Tue

10:00

11:00

A

2

4

07/19/63

Fri

11:30

12:30

A

 

5

07/22/63

Mon

11:00

12:00

B

 

6

07/23/63

Tue

11:30

12:30

B

 

7

07/25/63

Thu

10:40

11:40

B

 

8

07/26/63

Fri

10:45

11:45

B

3

9

09/12/63

Thu

11:15

12:15

A

 

10

09/14/63

Sat

10:45

11:45

B

 

11

09/16/63

Mon

11:00

12:00

B

 

12

09/17/63

Tue

20:00

20:30

B

 

13

09/18/63

Wed

20:00

21:00

B

4

14

04/01/64

Wed

12:00

13:00

B

 

15

04/06/64

Mon

20:40

21:40

B

 

16

04/07/64

Tue

20:48

21:48

A

 

17

04/08/64

Wed

20:30

21:30

A

 

18

04/09/64

Thu

20:45

21:45

A

5

19

06/02/64

Tue

10:30

11:30

A

 

20

06/03/64

Wed

10:40

11:40

A

 

21

06/04/64

Thu

10:30

11:30

B

 

22

06/06/64

Sat

11:30

12:30

A

 

23

06/07/64

Sun

11:30

12:30

A

 

24

06/09/64

Tue

10:30

11:30

A

 

25

06/10/64

Wed

10:30

11:30

A

 

26

06/11/64

Thu

10:30

11:30

B

6

27

10/10/64

Sat

11:30

12:30

B

 

28

10/11/64

Sun

11:05

12:05

B

 

29

10/12/64

Mon

20:00

21:00

A

 

30

10/16/64

Fri

20:00

21:00

B

6

31

10/17/64

Sat

13:15

14:15

A

 

32

10/19/64

Mon

19:45

20:45

A

 

33

10/20/64

Tue

19:15

20:15

A

 

34

10/21/64

Wed

19:00

20:00

A

7

35

03/06/65

Sat

12:30

13:30

A

 

36

03/07/65

Sun

12:30

13:30

A

 

37

03/08/65

Mon

20:30

21:30

A

 

38

03/11/65

Thu

20:30

21:30

A

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Series

Test

Date

Day

Time, Begin

CST End

Source Locationa

 

39

03/13/65

Sat

12:20

13:20

A

 

40

03/14/65

Sun

11:00

12:00

A

 

41

03/15/65

Mon

20:50

21:50

A

 

42

03/16/65

Tue

20:30

21:30

B

 

43

03/17/65

Wed

20:00

21:00

A

a Source locations: A = Forest Park; B = Knights of Columbus Building.

Quantities were not given. From the data presented in the paper for Experiment 9, it is possible to infer a release quantity of approximately 24 kg for that experiment, corresponding to the maximum dispersal rate of the two generators available and assuming 1 x 1010 ppg for the release rate. The concentration data presented for Experiments 18 and 32 are consistent with a similar release quantity.

Experiment 9 is presented as typical of daytime releases (26 cases) and Experiments 18 and 32 of evening experiments (16 cases). If all experiments were carried out at the maximum dispersal rate, the total release would have been approximately 984 kg (40 experiments had a 1-h dispersal period, and two had a 0.5-h dispersal period).

Communities affected:

St. Louis.

Distances from releases to affected communities:

Release took place within St. Louis.

Weather conditions:

The intent was to run tests during various weather conditions. There is no discussion of actual weather conditions, although windy conditions were noted in one table, and there is a notation that light snow ended during Experiment 36.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Other materials released:

No other material is mentioned.

Maximum time-integrated concentrations:

Very few data were provided in this short paper.

Nominal particle concentrations, obtained by dividing measured exposures by the release times, were given graphically for three experiments (numbers 9, 18, and 32). The maximum values were approximately 2 x 105 particles per cubic meter, 4 x 105 particles per cubic meter, and 1 x 105 particles per cubic meter, respectively. If the material used was similar to that used in other experiments (about 1 x 1010 particles released per gram), those values correspond to average concentrations of 20, 40, and 10 µg/m3, respectively, or exposures of 1,200, 2,400, and 600 µg-min/m3, respectively, for 1-h releases. The affected area in each case covered approximately a 40-degree arc of receptors, and the receptor locations allowed coverage of approximately three quadrants when both sources are taken into account.

Experiment 9 was said to be typical of daytime conditions (26 experiments, 15 from Forest Park) and Experiments 18 and 32 of evening conditions (16 experiments, 11 from Forest Park). Taking account of different wind directions (covering the approximately 180 degrees of good coverage by the nearest receptor arcs) during the various releases from Forest Park, the highest cumulative exposure in the vicinity of Forest Park was almost certainly less than 7,400 µg-min/m3.

Maximum time-integrated concentrations in any populated area:

Same as the maximum time-integrated concentrations anywhere.

Maximum concentrations:

Not computable from information currently available.

Graphs in the paper indicate particle concentrations for three tests, the highest value of about 4 x 105 particles per cubic meter being in Test 18 at the closest measurement points, approximately 640 m from the release

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

point. If the material used was similar to that used in other experiments (about 1 x 1010 particles released per gram), that value corresponds to a concentration of 40 µg/m3.

Maximum concentrations in any populated area:

Same as the maximum concentrations anywhere.

Other comments:

There should be much more information available about this test in files of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The paper has some graphs of "concentrations" in particles per cubic meter (see "Maximum time-integrated concentrations" and "Maximum concentrations" above), although the basis for these graphs is not given. Other bar charts show particle counts per minute, presumably obtained from the drum-pulsed samplers mentioned. However, no raw data were provided in the paper, and much of the information needed for accurate estimates is missing.

DESCRIPTION OF TEST

Name of test: Calibration of the Model D-1 Dry Particulate Disseminator , DPGTP 508C

Reference-list number: 18

Reference: Calibration of the Model D-1 Dry Particulate Disseminator with Green Fluorescing FP, DPGTP 508C. USATECOM Project 5-3-9030-10. DPGTM 1060. Biological Branch, Test Design and Analysis Division, Technical Plans and Evaluation Directorate, U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command, Dugway Proving Ground, Dugway, Utah. Case File 3164. Nov. 1963.

Principal object:

To determine estimates of dissemination efficiency and source strengths

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

achieved with green fluorescing FP when disseminated from the Model D-1 (L-20) dry particulate disseminator.

Site selection:

Aerial Spray Grid, located 11 miles west of the technical area, Dugway Proving Ground.

Number and nomenclature of releases:

The whole series of nine trials constituted DPGTP 508C. There was one release per trial, numbered C-1 through C-8, with an interpolated C-2R. C-2 was aborted because of malfunctioning sampling equipment and was repeated as C-2R.

Test conditions:

A U-6 aircraft disseminated the FP while flying at 130 to 175 ft altitude at 115 mph along a 15,000-ft flight line 100 yd upwind from the 300-ft tower of the aerial spray grid (ASG). Dissemination was at 7.5 lb/min for approximately 1.5 min. The ASG was equipped with 58 Millipore filters spaced 5 ft vertically apart up the tower.

Test material:

Green fluorescing ZnCdS FP, Lot H-324, from U.S. Radium Corp., with 1% wt/wt micronized DuPont Valron Estersil, particle count 3.59 x 1010, according to an inspection report by Laboratories Branch, Biological Division.

Place of release:

See "Site selection" and "Test conditions" above.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Dates, times, and quantities of release:

 

 

 

 

 

At 150 ft Wind

Test

Date

Time

Duration, s

Amount, g

Speed mph

Direction Deg.

C-1

05/17/63

12:52

87

3607

5

360

C-2

No further data available

C-2R

05/21/63

13:30

70

2894

7

290

C-3

No further data available

C-4

05/20/63

17:26

82

3394

10

356

C-5

05/20/63

18:21

81

3164

7.8

350

C-6

05/21/63

14:28

72

2920

6.5

270

C-7

08/15/63

11:27

78

3512

5.3

293

C-8

08/15/63

13:12

82

3532

4.7

356

Adjusted total

 

 

29,601

 

 

Trial C-2 was aborted, and no data were presented. In trial C-3, the wind angle changed at the last moment, and the data were not analyzed or presented. The total amount released has been increased to account for the missing data, by assuming dissemination of the average of the seven available amounts.

Communities affected:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Distances from releases to affected communities:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Weather conditions:

See "Dates, times, and quantities" above for wind angle and speed half way up the Aerial Spray Grid tower (at 150 ft).

Other materials released:

No other materials were mentioned.

Maximum time-integrated concentrations:

The maximum concentrations listed below take account of the efficien-

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

cies of dissemination measured in these tests (average about 50%). These maximum concentrations were measured at heights varying from ground level to 175 ft, with measurements 100 yd downwind of the releases. The cumulative maximum measured was at 175 ft, although nearly the same cumulative total was recorded at ground level.

Test

Max. Exp., µg-min/m3

C-1

756

C-2

No data available

C-2R

316

C-3

No data available

C-4

191

C-5

342

C-6

603

C-7

260

C-8

445

Cumulative

1044

Maximum time-integrated concentrations in any populated area:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Maximum concentrations:

No time-resolved data were available to allow estimation of concentration.

Maximum concentrations in any populated area:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Other comments:

This was the third phase of the 508 series of efficiency estimates for FP dissemination. Test Series 508, Phases A and B involved at least five and three releases, respectively. In addition, the Bio 595 (SD-2 drone) program involved at least five releases. All the Bio 595 releases were of yellow fluorescing FP. The other releases are described in the reports:

DPGTM 1045, Field Calibration of the L 23 FP Disseminator, Bio 508A, Dugway, Utah. Jan. 1961.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

DPGTM 1052, Calibration of the Model D-1 Dry Particulate Disseminator Designed for the L-20 Aircraft, Bio 508B, Dugway, Utah. July 1962.

DPGTM 1058, Drone Delivery System AN/USD-2 (XAE-3), Phase III, Biological Studies, Dugway, Utah. Aug. 1963.

DESCRIPTION OF TEST

Name of test: Deciduous Forest Diffusion Study

Reference-list number: 19

Reference: Deciduous Forest Diffusion Study. Report 3004. Final Report. Applied Science Division, Litton Systems, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Contract DA-42-007-AMC-48(R), Project 1T062111A128, for the Meteorology Division, Deseret Test Center, Building 103 Soldiers Circle, Fort Dugway, Utah. June 1969.

Vol. 1: M.H. Tourin, W.C. Shen. Diffusion Studies in a Deciduous Forest.

Vol. 2: M.H. Tourin, R.J. Rickett, W.C. Shen. Detailed Program Description.

Vol. 3: M.H. Tourin, W.C. Shen. Detailed Technical Data Supplement.

Principal object:

To select an appropriate site, design a test grid, acquire pertinent meteorologic and aerosol-sampling data, and analyze these data in terms of meaningful diffusion characteristics related to a deciduous forest area and its associate micrometeorology.

Site selection:

Site selection for level, nonmarshy terrain with uniform, dense coverage of hardwood or deciduous trees; continuous site at least for 3 miles up-

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

wind; a minimum of hills, streams, lakes, built-up areas for several miles; presence (but not excessive) of snow in winter; minimum objections from private landowners and populated communities or interference from campers and public; accessibility by road; access to manpower, supplies, and facilities; reasonable convenience of aircraft facilities; and access to meteorologic data for previous years. Final site selected from possible test sites in Minnesota principally by Army helicopter survey. Site is within Chippewa National Forest in North Central Minnesota, approximately 350 km north of Minneapolis-St. Paul, 5-6 km from main roads, 8-10 km southeast of nearest town of Cass Lake (population 1,500), 32 km southeast of Bemidji (population 10,000).

Number and nomenclature of releases:

Two series of 12 tests were labeled Tests 102 through 113 (winter series) and 201 through 212 (summer series).

Test conditions:

A test array of Rotorod and other samplers was set up on towers and poles covering 2 km by 500 m, aligned northwest-southeast, with an especially dense microgrid at the center of the test array. FPs were released from a Piper Apache aircraft flying at 150 mph ground speed over a line length of 16 km (4-min flight time) approximately 1.5 km or 4.8 km (Tests 110 and 202) upwind of the closest tower of, perpendicular to and symmetric about the center-line of the test array, at the lowest feasible height (38 to 60 m, depending on conditions; tree height was 16-18 m); in addition, individual bomblets (all summer tests, and two winter tests) were exploded in the center of the central microgrid to simulate point sources, and a line of 9 bomblets (some winter tests) spaced at 5-m intervals through the microgrid, perpendicular to the axis of the test array, were used to simulate a line source. Samples were taken with 15-min integration time at heights of 1.5 (all test array points), 5, 10, 20, and 40 m.

Release rate from the aircraft was metered to 0.85 kg/km, so that total release per test was approximately 13.6 kg. Bomblets contained 25 (±0.1) g.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Test material:

ZnCdS provided by Dugway Proving Ground.

Yellow fluorescing (aerial release): Type 2267, Lot H390, 1.56 x 1010 ppg; and Lot H395, 1.32 x 1010 ppg. Release efficiency taken to be 39%.

Green fluorescing (ground level bomblets): Type 3206, Lot H391, 1.62 x 1010 ppg. Loaded in modified E-61R4 bomblets that produce an instantaneous 2-m diameter spherical cloud on detonation. Release efficiency taken to be 30%.

Place of release:

For most tests, the aerial release was along a line 16 km long, perpendicular to and symmetric about, the main northwest-southeast axis of the test array, and 1.6 km northwest of its nearest point. For tests 103, 206, 208, the wind was from the opposite direction, and the release line was 1.6 km southeast of the nearest point of the test array. For tests 110 and 202, the release line was 4.8 km northwest of the test array. That is summarized in the table below.

Dates, times, and quantities of release:

Test

Date

Time, LST

Amount Air, kg

Released Ground, kg

Direction/ Distance, km

102

01/25/64

21:33

13.1

0.025

NW 1.6

103

01/30/64

01:06

13.8

0.025

SE 1.6

104

02/06/64

21:12

14.0

0.225

NW 1.6

105

02/12/64

21:11

13.9

0.225

NW 1.6

106

02/14/64

21:08

13.4

0.225

NW 1.6

107

02/18/64

20:44

13.5

0.225

NW 1.6

108

03/02/64

21:02

14.3

0.225

NW 1.6

109

03/06/64

20:55

13.4

0.225

NW 1.6

110

03/10/64

23:07

14.2

0.225

NW 4.8

111

03/16/64

21:25

14.4

0.225

NW 1.6

112

03/20/64

21:11

14.4

0.225

NW 1.6

113

04/07/64

22:11

14.0

0.225

NW 1.6

201

05/26/64

23:41

14.6

0.025

NW 1.6

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Test

Date

Time, LST

Amount Air, kg

Released Ground, kg

Direction/ Distance, km

202

05/30/64

23:28

14.0

0.025

NW 4.8

203

06/10/64

00:05

13.3

0.025

NW 1.6

204

06/13/64

01:07

13.6

0.025

NW 1.6

205

06/28/64

23:55

14.0

0.025

NW 1.6

206

07/06/64

00:55

13.8

0.025

SE 1.6

207

07/07/64

22:53

14.9

0.025

NW 1.6

208

07/15/64

23:44

14.7

0.025

SE 1.6

209

07/28/64

22:50

14.1

0.025

NW 1.6

210

08/02/64

22:45

14.0

0.025

NW 1.6

211

08/07/64

01:24

10.4

0.025

NW 1.6

212

08/07/64

22:31

14.1

0.025

NW 1.6

All

 

332

2.6

 

 

Communities affected:

The nearest permanent communities potentially affected were the town of Cass Lake, approximately 8 km to the northwest of the test area, and Bemidji, 32 km northwest. These communities could only have been affected by Tests 103, 206, and 208, when the wind was blowing in their direction.

On current maps, there are now also campgrounds (Norway Beach Campground and Ojibway Campground) located on the shore of Cass Lake approximately 2 km closer than the community of Cass Lake.

To the southeast, the nearest downwind communities on current maps are Federal Dam (approximately 24 km) and Boy River (approximately 32 km).

Distances from releases to affected communities:

Cass Lake is approximately 8 km from the center of the test array, and so approximately 10.6 km from the release point for the three releases that might have affected it.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Federal Dam is approximately 27 km from the nearest releases that could have affected it.

Weather conditions:

Releases were always performed under stable or neutral meteorologic conditions, with no rain present or forecast, and with the wind direction close to the axis of the test array and expected to remain that way during the period of the test (1 to 3 h). Wind speeds during winter were 0.7 to 2.6 m/s, and during summer 0.2 to 0.7 m/s, at 10 m altitude.

Other materials released:

No other materials are mentioned.

Maximum concentrations and time-integrated concentrations:

Air and ground releases could be distinguished by the different colors of fluorescence of the particles. Only concentrations from the aerial releases were evaluated. The mass released at ground level was much smaller, and ground-released particles did not travel extensively outside the measurement area, which was unpopulated except for a crew of 30 to 40. Within a few meters of the ground-level bomblets, local instantaneous concentrations could be very high (approximately 6 g/m3 at the instant of burst and within the 1-m radius initial spherical cloud).

The following table indicates the highest 15-min average concentration, estimated by the original authors, together with measured exposures. Individual measurements are probably accurate only to within a factor of 2. (There was a standard deviation of a factor of 1.8 in the relative measurements of co-mounted Rotorods and sequential samplers.)

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Test

Max. 15-min Conc., µg/m3

Max. Integrated Conc., µg-min/m

Test

Max. 15-min Conc., µg/m3

Max. Integrated Conc., µg-min/m3

102

2.4

52

201

1.6

59

103

9.1

16

202

0.6

133

104

2.2

68

203

6.2

178

105

2.2

77

204

3.3

104

106

5.5

34

205

3.6

1408

107

2.9

94

206

2a

40

108

5.6

17

207

2.6

4410

109

1.5

35

208

4.2

80

110

1.8

63

209

2.0

54

111

1.1

34

210

3.6

153

112

1.8

83

211

3.3

46

113

5.5

49

212

9.1b

77

All

9.1

2779

 

 

 

a Estimated. The original authors did not make any estimate for this experiment.

b This was reported as the maximum by the authors, although it conflicts with the measured exposure (a 15-min average concentration of 9.1 µg/m3 itself contributes 136.5 µg-min/m3 to exposure). The authors apparently interpolated to estimate the maximum concentrations, while all the exposures are measured.

Maximum concentrations and time-integrated concentrations in any populated area:

Air and ground releases could be distinguished by the different colors of fluorescence of the particles. Only concentrations from the aerial releases were evaluated. The mass released at ground level was much smaller, and ground-released particles did not travel extensively outside the measurement area, which was unpopulated except for a crew of 30 to 40.

The following table gives estimates of the concentration reached in the nearest populated area. These were obtained by using standard gaussian plume dispersion models, together with estimates of the relevant meteorologic parameters. They should not be considered more accurate than a factor of 3, when interpreted as concentrations that might have affected these populated areas—actual plume travel was not measured.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Test

Max. Conc., µg/m3

Max. Integrated Conc., µg-min/m3

Area Affected

102

0.3

10

Federal Dam

103

3

50

Cass Lake

104

0.4

10

Federal Dam

105

0.4

18

Federal Dam

106

0.9

50

Federal Dam

107

0.4

25

Federal Dam

108

0.4

30

Federal Dam

109

0.4

30

Federal Dam

110

0.4

30

Federal Dam

111

0.5

12

Federal Dam

112

0.4

30

Federal Dam

113

1

70

Federal Dam

201

1

140

Federal Dam

202

0.9

110

Federal Dam

203

1.5

200

Federal Dam

204

0.5

70

Federal Dam

205

0.9

190

Federal Dam

206

1.5

80

Cass Lake

207

2.0

300

Federal Dam

208

2.6

160

Cass Lake

209

1.5

110

Federal Dam

210

2.0

100

Federal Dam

211

0.4

30

Federal Dam

212

0.9

55

Federal Dam

All

3

290

Cass Lake

All

2

1620

Federal Dam

Other comments:

Table 3-8 in the original, from which the exposure estimates above have been taken, is incorrectly characterized in the report. It is said to be in particle-minutes per liter, but actually corresponds to 1/15 of the exposure in particle-minutes per liter, and uses a nominal calibration factor for the Rotorods in place of the measured calibration factor.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

A crew of approximately 30 local people were employed to operate the sampling grid during testing.

References to other possible FP studies that might be relevant.

1-6

Geophysics Corp. of America. Technical Report 64-3-g. Meteorological Prediction Techniques and Data System, by H.E. Cramer et. al. Contract DA42-007-CML-552. Final Report. Mar. 1964. AD444,197.

Unclear whether this study used FP.

1-7

Bendix Corp. Bendix Systems Division. Jungle Canopy Penetration. Vol. 1. Diffusion Measurements. Contract DA42-007530. Final Report. Aug. 1961-Jan. 1963 (by Hamilton et. al., according to p. 1-32 of text).

FP was used in this study, but what type is not stated. Sponsored by Dugway.

1-8

Meteorology Research. Report 63-FR-108. Dissemination and Evaluation of a Tracer Material Release (Big Jack) (U), Vol. 1, by T.B. Smith and F. Vukovich. Contract DA42-007-AMC15(X). Final Report. Nov. 29, 1963. AD 347, 791. Confidential. (Text p. 1-31 indicates authors as Smith and Leavengood.) Unclear whether this study used FP.

1-9

I.A. Smith and M.E. Singer. Personal conversations (1966). (Text indicates experiments at Brookhaven National Laboratory.)

Unclear whether this study used FP.

DESCRIPTION OF TEST

Name of test: San Francisco (no code name identified)

Reference-list number: 20

Reference: J.A. Murray, T.S. Brown, and F.X. Webster. FP Tracer Co-Dispersal and Sampling Studies. Technical Report 135. Metronics Associates, 3201 Porter Drive, Stanford Industrial Park, Palo Alto, Calif. Contract DA-42-007-

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

AMC-240(R) under RDT&E Project 1V025001A128, Meteorological Aspects of CB Program, for U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. Dec. 1968.

Principal object:

To investigate the effect of co-dispersal of FP with other materials and tracers and to improve the representation of the efficiencies of the co-dispersal dissemination systems and the air sampling systems.

Site selection:

Three test sites were used. No information on site selection is given, but we may surmise that they were selected for their meteorologic characteristics:

  1. The Industrial test site was close to large, low buildings and surrounded by vacant, multi-acre building sites.

  2. The Bayshore Flats test site was adjacent to San Francisco bay and frequently exposed to steady onshore breezes.

  3. The Foothill test site was in the rolling foothills in the eastern slope of the coastal mountains that run the length of the San Francisco Peninsula.

No further geographic information was given on the location of these sites.

Number and nomenclature of releases:

A total of 18 releases is described in seven field experiments. The field experiments were identified by the nomenclature FE 146, FE 151, FE 152, FE 154, FE 155, FE 156, and FE 157. Within each, there were a variable number of releases, each labeled as a ''trial'' and indicated by alphabetic letters:

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

FE

Trial

Site

146

D

Industrial

151

A

Industrial

152

A, B, C

Bayshore Flats

154

A, B, C, D

Bayshore Flats

155

A, B, C

Foothill

156

A, B, C, D

Foothill

157

A, B

Bayshore Flats

Test conditions:

These tests were primarily designed to measure efficiencies of equipment, not dispersal characteristics over large areas. At the Industrial test site, the field tests were in the vacant building sites, with the sampling station 100 m downwind of the generator. At the Bayshore site, FP cloud travel distances were greater than 1,000 m. At the Foothill site, samplers were located about 200 m downwind of the generators.

Test material: Various combinations of ZnCdS FP that fluoresce different colors were co-dispersed and, also in 156 A, B, C, and D, simultaneously dispersed. The following were used in various combinations:

 

 

 

Particle-size

Parameters

 

FP Tracer

 

Particles per g

 

Mass-mean Diameter, µm

 

Number-mean Diameter, µm

Type

Color

Lot

2267

Yellow

DPG 11

1.46 x 1010

3.2

2267

Yellow

H511

2.15 x 1010

2.8

1.9

2267

Yellow

H443

1.55 x 1010

3.1

2.1

3206

Green

H 396-1

1.33 x 1010

3.3

3206

Green

H513

1.54 x 1010

3.14

2.2

4003

Green

Exptl.a

1.5 x 107

31.6

25

2220

Orange

H 399

1.45 x 1010

3.2

2205

Blue

H 397

1.23 x 1010

3.4

1491

Red

Exptl.

5 x 108

10.1

2.4

4763

Red

Exptl.

3.04 x 109

5.4

3.5

4763

Red

Exptl.

2.67 x 109

5.6

3.6

a Exptl., experimental.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Place of release:

See "Number and nomenclature of release" above. No further information is provided.

Dates, times, and quantities of release:

The times of the tests are not generally given.

FE

Trial

Date

Time, PDT

Quantities of ZnCdS, g

146

A

3/25/64

 

23.5

151

D

10/18/65

 

1.0

152

A, B, C

12/1/65

 

100, 128.3, 162.7

154

A, B, C, D

3/24/68

 

147.4, 186, 217, 248.5

155

A, B,C

4/20/66

 

151.2, 171.9, 160.5

156

A

8/4/66

12:14-12:24

441.3

 

Ba

8/4/66

14:21-14:31

354.6

 

Ca

8/4/66

15:04-15:14

396.9

 

D

8/4/66

15:53-16:03

356.5

157

A, B

5/23/67

 

16, 14.9

a The mass of the organic FP in FE 156 B and C has been omitted.

By site, the total quantities involved are the following:

Site

Quantity of ZnCdS

Industrial

24.5 g

Bayshore

1.22 kg

Foothill

2.03 kg

Communities affected:

Unknown. There is insufficient detail to locate the test sites beyond the description given above in "Site selection."

Distances from releases to affected communities:

Unknown. There is insufficient detail to locate the test sites. All were apparently in locally deserted or vacant areas out to the distance of the samplers. The one potentially useful site photo is too indistinct to draw any conclusions.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Weather conditions:

There is no mention of weather conditions, except that wind speeds are given for some experiments:

FE 152 Trial averages 6.5-7.6 mph, extreme range 3-10 mph

FE 154 Trial averages 7.2-11.9 mph, extreme range 5-12.5 mph

FE 156 Trial averages 5.6-8.5 mph, extreme range 3.0-11.2 mph

FE 157 Averaged 10-16 mph from north-northwest, extreme range 8-20 mph

Other materials released:

In two releases (156 B and C), there was an additional admixture of an experimental, low-density, organic FP (3.5% and 3.3% by weight of the total releases, respectively). In four releases (FE 156 A, B, C, and D), nonviable BG spores prestained with crystal violet were co-dispersed and sampled with the FP.

Maximum time-integrated concentrations:

For the Industrial site, no measurement data are given, but the masses involved were small compared with the other sites. The sums over all trials of maximum measured time-integrated concentrations were the following:

Location

Cumulative time-integrated concentration, µg-min/m3

Industrial site

(data not available)

Bayshore Flats site

1100

Foothill site

1900

Maximum time-integrated concentrations in any populated area:

Not known. Probably no higher than the maximum time-integrated concentrations just given, because the tests apparently were carried out in vacant areas, with no people exposed between the generation point and the point of measurement.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Maximum concentrations:

For the Industrial site, no measurement data are given, but the masses involved were small compared with the other sites. For the Bayshore tests, only exposure (not concentration) information is available; but concentrations were probably similar to the Foothill site at similar distances (at the Bayshore site, the samplers were located further away from the generators). At the Foothill site, measurements were made with drum pulsed samplers, giving measurements of 6-s and 30-s average concentrations, in addition to the dosage information given by membrane filters and Rotorods.

Location

Maximum measured concentration µg/m3

Industrial site

(not measured)

Bayshore Flats site

(not measured)

Foothill site

170

The 6-s sampling clearly shows the effects of plume waver, even at 200 m from the dispersal point—during 10 min of continuous dispersion, several peaks in concentration are observed in the record.

Maximum concentrations in any populated area:

Unknown. Unlikely to be higher than the maximum concentration given above, because the trials were apparently carried out in vacant areas.

Other comments:

This paper includes an analysis of some results from a previous field trial (FE 146, Trial D, 25 Mar. 1964). The implication is that there were other prior field trials.

These trials were small-scale calibration and feasibility trials, rather than dispersion tests.

Also mentioned in the paper are aerosolization tests designed to evaluate the separation of the mixture of FP particles of different colors during

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

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Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

properly located around and within the city, and a cooperative and genial citizenry and town government."

Number and nomenclature of releases:

A total of 75 separate releases in 23 experimental periods. Each experiment (up to four releases) was labeled as TRC 64-1 through TRC 64-6, and TRC 65-1 through TRC 65-18. The number TRC 65-4 was assigned, but that experiment was canceled. Within each experiment, four releases were planned, labeled Y1, Y2, G1, and G2, representing two releases each of yellow- and green-fluorescing FP.

Test conditions:

Releases were from two Piper Apache aircraft flying at less than 240 m altitude perpendicular to the wind direction, upwind of the city, over a 20-mile release line, with a release rate of 2.5 lb/mile. During each of two release runs, each aircraft released a differently fluorescing tracer. Surface samplers were located on five crosswind lines (modified by street location requirements), one at the upwind edge of the city, three dividing the city into its major land-use variations, and one on the downwind edge. Each line contained 50 samplers at roughly 0.5-mile intervals, and extended out from the city into the rural areas to the northeast, to allow simultaneous measurements over city and rural areas. The sampling network limited allowable wind directions to the northeast or southwest. In addition, 25 Millipore filter samplers were distributed more or less at random. Upwind and downwind vertical distributions of exposure were measured using samplers strung up a balloon tether and a guy wire of the 244-m WANE-TV tower. While the experiment was planned to allow releases with the wind from the northwest or the southeast, all experiments were carried out with a generally northwest airflow, although there was a substantial variation of direction, with the airflow almost parallel to the sampling lines in several experiments (so the plume almost missed the sampling array).

Test material:

Two ZnCdS tracers that fluoresce different colors were used (one released by each aircraft).

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

 

 

 

Particle-size

parameters

FP Tracer

Particles per g

Mass-mean diameter, µm

Type

Color

Lot

2267

Yellow

H-395

1.32 x 1010

3.31

3206

Green

H-396

1.45 x 1010

3.2

3206

Green

H-391a

1.62 x 1010

3.09

a Used in one release (unspecified) in 1964.

Place of release:

In all cases, slightly northwest (upwind) of Fort Wayne, Ind., along a roughly 20-mile track approximately northeast-southwest, perpendicular to the wind direction (see below for distances).

Dates, times, and quantities of release:

The following table shows experiment number and date. Within each experiment, four releases (labeled Src. Y1, Y2, G1, G2) were planned. The table shows the mass released ("?" if this is not given), and the length, altitude, and upwind distance of the release path (distance upwind from the nearest sampling grid line on the upwind edge of the city). Also included are reasons specified for nonrelease. TRC 64-1 was said to have few analyzable data, and no further information was provided on these releases. (It is not specified whether all four releases were made.)

Name

Date

Time, LST

Src

Total Amount, kg

Relative Length m

Relative Altitude, m

Upwind Distance, m

TRC 64-1

02/02/64

 

Y1

?

No further information available

 

 

 

Y2

?

No further information available

 

 

 

G1

?

No further information available

 

 

 

G2

?

No further information available

TRC 64-2

03/22/64

00:28

Y1

22.7

20,985

122

1600

 

 

 

Y2

 

No reason given

 

07/25/64

00:38

G1

22.7

27,725

122

4800

 

 

 

G2

 

No reason given

TRC 64-3

 

 

Y1

?

One release of yellow tracer

 

 

 

Y2

 

Unfavorable winds

 

 

 

G1

 

Unfavorable winds

 

 

 

G2

 

Unfavorable winds

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Name

Date

Time, LST

Src

Total Amount, kg

Relative Length m

Relative Altitude, m

Upwind Distance, m

TRC64-4

07/29/64

20:45

Y1

20.8

20,124

122

1600

 

 

21:30

Y2

21.3

20,275

122

1600

 

 

20:52

G1

22.7

21,230

183

1600

 

 

21:35

G2

22.5

22,075

183

1600

TRC64-5

08/09/64

21:57

Y1

16.4

22,470

126

1600

 

 

 

Y2

 

Aircraft out of commission

 

 

 

G 1

 

Aircraft out of commission

 

 

22:32

G2

21.7

21,490

126

1600

TRC64-6

08/13/64

20:05

Y1

18.6

22,946

183

1600

 

 

21:29

Y2

17.9

24,019

183

1600

 

 

20:10

G1

20.8

20,620

91

3200

 

 

21:34

G2

22.0

21,156

91

3200

TRC65-1

10/24/65

20:02

Y1

22.7

15,704

214

1600

 

 

21:20

Y2

22.7

18,420

244

1600

 

 

20:18

G1

22.7

28,807

92

1600

 

 

21:35

G2

22.7

35,586

122

1600

TRC65-2

10/26/65

19:00

Y1

22.3

26,333

183

1600

 

 

21:01

Y2

22.8

26,909

183

1600

 

 

19:15

G1

22.7

28,539

91

1600

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Name

Date

Time, LST

Src

Total Amount, kg

Relative Length m

Relative Altitude, m

Upwind Distance, m

 

 

21:18

G2

22.8

27,661

91

1600

TRC65-3

11/08/65

19:07

Y1

22.5

26,869

183

3200

 

 

20:34

Y2

22.6

26,869

183

3200

 

 

19:22

G1

23.2

35,513

91

3200

 

 

20:49

G2

22.6

32,924

91

3200

TRC65-5

11/16/65

20:03

Y1

22.0

26,903

91

1600

 

 

 

Y2

 

Severe turbulence

 

 

20:12

G1

22.6

33,213

91

4800

 

 

 

G2

 

Severe turbulence

TRC65-6

11/17/65

 

Y1

 

Dispenser malfunction

 

 

20:25

Y2

22.1

23,992

183

1600

 

 

18:45

G1

22.5

32,133

91

1600

 

 

20:47

G2

22.2

26,387

91

1600

TRC65-7

11/29/65

18:42

Y1

22.5

26,333

183

3200

 

 

20:44

Y2

22.8

28,203

183

3200

 

 

19:00

G1

22.7

33,400

91

3200

 

 

21:00

G2

22.8

30,873

91

3200

TRC65-8

12/05/65

18:30

Y1

22.8

24,536

183

4800

 

 

20:00

Y2

22.6

24,791

183

4800

 

 

18:45

G1

22.7

15,751

91

4800

 

 

20:15

G2

22.7

30,041

91

4800

TRC65-9

12/06/65

18:00

Y1

22.9

25,823

214

3200

 

 

19:45

Y2

23.0

26,514

214

3200

 

 

18:15

G1

22.9

33,977

122

3200

 

 

20:00

G2

23.0

30,464

122

3200

TRC 65-10

01/06/66

19:03

Y1

22.2

23,892

122

3200

 

 

 

Y2

 

Cloud cover, release canceled

 

 

19:08

G1

22.4

28,371

122

3200

 

 

 

G2

 

Cloud cover, release canceled

TRC 65-11

01/10/66

19:04

Y1

22.3

27,452

122

4800

 

 

20:45

Y2

22.5

29,116

122

4800

 

 

19:09

G1

22.2

25,602

122

4800

 

 

20:50

G2

22.8

28,056

122

4800

TRC 65-12

01/13/66

19:00

Y1

22.2

24,831

122

3200

 

 

20:30

Y2

24.3

24,844

122

3200

 

 

19:05

G1

22.4

26,661

122

3200

 

 

20:35

G2

22.4

26,742

122

3200

TRC 65-13

01/23/66

18:30

Y1

22.6

24,784

91

3200

 

 

 

Y2

?

Malfunction, dispenser jammed

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Name

Date

Time, LST

Src

Total Amount, kg

Relative Length m

Relative Altitude, m

Upwind Distance, m

 

 

18:35

G1

20.6

27,493

91

3200

 

 

20:20

G2

11.3

16,000

91

3200

TRC 65-14

01/27/66

19:45

Y1

24.5

27,790

122

1600

 

 

21:15

Y2

22.9

26,266

122

1600

 

 

19:51

G1

22.7

28,472

122

1600

 

 

21:21

G2

22.7

21,411

122

1600

TRC 65-15

01/28/66

19:00

Y1

22.5

24,462

91

1600

 

 

 

Y2

 

No reason given

 

 

19:05

G1

22.7

28,968

91

1600

 

 

 

G2

 

No reason given

TRC 65-16

01/29/66

19:00

Y1

22.5

25,240

91

1600

 

 

20:15

Y2

22.5

26,580

91

1600

 

 

19:04

G1

23.1

28,834

91

1600

 

 

20:20

G2

22.4

25,696

91

1600

TRC 65-17

02/04/66

18:43

Y1

22.5

26,695

91

1600

 

 

 

Y2

 

No release

 

 

18:48

G1

22.6

27,399

91

1600

 

 

20:08

G2

22.5

24,905

91

1600

TRC 65-18

02/04/66

23:50

Y1

26.9

22,509

122

1600

 

 

 

Y2

 

No reason given

 

 

23:55

G1

22.5

19,526

122

1600

 

 

 

G2

 

No reason given

The total mass released was approximately 1,650 kg, when account is taken of the (up to) five releases for which no measured quantity is given.

Communities affected:

The principal community affected was Fort Wayne, Ind., together with other any rural communities within approximately 10 miles to the northeast.

Distances from releases to affected communities:

The releases were 1.6 to 4.8 km northwest (upwind) of the edge of the city of Fort Wayne. Some people would have been closer to the releases.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Weather conditions:

The intention was to release tracer into a stable atmosphere or a neutral atmosphere with inversion conditions. Most releases were performed in clear weather, but there were traces of snow during some. The atmosphere was generally clear, with visibility exceeding 10 miles.

Other materials released:

No other releases are mentioned.

Maximum time-integrated concentrations and maximum time-integrated concentrations in any populated area:

For this set of experiments, these two concentrations are synonymous. Maximum concentrations were measured on the sample line nearest the releases, so that slightly higher concentrations might have occurred closer to the release lines.

The cumulative maximum observed integrated concentration was approximately 410 µg-min/m3. This estimate is an average over 10 adjacent sample points and so might be slightly low compared with the single highest sample point.

Maximum concentrations and maximum concentrations in any populated area:

For this set of experiments, those two measurements are synonymous. No direct (i.e., short-term) measurements of concentration were made. A visual scan of the approximately 16,250 exposure measurements indicated just four that exceeded 1,000 particle-min/L (about 70 µg-min/m3). The largest, 1,878 particle-min/L (about 130 µg-min/m3), occurred during TRC 65-18, release Y1, at one end of the sampling grid. Dispersion modeling, roughly matching modeled and measured dispersion parameters, indicates peak concentrations around 10-20 µg/m3.

Other comments:

Too many data to evaluate all points separately. Summary averages over 10 sample points (as presented in the original report) have been used.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

DESCRIPTION OF TEST

Name of test: Oceanside Shoreline Diffusion Program

Reference-list number: 24

Reference: T.B. Smith, and B.L. Niemann. Shoreline Diffusion Program, Oceanside, Calif.. Report MRI 169 FR-860. Meteorology Research, 464 W. Woodbury Road, Altadena, Calif. Contract DA 42-007-AMC-180(R) for the Deseret Test Center, Fort Douglas, Utah. Nov. 1969.

Principal object:

To understand meteorologic processes from a short distance offshore to 15 km inland, particularly in the transition zone near the shoreline, and determine the effects of such processes on diffusion from various types of sources.

Site selection:

The site was required to have frequent onshore winds and moderate changes in terrain roughness near the coastline. Secondary requirements were for a suitable surface road network, and minimal interference with air traffic. Sites examined included Eglin Air Force Base in Florida; Hoquiam, Washington; Coos Bay, Oregon; the vicinity of Bodega Bay in northern California; and the coastline immediately south of Oceanside, California. The site selected is located between Oceanside and Del Mar along the southern California coast, with Palomar airport in the middle of the test area. Selection of this site was primarily on the basis of inland terrain.

Number and nomenclature of releases:

Offshore, there were 10 elevated line-source trials, five surface line-source trials, and five surface point-source trials. Offshore elevated line and surface source trials proceeded concurrently with FP that fluoresced different colors, and were numbered 27-32 and 35-38. Thirty-five point-source trials were conducted from onshore locations; 14 consisted of two

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

simultaneous point sources. Onshore trials were numbered 1-26, 33-34, 51-55, and 61-62.

Test conditions:

Elevated line releases were from a C-47 aircraft flying along a 40-km north-northwest and south-southeast track passing approximately 2.25 miles offshore at Leucadia and Encinitas, and extending from north of Oceanside to south of Cardiff-by-the-Sea. FP was released at 1,500 g/min over a 10-min release interval. Boat releases were from a fishing boat, with the line releases on the same track as the aircraft releases, but taking about 2 h to traverse the track. The releases were timed so that the aircraft passed the boat at the center of the release line, and the release rate was designed so that about the same quantity was released from boat and aircraft. Point releases from the boat were at variable places along the release track of the aircraft to obtain maximum coverage by the samplers. Release rate was 110 g/min for 5 min.

Onshore point-source releases were from locations near San Marcos, Carlsbad, and La Costa, and took the form of instantaneous bursts using a compressed-air-driven disseminator, 50 g per burst. All Carlsbad and La Costa releases involved simultaneous releases of 50 g each of yellow and green FP, from locations spaced by 100 m.

Sampling was by an onshore network at about 140 locations along major highways and extending 20 km along the shore between Carlsbad and Cardiff-by-the-Sea, and 21 km inland to Interstate 15. Sampling stations were principally individual Rotorod samplers, supplemented by other special sampling systems including Rotorod equipped towers (up to 120 m height), sequential samplers, vertical sampler arrays (2, 4, 6, and 8 m), 100-m square grids of samplers, five dense sampling lines, vertical arrays 50 m downwind of the onshore point sources, and aircraft samplers.

Test material:

ZnCdS: Green fluorescing, Lot H-396, mass mean diameter 3.2 µm, 1.45 x 1010 ppg; Yellow fluorescing, Lot H-395, mass mean diameter 3.31 µm, 1.32 x 1010 ppg.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Measured average dissemination efficiency was approximately 67% (aircraft line source), 85-88% (boat sources), and 26.5% (onshore point sources).

Place of release:

The line releases were along a 40-km north-northwest and south-southeast line offshore, traversing approximately 2.25 miles off Leucadia and Encinitas. By implication (no adequate documentation), the line was approximately centered on Leucadia, which was roughly in the center of the shoreline sampling line. Point boat releases were at locations on this release line, selected so that the plume would traverse the most dense arrays of samplers. Onshore releases of much smaller quantities of material were from sites near Carlsbad (apparently within a few hundred feet of areas that on current maps show local streets), San Marcos (not located), and La Costa (apparently more than 0.5 mile from inhabited areas).

Dates, times, and quantities of release:

Elevated line-source trials (yellow FP):

Trial

Date

Time, PDT hr:min

Duration, min:s

Altitude, m

Amount, kg

27

07/06/67

17:51

11:00

61

14.62

28

07/07/67

18:59

10:30

122

16.09

29

07/08/67

19:01

10:00

61

12.41

30

07/09/67

16:59

10:25

61

17.78

31

07/11/67

15:00

11:00

61

16.73

32

07/12/67

17:58

09:45

61

15.87

35

07/14/67

18:59

09:50

61

16.19

36

07/15/67

17:00

10:43

61

16.24

37

07/16/67

15:00

09:55

122

16.1

38

07/17/67

16:59

10:17

152

16.93

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Boat source trials (green FP):

Trial

Date

Time, PDT hr:min

Duration, hr:min:s

Type

Amount, kg

27

07/06/67

17:40

05:00

Point

0.554

28

07/07/67

19:04

05:00

Point

0.472

29

07/08/67

19:04

05:00

Point

0.596

30

07/09/67

17:03

05:00

Point

0.54

31

07/11/67

15:03

05:00

Point

0.611

32

07/12/67

17:06

02:08:20

Line

14.87

35

07/14/67

18:01

02:12:00

Line

15.93

36

07/15/67

16:00

02:14:05

Line

16.49

37

07/16/67

14:00

01:54:30

Line

12.06

38

07/17/67

16:00

01:58:30

Line

13.4

Onshore point-source trials:

Trial

Date

Time, PDT hr:min

Location

Color

Amount, kg

1

06/23/67

16:00

San Marcos

Y

0.05

2

06/23/67

16:30

San Marcos

G

0.05

3

06/23/67

17:35

San Marcos

Y

0.05

4

06/23/67

18:21

San Marcos

G

0.05

5

06/24/67

18:30

San Marcos

Y

0.05

6

06/24/67

18:59

San Marcos

G

0.05

7

06/24/67

20:00

San Marcos

Y

0.05

8

06/24/67

20:20

San Marcos

G

0.05

9

06/26/67

18:05

San Marcos

Y

0.05

10

06/26/67

18:45

San Marcos

G

0.05

11

06/26/67

19:46

San Marcos

Y

0.05

12

06/26/67

20:15

San Marcos

G

0.05

13

06/27/67

18:30

Carlsbad

YG

0.1

14

06/27/67

20:03

Carlsbad

YG

0.1

15

06/28/67

18:30

Carlsbad

YG

0.1

16

06/28/67

20:00

Carlsbad

YG

0.1

17

06/29/67

16:10

Carlsbad

YG

0.1

18

06/29/67

18:00

Carlsbad

YG

0.1

19

06/29/67

19:46

Carlsbad

YG

0.1

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Trial

Date

Time, PDT hr:min

Location

Color

Amount, kg

20

06/30/67

18:00

La Costa

YG

0.1

21

06/30/67

20:00

La Costa

YG

0.1

22

07/01/67

16:14

La Costa

YG

0.1

23

07/01/67

18:00

La Costa

YG

0.1

24

07/01/67

20:10

La Costa

YG

0.1

25

06/02/67

16:15

La Costa

YG

0.1

26

06/02/67

18:01

La Costa

YG

0.1

33

07/13/67

18:30

San Marcos

Y

0.05

34

07/13/67

20:04

San Marcos

G

0.05

61

06/22/67

15:18

San Marcos

Y

0.05

62

06/22/67

18:02

San Marcos

Y

0.05

51

07/01/67

21:23

La Costa

G

0.05

52

07/05/67

15:15

La Costa

Y

0.01

53

07/05/67

15:24

La Costa

G

0.01

54

07/05/67

16:39

La Costa

Y

0.01

55

07/05/67

16:48

La Costa

G

0.01

Total release

 

 

 

237

Y = yellow fluorescing; G = green fluorescing; YG = both yellow and green fluorescing (equal quantities).

Communities affected:

Oceanside, Carlsbad, Leucadia, Encinitas, Cardiff-by-the-Sea, Del Mar, and communities inland of these.

Distances from releases to affected communities:

The offshore releases were approximately 1 mile from Oceanside, 2 miles from Carlsbad, 2.25 miles from Leucadia, Encinitas, and Cardiff-by-the-Sea, and further from other communities by their distance to the shoreline. The onshore releases were presumably at more than 50 m from inhabited areas (because a vertical sampling array of Rotorods was set up at 50 m). The Carlsbad site appears to be within a few hundred feet of in-

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

habited areas on modern maps. The La Costa site appears to be more than 0.5 mile from the nearest inhabited areas. The San Marcos site was not located.

Weather conditions:

Releases were carried out during periods of onshore sea breezes.

Other materials released:

No other materials are mentioned.

Maximum concentrations and maximum time-integrated concentrations:

These concentrations are essentially the same for unpopulated and populated areas.

Trial

Max. Exp., µg-min/m3

Max Conc., µg/m3

Onshore point-source trials

1

18

10

2

13

7

3

16

5

4

35

26

5

24

15

6

7

3

7

139

102

8

70

22

9

23

14

10

18

6

11

188

114

12

50

20

13

53

47

14

80

282

15

183

245

16

694

884

17

486

1741

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

18

275

537

19

98

42

20

5

0.5

21

176

82

22

21

22

23

9

10

24

14

6

25

32

11

26

106

108

33

5

1

34

12

3

61

NA

NA

62

5.6

2

51

NA

NA

52

8.8

7

53

1.6

1

54

6.2

9

55

1.9

2

Highest values

La Costa

176

108

San Marcos

188

114

Carlsbad

694

1741

Offshore aircraft-released line-source trials

27

7.5

0.2

28

18.5

0.5

29

13.2

0.1

30

6.6

0.2

31

5.1

0.2

32

6.3

0.1

35

19.8

0.3

36

5.3

0.4

37

3.0

0.2

38

6.4

1.2

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Trial

Max. Exp., µg-min/m3

Max Conc., µg/m3

Offshore boat-released point-source trials

27

2.8

0.37

28

8.0

0.91

29

6.2

0.78

30

6.3

0.99

31

7.8

1.31

Offshore boat-released line-source trials

32

3.8

0.04

35

15.1

0.3

36

2.9

0.2

37

1.6

0.4

38

2.6

0.3

Cumulative

149

1.3

The document contains no concentration information directly and contains few of the raw data but does report the maximum exposures (time integral of concentration data) given here. The concentration estimates shown here were derived from the exposure values, together with reported estimates for standard deviations of plume sizes or plume speed and duration.

For the offshore sources, the total exposure has been added, because some areas probably were affected by all releases (although the total might be an overestimate for any individual point, because the maximum values cited occurred at different points). The point-source estimates apply for a distance of 1-2 km from the point sources and correspond to very narrow (20 to 100 m wide) and short puffs (generally 20 s to a couple of minutes). It is unlikely that any point beyond about 1 km from the release point was affected by more than one or two such puffs, so just the highest values have been reported. Closer to the release points, the short-term concentrations and exposures would be higher, and the exposures

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

might have been cumulative, but over even smaller areas and for shorter times.

Other comments:

There were over 20,000 dosage samples taken. Only condensed results are given, although it is claimed that the maximum exposures were for individual points.

The Carlsbad onshore point-source location is within a few hundred feet of local streets on current maps. It is not known if buildings are located on those streets, nor how recent any such buildings are. No contemporary maps have been consulted.

The text mentions (but does not give mass or exposure information on) a series of eight FP trials, Aug. 8-10, 1967, from Bolsa Island (drilling rig), 90 km north of Oceanside, 1.3 km offshore (T.B. Smith and K.M. Beesmer. Bolsa Island Meteorological Investigation. MRI Report FR-650 for Bechtel Corp., 58 pp., 1967)

DESCRIPTION OF TEST

Name of test: Dispersion into and within a Forested Area (no code name identified)

Reference-list number: 27

Reference: Dispersion of Air Tracers into and Within a Forested Area. College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash., for U.S. Army Electronics Command, Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory, Fort Huachuca, Ariz., under Grant DA-AMC-28-043-68-G8. Technical Report ECOM-68-G8-1. Sept. 1969.

Vol. 1: L.J. Fritschen, C.H. Driver, C. Avery, J. Buffo, R. Edmonds, and R. Kinerson (Objec

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

tives, methods, site description, preliminary data).

Vol. 2: L.J. Fritschen, C.H. Driver, C. Avery, J. Buffo, R. Edmonds, R. Kinerson, and P Schless (Tabulated data and dispersion patterns).

Vol. 3: L.J. Fritschen, C.H. Driver, C. Avery, J. Buffo, R. Edmonds, R. Kinerson, and P Schless (Analysis and interpretation).

Principal object:

To determine the general features of mass and momentum transport at a forest border interface and simultaneously study the dispersion of small particulates into and within a forest canopy from a clear-cut area in relation to meteorologic conditions.

Site selection:

No selection method is given. The experimental site was in the Charles Lathrop Pack Demonstration Forest of the University of Washington, at the southern border of Pierce County, Washington, 35 km south of Puyallop, 45 km southeast of Tacoma, and 48 km southeast of Olympia.

Number and nomenclature of releases:

The releases were identified by run numbers (1 through 4) and release numbers within runs. Two series of runs were performed, one on the ''large grid'' of samplers and the second on the microgrid of samplers.

Test conditions:

The research area covered 240 hectares of forested area up-slope of a 200 x 600 m clear-cut area. A 9 x 7 grid of surface level (1 m) Rotorod samplers, with auxiliary elevated samplers on towers located on some of the grid points, was set up with 30-m spacing approximately 70 m from the clear-cut area. Two 5 x 5 sampler microgrids with a spacing of 15 m were interpolated into the larger grid.

Several release mechanisms were tried. Firecrackers were found inefficient. A particle generator also proved to have retention problems. An

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

atomizer using particle-in-water suspensions clogged and caused clumping. A commercial "Hudson" duster was tried. Finally, a compressed-CO2 driven bomblet was specially designed.

Test material:

Helecon (U.S. Radium), ZnCdS FPs.

It is not clear whether all these are ZnCdS. At least one other reference (listed as "Unnumbered" in "Miscellaneous Notes") indicates that No. 2210 is ZnS. They have all been counted as ZnCdS here.

For releases on the large grid of samplers:

Run

FP Color

Manuf. Code

Lot

1

Green

2210

H775

 

Orange

2220

H629

2

Green

2210

H775

 

Orange

2220

H629

 

Yellow

2267

H779

3 and 4a

Green

3206

H848

 

Orange

2220

H917

 

Yellow

2267

H779

a 1% hydrophobic silica was admixed on runs 3 and 4.

For releases on the microgrid of samplers:

Runa

FP Color

Manuf. Code

Lot

2

Green

3206

Not specified

3 and 4

Green

2210

 

a No FP was released in microgrid run 1.

Place of release:

Releases were generally within the sampling grid, or within 30 m of the sampling grid. One release was 80 m from the edge of the grid.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Dates, times, and quantities of release:

Run

Release

Date

Time

Methoda

Total mass, g

Main grid releases

1

1

10/15/68

16:42

F

F could not

 

2

10/15/68

17:02

F

be estimated

 

3

10/16/68

12:55

Dyes only

F could not

 

4

10/16/68

13:00

G

be estimated

2

1

05/02/69

16:00

A

83

 

2

05/02/69

19:19

A

83

 

3

05/03/69

07:59

A

83

 

4

05/03/69

09:40

A & D

85

 

5

05/03/69

11:52

D

89

 

6

05/03/69

13:45

D

89

3

1

07/08/69

05:53

P

90

 

2

07/08/69

10:18

P

90

 

3

07/08/69

13:52

P

90

 

4

07/08/69

16:10

P

90

 

5

07/08/69

20:37

P

90

 

6

07/08/69

22:20

P

90

 

7

08/08/69

09:52

P

90

4

1

08/26/69

00:14

P

90

 

2

08/26/69

10:44

P

90

 

3

08/26/69

13:14

P

90

 

4

08/26/69

09:44

P

90

 

5

08/26/69

12:12

P

90

 

6

08/26/69

15:45

P

90

Microgrid releases

1

1

07/31/69

16:20

Spores only

 

2

1

08/14/69

15:40

A

0.7

 

2

08/14/69

16:35

A

0.9

3

1

08/29/69

11:56

A

0.9

 

2

08/29/69

12:41

A

0.9

 

3

08/29/69

15:17

A

0.9

4

1

09/04/69

17:30

A

0.9

 

2

09/05/69

22:49

A

0.9

 

3

09/05/69

09:31

A

0.8

 

4

09/04/69

11:41

A

0.9

Total release

 

 

1700

 

a Dissemination methods: F = firecracker, G = generator, A = atomizer, D = dry particle sprayer, P = pressure release (see "Test conditions" above).

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Communities affected:

None. The releases were in the middle of a forested area, below the top of the canopy, and mostly underneath that canopy (some releases were in the adjacent clear-cut area, at times when the wind was blowing into the sampling area). The plumes were small and dissipated rapidly, sometimes to unmeasurably low exposures within the 240 m of the grid in even the downwind direction.

Distances from releases to affected communities

No communities were apparently affected. The location of the sampling grid is about 0.8 miles from the small community of La Grande and about 2 miles from the outskirts of Eatonville.

Weather conditions:

Releases were carried out in all types of weather conditions. They were located so that the plume was directed into the sampling grid.

Other materials released:

There were some relatively unsuccessful releases using fluorescent dyes (sensitivity too low), and releases of spores of Fomes annosus stained in 0.5% "Phloxine" (one release was of unstained spores).

Concentrations:

No concentrations or exposures were estimated for this experiment in view of the difficulty of extracting the information4 and its low value for this report. Concentrations were very high (some unmeasurably so) near the point-source releases, which were spread within and close to (within 80 m of) the sampling grid. However, the low masses released limited the exposures. No people other than the experimenters would have been affected by the releases.

4  

It would require retrieving data spread throughout 214 pages and extracting approximately 3,600 data points (9 x 7 grid, 3 colors, 19 experiments).

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

DESCRIPTION OF TEST

Name of test: Meteorological Analog Test and Evaluation (Mate): First Field Test

Reference-list number: 28

Reference: J.K. Allison, A.V. Duffield, and J.M. Morton. Meteorological Analog Test and Evaluation: First Field Test Operation. Final Report. Meteorological Research Laboratory, Melpar Division of American Standard, 7700 Arlington Blvd., Falls Church, Va. Contract DA 42-007-AMC-339(Y), Task VIII B, for U.S. Army Deseret Test Center, Fort Douglas, Utah. June 1970.

Principal object:

To evaluate the equipment systems to be used in the MATE program, which is "a broad, long-range study in applied meteorology," "to measure diffusion and micrometeorology at typical sites and characterize these sites in terms of CB (primarily of diffusion)," and to begin data collection for the MATE program with observations at the first forest analog site.

Site selection:

Sites had to be at least 1 mile square, relatively level, well-forested with mature deciduous trees, and accessible from Melpar laboratories. Two potential sites in Virginia were located, but were subsequently dismissed from consideration (the first because of public concern over the integrity of a Bald Eagle nesting site, the second when it was discovered that a gas transmission line was being built through it). A more extensive search into Maryland located the selected site in the Green Brier Swamp, 12 miles southwest of Cambridge, Md., and permission for use was obtained from the owners of the various parts of the site.

Number and nomenclature of releases:

There were 115 trials, numbered from 1 to 115. Green FP and yellow FP were released in 111. In four, no FP was released. Some additional un-

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

numbered "trials" involved other operations connected with the MATE program and did not involve any FP release.

Test conditions:

FP releases were made in the center of sampling grids, of which there were four. The main sampling grid consisted of three circular arrays of Rotorod samplers at 100 m radius (every 10 degrees of arc), 200 m and 400 m radius (every 5 degrees of arc). Additional samplers were located on a 1,000-m square ("XM3") grid around the circular grid. Two subsidiary sampling grids ("white" and "yellow") consisting of 100- and 200-m radius circles were constructed, the first off-set by approximately 500 m east from the center of the main grid, the second offset approximately 1 km from the main grid.

The whole site was forested, with trees of typical height 20 to 30 m, and tree density of 150 to 500 per hectare. The last 10 trials were performed after leaf fall to evaluate dispersion characteristics under such conditions.

Test material:

ZnCdS tracer materials. Green-fluorescing, type 3206, Lot SCM FPG-11. Yellow-fluorescing, type 2267, Lot FPY-12. (Note: The analysis dates given for these materials precede the experiment by 4 years.)

Place of release:

Releases were made close to ground level (1 or 1.5 m height, yellow FP, all trials) and at various heights of 1 m to 28 m (green FP). All releases were at the center of one or another of the sampling grids, in most cases with simultaneous release of yellow and green FP in the center of the main grid, occasionally with different colors in the centers of the different grids.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Dates, times, and quantities of release:

 

 

 

Mass Release, g

Trial

Date

Time

Yellow

Green

1

08/01/69

16:51

35

11

2

08/04/69

11:22

8

5

3

08/06/69

11:00

5

8

4

08/06/69

12:45

8

9

5

08/07/69

10:44

6.4

7.2

6

08/07/69

12:20

7.6

6.2

7

08/07/69

15:38

11

17.6

8

08/07/69

18:01

21.6

24.9

9

08/08/69

09:20

4.1

7.7

10

08/08/69

10:52

9.3

2.4

11

08/11/69

11:15

5.2

10.2

12

08/11/69

14:45

0.8

8.3

13

08/12/69

14:15

4.8

10

14

08/12/69

15:46

2.7

13.1

15

08/13/69

08:20

11.1

11.5

16

08/13/69

10:05

10

10.7

17

08/14/69

08:55

8.6

10.7

18

08/14/69

10:35

10.6

13.8

19

08/14/69

12:15

10

9.6

20

08/14/69

13:54

8.5

12.9

21

08/18/69

11:40

8.5

12.9

22

08/18/69

15:35

7.5

14

23

08/19/69

11:05

7.3

15.8

24

08/19/69

13:00

11.4

4.3

25

08/21/69

09:35

12.2

7.2

26

08/21/69

11:25

8.4

9.9

27

08/22/69

09:20

7.9

21

28

08/22/69

10:45

8.5

10.2

29

08/25/69

11:00

7.5

10.6

30

08/25/69

12:30

6.5

9.9

31

08/26/69

11:05

11.8

9

32

08/26/69

12:46

10.2

11.7

33

08/26/69

16:35

12

9.7

34

08/27/69

10:01

7.9

8.3

35

08/27/69

11:17

9.1

10.1

36

08/27/69

13:10

8.5

14.7

37

08/27/69

14:30

12.7

4.8

38

08/28/69

12:14

8.1

13.7

39

08/28/69

13:40

10.2

8.1

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

 

 

 

Mass Release, g

Trial

Date

Time

Yellow

Green

40

08/28/69

15:34

10

6.8

41

09/04/69

16:10

10

14.5

42

09/04/69

17:56

9.7

8.1

43

09/05/69

09:05

10.2

8

44

09/05/69

10:43

10

9.4

45

09/08/69

10:49

9.3

10.4

46

09/08/69

12:37

9.5

5.1

47

09/09/69

10:40

10

10

48

09/09/69

11:50

5.6

8.9

49

09/10/69

08:36

8.8

10.3

50

09/10/69

10:17

9.6

6.8

51

09/10/69

12:31

12.9

13.7

52

09/10/69

14:00

10.6

11.2

53

09/10/69

15:56

13.1

8.6

54

09/10/69

17:15

8.5

9.9

55

09/11/69

08:59

5.1

10.7

56

09/16/69

12:35

4.7

12

57

09/16/69

14:35

8.9

13

58

09/16/69

16:30

7.5

10

59

09/16/69

18:00

11

11

60

09/17/69

10:40

8.5

12.7

61

09/17/69

12:10

10.5

9.8

62

09/17/69

14:30

11.6

14.2

63

09/17/69

15:45

8.5

10.1

64

09/17/69

17:45

9.2

9.9

65

09/18/69

16:30

10.1

12.3

66

09/18/69

18:15

9.5

7.9

67

09/19/69

07:05

8.9

18.2

68

09/19/69

08:45

6.1

20.6

69

09/20/69

10:18

6.3

7.2

70

09/22/69

15:55

13.6

21.3

71

09/22/69

17:30

14.2

18.3

72

09/23/69

08:30

12.9

18.5

73

09/23/69

10:00

10

15.6

74

09/23/69

16:15

11.2

20.5

75

09/23/69

18:00

8.7

17.7

76

09/24/69

15:15

10.3

22.5

77

09/24/69

16:30

9.1

19.3

78

09/24/69

18:00

12.6

17.9

79

09/25/69

11:01

20.8

23.3

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

 

 

 

Mass Release, g

Trial

Date

Time

Yellow

Green

80

09/25/69

12:30

10.8

19.5

81

09/29/69

14:15

12.2

20.8

82

09/29/69

15:45

10.1

20.7

83

09/30/69

10:03

11.8

21.8

84

09/30/69

11:45

11.2

20.6

85

10/01/69

10:30

13.2

23.8

86

10/01/69

10:30

11.2

19

87

10/03/69

15:30

9.8

18.4

88

10/03/69

17:00

8.3

19.2

89

10/04/69

11:55

14.9

18.9

90

10/04/69

13:04

8.9

19.4

91

10/06/69

16:30

10.2

19.4

92

10/06/69

18:00

11.6

19.6

93

10/07/69

08:20

10.6

21.5

94

10/07/69

10:00

5.3

21.6

95

10/15/69

16:00

10.4

19

96

10/15/69

15:05

10

19.3

97

10/23/69

 

0

0

98

10/24/69

 

0

0

99

10/27/69

15:10

9.3

20.4

100

10/28/69

10:00

6.5

28.5

101

10/28/69

14:50

8.7

25.7

102

10/28/69

16:00

6.2

19

103

10/29/69

15:15

7.7

23.4

104

10/30/69

14:00

11.1

20.4

105

10/06/69

15:17

11.2

18.1

106

10/10/69

15:30

6.4

18.8

107

10/11/69

11:20

10.7

19.8

108

10/13/69

 

0

0

109

10/19/69

 

0

0

110

10/20/69

14:55

9.7

22.9

111

10/20/69

15:45

8.6

19.6

112

10/29/69

11:30

9

20.5

113

10/29/69

14:45

9.6

20.7

114

10/29/69

16:30

9.2

21.9

115

10/24/69

11:45

24.4

36.2

Total release

 

2701

 

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Communities affected:

Apparently none. The nearest communities (Bucktown, Longfield, and Seward, although it is unclear from the available maps whether the first two are communities) were located approximately 1 to 2 miles from the release points.

Distances from releases to affected communities:

See "Communities affected" above.

Weather conditions:

Weather conditions are not discussed.

Other materials released:

No other materials are mentioned.

Concentrations:

No concentration or exposure information is reported in the available document (see "Other comments" below). Some tabular information would allow estimation of exposures for some experiments at some sample locations. However, the summary information indicates that the measured exposure averaged over all analyzable trials was decreasing as the inverse 3.02 power of distance from the release point for near-ground-level releases over the range 100 to 400 m distance. Extrapolating the empirical equation given in the document to a distance of 1 km indicates a maximum integrated concentration from all releases (if the wind had been in the same direction all the time) of less than 42 µg-min/m3 and a peak concentration of around 0.03 µg/m3 from the largest release.

Other comments:

This document summarized the test operation, but explicitly did not provide data. Raw data are said to be available on 81 reels of magnetic tape. Conclusions are given from various analyses of the test results (e.g., variation of standard deviations for use in standard plume equations).

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

DESCRIPTION OF TEST

Name of test: Operation GOOF

Reference-list number: 29

Reference: Comparison of Decay Rates for Bacillus globigii and Zinc Cadmium Sulfide. BW 1A-56, Operation ''GOOF.'' DPGR 175. Dugway Proving Ground Report, BW Assessment Directorate, Project Order 0016. 27 Apr. 1956.

Trial Report, BWAL, BW lA-1, 2 and 3-56. Comparison of Decay Rates for BG and FP. Operation "GOOF." BWALTR 38. 7 Nov. 1955.

Trial Report, BWAL, BW 1A-4 and 5-56. Operation "GOOF." CMLRE-DU-MBW. BWALTR 40. 21 Dec. 1955.

Principal object:

To obtain data to make a reliable comparison of the total decay rates for ZnCdS and Bacillus globigii (BG) disseminated simultaneously from statically functioned E124 bomblets.

Site selection:

Dugway West Vertical Grid.

Number and nomenclature of releases:

Five trials, named BW 1A-1-56 through BW 1A-5-56, each involving one release.

Test conditions:

FP was released instantaneously from four E124 bomblets statically detonated at the four corners of a 24-ft square centered on the sampling grid. Each test used a 60-degress sector of the West Vertical Grid, with sampling stations on arcs at 300, 600, 1,200, 1,800, 3,600, 5,280, and 7,920 ft

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

with 15, 29, 41, 55, 55, 55, and 55 sampling stations, respectively. Filter-type samplers were used.

Test material:

ZnCdS produced by New Jersey Zinc Company in Batch CEP 8000, Lot 2. Particle count was 4.51 x 1010 ppg, according to Ref. 47 (QR SAL 448-4), although no statement of particle count was given in Ref. 29 (see "Miscellaneous Notes"). Release was from E124 bomblets, each containing 40 g of FP. The release efficiency was not stated, and is assumed to be 100%, so that the aerosol produced had a particle count of 4.51 x 1010 ppg.

Place of release:

Dugway West Vertical Grid.

Dates, times, and quantities of release:

Trial

Date

Time

Amount, g

Mean Wind Direction, Deg.

Mean Wind Speed at 2 m, mph

BW 1A-1-56

08/23/55

21:40

160

280

10

BW 1A-2-56

09/13/55

22:36

160

20

8

BW 1A-3-56

09/14/55

01:25

160

20

5

BW IA-4-56

11/01/55

15:14

160

115

9.5

BW 1A-5-56

11/01/55

16:41

160

130

9

Total

 

 

800

 

 

Communities affected:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Distances from releases to affected communities:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Weather conditions:

See under "Dates, times, and quantities of release" for wind speed and direction. No other information is available.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Other materials released:

Simultaneous release of BG from E124 bomblets.

Maximum time-integrated concentrations:

The following table gives the maximum exposures measured anywhere on the sampling grid and the maximum exposures at 1.5 miles on the farthest sampling arc. The cumulative estimates are the sums of the (two) values for experiments where the wind was going in approximately the same direction. It would be possible to sum individual sampling point values, but the extra information gained is not worth the effort involved. These estimates assume the dispersion efficiency to be 100%, so that the aerosol particles per gram is 4.51 x 1010.

Trial

Max. Exp., µg-min/m3

Max. Exp. at 7920 ft, µg-min/m3

BW 1A-1-5

2415

92

BW 1A-2-5

8297

353

BW 1A-3-5

6003

56

BW 1A-4-5

2459

4

BW 1A-5-5

2431

28

Cumulative

14,300

409

Maximum time-integrated concentrations in any populated area:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Maximum concentrations:

No time-resolved data were available to allow estimation of concentration.

Maximum concentrations in any populated area:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Other comments:

DPGR 175 is said to deal with the first of a series of tests. BWALTR 38 and 40 are the initial field reports of the tests, with DPGR supplying an interpretation.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

DESCRIPTION OF TEST

Name of test: Operation SELTZER (land trials) and Operation WHITE-HORSE (sea-to-land trials)

Reference-list number: 30

Reference: Special Report 193. An Experimental Investigation of Viable Aerosol Travel from Sea to Land. U.S. Army Chemical Corps Biological Laboratories, Camp Detrick, Frederick, Md. 24 Sept. 1953.

Principal object:

Primary: To determine the effect of traverse over the sea upon an aerosol cloud of viable organisms formed at sea level.

Secondary: (1) To demonstrate the use at sea of the XB-14B test fixture for dissemination of an aerosol cloud of organisms, (2) to determine the meteorologic factors affecting the aerosol travel from sea to land, and (3) to indicate the nature of the relation between the inert tracer and the viable organisms in the aerosol.

Site selection:

Land trials (Operation SELTZER) were conducted at Area C at Camp Detrick, Frederick, Md. For the sea-to-land trials (Operation WHITEHORSE), the site along the coast west of Panama City, Florida, was chosen after an on-the-spot survey of several possible sites in the Eastern United States.

Number and nomenclature of releases:

Operation SELTZER involved six trials, named Trials 1 through 6. FP was released in Trials 3 through 6. In Operation WHITEHORSE, there were 12 trials, 3 of which were considered abortive (with no data presented), although there might have been FP releases in all 12.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Test conditions:

In both operations, releases were carried out using modified Stanford generators. In SELTZER, at area C of Camp Detrick, two sets of arrays of samplers were available, for different wind directions. Each array consisted of lines of membrane filter samplers at 350 yd, 700 yd, and 1,400 yd from the potential release points. The release point was chosen depending on wind direction to ensure that the plume crossed the sampling arrays.

In WHITEHORSE, releases were 770 to 6,000 yd out from the shore, at a location chosen so that the plume center would travel over the center of the sampling array. The sampling array for FP was located along the beach (there were further sampling arrays for the organisms).

Test material:

ZnCdS, Lot C P5378 from the New Jersey Zinc Company, mass median diameter 2.25 µm, particle count 3 x 1010 ppg. ("The number of particles per gram is the object of further investigations.") In SELTZER, 8 g per trial were incorporated into the slurry used. In WHITEHORSE, 900 g were disseminated from a modified Stanford generator separately from the other agents released.

Place of release:

SELTZER: Area C was located between West 7th St. and Opossumtown Pike. On current maps, the area appears to have at least two major roads across it. In any case, it is plausible that people were exposed at distances not much greater than the distance to the farthest sampling line (approximately 1,400 yd).

WHITEHORSE: The sampling line for WHITEHORSE was centered at the current location of the community of Biltmore Beach. Releases were from the sea surface at distances of 770 to 6,000 yd offshore, at locations selected so that the wind would carry the plume directly toward the center of the sampling line.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Dates, times, and quantities of release:

SELTZER:

Trial

Date

Start Time

Length, min

Mass, g

Wind, mph

Wind Direction

1

02/14/53

16:47

14

0

8.7

137

2

02/16/53

16:31

12

0

12

177

3

02/18/53

16:32

8

7.88

9.5

221

4

02/19/53

16:16

14a

2.7

3.5

202

5

02/19/53

17:55

8

3.75

3

264b

6

02/24/53

16:26

8

7.85

8.8

190

Total release

 

 

22 g

 

 

a Release for 4 min on, 7 min off, 3 min on.

b Veering steadily, no results obtained.

Length of time for the release, and wind speed and direction are given to assist interpretation of the concentration information given below. No measurements were obtained for Trial 5, when the wind veered steadily.

WHITEHORSE:

Trial

Date

Start Time

Length, min

Mass, g

Distance, yd

1

03/24/53

17:43

13

368

770

2

03/27/53

16:51

13

900

Abortive

3

03/29/53

17:38

31

679

1720

4

03/30/53

17:53

27

900

1570

5

04/01/53

17:55

21

734

2730

6

04/18/53

17:40

22

741

3610

7

04/21/53

15:20

23

900

835

8

04/22/53

15:21

22

900

1160

9

04/22/53

17:47

22

900

6080

10

04/23/53

16:20

19

900

1125

11

04/27/53

18:45

23

900

Abortive

12

05/02/53

18:46

23

900

Abortive

Total release

 

 

9.7 kg

 

The distance given is the distance offshore of the release. Length of the release is given to assist in interpretation of the concentration information

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

provided below. Trials were labeled "abortive" when there was considerable wind shift, so that the plume went appreciably astray of the sampling line. No sampling data are presented in such instances.

Communities affected:

SELTZER: Current maps indicate that the area around "Area C" at Camp Detrick are relatively highly urban, although this might not have been true in 1953. The concentrations given below correspond to those that might have been experienced just outside Area C (e.g., across Opossumtown Pike).

WHITEHORSE: Current maps place the community of Biltmore Beach at the center of the sampling line for these trials. Contemporary land use information was not provided. A contemporary photograph shows the sampling line on a deserted beach. The contemporary aerial photograph of the area in the photocopy of the report available is not helpful. The concentrations given below correspond to those measured on the beach, and thus might substantially overestimate the concentrations to which any communities might have been exposed.

If the Biltmore Beach area was not inhabited in 1953, the next nearest downwind communities would probably have been Bayview, Saint Andrew, and Baker, 4 miles or more across the Grand Lagoon and St. Andrew Bay, and the two peninsulas defined by these inlets. The contemporary map also shows a Naval Min Counter-measures Station on the second peninsula (between Grand Lagoon and St. Andrew Bay), possibly indicative of a military community.

Distances from releases to affected communities:

See above under "Place of release" and "Communities affected."

Weather conditions:

SELTZER was performed at approximately 16:00 each day, at a period when the atmospheric temperature gradient was reaching neutral. The atmosphere was thus generally stable, with inversions just starting to develop in several of the trials.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

The WHITEHORSE trials were supposed to be run under nearly neutral temperature gradients on land. Large recoveries in the early trials and unfavorable winds resulted in a modification of plans, so Trials 6 through 10 were performed under lapse temperature-gradient conditions over land. During Trials 3, 4, 7 and 9, there was a lapse temperature gradient over the sea.

Other materials released:

SELTZER: In these land trials, the FP were incorporated into a slurry that included Serratia marcescens (SM), strain 8UK (a simulant for vegetative BW pathogens), and Bacillus globigii (BG) (a simulant for spore-forming BW pathogens).

Operation WHITEHORSE: The same slurry of SM and BG as used in SELTZER (but omitting the FP) was co-released with the FP, using separate Stanford generators.

Maximum time-integrated concentrations and maximum concentrations:

These have been estimated by assuming an effective dispersion of 5 x 109 ppg for SELTZER, and 1 x 1010 ppg for WHITEHORSE. The dispersion in a slurry in SELTZER might make this an underestimate, but there is no calibration information available.

SELTZER:

Measurements of integrated exposure (exposure) were made at 350 yd and 1,400 yd from the release point. Populated areas are assumed to have lain just beyond the 1,400 yd mark, so these measurements are relevant for populated areas. The concentration estimate was obtained by dividing the exposure by the period of the release. No measurements were taken in Trial 5, because of veering winds. This trial is thus unlikely to have contributed to a cumulative exposure at the worst case point.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

 

At 350 yd

Populated Areas

Triala

Max. Exp., µg-min/m3

Max. Conc., µg/m3

Max. Exp., µg-min/m3

Max. Conc., µg/m3

3

740

93

68

9

4

165

24

12

2

5

NA

NA

NA

NA

6

620

78

21

3

Total

785

93

71

9

a Trials 1 and 2: no FP release

WHITEHORSE:

Measurements were taken at the shoreline. If that part of the coast was populated in 1953, then these exposures correspond roughly to population exposures also. No measurements were taken during the abortive trials, but they were abortive because of wind shifts. The cumulative effect at the worst case points, as reported under "Total," is thus unlikely to have been affected. Concentrations were estimated by dividing exposures by the period during which the plume was likely to have been present. These plumes were fairly narrow (of the order of 60-80 yd at the beach), and so few people could have been affected.

Trial

Max. Exp., µg-min/m3

Max. Conc., µg/m3

1

6.4E+03

489

2

NA

NA

3

4.5E+03

143

4

2.2E+03

78

5

5.3E+04

2470

6

7.0E+03

315

7

7.3E+03

313

8

4.6E+04

2037

9

1.6E+02

7

10

9.3E+04

4778

11

NA

NA

12

NA

NA

Total

1.5E+05

4778

DESCRIPTION OF TEST

Name of test: Single Round, E-120 Developmental Studies

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Reference-list number: 31

Reference: Trial Record 230, BW 398-A, Trials 8, 9, 10, and 11. Test Design and Analysis Office, Technical Operations Directorate, U.S. Army Chemical Corps Research and Development Command, U.S. Army Chemical Corps Proving Ground, Dugway, Utah. May, 1958.

Principal object:

Not specified.

Site selection:

Dugway West Vertical Grid.

Number and nomenclature of releases:

Four trials, numbered A-8, A-9, A-10, A-1 1.

Test conditions:

FP disseminated from two Skil blowers located 10 ft behind and 5 ft sideways from the center of the test grid, relative to the prevailing wind direction. No dissemination time or other information provided. No information on samplers is provided, but the West Vertical Grid uses filter-type samplers in other tests.

Test material:

FP (not otherwise specified).

Place of release:

Dugway West Vertical Grid.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Dates, times, and quantities of release:

Trial

Date

Time

Quantity, g

Wind Direction, Deg.

Wind Speed, mph

A-8

04/03/58

02:51

8.15

139

12.2

A-9

04/10/58

04:54

14.1

28

4.1

A-10

04/18/58

05:09

14.66

9

11.4

A-11

04/22/58

04:51

13.43

305

17

Total

 

 

50.34

 

 

Communities affected:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Distances from releases to affected communities:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Weather conditions:

See under ''Dates, times, and quantities of release'' above for wind direction and speed. Relative humidity varied from 54% to 73%, and the temperature gradient over 0.5-4 m varied from -0.2°F to 2.8°F.

Other materials released:

BG and UL were released from E-120 bomblets, with dissemination periods of 25 s.

Maximum time-integrated concentrations:

No data are given.

Maximum time-integrated concentrations in any populated area:

No data are given.

Maximum concentrations:

No data are given.

Maximum concentrations in any populated area:

No data are given.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Other comments:

This short report appears to be from a time when FP use is so routine that no particle counts are given in the data report if they are not a principal object of the exercise.

DESCRIPTION OF TEST

Name of test: Check Test of West Vertical Grid

Reference-list number: 32

Reference: A.T. Hereim and J.E. Frese. Check Test of West Vertical Grid, Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. Summary Report. RDTE Project 1-X-6-65704-D-634-06. USATECOM Project 5-CO-413-000-013. DTC Project DTC B-008. Deseret Test Center, Fort Douglas, Utah. Oct. 1970.

Principal object:

To check the mechanical performance of the newly rebuilt West Vertical Grid, to examine behavior of aerosols on the grid, and to provide operating experience with the equipment.

Site selection:

Dugway West Vertical Grid.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

Number and nomenclature of releases:

Six trials, numbered 1 through 6.

Test conditions:

A Mark IX disseminator was used to dispense approximately 35 g of FP almost instantaneously for each trial. Membrane filters were placed at each station on the vertical portion of the grid, and operated for 2 min about the firing time of the Mark IX.

Test material:

FP, particle count of 4.16 x 1010 ppg.

Place of release:

West Vertical Grid, Dugway Proving Ground.

Dates, times, and quantities of release:

During Feb. and Mar. 1970, release of 35 g per test, total 210 g. No further information is available.

Communities affected:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Distances from releases to affected communities:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Weather conditions:

Trials 1-3 were carried out in the daytime (lapse conditions). Trials 4-6 were carried out at night (inversion conditions).

Other materials released:

"Only fluorescent ZnCdS particles (FP) were released as an aerosol because of constraints on open air testing."

Maximum time-integrated concentrations:

The following maximum exposures (which have been adjusted for dissemination efficiency) were recorded at 1 or 2 m height on the vertical

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

grid, 27 m from the center of the grid. (There is no statement that the Mark IX disseminator was placed at the grid center, although that is the natural presumption, and photos seem to indicate it.)

Trial

Exp., µg-min/m3

1

24,402

2

29,887

3

23,166

4

30,218

5

16,539

6

12,864

Cumulative

<137,000

The cumulative total given here as an upper bound is the sum of the maximum exposures listed. Because the West Vertical Grid was rotated to align it with the wind and no details were provided on wind directions, an accurate cumulative value cannot be obtained.

Maximum time-integrated concentrations in any populated area:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Maximum concentrations:

No time-resolved data were available to allow estimation of concentration. These data were collected in 1 min, and it seems likely that the total exposure time this close to the release was of the order of 10s.

Maximum concentrations in any populated area:

No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.

Other comments:

Reference is made to the "T3-665" trials, which were FP dissemination efficiency trials for the Mark IX disseminator, using FP Lot H-387 and others. Reference: Dugway Proving Ground, Utah, Final Report, Technology Test of FP Fluidizers, by W.A. Brown and J.E. Frese, RDT&E Project 1V025001A128, June 1968.

Suggested Citation:"B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests." National Research Council. 1997. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5739.
×

DESCRIPTION OF TEST

Name of test: Dallas Tower Studies

Reference-list number: 33

Reference: P.B. MacCready, T.B. Smith, and M.A. Wolf. Vertical Diffusion from a Low Altitude Line Source—Dallas Tower Studies, Vol. 1. Final Report MR161 FR-33 from Meteorology Research, 2420 North Lake Ave., Altadena, Calif. to U.S. Army Chemical Corps, Dugway Proving Ground. Contract DA-42-007-CML-504. Dec. 1961.

Only two title pages and pp. I-iii and 1-3 were available.

Principal object: