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Biographical Memoirs: V.51 (1980)

Chapter: William Maurice Ewing

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Suggested Citation:"William Maurice Ewing." National Academy of Sciences. 1980. Biographical Memoirs: V.51. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/574.
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Suggested Citation:"William Maurice Ewing." National Academy of Sciences. 1980. Biographical Memoirs: V.51. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/574.
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Suggested Citation:"William Maurice Ewing." National Academy of Sciences. 1980. Biographical Memoirs: V.51. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/574.
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Suggested Citation:"William Maurice Ewing." National Academy of Sciences. 1980. Biographical Memoirs: V.51. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/574.
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WILLIAM MAURICE EWING May 12, 1906~Iay 4, 1974 BY EDWARD C. BOLLARD* CHILDHOOD. 19~1922 W1~lAM MAURICE EWING was born on May ~ 2, ~ 906 in Lockney, a town of about 1,200 inhabitants in the Texas panhandle. He rarely used the name William and was always known as Maurice. His paternal great-grandparents mover! from Kentucky to Livingston County, Missouri, at some date before IS50. Their son John Andrew Ewing, Maurice's grandfather, fought for the Confederacy in the Civil War; while in the army he met two brothers whose family hac} also come from Kentucky to Missouri before IS50 ant! were living in De Kalb County. Shortly after the war he marries! their sister Martha Ann Robinson. Their son Floyd Ford Ewing, Maurice's father, was born in CIarkciale, Mis- souri, in IS79. In 1889 the family followecl the pattern of the times and mover! west to Lockney, Texas. Floyd Ewing was a gentle, handsome man with a liking for literature and music, whom fate had cast in the unsuitable roles of cowhand, drylanc! farmer, and dealer in hardware and farm implements. Since he kept his farm through the *This memoir is a corrected and slightly amplified version of one published by the Royal Society in their BiographicalMemoirs (21:269-311, 1975). The main changes are that more detail is given in the first section and that numerous trivial errors in the bibliography have been corrected. The Royal Society has given permission for the republication. 119

120 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS years of the depression, he must have been a farmer of per- sistence and ability. He is spoken of with great affection by all who knew him; he was a marvelous storyteller and an ac- complished violinist who played the old hoedown pieces with enthusiasm. His daughter Rowena has "such vivid memories of him playing, always standing so straight and tall." Ewing's mother, Hope Hamilton Ewing, was born at Breckenricige, Stephens County, Texas, in ISS2. She was the daugher of Isaac Hamilton of Illinois and Martha Ann Carnahan of Arkansas, ant! she and her family mover! to Lockney in ~ 892. The Ewings ant! the Hamiltons were among the earliest settlers along the edge of the high plains of northern Texas. In 1901 she marries! Floyd Ewing; she was nineteen and he was twenty-two. In 1902 they set out on a homesteading venture in eastern New Mexico near Por- tales. They traveled in the traditional way with a wagon, two mules, a horse and a cow; they dug a well, set up a wincimill, and constructed a "half dug-out" with a sod roof. A few months later they returned to Texas and drove a herd of fifty cattle to their ranch. Unfortunately, they tract mover! into an arid area in the worst year of a five-year drought. The story of the ensuing disasters has been told with great skill and sympathy by Maurice's brother Floyd, who was a professor of history at Midwestern University, Wichita Falls, Texas (F. F. Ewing, 1963~. In 1904 they returnee! to 'reXaS. Maurice was the fourth of ten children. The three oldest hack cried very young in New Mexico so that he grew up as the eldest of seven. Mrs. Ewing was determinecl that her children should receive a goof! education ant] shouic] have a wicIer choice of careers than was to be found in a small west Texas town. All but one, the eldest daughter Ethel, went to a uni- versity and had professional or academic careers. Ethel mar- riec! very young ant] for many years was a successful teacher of the piano in Tulia, Texas. Bob became a naval captain and

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 121 now works at the Marine Science Institute at Galveston, Texas. Rowena married J. A. Peoples, a geophysicist and an early colleague of Ewing's; Lucy married C. H. CIawson, a professor of psychology at Amarillo, Texas; John, the young- est, worker! for many years with Ewing at Lamont ant! is now at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution where he was, for a while, Chairman of the Department of Geology and Geophysics. It is remarkable that so many of Maurice's brothers and sisters shouIc! have followed careers which in- tertwined, in different ways, with his own. Maurice enjoyed telling stories of his father's farm at Lockney. No doubt the stories improved with the passage of time, as when he said that he spent much of each spring killing rattlesnakes with a hoe while chopping cotton. The family was not well off, but he remembered his childhood as a happy time and all his life kept the slow speech, the self- conficlence, ant] the kindliness of the rural Texas of his youth. At public school in Lockney he at first preferrer] grammar and languages to other subjects; later, in high school, he cleveloped an interest in science and mathematics. He as- cribed the change to the excellence of the teaching in the Lockney high school. In 1922, when he was sixteen, he was awarcled the Hohenthal Scholarship to the Rice Institute in Houston, Texas. A STUDENT AT THE RICE INSTITUTE, 1922—1929 The journey to Houston hac] to be done in the most eco- nomical way. On one occasion, probably in his sophomore year, he started off on a motorcycle which he bought for $12 from a man who hac} taken it to pieces and conic} not get it together again. He hac! a $10 bill in his pocket ant! a blanket roll strapped behind] him. On the first clay the chain of the motorcycle broke ant} he ran out of gasoline; he abandoned

122 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS the machine and boarclec! a freight train where he shared a car with two hoboes. The brakeman found them and took Ewing's watch and money; he persuacled him to return them by explaining that he was on his way to college and needed them. Later he was attacked by the hoboes. He got away from the train by pretending to be a homicicial maniac, was hit with a blackjack, and after a long cross-country chase, hick in some brambles in a churchyard and escaped. He lost his blanket roll ant] most of his clothes, but still had his $l O and his watch. He felt he was too scantily cIac! to board a street car but persuaded the police to drive him to Rice.* The ingenuity, the persuasiveness, the physical toughness, and the courage are typical of the mature Ewing. Clearly the boy was the father to the man. In his early days at Rice, Ewing earned money by working in an all-night drugstore; he used to say that his main duties were to take coffee and sandwiches to the call girls who lived in the hotels around the oIc] Humble Builcling. Later he left the drug store and took part-time jobs assisting with classes ant! in the library. This brought in about $34 per month. It must have been a hard life, but at the beginning of his third year at Rice he was able to say, in a letter to his parents: "Well, because of the grades ~ made last year, ~ was invited to a banquet of the Houston Philosophical Society . . . and ~ sure aim to go." It was, ~ suppose, at Rice that he acquired his lifelong habit of working most of the night as well as all clay. He also showed his interest in teaching and gave much time to coach- ing fellow students. His sister Lucy has described how during vacation he would stanch over her while she played the piano, insist that she do it right, and explain the background of the piece. event. * This story is taken from a letter M. Ewing wrote to his parents just after the

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 123 At the Rice Institute he at first majored in electrical engi- neering but later changed to physics and mathematics. Not surprisingly, he found physics, then in the great formative period of quantum mechanics, more exciting than contempo- rary engineering. He also founct physicists more congenial than engineers (the Rice professors of engineering he cle- scribed as "sarcastic Yankees"~. In physics he was greatly in- fluenced by H. A. Wilson, an Englishman and a well-known but unorthodox physicist, who claimed that he was the only one of his contemporaries in the Cavenclish Laboratory who clic! not get a Nobel Prize (it would be interesting to look again at his ideas on nuclear systematics and see if they still look as implausible as they clic! at the time). Wilson ran a weekly colloquium at which the papers on the "new physics" were discusser! as they came out, ant] where occasionally there would be a talk by a distinguished visitor ("Men," said Ewing, "whom ~ would otherwise have thought hardly mortar". At Rice in the ~ 920's Ewing became a physicist. He learned not only the subject but also the attitude of mind. All his life he preferrer! simple arguments; his theory was set out in detail, well understoocI, ant! carefully explained; his in- struments were ingenious ant} often made by himself without regard for current fashions. He told me that when he was in his late forties he heart! a graduate stuclent complaining to another that "Doe" expected him to use a galvanometers "Never mind," replied the other, "all these old men will soon be dead." During the vacations at Rice he worked in a grain elevator and later with an of! prospecting crew in the shallow lakes of Louisiana; this was his first introduction to underwater geo- physics. It was an exciting time, when gravity and seismic measurements were revealing the salt-domes against whose sicles the of! of the Gulf Coast fielcis is trapped. While still an undergraduate he wrote his first scientific paper (1926), en-

124 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS titled "Dewbows by Moonlight," which describes a rainbow seen on the dew-covered grass of the campus. While at Rice he played the trombone in the marching bancI. There he was seen by a fellow. student, AvarilIa Hilclen- brancI; as she afterwards told it: "When he came stricling clown the street working his trombone slide in and out, my heart stood still. He was my man." They were marries! in 1928. Ewing obtained his B.A. in 1926. It is curious that H. A. Wilson then advised him that he had no aptitude for experi- mental work and should stick to theoretical physics. Rarely has a professor given worse advice. Ewing started graduate work in the Physics Department at Rice in the fall of ~ 926 and obtained an M.A. in 1927 and a Ph.D. in 1931. His Ph.D. thesis, entitled "Calculation of Ray Paths from Seismic Gravely rime Curves," was reported in two papers with Don Leet (1930, 1932a). The topic is central to much of Ewing's later work. Refraction seismology was not, at that time, well understoocI; there was, for example, a curious controversy as to whether the refracted! ray went straight up ant! down or was refracted along the interface at the critical angle. A sound and detailed knowleclge of the ray theory of propaga- tion in a layered] medium was critical for the seismic investiga- tions of the next twenty years, and it was a fortunate chance that led Ewing so early in this direction. Regrettably, the collaboration with Leet, who was Director of the Harvard seismological station, broke down with bitter feelings on both sides. Ewing regarded this quarrel as having an adverse effect on his career in the thirties. However, jobs ant! grants were scarce for everyone, and ~ was never convinced that Leet's disparagement had as much effect as Ewing believed. THE 1930 S SEISMOLOGY AT SEA In 1929 Ewing became an Instructor in Physics at the University of Pittsburgh, but a year later moved to a similar

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 125 position at Lehigh where he remained till 1940. He had a heavy teaching loac] in elementary physics but at once started to clevelop research in geophysics. The work of the next few years is not of great interest; it consists of a variety of projects, some of them suggested by local industry; for example, the paper on prospecting for anthracite (1936a) and one on locating a buried power shove] (193ScI). The main theme, however, is the understancling of the methods of small-scale seismology with explosive sources ~ ~ 932b, ~ 934a,b,c,d, 1935, 1936c). The change came in November ~ 934, on the clay on which he was visitec! in his seismic truck at Lehigh by Dick Field ant} William Bowie. They came to suggest that he might interest himself in applying the seismic method of prospecting to the study of the continental shelf. Bowie was Chief of the Division of Geodesy of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, very much a member of the Establishment and something of a southern gentleman. R. M. Fielc! was a Harvard man ant! a professor of geology at Princeton. He was a major eccentric, but he was also the man whose vision and enthusiasm started the band- wagon of marine geology on its triumphant course (for brief accounts of his life see Hess 1962 ant! Bullard 1962~. He hac! largely founded and was Chairman of the American Geo- physical Union's "Committee on the Geophysical Study of the Ocean Basins." He had a pretty clear idea of what he wanted clone and why, as can be seen from the first report of his committee (Field 1933~. ~ can easily visualize the meeting with Ewing, since ~ was taken by Fielct to see Bowie on a similar errand in 1937. Field wouIc! have been persuasive, persistent, talkative, and irrepressible, while Bowie wouic} have lent an air of soliclity and charm; together they would have been irresistible, particularly when they offered funds ant! ships. ~ do not know what made Field approach Ewing; it is likely that Field had heard him talk at the American Geophysical Union ~ ~ 93 I, ~ 934a). For Ewing it was what he wantec! above all else,

126 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS a problem worth tackling and the possibility of support and ,% . . . tea sties. It was decided that the first project would be to shoot as many refraction seismic lines as possible spaced out between Cape Henry on the east coast of Virginia and the edge of the continental shelf 120 km out to sea, where the depth of water was about 100 m This line was to be extended inland by measurements on land between the coast and the outcrop of basement rocks 120 km inland. The start was not propitious; the Coast and Geodetic Survey allowed Ewing and his two assistants (A. Crary and H. M. Rutherford) to embark in their ship Oceanographer (the yacht Corsair given to the survey by H. P. Morgan). Immediately before sailing, the captain was injured in a motor car accident, and an assistant, who was to have helped Ewing, was killed. The ship was fully occupied with surveying, and Ewing's work had to be fitted in while she was anchored at night. Shots were fired with seismographs on the bottom; this gave experience in handling the gear at sea, but no geological information was obtained. In the time avail- able only reflection shooting could be attempted, and not surprisingly, no identifiable reflections were received from the basement. The work convinced Ewing that the job could be done. On ~ July 1935 he wrote home: "I got proof that the measure- ments can be made at sea . . . the people sponsoring the work . . . think they can get the ship of the Scripps Oceanographic Institute for our exclusive use. If so we can clean up an important job in a few months This is hv far the most imnor- --r - tant project with which ~ have yet been connected. It is so arranged that ~ see no possibility of anyone stealing the credit from me." The anxiety about the credit for the work is typical of one side of his character; he was having a hard struggle to get established and could hardly believe that something would not go wrong.

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 127 When Oceanographer returned to port, Ewing set about the observations on the land section of the line. This was a task that his previous experience hac! made familiar. Meanwhile Field exercised his persuasive powers on Henry Bigelow, the Director of the Woocis Hole Oceanographic Institution. He obtained the use of the R. V. Atlantis for two weeks. She was a steel-hulled ketch, 43 m in length over all and with a dis- placement of about 380 tonnes. She hac! sails and a diesel engine; the sails were often used, not only for propulsion but also to reduce her tendency to roll. 'rhe crucial work was done in this vessel in October 1935. Her Master was Fred McMurray, a very skilled and experienced seaman. On the first day Field, Columbus Tselin, and Henry Stetson accom- panied Ewing's party on a short trip to test the gear. Four days later Ewing, Crary, ant! Rutherforc! set off for a two- week cruise. At each station a seismograph measuring the vertical component of the motion was lowered! to the sea floor from the anchored ship on an insulated electric cable. Signals from the instrument were transmitted up the cable to a re- corcler in the ship. Charges of explosive were lowered from the ship's boat at distances of up to 11 km from the ship. The instant of explosion was transmitter! to the ship by raclio; the time of transmission of the wave traveling through the water gave the distance. Four refraction lines were shot on the Cape Henry section ant! three on a line running south from Woods Hole. The object of the investigation was to study the nature of the transition from the ocean to the continent. Is the "shelf break," where the sea floor suddenly turns down from the shallow water of the continental shelf to oceanic depths, a fault in the basement, or is it the edge of a rubbish tip of sediments built out from the lane! over sunken continent or, perhaps, over ocean floor? Where is the true edge of the continent? In what sense has it an ecige? These questions are

128 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS fundamental for geology, and it is remarkable that they had never seriously been approached before. There were, of course, speculations based on the results of drilling on the exposed part of the shelf, but no one had had the skill or the enterprise to attempt what Ewing did. He discovered a pile of sediments 3800 m thick. The work is a classic example of a discovery of great practical importance made in searching for knowledge. All the of! obtained from the sea floor comes from sedimentary basins like that discovered by Ewing. He told me that about ~ 936 he had approached an executive of a large of! company and asked for support for the work. He was told that there was no shortage of oil and that the company was not in the least interested in looking for it at sea. Ewing's reputation was made he had done something new and of first rate importance. The work was, of course, preliminary. It was open to the criticism that too little shoot- ing had been done; the time~istance curve at the outermost station hac! only two points on it through which two lines were drawn by using seismic velocities extrapolated from stations nearer shore. To most people these were details which time and further work would remedy. Ewing's own reply to enqui- ries about how he could be sure with so few data was: "That's how you tell the men from the boys." To Leet however it was not so; he published a slashing attack on the whole operation and its conclusions (l 937~. Ewing had expected that Field and his geological friends would seize on the information and produce interpretations in terms of structure and history. It did not happen, though his first paper (1937) was followed by one by B. I. Miller (1937) which was supposed to discuss and explain the results; it is a rather dull piece of work which sets out possible views and leaves the main questions undecided. Ewing, whose own paper was strictly factual, was surprised and perhaps a little

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 129 clisappointect. He hac! not, ~ think, realizer! how complete was the gap in knowlecige represented by the ocean floor. For generations the oceans hac! been a place where geologists conic! safely deposit many of their ctifficulties; almost nothing was known anc! almost anything couIcI be assumed. Ewing cleciclect to ignore the criticisms anct to use what ship time he couIc! get for other projects but to continue the study of the shelf sediments on lanct (1939c, 1940b). Further work on the shelf at sea was clone in 1940 anct 1943 but was not publishec! until 1946; the most striking result of this later work was the discovery of seven km of sediment beneath the clelta of the Orinoco ~ ~ 946c, ~ 948b). Work at sea continucct on a wicie front. Even before the first seismic work was publishec! he hac! starter! gravity mea- surements in the U.S.S. Barracuda in collaboration with Harry Hess of Princeton (another protege of Field), who hac! made similar measurements in the U.S. submarines S21 and S48 in ~ 928 and ~ 932. They borrowed the penclulum apparatus clevisec! by Vening Meinesz anct usect it to explore the gravity low that he hac! founc! over the Puerto Rico trench in 1926. They founc! that it ran around the islancI arc of the Lesser Antilles anc! was clearly analogous to the low founct by Meinesz arounc! Tnclonesia (1937a, 1938e). Ewing usec! a quartz oscillator clesignec! anc! constructed by W. A. Marrison of the Bell Telephone Laboratories to time the penclulums; this was an important improvement on the use of a spring- controllec! chronometer, which was liable to change its rate · ~ On c ,lvlng. Gravity measurement, at first in submarines, later in sur- face ships, was a life-Ion" interest on which he publishect many papers, most of them in collaboration with foe Worze} (1950h, 1952g, 1954b, 1956cI, 1966i). Work was started about 1939 on the clesign and construc- tion of a cieep-sea camera (1946a, 1967c). A quotation from

130 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Ewing's paper (1946) well illustrates his attitude to such things. He describes the failure of previous rather half- hearted attempts at photography in deep water and con- cludes: "The principal problems in underwater photography are not optical.... The problems are to find an interesting subject, and to put the camera in focus with it, to provide proper illumination, to hold the camera reasonably steady while the exposure is macle, ant! to get the camera back after- wards" (p. 3081. In this work and in deep-sea seismology the problems of making watertight equipment for use in deep water were faced for the first time. This involved consicler- able clifficulties ant! a good clear of clevelopment. The pub- lished photographs ~ ~ 944, ~ 945, ~ 946a,c, ~ 967c) are out- standingly clear; they were obtainer! in depths of up to 730 m. Ripple marks were found in a depth of 150 m in the Gulf of Maine, later they were fount] to be common in oceanic depths. This was of considerable interest, as most geologists had supposed that ripple marks in sediments were a sign of shallow water. Actually little harm was done by this assump- tion, since most sedimentary rocks found on land have been formed in relatively shallow water or, at any rate, not in oceanic depths. Ewing's camera was the prototype of all sub- sequent deep-sea cameras, the results from which have given a detailed view of the ocean floor which could have been attained in no other way; they have been of great assistance in understanding the results of dredging and coring. After the initial success of the seismic work on the conti- nental shelf Ewing decided that the most important thing to do was to extend the work to deep water. The prize was great: it should be possible to find how much sediment there is on the ocean floor (if the oceans have existed, much as now, through the whole of geological time there shouicl be many kilometers of sediment). One might also hope to obtain an indication of the nature of the basement beneath the secli- ments, to estimate the thickness of the crust, ant} to find the

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 131 depth to the Mohorovicic discontinuity, if it exists beneath the oceans. The methods employee} on the shelf were harcIly practica- ble, the ship could not be anchored} ant! no electric cable was available to bring the signals from the sea floor to the ship. Ewing (193Sb, 1946c) first tried stringing the gear along a steel cable. From the ship the cable led clown to the sea floor where it carried a watertight pressure vessel containing a four-channel oscillograph; further along the cable were four geophones and three bombs Erect by a clock and a battery in the pressure vessel. ~ was fortunate to be present at the trials of parts of this equipment in Atiantas in 1937. It was a some- what hazardous and a very difficult undertaking. The ship frequently dragged the whole string along the sea floor which preventer! any record from being obtained; if cable was paid out to prevent the dragging the whole thing wouIc3 pile up on the sea floor instead of lying in a straight line. There were many other difficulties, one of the most troublesome was the failure of explosives to go off at clepth. When ~ was with him, Ewing decided that cast TNT might be better than the flake TNT, which was all we had on board. ~ said: "Maurice, we haven't got any and there's nothing we can do about it." He looked at me and smiled and said: "Don't you think perhaps " We melter! the flake TNT in an electric coffee pot and poured it into molds made by fondling paper. Ewing was a wonclerful improviser; he had a pressure vessel for the re- corder macle from an oxygen cylinder with the top cut off; it die! not last long, after it hac! been lowered for a test of watertightness, the wire came up carrying only the eyebolt which had been welder! to the cylinder. Some believed that a large fish had eaten the cylinder. In his laboratory at Lehigh he had a pressure vessel to test equipment; it was made from an old fourteen-inch naval shell which Al Vine had found in an army junk yarcl. On one occasion he was testing blocks of TNT which were supposed to be strong enough to protect

132 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS detonators from the pressure; he noticed that the pressure was rising rather rapidly and clecidec3 that the TNT hac} caught fire in the press. ~ do not remember what he did, but when he toic} me about it he did not seem greatly concerned. As a young man he sometimes appeared rash but, in fact, he knew what he was doing and was quick in making a sensible decision. Behind the large, rather shambling bear there was a very acute mind and a tremendous drive and determination to get the job done. The attempt to shoot seismic lines in creep water with this equipment was unsuccessful (1946c). In view of the difficul- ties the scheme was abandoned and a new method tried in 1939 and 1940 (1938b, 1946c). In this the instruments ant! the explosive charges were sent to the bottom attached to balloons fillet! with thirty gallons of gasoline and with no wire to connect them with the ship, an idea suggested by the work of Auguste Picard. At the conclusion of the experiment bal- last was dropper! and the recorders, geophones, and firing clocks were returned to the surface by the buoyancy of the balloons. Ewing also used such balloons to recover a free- falling camera (1946c). ~ do not know if he was aware of the long and largely unsuccessful history of such crevices going back to the seventeenth century (Hook and Moray 1667, Deacon ~ 97 ~ ). Preliminary work was done in shallow water arounc! Ber- mucia in 1939; this gave the thickness of the coral cap. In 1940, a record of one shot at one geophone was obtained at each of two stations in depths of 2600 ant] 4800 m. The velocity of P-waves in the sediment was cletermined, but, according to the published papers, no indication of the base- ment beneath the secliment was found (1946c, 194Sb); George WoolIarcl, however, tells me that one recording did show a wave refracted from beneath the sediments.

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 133 The difficulties that prevented geologically significant re- sults from being obtained in deep water could have been overcome, and, when the work was stopped in 1940 by the development of the war, it was clear that a method of seismic shooting in deep water was available. The surprising thing is that in 1937 none of us realized that these heroic expedients were unnecessary. All that was needed was to put the instru- ments and the explosives near the surface of the sea and to treat the water as another layer in the problem. There are, however, circumstances in which it is desirable to have seis- mographs and other equipment on the sea floor without wires to a ship; for these Ewing's method has been widely used in very sophisticated forms in recent years (without the hazardous gasoline-filled balloons). One of these instruments was developed at Lamont; it was deployed on the sea floor ant! recorded on land through a cable. It could be left on the bottom for a month or more (196Im). During the whole of the period up to the war both funds and ship-time had been meagre and difficult to get. It is perhaps inevitable that institutions such as the Coast and Geodetic Survey and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution should have regarded work on quite new lines as a thing to be fitted in among their regular business. Ship-time for seis- mic shooting had to be taken from other projects which had already been planned and which were clearly worthwhile. It was, in a way, a generous gesture to let Ewing share Atiantas for short periods with other projects. In fact he got forty-five days of shared time in the five years from 1935 to 1939. Clearly the availability of ship-time was the limiting factor in what could be accomplished. The work at sea and the preparations for it involved an enormous expenditure of effort. Ewing and his students regularly worked far into the night and disrupted their home

134 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS lives to a degree which was, perhaps, tolerable for the stu- dents but was damaging for Ewing. The work at Lehigh has been described by Woollard: It was a tight little group, and although we worked most nights on instru- ments or data analysis, and spent most weekends in the field, one night a week was devoted to relaxation. We'd start with spareribs and beer in a cheap little German restaurant, migrate up to the University rifle range for a couple of hours' shooting, and then end up at either Ewing's house or my apartment for more beer, music, and discussions . . . followed by scrambled eggs and coffee in the wee hours before calling it a night. No doubt it was all great fun but it is not a recipe for a happy married life, and, when the strains and absences of wartime were added, Maurice and Avarilla parted and were divorced in ~ 94 I. Their son Bill, who was born in ~ 932, lived with his mother; he became a captain in the Air Force and was killed in an aircraft crash while in his thirties. Shortly before he died he was stationed near Lamont and he and his father got to know each other again. Overworking was probably inevitable if worthwhile re- sults were to be obtained with so little ship-time and money, but it was also a marked trait in Ewing's character. He was driven by an inner urge to compulsive overwork. He believed that every opportunity must be seized and exploited to the full. He seemed to feel that the world was against him, but was always sure that he and his band of students and friends would overcome the difficulties and show that with small resources they could achieve the apparently impossible. His confidence in his own ability and in the effectiveness of his students was one of his most endearing characteristics, but was not always appreciated by others. THE WAR, ~ 940—~ 946 In 1940 Ewing became convinced that the United States would become involved in the war with Germany and that the

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 135 Navy wouIct need his kinc! of knowledge and skills. He ob- tainec! leave from Lehigh, who macle him an Associate Pro- fessor when he left (he hacl been made an Assistant Professor in 1936~. He went to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institu- tion where he was a Research Associate from 1940 to 1944. Allyn Vine ant! Joe Worzel, who had worked with him at Lehigh, moved with him. WoolIarc! followed later. He and his group got to work with great speed. Even before government finance had been found for the work, they and Columbus Iselin, the Director at Woods Hole, had written a manual for the Navy entitled Sound Transmission in Sea Water (there is a copy in the Woocis Hole library) and hac! redesigned and greatly improved the bathythermograph, which had been deviser! some years before by Athelstan Spil- haus. After a month or two they were, as Worzel put it, rescued from starvation and "practical socialism" by contracts from the Bureau of Ordnance and the Bureau of Ships of the U.S. Navy. Ewing's style of work had an electrifying effect on what had been a rather sIow-moving marine biological station. In his unpublished! memoirs Iselin wrote: "He tract a profound effect on the success of this laboratory. He arriver! here first as a very young professor.... He brought with him several Lehigh students and the place has never been the same since. They literally worked night and day, and seven days a week." The wartime investigations of Ewing and his group are described in a paper publishecl after the end of the war (1946c), and a list of some of his reports is in National De- fense Research Committee (1946~. For a few months they were able to continue the refraction shooting on the conti- nental shelf and in sleep water. Soon, however, more pressing matters needled all their attention. Among the things studied was the "bubble pulse" from explosions. It had been known since ~ 898 that multiple shocks were proclucec! by the detona-

136 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS tion of a single charge underwater. The phenomenon had also been noticed by Ewing while doing seismic shooting in Louisiana cluring his vacations from Rice. The cause had been correctly stated by the discoverer (Blochmann IS98) to be the collapse and rebounc! of the gas bubble, which over- shot its equilibrium size, collapsed to a small radius ancI expander! again to produce a shock wave of intensity com- parable to that of the original explosion. The explanation had been lost sight of ancI to both the American and British navies the phenomenon was something of a mystery. It was of importance as the bubble pulses can substantially increase the damage from underwater explosions. Ewing obtained pressure-time curves and arranged for H. E. Ecigerton of MI-r to take underwater photographs of the bubble (1946c, 194Sb). These showed that it performed nonlinear oscilIa- tions during which it collapsed to a very small volume. Ewing obtainer! an empirical relation between the time interval between pulses and the size and depth of the charge. The theory was worked out by Chaim Pekeris and provided a correction to the empirical formula. It is curious that the explosives group at Woocts Hole lee! by E. Bright Wilson was cloing closely similar work at the same time (Arons 19481. Dr. A. B. Arons tells me that security was so tight at Woods Hole that he tract only a vague idea that Ewing's group was working on the same matters as his own. It is a salutary example of the dangers of an excessive regard for security between groups in an organization. The whole thing was clone yet again at about the same time by H. F. Willis and G. I. Taylor in England. Perhaps the best-known work by Ewing during the war was his discovery and exploitation of the low-velocity sound! channel in the ocean, which occurs at depths of 70(}1300 m and is known as the SOFAR channel (an acronym for Sound Fixing and Ranging). The channel may be lookocl on as a pipe along which sound is repeatedly reflected, or as a wave-guide

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 137 in which sound waves are trapped. Thus, if an explosion is macie near the depth of minimum sound velocity, the sound will spread in two dimensions instead] of in three and can reach great distances before its intensity falls below that of the ambient noise. In one of Ewing's experiments a charge of a few pounds ciropped off the west coast of Africa was heard off the Bahamas. The phenomenon has obvious applications, and a network of SOFAR stations has been in operation for many years. A related matter is the seismic "T phase" which Ewing showed to be propagated across the ocean in the SOFAR layer (1950f,g, 1952(1, 1953c, 1957e). The propagation of sound in the sea is a more compli- catec! phenomenon than might be expected. The gradients of temperature, pressure and salinity bend the rays and pro- duce shadow zones and focusing effects. Such matters are of importance in submarine detection and in the operation of submarines. Some work hac! previously been done by the Coast and Geodetic Survey but it had not been published and its importance was not appreciates! by the Navy. The work at Woods Hole greatly cIarifiec! the subject; much of the infor- mation relevant to geophysics was subsequently published as a book ~ ~ 94Sb, c). This book also contains an important paper by Pekeris on the theory of sound transmission in the sea. All through the war Ewing kept fairly closely to the sub- jects in which he was an expert; in these he made very substantial contributions. He seems not to have had any wish to enter into questions of more general policy concerning the conduct of the war, he certainly had no desire to set himself up as an eminence Arise to any military or political figure. In this he differed from many of his contemporaries on both sides of the Atlantic. In 1944 he married Margaret Kidder whom he had met at Woods Hole; they had four chilciren: Jerome, Hope, Peter and Margaret.

138 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS THE LAMON r GEOLOGICAL OBSERVA TORY AND VEMA In 1944 Ewing was invited to join the Geology Depart- ment of Columbia University as an Associate Professor (he became a full Professor in 1947~. He accepted ant! moved there in June ~ 946 bringing many of his group with him. At first they worked in great congestion in a few rooms in the Schermerhorn Builcling on the main campus in New York, but in 1948 the widow of Thomas Lamont, a well-known banker, offered the University his estate at Palisades, a few miles from Columbia across the Hudson River. A funs! of $250,000 was included with the gift. The University offered the place and the money to Ewing. lust at this time he and his group had a similar offer of a country mansion ant! financial support from MIT. rrhey were tempted but decided to stay at Columbia; in this Ewing was influenced by the presence of W. H. Bucher in the Geology Department and by the friendli- ness of General Eisenhower, then President of Columbia. To get the Lamont estate was an opportunity that might never occur again. Ewing hastened to make the decision irre- versible by moving in equipment (the move has been enter- tainingly ~lescribecI by William Wertenbaker tI974a,b]~. It was a lovely place with a fine house and ~ 55 acres of grounds; in a few years the house was full and several new laboratories were built. It no longer looks like a gentleman's residence, but it is still a won{lerfu! place, with open space and trees, set in a village away from the stresses of New York City. The new institution was, rather ocIdly, named the Lamont Geological Observatory. At first it was part of the Geology Department of Columbia University. In the early sixties it became an independent institution within the University. Ewing had the title of Director from 1949. A description of Lamont in its early days has been given by George W. Gray

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 139 (1956~. During the first few years Ewing and Paul Kerr, who was Chairman of the Geology Department, succeeclec! in rais- ing substantial funds from mining companies, the Rocke- feller Foundation, and others. By 1969 these amounted to about $1,000,000. In 1968 Ewing went to see Mr. A. C. Newlin of the Doherty Foundation in search of a grant of $700,000; much to his surprise he was offered $7,000,000. Columbia accepted ant! in 1969 the name of the institution was changed to the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observa- tory. The space and the funds which were now available were the basis of the remarkable developments of the period after 1949. A large part of the running costs came from the Office of Naval Research (ONR). As in so many fields ONR shower! an enterprise, responsiveness, and good sense in the allocation and management of research funds which have not always been characteristic of apparently more relevant bellies. ~ sup- pose that it is, in theory, unclesirable for the Navy to handle the bulk of the funcis for civil research, but things have never been the same since their activities were restricted, and they die! a wonderful job for Ewing. In 1953 Ewing ant! Worze! returned from the Royal Society's discussion on "The Floor of the Atlantic Ocean" to find that the Navy had cancellecl an arrangement to supply Lamont with a ship. They hastily hired the iron-hulled schooner Vema (62 m overall, 1010 tonnes displacement, propelled by sails and a diesel engined. For a small extra payment they also got an option to purchase. It is not easy to persuade a university to pay $150,000 for a rather antiquates} sailing ship, and Ewing and Worze! only succeecled a few hours before the option ran out. The decision to purchase Vema was crucial; it provides! Ewing with a ship of his own which he could use how and where he needed it. For many years Vema was the center of

140 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Lamont's seagoing activities. She was larger than Atlantis ant! could operate worldwide. She spent a very large proportion of her time at sea and dicl all kincis of marine geophysical work in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. Having her made an enormous difference to the amount of work that could be done; from the end of the war until recently ships were harder to get than money, and if you had a ship you could! usually get the operating expenses from ONR, the Na- tional Science Foundation, or some other agency. The posses- sion of the ship was particularly important for the clevelop- ment of instruments ant! equipment where it is difficult to estimate the time that will be neediest. A couple of failures to make a new instrument work will rapidly disenchant an insti- tution that lends you ships, but if you have your own ship and some money, you need not be so embarrassed by the difficul- ties ant! delays of cloing new things. In 1962 Vema was joined by the Robert D. Conrad built by the ONR. She is 63.4 m overall and has a displacement of 1360 tonnes. From the foundation of Lamont, Ewing was in a new position; he was now the Director of what rapidly became a large and diverse organization working in many fields, in some of which he woulc! not have claimed to be expert. The woncler was the extent to which he was expert, clid know what was going on, ant! was an all-pervacling influence. It is not possible here to describe the work of Lamont as a whole and attention must be concentrated on the parts that were central to Ewing's interersts. SEISMOLOGY A r SEA Early in 1949 Ewing fulfilled a long-felt wish; he got two ships at once (Atlantis and Caryn from Woods Hole). Worzel went out in one and Hersey in the other in the hopes of finding the depth of the Mohorovicic discontinuity (the

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 14 Moho) under the deep sea by shooting a long seismic refrac- tion line. It had long been suspected! from the results of gravity measurement that, if the Moho existed! at sea, it would be much shallower than it was on the continents, but there were several other possibilities. A reverser! line 56 km in length was shot and the Moho found 5 km beneath the ocean floor (1949d, 19500~. Ewing and the others were cautious since the seismic velocity beneath the Moho was a little lower than it usually was under the continents; it was, however, pretty clear that they had a result of first-rate importance. It was now almost certain that the familiar basement rocks of the continents were absent beneath the oceans, or at any rate beneath the place between New York and Bermuda where the line had been shot. In fact it has prover! a universal rule that the ocean floor is quite different from the continents, the Moho is very shallow, and the sub-Moho seismic velocity is usually near the continental value (1955a). The exploitation of this method of studying the crust beneath the floor of the creep sea became one of the main tasks of Lamont during the ~ 950's ant! ~ 960's (e.g., ~ 952a, ~ 953b, ~ 954a, ~ 956m, ~ 959c). There was, however, another means to the same encI. The wartime work on sound in the ocean, and especially the cooperation with Chaim Pekeris on the theory of the propagation of waves in a layered meclium, turned Ewing's thoughts to the propagation of surface waves across the oceans. This is more complicated than the interpretation of the records of P and S waves from explosions; since the wave length exceeds the vertical dimensions of the layers, "ray optics" is inapplicable, and the solution of the wave equation is essential. The waves are dispersive, and thus their phase and group velocities are clifferent; they are of two main types, Rayleigh waves and Love waves, which have different disper- sion relations. In return for this complexity it is possible to obtain average properties of large areas of the earth. Refrac-

142 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS tion shooting gives a picture of the layers under the line of shots, the dispersion of the surface waves from an earthquake will show whether the results from the refraction shots are typical of a whole ocean. The resolving power is poor but the area coverer! is large. The study of surface waves had been a favorite topic with theoretical seismologists since the beginning of the century. It was known that the dispersion curve for waves crossing the Pacific was different from that across the continents. This implied an important difference of structure in the upper I~50 km ant! was consistent with the shallow oceanic Moho suggested by gravity observations. The observations of sur- face waves traveling across the Atlantic had been interpreted by Beno Gutenberg anti Charles Francis Richter (1936) as indicating a structure intermediate between those of the con- tinents ant! of the Pacific. Ewing saw that here was a too! which needed development and which coulc! provide a short cut to the study of some of the major features of ocean basins. His attack on the problem was both experimental ant! theoretical. Seismographs were installed in a vault at Lamont; the instruments had to be capable of recording much slower oscillations than those used for recording the "first arrivals" of P waves. Such instruments had been neglected, since most designers were more interested in improving the sensitivity at periods of 0.~-3 s rather than in the more difficult ant! apparently less rewarding task set by periods above ~ O s. This was an example of the parsimonious and lopsicled develop- ment of seismology which became so apparent at the meeting of experts on bomb-test detection in Geneva in 1958. These difficulties caused the injection of many millions of dollars per year into the subject, via the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense project "Vera Uni- form," and rapidly transformer! it. The work done at Lamont on instrument design during the 1950's (195Sa) was an im- portant base for the improved facilities and for the World

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 143 Wide Seismic Network. Later, instruments were developed that were capable of recording the natural oscillations of the Earth at periods between 10 s ant! ~ h. These periods of oscillation are now a major source of information about the interior of the Earth. A series of papers by Ewing and Frank Press, starting in ~ 949, took up the theory of surface waves using more realistic models of the ocean floor than hac! been user! previously (e.g., 1950c, 1955b). It was shown conclusively that the AtIan- tic was similar to the Pacific and not halfway to being a conti- nent (the previous, erroneous view hac! arisen from an underestimate of the effect of the water on Rayleigh waves and from the absence of observations of short period Love waves). Ewing's first creep-water refraction station was typical of the oceans; this was a result of great importance, not only in itself, but in encouraging the more realistic use of surface- wave dispersion in the study of the Earth's crust and upper mantle. The methoc! was applied in a series of papers by Ewing, Oliver ant! Press to elucidate crustal structure in many parts of the world (1955k, 1956h, 1959b); this work con- firmecl the universal difference in crustal thickness between the oceans and the continents which is one of the basic facts of geology. The work was summarized in 1956a and the theory in a book (1957a). The work with earthquake records gave Ewing great satis- faction; he sometimes said that he wished that he could give up being the director of an institute ancl spend his time reading seismic records. The seismic work at sea was also near the center of his interests. Here he was stimulated by keen competition from Russell Raitt and George Shor at Scripps ant! from Maurice Hill at Cambridge; Ewing got the first measurement of the depth of the Moho, but occasionally they had the pleasure of discovering something before he clid; for example, he missed the layer with a P wave velocity of about 4~/2 km/s which lies beneath the sediments almost everywhere

144 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS in the oceans. The oversight was probably due to having the shots too far apart in a laudable desire to get a station finished ant! get on to the next and also to the wish to have enough explosive left for some more stations. Neither the refraction lines nor the study of surface waves conic! give any detail about the stratification or structure of the sediments of the ocean floor. For this it was necessary to observe reflections from small cliscontinuities in the sedimen- tary column. What was neecled was, in a sense, an improve- ment in the echo sounder with more power and a lower frequency to give penetration into the sediments beneath the ocean floor. Ewing hacT tried to observe such reflections as early as 1935 but had not obtainer! any useful results. Work on the improvement of reflection shooting started at Lamont in 1949. At first the ship was hove to, and a single hydrophore was lowered to record! the shots (1949a). Later observations were taken uncler way. Progress was slow (for an account of work up to 1960 see Hersey 1~963), and it was over ten years before really goocI, continuous seismic profiling was achieved. The success was largely the work of John Ewing, Maurice's brother. In the early ~ 960's a single hydrophore was towed behind the ship and 0.2 kg charges were thrown into tl~e sea every two minutes. The charges were attached to balloons to pre- vent them sinking to a depth where the bubble pulse would occur. The operator hac! to tuck the balloon under his arm light the fuse, ant! throw the charge and its balloon into the sea. To do this hour after hour on a rolling ship in the midclle of the night is a tedious operation ant! not without its dangers. In 1961 a man was killed in Vema and about a year later the method fell into well-deserved disuse. By then several other types of sound sources such as the "sparker" and the "air-gun" were available. The sparker produces sound by an underwater spark, and the air-gun is a container

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 145 filled with air at a pressure of 150 atm which is suddenly released through a valve. Much new information was obtained cluring the 1960's about the sediment of the (jeep ocean (1962g, 1963f, 1964g, ~ 965f,l, ~ 966a,l, ~ 9671, ~ 968c). A quite unexpected cliscov- ery was the widespread occurrence of a conspicuous reflector named Horizon A. From the results of drilling, Horizon A is now known to be an Eocene deposit of hard amorphous silica, similar to the chert or flint found on land (19701~. One of . Ewing's most spectacular seismic discoveries was that the Sigs- bee Knolls in the Gulf of Mexico are salt-domes (1966e, 1968d). Drilling has given indications that there are hydro- carbons trapped in the surrounding sediments, but it would be imprudent to drill for of] in such depths till techniques of control have been developed. Not striking of! has become an important objective in the planning of deep-sea drilling. The techniques of reflection shooting at sea are of great importance to the oil industry. During the 1950's and 1960's they developed methods for use on the continental shelf where a string of several hundred hyclrophones is towed behind a ship. Because of the cost, the use of these methods by academic institutions did not become common until ~ 972. The technique is elaborate; it involves digital recording on as many as forty-eight channels and processing by computers at sea and on land. The results are spectacular. The use of such equipment in the Gulf of Mexico was Ewing's main scientific interest in the last few months of his life. The equipment could produce 30 million bits of information per kilometer, so that even he must, at last, have felt that he had as many data as he could use. 'TOPOGRAPHY AND SEDIMENTS OF THE OCEAN FLOOR Seismology was Ewing's first love, but he and his students pursued many other lines of investigation with an equal en- thusiasm. The most basic too! of marine geology is the echo

146 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS sounder. This was clevelopec3 about 1914 by R. A. Fessenclen and the Submarine Signal Company who used audio-fre- quency sources; in the 1920's ultrasonic instruments were produced which use frequencies of I~30 kc/s. These instru- ments worker! admirably, particularly after the introduction of a variable density recorder clepending on the electrolysis of paper impregnated with potassium ioclide. They hall, however, unreliable timing arrangements depending on a centrifugal governor or on the frequency of the ship's elec- trical supply. The effect of this was catastrophic; a ship wouIc} sad! across the Pacific with an echo sounder recording say 400 m too shallow, the soundings would then appear on charts as a ridge along the ship's track. At one time the charts of the North Pacific were crossed by several of these bogus riciges following ships' tracks in a roughly east-west direction. Ewing ant! his colleagues undertook the design of a Precision Depth Recorder, the PDR (1954e). This was based on the facsimile recorders used for transmitting photographs for news- papers. It had electronically controlled timing and paper that gave permanent records. Such instruments are now univer- sally used in survey and oceanographic ships; they give a timing accuracy equivalent to about ~ m in depth. The main stimulus to the clevelopment of the PDR was the desire to study the abyssal plains which stretch beyond the foot of the continental rise at depths of around 5000 m. The PDR shower! how extremely flat they are; gradients of less than one in a thousand are common. Samples collected from the plains showed coarse sands, shallow water fossils, and bits of wood, which strongly suggested that the material was clerived from the continental shelf. R. A. Daly (1936) had suggested that during the Pleistocene ice ages, sediment was stirred up by waves breaking on the exposed continental shelf and that the muddy water ran down the slope eroding the canyons. P. Kuenen, in Holland, had made laboratory exper-

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 147 iments which suggested that a cloud of sediment disperser! in water can incleec3 run rapicIly and turbulently clown the slope and spread sediment over the ocean floor. He called these clouds of sediment ant! water "turbidity currents." Ewing set out to investigate the abyssal plain off the eastern seaboard of the U.S. He suspected that the ~ 929 earthquake on the Grant! Banks hac} set off a turbidity current and showed ( 1 952i) that the failures of submarine cables suggested that some cable- breaking agency was set off by the earthquake and propa- gated clown the slope at speecis of up to 90 km/in. When he shower! that there was coarse and apparently recent sediment at the foot of the slope and pointer! out that long lengths of some of the cables had been carried away and buried, most people were convinced of the reality of turbidity currents as the carriers of the sediments of the abyssal plains. Later simi- lar phenomena were found off Sicily ant! in other places. In the course of the work on the abyssal plains the canyons that cross the continental ecige were traced far beyond the slope over the plains. They had levees on each side and were clearly formed by some process involving flow from the can- yons. The discovery of the deep extensions to the canyons made it improbable that they had been cut by subaerial ero- sion at a time when the land stood higher or the sea lower. The process by which canyons are formed is still not clear, especially when they are cut in hard rock, as are some of those off southern California. Going further out to sea Ewing naturally became inter- estect in the mid-AtIantic ridge. Here he, Heezen, and Tharp fount! that the deep depression, which was known to occur on many echo sounder profiles near the crest of the ridge, was a continuous valley (1956k, 1960i). It gradually became apparent that it was a worIdwicle feature of the mid- ocean ridges (except along the East Pacific Rise), that it always runs near the shallowest part of the ridge, that it is displaced

148 BlOGRAPHICAE MEMOIRS where the ridge crest is clisplacec! on what are now caller! "transform faults," and that it has steep sicles which are pretty clearly fault scarps. This discovery was entirely unexpected and has prover! central to the development of tectonic theory. It was a result of Ewing's policy of keeping any ships he could get going back and forth across the ocean measuring any- thing that could be measured, collecting anything that could be collected, and not worrying too much about anything ex- cept getting to know the ocean floor. It is remarkable that he was able to find a major topographic feature which all the hyctrographic departments and research ships of the world hac! missed. They hac! all been across the central valley many times but hac! not seen that it differed! from all the other valleys on the ridge in being continuous. It hack long been known that earthquakes occur on the mid-AtIantic ridge and the more recent studies of Gutenberg and Richter (1941) and of Rothe (1956) had shown that they were concentrates! in a narrow belt near the crest. The uncer- tainty of location was perhaps 100 km, and Ewing suggested that they all actually occur in the central valley and that their distribution conic} be used to trace the course of the ricige and its central valley in the long sections where there were no adequate lines of soundings. These icleas and some additional lines of soundings (e.g., 1960i) enabler! him to demonstrate the worldwide extent of the ridge and the valley (though on the East Pacific Rise there are earthquakes but no valley). The topographic studies were accompanied by the collec- tion of sediments in coring tubes. The art of coring had been revolutionized by B. Kullenberg's piston corer which used the hydrostatic pressure to prevent the core jamming in the bar- rel as it goes into the bottom. This machine had been used with great effect by Hans Pettersson during his Albatross ex- pedition of 1947-1948; it increased the length of core that could be taken from about 3 to 30 m.

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 149 Ewing became an obsessive collector of cores. To examine a core in detail is a lengthy operation; for a core of deep-sea ooze it involves carbon-14 age determinations on the upper parts and separating, identifying, and counting foraminifera over the whole length. For a core of red clay it requires paleomagnetic studies, chemical analyses, and Tray counts to determine uranium ant! its daughter products. Ewing col- lected cores at a rate greatly in excess of the rate at which they could be examined in detail. He split them lengthwise, looked at them all in a rough way, had a few studied in detail, and put them all into storage. Understandably the people who were paying for the operation became restive. Why did he collect so many? Ewing replier! that when he found two that were alike he would consider slowing clown the rate of coring. The real reason, ~ think, lay creeper. He once said to me: "I go on collecting because now ~ can get the money; in a few years it will not be there any more, then ~ shall have the material to keep my people busy for years" (l do not re- member the exact wor(ls). In fact the Lamont collection of cores is an invaluable ant! almost inexhaustible mine of infor- mation about the floor of the deep sea. A related investigation concerned the particles suspencled in the ocean water which might be expecter! to throw light on the processes of sedimentation ~ ~ 963e, ~ 965~1,h, ~ 967n, 969c,i,r, ~ 970g). The picture of the western Atlantic which emergent dur- ing the 1950's from the work at Lamont was paralleled by work by others in the eastern Atlantic ant! in the eastern Pacific. Some sort of order and system gradually emerged, ant! it became clear that the geology of the oceans must be stuclied in its own terms and not as an appendage to conti- nental geology. The way was now clear to extend the discov- eries to the whole ocean; that is, to two-thircis of the Earth's surface. In this Ewing and Lamont played a lea(ling part and

150 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS made many important discoveries, particularly in the western part of the South Atlantic. The work in the North Atlantic was summarized in a masterly book by Heezen, Tharp, and Ewing (1959k). in 1952 Ewing (1953e) made a technical advance which was of an importance comparable to that of the introduction of refraction seismic shooting at sea. He took the airborne, fluxgate magnetometer, which had been developed during the war by Victor Vacquier for submarine detection, and towed it behind a ship. This was the start of a great enterprise which is still in progress and whose results are the main basis of the recent development of ocean-floor tectonics. The in- strument is troublesome to use; it drifts, it is cumbersome, it has moving parts: it has now been replaced by the proton magnetometer introduced in sea work by Maurice Hill. It was, however, Ewing who first got the bandwagon rolling and whose example led to the surveys of Mason and Raff off the coast of California which revealed the zebra-like pattern of magnetic lineations (for the pre-1960 history of magnetic measurements at sea see Bullard and Mason, 1963~. SEA-FLOOR SPREADING AND PLATE TECTONICS By 1960 the general nature of the sea floor had, in large measure through the work of Ewing and his colleagues, be- come clear. The shelf, slope, rise, abyssal plains, abyssal hills, ridge, and central valley were all understood in a descriptive sense, as Ewing, Heezen, and Tharp had shown (1959k) and as was shown on a larger scale in the collective work edited by Hill (1963, but mostly written in 1960~. These works take the features one at a time, describe them, and give what may be called their local history. Behind this, however, there were the most important questions. What was the history of the oceans? How had they been formed? Had they always been there? These questions are not seriously approached even in

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 151 Hill (19631. However, in the study of the sea floor ant! in other directions, particularly in paleomagnetism, a consid- erable head of steam was accumulating which, in the early 1960's, ripped apart what had become the establishecl views of most geologists, at any rate in the northern hemisphere. The critical questions were: what is occurring along the central valley and why are the ocean floors so young (no sediments ogler than 150 Ma hacl been found but many samples of all younger ages)? The outcome is well-known and the route to it has been described by many authors. During the 1 960's it was establisher! beyond doubt that the oceans are young because they have been former! recently and that ocean floor is being formed today in the central valley of the mid-ocean ridge along the line of earthquakes that Ewing discovered there. The ciata from which all this was estab- lishec! came, in large part, from the work at Lamont, but the initial steps in the great synthesis dill not (though Heezen was teetering on the edge of the ideas). The course of Ewing's thoughts on these matters is not easy to trace in his papers. He was not given to sweeping generalizations about large-scale processes; he believed in the accumulation of information about the sea floor ant! that the major discoveries are made at sea. After it became clear that there were no buried continents beneath the oceans he be- lieved that the oceans hac! always been where they are today. Gray (1956) quotes him as saying: We have every reason to believe that in that 2000 feet of unconsolidated sediment ton the ocean floor] the whole history of the Earth is better preserved than it is in the continental rocks.... As we punch deeper into the ocean sediments we may reach levels holding traces of the first animals that concentrated calcium carbonate, then evidence of atmospheric oxygen from the earliest green plants, and ultimately the primeval sediment of the earliest erosion, marking the advent of water in the sea. [This does not sound like Ewing's conversation and is, presumably, a summary.]

152 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS lust at this time the permanence of the relation between continents and oceans was being questioned by workers in paleomagnetism. There are occasional references to argu- ments against continental drift in Ewing's papers in the ~ 950's (e.g., in ~ 952e he said that if America had moved away from Europe there would not be time for isostasy to be re- establishecI). In fact, Ewing took remarkably little part in the controver- sy that rages! between 1955 ant} 1965. He probably thought that work at sea would make all such things clear, as in fact it dicI. At the first international oceanographic conference, held in the United Nations Building in New York in 1959, Ewing gave the first of the invites! talks. He talked on "Shape and Structure of Ocean Basins." ~ waited, fascinated, for him to commit himself on these matters, but he said very little about them ant! in the publisher} account (196Ig) there is no reference whatever to the wider questions. In The Sea there is a review article by Heezen and Ewing (19631), in which it is said that there is tension beneath the central valley which may be accommociatecl either by compression of the continents or by expansion of the earth (the latter view was held by Heezen but not by Ewing). About 1964, following the publication of papers by Hess and by Vine and Matthews, a number of the younger workers at Lamont began to examine their magnetic data from the new point of view and became convincer! of the reality of sea- floor spreading. It is remarkable that Ewing not only allowed but encouraged James R. Heirtzler, Neil Op~yke, Lynn Sykes, and others to pursue this investigation and to publish views that were basic to the subject on which he had spent his whole life but were contrary to his own beliefs. His open- mindedness led to what was, perhaps, I~amont's greatest suc- cess. Ewing had always insisted that data and cores shouIcl be

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 153 properly stored and catalogued and that all data from a given area should be available to anyone working on that area. In most other institutions data were regarded as the private property of the man who collected it or of the chief scientist of the cruise; whoever had it worked it up, published it, and kept it in ways and places of his own choosing. Lamont's policy of communal data storage gave them a two-year lead. They had it all available and in a very short time published a series of papers on magnetic lineations, the focal mechanisms of earthquakes, and the paleomagnetism of deep-sea cores which established the reality of plate tectonics. A number of papers (1966c, d, m, n) written early in 1966 show Ewing deeply concerned about sea-floor spreading and impressed by the evidence but finding it unacceptable, at any rate for the Atlantic. He pointed out (1966d) that there were places in the northwest Pacific where Cretaceous sediments appeared at the surface and where the thickness was such that it could reasonably be supposed that sediments going back at least to the Triassic were present. There were also other difficulties, some specific, such as the discovery (1966c) of Miocene sediments in the central valley (they were proba- bly from a transform fault and not from the central valley, without a detailed survey it is easy to confuse the two), some matters of general principle, such as the lack of variation of heat flow across the ridge (there is, in fact, a variation of the expected kind; Ewing [1966m] used a considerable body of Lamont data but, because of the high probability of dam- ag~ng the equipment, had taken none in or close to the central valley; he ignored results from workers elsewhere). ~ believe that he became convinced of the essential cor- rectness of the "drifters and spreaders" views by the end of 1966. In November of that year a meeting was held at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York. Just before the meeting started Ewing came up to me, looking, ~ thought,

154 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS a little worried, ant! said: "You don't believe all this rubbish do you?" ~ admittecl that ~ clid, and ~ fancy that the following two days of systematic exposition, largely by his own students, convinced him (he die} not contribute to the published pro- ceedings of the meeting). He still found the icleas too simple and too uniformitarian. In this he was clearly right; quite complicates! things have happened. Rates and directions of spreading have changer! in the past, though the long intervals of no spreading that he later suggested in the AtIantic ant! Indian Oceans seem not to have occurred. T think his initial difficulties were due to knowing too much. If you have in your mind an enormous data bank, there is sure to be some fact that appears to contradict any general theory. You then become very wary of all general theories. CAUSES OF ICE AGES Starting in ~ 955 Ewing and W. L. Donn published a series of papers setting out a new theory of the causes of ice ages (1956g, 1958d, 1959d, 1961a, 1963 g, 1964a, 1965a, 1966h, 196Si, 19716~. The problem is of long standing and has two aspects: first, why has there been a series of ice ages and interglacials during the past two million years and at various earlier periods anti, second, why are such groups of ice ages separated by intervals of perhaps 100 Ma with no ice ages? Ewing believed that the ice cover in the Arctic Ocean is unsta- ble and subject to occasional melting (for the mechanism of the instability see 1956g). When the ice melts, absorption of the Sun's heat and evaporation are increased, precipitation on the Arctic land masses is greatly increased, the snow cover lasts through the summer, absorption of radiation is reducecI, and an ice sheet builds up. This part of the theory is given an acIded interest by the recent thinning of the ice in the Arctic Ocean and the possibility that within one or two generations we may be faced by the beginnings of a crisis that, both

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 155 politically and technically, we are in no state to face. It wouIc! seem prudent to put a substantial effort into the stucly of these matters by cirilling in the Arctic seas. The seconc! half of Ewing and Donn's theory is that the occurrence of ice ages depends on the pole being situated in an ocean and that polar wandering and continental drift will cause this to occur intermittently at intervals of the orcler of 100 Ma. Here there is a difficulty in that the pole is at present 700 km from the nearest land and cannot have entered the Arctic Ocean as recently as 2 Ma ago. Such a shift wouIc! imply that the pole moved relative to the land at a speech of 35 cm/a which is too high to be credible. Again, what we need is a detailec! climatic history of the late Tertiary in the Arctic which could be obtained by cirilling ant} might show that the recent sequence of ice ages goes back further than is usually supposed. LUNAR SEISMOLOGY A major interest of Ewing's later years was lunar seismol- ogy. This was a joint project between a number of institu- tions, but the instrument development was done mainly at Lamont-Doherty. Ewing took a close interest in the instru- mental work ant! also in the interpretation of the puzzling and unexpected records, which show oscillations continuing for tens of seconds instead of the sharp arrivals usual on terrestrial records ~ ~ 969m, ~ 970a,i,m, ~ 97 ~ As, ~ 972g,j,k, I,m,o, 1973g,i,j,k, 1974cl,e,h, 1975b). The propagation of these waves is, perhaps, somewhat similar to that of the SOFAR ant} T phase signals which Maurice had discoverer} long before. OTHER INVESTIGATIONS It is not possible here to describe the full range of subjects that, at one time or another, caught Ewing's interest. The

156 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS titles of the papers will indicate them. In seismology there is a series of papers on the interaction of seismic and atmo- spheric waves (195Ib,e, 1952b, 1953a, 1967m, 1971x), another series on microseisms (l 94Sa, ~ 952l,m, ~ 953f, ~ 9561, ~ 957c), three papers on the propagation of elastic waves in ice (} 934b,c, ~95~f). There are also five papers (l 95Sg, ~960l, 1962c,d, 1963b) on the effects of nuclear explosions, five on petrology (1969j,k, 1970b,c, 1971p) and others on heat flow (1965c, 1966n) and paleontology (1959i). TH E MOVE TO GALVESTON The relation between an American research institute, such as the Lamont-Doherty Observatory, and the university of which it forms a part is a delicate symbiosis. The university gains prestige, a small amount of undergraduate teaching, and the supervision of a large number of graduate students. Financially it will usually come near to breaking even, the overheads on the outside contracts balancing the direct pay- ments to the institute from the general income of the univer- sity. Once it is a going concern the institute needs the uni- versity, not primarily for financial reasons but to attract graduate students; students need Ph.D.'s and only a univer- sity can give them. It is easy to see how this relation can go wrong; the administration of the university feels that it has responsibility, but in practice little control over an organiza- tion which has its own finances and which will, if it comes to a fight, have wale support in the scientific community. On the other side, any encroachment from the central admin- istration will be taken by the institute as interference by peo- ple who are contributing little and are activated by motives of self-aggrandisement. Such a confrontation graclually developecl at Lamont- Doherty and came to a head in 1972. After the student riots, Columbia fount! itself in a difficult financial situation; Ewing

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 157 believer! that the new President, William McGill, was not only trying to enforce a stricter control over his activities, but was also attempting to take a part of the Doherty money for general university purposes. The details are complicates! and it is not necessary to go into them here. Such a dispute was difficult for Ewing who all his life hacl half felt that things would, somehow, sometime, go wrong. He retired from Columbia with a month's notice and left Lamont, as did Joe Worzel, James Dorman, ant! Gary Latham. He wouIc! have reached the retiring age in 1973 ant! would then have hac! to retire as Director, though he could, presumably, have stayed on as a professor. In June 1972 Ewing moved back to his home state of Texas and became Cecil and Ida Green Professor at the Marine Biomedical Institute of the University of Texas (now the Marine Science Institute) at Galveston. He hoped to develop marine geophysics at the Institute and to keep a close collaboration with Columbia in scientific matters; to encour- age this he became a Research Associate at Lamont-Doherty and went there for short visits every few months, staying in an apartment that hac! been made from his oIc! office. In the words of his successor, Manik Talwani: "He probably did more scientific work here on those visits than he did during the last year before leaving for Texas." In Galveston, Cecil Green, himself a distinguished geo- physicist as well as an outstanding industrialist, and his wife not only provided a professorship but also part of the cost of a ship, the Ida Green. Their generosity was a great support to Ewing at a critical time; it enabled him to get his work going again with hardly a break. Green told me that, just after the move, he asked Ewing whether he would be happy in a small institution with a director who was a medical man ant! a biologist; Ewing replied: "Of course, look at all these smiling faces, that's what matters." The parting from Lamont had

158 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS been a bitter and deeply disturbing experience for him, but once it was done ~ think he was genuinely glad to be clear of the troubles of Columbia and to be at sea again in a small ship with a group of friends and students working on a well- defined objective. The objective was the study of the Gulf of Mexico by the methods of reflection seismology. For this purpose the Ida Green was fitter! with the latest 24-channel seismic equipment with digital recording. He liver! to see the first results (l 975a), but on 28 April 1974 he suffered a cerebral hemorrhage and died, on 4 May, without regaining consciousness. He was within eight clays of his sixty-eighth birthday. PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMEN r Ewing was, in a sense, a clevoted family man. His love for his family shows very clearly in a recording made immediate- ly after an accident in Vema in January 1954. The ship was 300 km north of Bermuda in a gale with mountainous seas. Ewing, his brother John, ant! the first and second mates were securing some drums of lubricating of! which had broken loose. A freak wave caught them unawares and all four, with the of! drums, were washed overboard. The Captain of Vema directed the rescue operations from the masthead, and Cap- tain McMurray, the old friend who had been Captain of Atiantas in the thirties, maneuverer] the ship. Thanks to his skill and long experience all but the second mate were res- cued, Ewing by a very narrow margin. He was left with a slight limp ant! minor effects of internal injuries for the rest of his life. Next day he had recoverer! sufficiently to recorc! a message which was sent to his chilciren and was afterwards published (1954r, publication was due to an error in the Lamont office). It is a message from a man who has come through a harrowing experience, is not sure if he is going to live or if he will be paralyzed, ant! wants to send a message to

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 159 his family while he Shii can. Its theme is that he had only survived because of the feeling that he must get back to the family and children he lover} and that it was only their love that had saver! him. About the genuineness of his feelings there can be no doubt everyone who knew him well has testified to it; yet, in practice, he was unable to spare suffi- cient time to keep his first two marriages afloat. His daughter Margaret has clescribec! how, to see something of him, she used to walk back to his office with him after dinner and then go home through the dark grounds when her bedtime came. In 1965 he ant} his wife parted and were divorced; shortly afterwards he marries! Harriett Green Bassett who hac! been his secretary at Lamont. She continual in her job after mar- riage; this must have had certain clisadvantages, but, with a lessening of Ewing's habit of working through a large part of the night, it die} at least enable her to see more of him than had her two predecessors. Ewing was not a committee man, but he would devote substantial time to organizations and causes that he regarded as important. First among these was the Navy to whose well- being he was cleeply attached. He was on the Boars} of Gover- nors of Rice University (196~1972~; Vice-Presiclent (1953- 1956) and President (195~1959) of the American Geophys- ical Union; Vice-President (1952-1955) and President ~95~}957) of the Seismological Society of America; and Vice-President of the Philosophical Society of Texas (1973- 19741. He was, for a time, on the National Academy of Sciences committee responsible for the ill-fated Mohole proj- ect and took a large part in its enormously productive suc- cessor the Deep Sea Drilling Project, of which Lamont- Doherty was one of the five founding institutions. Ewing and Worze} were co-Chief Scientists on Leg I. Ewing had a passionate interest in the oceans; along with this went a desire to teach people about them. He was a great

160 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS teacher, not in the formal sense of being skilled in classroom instruction, but in the way he could teach by example how to discover things. He snent much time at sea making things 0 1 work, untangling greasy cables, looking at records, and deciding what to do next. He never asked anyone to do what he would not have done himself, and in fact he could ant] would clo almost anything. He once told me that the pendu- lum apparatus he was taking to some island, perhaps Ber- muda, was not quite finished, but that the ship had a lathe and he would finish it on the way. The long line of his (lis- tinguisnea students is testimony not only to his effectiveness as a teacher but also to his personal qualities which attracted them and kept so many of them at Lamont in a period! when many superficially more attractive jobs were available. T knew him intermittently for thirty-seven years; to me he was uni- formly friendly, welcoming, and amusing. He (lelightecl in elaborating stories of the early clays until no one knew what had really happened. ~ can imagine that, if you wanted some- thing that he wanted for his own purposes, he could be a hard and difficult man, but ~ never saw it. Ewing and his group cliscovered more new things about the Earth than any other group has ever done before. He himself was primarily interested in finding what was there. Lamont was set up for this purpose, "Observatory" was, per- haps, the right name; the emphasis was on data gathering and on its immediate interpretation and not on global theory. His success did not come merely from intelligence but from deeper gifts of character which enabled him to set up an effective organization of the kind he needed. As ~ was writing this a student from Cambridge came back from a month in Vema. ~ asked him how he found the ship, expecting com- plaints about her smallness and inadequacy. Instead he re- plied: "Superb, there's nothing like her anywhere. It's all so well run, you can get twice as much done as you can in any

WI LL I A M M A U R I C E E W I N G 16 other ship." Vema was the center of Ewing's life and with her he cliscoverec! the nature of two-thirds of the Earth's surface. The last time ~ met him ~ asked him where he kept his ships. He replied: "I keep my ships at sea." IN WRI rING this notice I have had unstinted help and advice from Ewing's family, friends, and colleagues; though it is only fair to say I have not, in all instances, taken the advice. It is impossible to mention all by name, but I am specially grateful to his widow, Harriett; to his ex-wife Margaret; to his sisters Mrs. Rowena Peoples and Mrs. Lucy Clawson; to his brother John; and to his early students, A. P. Crary, Allyn Vine, George Woollard, and Joe Worzel. I am conscious that I have done an injustice to Ewing's colleagues at Lamont in that I have ascribed to him discoveries that were the result of the joint efforts of many people. I hope that the names in the bibliography will indicate the extent to which Lamont was a scientific commune. To have made it so was one of Ewing's achievements. I wrote the original version of this notice in 1975 while Hitch- cock Professor at the University of California at Berkeley and while Doherty Professor at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. I revised it for the National Academy of Sciences while working at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and at the University of Alaska. lithe letters and unpublished documents on which this memoir is based have been deposited in the archives of Columbia Univer- sity. Ewing's own papers are in the scientific archives of the Uni- versity of Texas at Austin. REF ERE N C ES Aarons, A. B. 1948. Secondary pressure pulses due to a gas globe oscillation in underwater explosions. II. I. Acoust. Soc. Am., 20:277~2. Blochmann, R. 1898. Die Explosion unter Wasser. Mar. Rdsch., 2: 197-277. Bullard, E. 1962. Richard Montgomery Field. Proc. Geol. Soc. Lond., 1602: 154-55. Bullard, E. C. and Mason, R. G. 1963. The magnetic field over the oceans. In: The Sea, ed. M. Hill, 3:175-217. N.Y.: Interscience. Daly, R. A. 1936. The origin of submarine canyons. Am. I. Sci., 31 :401-20. Deacon, M. 1971. Scientists and the Sea. London: Academic Press. 445 pp.

162 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Ewing, F. F. 1963. Reverse migration in west Texas. Yb. W. Texas H:st. Assoc., 39:3-17. Field, R. M. 1933. Report of committee on geophysical and geological study of ocean basins. Trans. Am. Geophys. Un., 12th meeting: 9-22. Gray, G. W. 1956. The Lamont geological observatory. Sc'. Am., Dec. :83-94. Gutenberg, B. and Richter, C. F. 1936. On seismic waves (third paper). Beitr. Geophys., 47:73-131. Gutenberg, B. and Richter, C. F. 1941. Seismicity of the earth. Spec. Pap. Geol. Soc. Am., no. 34. Hersey, I. B. 1963. Continuous reflection profiling. In: The Sea, ed. M. N. Hill, 3:47-72. N.Y.: Interscience. Hess, H. H. 1962. Richard Montgomery Field. Trans. Am. Geophys. Un., 43:1-3. Hill, M. N., editor. 1963. The Sea, vol. 3. N.Y.: Interscience. 963 pp. Hook, R. and Moray, R.1967. Directions for observations and experiments to be made by masters of ships, pilots and other fit persons in their sea voyages. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., 2 :433-48. Leet, L. D. 1937. Review. Bull Seism. Soc. Am., 27:353-54. Miller, B. I. 1937. Geophysical investigations in the emerged and sub- merged Atlantic coastal plain. Part II: Geological significance of the results. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 48 :803-12. National Defense Research Committee.1946. Summary technical report of division 6, N.D.R.C., originally issued as vol. 6A. The application of oceanography to subsurface warfare, pp. 99-101. (Reprinted 1951; copies of this now declassified report may be found at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.) Rothe, J. P.1954. La zone seismique mediane Indo-Atlantique. Proc. R. Soc. Lond., 222:387-97. Wertenbaker, W. 1974. Profiles: explorer. New Yorker, 4 Nov., pp. 54-118; 11 Nov., pp. 52-100; 18 Nov., pp. 60-110. Wertenbaker, W. 1974. The Floor of the Sea: Maurice Ewing and the Search to Understand the Earth. Boston: Little, Brown. 275 pp.

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING HONORS AND DISTINCTIONS AWARDS AND MEMBERSHIPS Guggenheim Fellow, 1938 National Academy of Sciences, Member, 1948 Geological Society of America, Arthur L. Day Medallist, 1949 Philosophical Society of Texas, Member, 1953 Guggenheim Fellow, 1953, 1955 163 National Academy ot Sciences, Agassiz Medal, 1955 U.S. Navy Distinguished Public Service Award, 1955 American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Member, 1951 Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences and Letters, Foreign Member (Section for Sciences), 1956 American Geophysical Union, William Bowie Medal, 1957 Argentine Republic, Order of Naval Merit, Rank of Commander, 1957 Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Honorary Member, 1057 American Philosophical Society, Member, 1959 American Institute of Geonomy and Natural Resources, Inc., John Fleming Medal, 1960 Columbia University, Vetlesen Prize, 1960 American Geographical Society, Cullum Geographical Medal, 1961 Dickinson College, Joseph Priestley Award, 1961 Rice University, Medal of Honor, 1962 National Academy of Sciences, John l. Carty Medal, 1963 Geological Society of London, Foreign Member, 1964 Royail~stronomical Society (London), Gold Medal, 1964 Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography, Vega Medal, 1965 Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales (Buenos Aires), Corresponding Member, 1966 Third David Rivett Memorial Lecturer (C.S.I.R.O., Australia), 1967 Indian Geophysical Union, Honorary Fellow, 1967 American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Sidney Powers Me- morial Medal, 1968 American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Honorary Member, 1968 Saint Louis University Sesquicentennial Medal, 1969 Geological Society of London, Wollaston Medal, 1969 Sociedad Colombiana de Geology, Honorary Member, 1969

164 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Royal Society of New Zealand, Honorary Member, 1970 Royal Society (London), Foreign Member, 1972 Rice University, Alumni Gold Medal, 1972 Robert Earll McConnell Award~American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers, 1973 Royal Astronomical Society (London) Associate, 1973 Houston Philosophical Society, Member, 1973 National Medal of Science, 1973 Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, Honorary Member, 1973 First Sproule Lecturer, University of Alberta, 1973 Distinguished Achievement Award for the Offshore Technology Conference, May 1974 American Geophysical Union, Walter H. Bucher Medal for 1974 HONORARY DEGREES Sc.D., Washington and Lee University, 1949 Sc.D., University of Denver, 1953 Sc.D., Lehigh University, 1957 Sc.D., University of Utrecht, 1957 Sc.D., University of Rhotle Island, 1960 Sc.D., University of Durham, 1963 Sc.D., University of Delaware, 1968 Sc.D., Long Island University, 1969 Sc.D., Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 1969 Sc.D., Centre College of Kentucky, 1971 LL.D., Dalhousie University, 1960

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING BIBLIOGRAPHY 165 This list is based on one kept by Ewing, on the Lamont-Doherty list of publications, and on my own collection of his papers. It includes only material published in books, journals, and conference proceedings. Things not generally available, such as reports to government agencies and grant- giving bodies, are excluded, as are NASA Preliminary Science Reports and reports with a security classification, even if they are now declassified (a list of war-time reports will be found in the now declassified Nanona1 Defense Research Committee [1946]~. Regretfully I have had to exclude published abstracts from the list; they are often interesting and frequently are not followed by papers. As they sometimes precede the corresponding papers by as much as four years they are of importance to those interested in . . ~ .. prlorlty ot ctlscovery. 1926 Dewbows by moonlight. Science, 63:257-58. 1930 M. Ewing and L. D. Leet. Seismic propagation paths. Tech. Publ. Am. Inst. Min. Metall. Eng., no. 267, 1-18. Also in: Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Metall. Eng., 97~1932~:245-62. 1931 L. D. Leet and M. Ewing. Velocity of explosion generated waves in a nepheline syenite. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 12th meeting: 61-65. 1932 a. M. Ewing and L. D. Leet. Comparison of two methods for inter- pretation of seismic time-distance graphs which are smooth curves. Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Metall. Eng., 97:263-70. b. L. D. Leet and M. Ewing. Velocity of elastic waves in granite. Physics, 2: 16(~73. 1934 a. M. Ewing, A. P. Crary, and I. M. Lohse. Seismological observa- tions on quarry blasting. frans. Am. Geophys. Union, 15th meeting:91-94.

166 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS b. M. Ewing, A. P. Crary, and A. M. Thorne. Propagation of elastic waves in ice, Part I. Physics, 5:165-68. c. M. Ewing and A. P. Crary. Propagation of elastic waves in ice, PartII.Physics,5:181-85. d. M. Ewing and A. P. Crary. Study of emergence angles and propagation paths of seismic waves. Physics, 5:317-20. Also in: Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 5~1935~:154~0. 1935 M. Ewing and A. P. Crary. Propagation of elastic waves in lime- stone. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 16th meeting:l00-103. 1936 a. M. Ewing, A. P. Crary, l. W. Peoples, and J. A. Peoples. Prospect- ing for anthracite by the earth-resistivity method. Tech. Publ. Am. Inst. Min. Metall. Eng., no. 683, 1-36. Also in: Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Metall. Eng., 119:443~3. b. M. Ewing and H. H. Pentz. Magnetic survey in the Lehigh Val- ley. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 17th meeting: l8~91. c. Seismic study of Lehigh Valley limestones. Proc. Pa. Acad. Sci., 10:72-76. d. Frequency of water waves. Fld. Eng. Bull. U.S. Cst. Geod. Surv., 10:65. 1937 - a. Gravity measurements on the U.S.S. Barracuda. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 18th meeting:66 69. b. M. Ewing, A. P. Crary, and H. M. Rutherford. Geophysical investigations in the emerged and submerged Atlantic coastal plain. Part I: Methods and results. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 48 :753-802. Science in the deep. Lehigh Alumni Bull., 24~5~:8-9, 19. 1938 a. G. P. Woollard, M. Ewing, and M. Johnson. Geophysical investi- gations of the geological structures of the coastal plain. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 19th meeting:98-107. b. M. Ewing and A. C. Vine. Deep sea measurements without wires or cables. Trans, Am. Geophys. Union, 19th meeting:248-51.

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 167 c. M. Ewing and H. H. Penz. A proposed investigation of Vening Meinesz anomalies. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 19th meet- ing:9~91. d. Locating a buried power shovel by magnetic measurements. Proc. Pa. Acad. Sci., 12:31-33. Marine gravimetric methods and surveys. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 79:47-70. 1939 a. Sub-oceanic seismology. (2) Report on the application of reflection and refraction methods. Advance report of the commission on continental and oceanic structure, Part 5, to the Washington Assembly of lUGG, pp. 5~51. b. G. P. Woollard and M. Ewing. Structural geology of the Ber- muda Islands. Nature (Land.), 143:898. c. M. Ewing, G. P. Woollard, and A. C. Vine. Geophysical investiga- tions in the emerged and submerged Atlantic coastal plain. III: Barnegat Bay, New Jersey section. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 50:257-96. 1940 a. Present position of the former topographic surface of Appala- chia (from seismic evidence). Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 21st meeting: 79~801. b. M. Ewing, G. P. Woollard and A. C. Vine. Geophysical investiga tions in the emerged and submerged Atlantic coastal plain IV: Cape May, New Jersey section. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 51 :1821-40. 1941 Deep sea seismic methods and bottom photography. Rep. Woods Hole Oceanog. Inst., 1940:20. 1942 Submarine gravity measurements. Rep. Woods Hole Oceanog. Inst., 1941:19. 1944 Speaking of pictures. Life, 13(Nov. 17~:12-14.

168 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1945 Marine mysteries. Science Illustrated, 6~5~:47-52. 1946 a. M. Ewing, A. C. Vine, and I. L. Worzel. Photography of the ocean bottom. I. Opt. Soc. Am., 36:307-21. b. Training for research in geophysical borderlands of geology. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 27:553-54. c. M. Ewing, G. P. Woollard, A. C. Vine, and J. L. Worzel. Re- cent results in submarine geophysics. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 57:90~34. 1947 Geophysical data concerning the Caribbean sea basin. Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci. II, 9:12~28. 1948 a. F. Press and M. Ewing. A theory of microseisms with geologic applications. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 29:163-74. b. I. L. Worzel and M. Ewing. Explosion sounds in shallow water. In: Propagation of sound in the ocean. Geol. Soc. Am. Mem., 27: 1-53. c. M. Ewing and I. L. Worzel. Long-range sound transmission. In: Propagation of sound in the ocean. Geol. Soc. Am. Mem., 27:1-35. d. F. Press and M. Ewing. Low speed layer in water-covered areas. Geophysics, 13:40~20. 1949 a. I. B. Hersey and M. Ewing. Seismic reflections from beneath the ocean floor. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 30:5-14. b. M. Ewing and F. Press. Notes on surface waves. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 51:453~2. c. I. Tolstoy and M. Ewing. North Atlantic hydrography and the mid-Atlantic ridge. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 60:1527~0. d. M. Ewing, l. L. Worzel, I. B. Hersey, F. Press, and G. R. Hamil- ton. (no title.) Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 60:1303.

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 1950 169 a. M. Ewing, l. L. Worzel, N. C. Steenland, and F. Press. Geophys- ical investigations in the emerged and submerged Atlantic coastal plain. Part V: Woods Hole, New York and Cape May sections. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 61:877-92. b. F. Press, M. Ewing, and I. Tolstoy. The Airy phase of shallow focus submarine earthquakes. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 40: 111~8. c. M. Ewing and F. Press. Crustal structure and surface wave dis- persion. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 40:271-80. d. M. Ewing, l. L. Worzel, I. B. Hersey, F. Press, and G. R. Hamil- ton. Seismic refraction measurements in the Atlantic Ocean basin, Part I. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 40:233~2. e. F. Press and M. Ewing. Propagation of explosive sound in a liquid layer overlying a semi-infinite solid. Geophysics, 15:426 46. f. I. Tolstoy and M. Ewing. The T phase of shallow focus earth- quakes. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 40:2~51. g. M. Ewing, I. Tolstoy, and F. Press. Proposed use of the T phase in tsunami warning systems. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 40:53-58. h. J. L. Worzel and M. Ewing. Gravity measurements at sea, 1947. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 31:917-23. i. Presentation of the Day medal to William Maurice Ewing (with his reply). Proc. Geol. Soc. Am., 1949:77-78. 1951 a. F. Press and M. Ewing. Theory of air coupled flexural waves. I. Appl. Phys., 22:892-99. b. F. Press and M. Ewing. Ground roll coupling to atmospheric compressional waves. Geophysics, 16 :41 ~30. c. D. B. Ericson, M. Ewing, and B. C. Heezen. Deep-sea sands and submarine canyons. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 62:961~5. d. K. E. Burg, M. Ewing, F. Press, and E. l. Stulken. A seismic wave guide phenomenon. Geophysics, 16 :594 612. e. H. Benioff, M. Ewing, and F. Press. Sound waves in the atmo- sphere generated by a small earthquake. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 37:600-603. f. F. Press and M. Ewing. Propagation of elastic waves in a floating ice sheet. frans. Am. Geophys. Union, 32:673-78.

170 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS g. B. C. Heezen, l\I. Ewing, and D. B. Ericson. Submarine topogra- phy of the North Atlantic. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 62:1407-17. h. F. Press and M. Ewing. Surface waves as aids in epicenter loca- tion. Earthquake Notes, 22:33. 1952 a. C. B. Officer, M. Ewing, and P. C. Wuenschel. Seismic refraction measurements in the Atlantic Ocean. Part IV: Bermuda, Ber- muda Rise, and Nares Basin. Geol. Soc. Am. Bu11.,63:777-808. b. A. P. Crary and M. Ewing. On a barometric disturbance re- c. corded on a long period seismograph. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 33 :499-501. D. B. Ericson, M. Ewing, and B. C. Heezen. Turbidity currents and sediments in the North Atlantic. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 36:48~511. d. M. Ewing, F. Press, and I. L. Worzel. Further study of the T phase. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 42:37-51. e. The Atlantic Ocean basin. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 99:87-91. f. F. Press and M. Ewing. Magnetic anomalies over oceanic struc- tures. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 33:34~55. g. I. L. Worzel and M. Ewing. Gravity measurements at sea, 1948 and 1949. Trans. Am. Geophys. IJnion, 33:453-60. h. F. Press and M. Ewing. Two slow surface waves across North America. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 43:21~28. i. B. C. Heezen and M. Ewing. Turbidity currents and submarine slumps, and the 1929 Grand Banks earthquake. Am. I. Sci., 250:84~73. j. M. Ewing and F. Press. Crustal structure and surface wave dis- persion. Part II: Solomon Islands earthquake of 29 July 1950. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 42:315-25. k. Seismic investigations in great ocean depths. P.-V. Assoc. Oceanog. Phys. UGG1, 5:135-36. M. Ewing and F. Press. Propagation of elastic waves in the ocean with reference to microseisms. Pontif. Accad. Sci. Scr. Varia, 12: 121-29. m. M. Ewing and W. L. Donn. Studies of microseisms from selected areas. Pontif. Accad. Sci. Scr. Varia, 12:351-65. 1953 a. M. Ewing and F. Press. Further study of atmospheric pressure

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 171 fluctuations recorded on seismographs. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 34:95-100. b. I. Tolstoy, R. S. Edwards, and M. Ewing. Seismic refraction measurements in the Atlantic Ocean (Part 3~. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 43:35 48. M. Ewing and F. Press. Mechanism of T wave propagation. Ann. Geophys., 9:248-49. d. M. Ewing, B. C. Heezen, D. B. Ericson, l. Northrop, and l. Dorman. Exploration of the northwest Atlantic mid-ocean can- yon. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 64:865 68. e. B. C. Heezen, M. Ewing, and E. T. Miller. Trans-Atlantic profile of total magnetic intensity and topography, Dakar to Barbados. Deep-Sea Res., 1:2~33. f. F. Press and M. Ewing. The ocean as an acoustic system. In: Symposium on Microseasms, Publ. Nat. Res. Counc. Wash., D.C., no. 306:10~11. M. Ewing and F. Press. Propagation of earthquake waves along oceanic paths. Burl Centr. Assoc. Seismol. Int. Trav. Sci. (Ser. A), 18:41~6. c. 1954 a. M. Ewing, G. H. Sutton, and C. B. Officer. Seismic refraction measurements in the Atlantic Ocean. Part VI: Typical deep sta- tions, North America basin. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 44:21-38. b. M. Ewing and l. L. Worzel. Gravity anomalies and structure of the West Indies, Part I. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 65:165-74. c. M. Ewing and I. L. Worzel. Gravity anomalies and structure of the West Indies, Part II. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 65: 19~200. d. I. Oliver, F. Press, and M. Ewing. Two-dimensional model seis- mology. Geophysics, 19:202-19. B. Luskin, B. C. Heezen, M. Ewing, and M. Landisman. Preci- sion measurement of ocean depth. Deep-Sea Res., 1: 131-40. f. R. M. Brilliant and M. Ewing. Dispersion of Rayleigh waves across the U.S. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 44:14~58. g. M. Ewing and F. Press. An investigation of mantle Rayleigh waves. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 44:127-47. h. B. C. Heezen, D. B. Ericson, and M. Ewing. Further evidence for a turbidity current following the 1929 Grand Banks earthquake. Deep-Sea Res., 1 :193-202.

172 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS i. C. B. Officer and M. Ewing. Geophysical investigations in the emerged and submerged Atlantic coastal plain. Part VII: Conti- nental shelf, continental slope, and continental rise south of Novia Scotia. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 65:653-70. i. F. Press, J. Oliver, and M. Ewing. Seismic model study of refrac- tions from a layer of finite thickness. Geophysics, 19:388 401. k. M. Ewing and F. Press. Mantle Rayleigh waves from the Kam- chatka earthquake of Nov. 4, 1952. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 44:471-79. 1. W. L. Donn, R. Rommer, F. Press, and M. Ewing. Atmospheric oscillations and related synoptic patterns. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 35:301-9. m. M. Ewing, D. B. Ericson, A. W. Bally, and G. Wollin. The deep sea and early man. Quaternaria, 1:17-28. n. M. Ewing and D. B. Ericson. Exploration of the deep sea floor. Quaternaria, 1:145-68 (extensive summary in Italian, ibid., pp. 193-202). o. M. Ewing, F. Press, and W. L. Donn. An explanation of the Lake Michigan wave of June 26, 1954. Science, 120:684 86. p. W. L. Donn, M. Ewing, and F. Press. Performance of resonant seismometers. Geophysics, 19:802-19. q. B. C. Heezen, M. Ewing, and D. B. Ericson. Reconnaissance survey of the abyssal plain south of Newfoundland. Deep-Sea Res.,2:122-33. r. A letter to my children. Reacler's Digest, Oct.:5~. 1955 a. M. Ewing and F. Press. Geophysical contrasts between continents and ocean basins. In: The Crust of the Earth, ed. A. Poldervaart. Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap., 62:1-6. b. F. Press and M. Ewing. Earthquake surface waves and crustal structure. In: The Crust of the Earth, ed. A. Poldervaart. Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap., 62:51-60. D. B. Ericson, M. Ewing, B. C. Heezen, and G. Wolin. Sediment deposition in the deep Atlantic. In: The Crust of the Earth, ed. A. Poldervaart. Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap., 62:205-20. d. M. Ewing and B. C. Heezen. Puerto Rico trench topographic and geophysical data. In: The Crust of the Earth, ed. A. Polder- vaart. Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap., 62:255-68. c.

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 173 e. F. Press and M. Ewing. Waves with Pn and Sn velocity at great distances. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 41:24-27. f. M. Ewing, I. L. Worzel, D. B. Ericson, and B. C. Heezen. Geo- physical and geological investigations in the Gulf of Mexico Part I. Geophysics, 20:1-18. g. M. Ewing and F. Press. Seismic measurements in ocean basins. I. Mar. Res., 14:417-22. h. M. Ewing and F. Press. Tide-gauge disturbances from the great eruption of Krakatoa. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 36:53-60. i. I. L. Worzel, G. L. Shurbet, and M. Ewing. Gravity measure- ments at sea, 195~51. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 36:335-38. i. I. L. Worzel, G. L. Shurbet, and M. Ewing. Gravity measure- ments at sea, 1952-53. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 36:32~34. k. l. E. Oliver, M. Ewing, and F. Press. Crustal structure and surface-wave dispersion. Part IV: Atlantic and Pacific Ocean basins. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 66:913~6. 1. }- Oliver, M. Ewing, and F. Press. Crustal structure of the Arctic regions from the Lg phase. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 66:1063-74. m. B. C. Heezen and M. Ewing. Orleansville earthquake and tur- bidity currents. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 39:2505-14. n. B. C. Heezen, M. Ewing, and R. }. Menzies. The influence of submarine turbidity currents on abyssal productivity. Oikos, Acta Oecologica Scandinavica, 6:170 82. 1956 a. M. Ewing and F. Press. Surface waves and guided waves. In: Handbuch der Physik, 47:1 1~39. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. b. M. Ewing and F. Press. Seismic prospecting. In: Handbuch der Physik, 47:153~8. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. c. M. Ewing and F. Press. Structure of the Earth's crust. In: Hand- buch der Physik, 47:24~57. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. d. G. L. Shurbet and M. Ewing. Gravity reconnaissance survey of Puerto Rico. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 67:511-34. e. E. T. Miller and M. Ewing. Geomagnetic measurements in the Gulf of Mexico and in the vicinity of Caryn Peak. Geophysics, 2 1 :40~32. f. M. Ewing and F. Press. Rayleigh wave dispersion in the period range 10 to 500 seconds. Frans. Am. Geophys. Union, 37:2 13-1 5.

174 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS g. M. Ewing and W. L. Donn. A theory of ice ages. Science, 123: 1061-66. h. F. Press, M. Ewing, and I. Oliver. Crustal structure and surface- wave dispersion in Africa. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 46: 97-103. i. W. L. Donn and M. Ewing. Stokes' edge waves in Lake Michigan. Science, 124: 1238-42. j. M. Ewing and B. C. Heezen. Oceanographic research programs of the Lamont Geological Observatory. Geogr. Rev. 46:508-35. k. M. Ewing and B. C. Heezen. Some problems of Antarctic sub- marine geology. In: Antarctica in theInternational Geophysical Year, ed. A. P. Crary et al., Geophys. Monogr. no. 1, 75-81. Wash., D.C.: American Geophysical Union. 1. D. H. Shurbet and M. Ewing. Microseisms with periods of seven to ten seconds recorded at Bermuda. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 37:619~27. m. S. Katz and M. Ewing. Seismic refraction measurements in the Atlantic Ocean. Part VII: Atlantic Ocean basin, west of Ber- muda. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 67:475-510. n. G. L. Shurbet, I. L. Worzel, and M. Ewing. Gravity measure- ments in the Virgin Islands. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 67:1529~36. 1957 a. M. Ewing, W. S. Jardetzky, and F. Press. Elastic Waves in Layered Media. N.Y.: McGraw Hill. 380 pp. b. M. Ewing, }. L. Worzel, and G. L. Shurbet. Gravity observations at sea on U.S. submarines Barracuda, Tusk, Conger, Argonaut and Medregal. In: Gedenkboek, F. A. Vening Meinesz, ed. I. A. van Weelden. Verb. Med. Geol. Mijnbouwkd. Genoot. Geol. Ser., 18:4~115. c. }. Oliver and M. Ewing. Microseisms in the 11 to 18 second period range. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 47:111-27. d. l. Oliver and M. Ewing. Higher modes of continental Rayleigh waves. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 47:187-204. e. D. H. Shurbet and M. Ewing. T phases at Bermuda and transfor- mation of elastic waves. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 47:251-62. f. M. Ewing and R. D. Gerard. Radiological studies in the investiga- tion of ocean circulation. In: Aspects of Deep Sea Research. Publ. Nat. Res. Counc., Wash., D.C., no. 473:5~66.

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 1958 175 a. F. Press, M. Ewing, and F. Lehner. A long-period seismograph system. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 39:10~8. b. I. Oliver and M. Ewing. Normal modes of continental surface waves. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 48:33-49. c. M. Ewing, D. B. Ericson, and B. C. Heezen. Sediments and topography of the Gulf of Mexico. In: Habitat of Oil, ed. L. Weeks, pp. 995-1058. Tulsa: Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. d. M. Ewing and L. W. Donn. A theory of ice ages II. Science 127:115~62. e. I. Oliver and M. Ewing. Short-period oceanic surface waves of the Rayleigh and first shear modes. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 39:482-85. f. The crust and mantle of the Earth. In: Geophysics and the I.G.Y., ed. H. Odishaw et al., Geophys. Monogr. no. 2, pp. 186~9. Wash., D.C.: Am. Geophys. Union. g. I Oliver and M. Ewing. Seismic surface waves at Palisades from explosions in Nevada and the Marshall Islands. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 44:78~85. h. J. Oliver and M. Ewing. The effect of surficial sedimentary layers on continental surface waves. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 48:33~54. 1959 a. C. L. Drake, M. Ewing, and G. H. Sutton. Continental margins and geosynclines: the east coast of North America north of Cape Hatteras. Phys. Chem. Earth, 3: 11 ~98. b. M. Ewing and F. Press. Determination of crustal structure from phase velocity of Rayleigh waves. Part III: The United States. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 70:22~44. c. J. Ewing and M. Ewing. Seismic-refraction measurements in the Atlantic Ocean basins, in the Mediterranean Sea, on the mid- Atlantic Ridge, and in the Norwegian Sea. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 70:291-318. d. M. Ewing and W. L. Donn. Reply to "Criticism on the theory of ice ages." Science, 129 :463-65. e. M. Ewing, B. C. Heezen, and D. B. Ericson. Significance of the Worzel deep sea ash. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 45:355~1. f. M. Landisman, Y. Sato, and M. Ewing. The distortion of pulse-

176 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS like earthquake signals by seismographs. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc., 2:101-15. g. M. Ewing, J. L. Worzel, and M. Talwani. Some aspects of phys- ical geodesy. In: Contemporary Geodesy, ed. C. A. Whitten et al., Geophys. Monogr. no. 4, pp. 7-21. Wash., D.C.: Am. Geophys. Union. h. A. W. H. Be, M. Ewing, and L. W. Linton. A quantitative multi- ple opening-and-closing plankton sampler for vertical towing. J. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer., 25:3~46. i. R. I. Menzies, M. Ewing, }. L. Worzel, and A. H. Clarke. Ecology of the recent monoplacophora. Oikos, Acta Oecologica Scandi- navica, 10: 168-82. j. M. Ewing, S. Mueller, M. Landisman, and Y. Sato. Transient analysis of earthquake and explosion arrivals. Geofis. Pura Appl., 44 :83-118. k. B. C. Heezen, M. Tharp, and M. Ewing. The floors of the oceans. I. The North Atlantic. Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap., 65. 122 pp. 1960 a. M. Talwani, I. L. Worzel, and M. Ewing. Gravity anomalies and structure of the Bahamas. In: Transactions of the Second Caribbean Geological Conference, ed. I. D. Weaver, pp. 15~161. Mayaguez: Univ. of Puerto Rico. b. M. Talwani and M. Ewing. Rapid computation of gravitational attraction of three-dimensional bodies of arbitrary shape. Geo- physics, 25:203-25. c. W. S. Broecker, M. Ewing, and B. C. Heezen. Evidence for an abrupt change in climate close to 11,000 years ago. Am. l. Sci., 258:42~48. d. W. S. Broecker, R. Gerald, M. Ewing, and B. C. Heezen. Natural radiocarbon in the Atlantic Ocean. I. Geophys. Res., 65: 2903-31. e. J. Dorman, M. Ewing, and J. Oliver. Study of shear-velocity distribution in the upper mantle by mantle Rayleigh waves. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 50:87-115. f. I. Ewing, }. Antoine, and M. Ewing. Geophysical measurements in the western Caribbean Sea and in the Gulf of Mexico. I. Geophys. Res., 65:4087-4126. g. The ice ages- - theory. J. Alberta Soc. Petrol. Geol., 8: 191-201.

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 177 h. M. Ewing and W. L. Donn. On Pleistocene surface temperatures of the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. Science, 131:99. i. M. Ewing and B. C. Heezen. Continuity of the mid-ocean ridge and rift valley in the southwestern Indian Ocean confirmed. Science, 131 :1677-79. j. M. Ewing and l. I. Ewing. Submarine topography (underlying structure). In: McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technol- ogy, pp. 22~23. N.Y.: McGraw-Hill. k. K. L. Hunkins, M. Ewing, B. C. Heezen, and R. I. Menzies. Biological and geological observations on the first photograph of the Arctic Ocean creep-sea floor. Limnol. Oceanog., 5: 154 61. 1. I. Oliver, P. Pomeroy, and M. Ewing. Long-period seismic waves from nuclear explosions in various environments. Science, 131: 180~5. m. Y. Sato, M. Landisman, and M. Ewing. Love waves in a hetero- geneous, spherical earth. Part 1: theoretical periods for the fundamental and higher torsional modes. I. Geophys. Res., 65: 2395-98. n. Y. Sato, M. Landisman, and M. Ewing. Love waves in a hetero- geneous, spherical earth. Part 2: Theoretical phase and group velocities. }. Geophys. Res., 65: 239~2404. 1961 a. M. Ewing and W. L. Donn. Pleistocene climate changes. In: Geology of the Arctic, ed. G. O. Raasch. on. 931~1. Toronto: Toronto Univ. Press. b. B. C. Heezen and M. Ewing. The mid-ocean ridge and its exten- sion through the Arctic basin. In: Geology of the Arctic, ed. G. O. Raasch, pp. 622~2. Toronto: Toronto Univ. Press. M. Ewing, S. Mueller, M. Landisman, and Y. Sato. Transient phenomena in explosive sound. In: Proc. 3d Intl. Conf. on ACO?AS- tics, ed. L. Cremer, pp. 27~76. Amsterdam: Elsevier. d. M. Ewing, S. Mueller, M. Landisman, and Y. Sato. Dispersive transients in earthquake signals. In: Proc. 3d Intl. Conf. on Acous- tics, ed. L. Cremer, pp. 426-28. Amsterdam:Elsevier. e. L. E. Alsop, G. H. Sutton, and M. Ewing. Measurement of Q for very long period free oscillations. J. Geophys. Res., 66:2911-15. f. J. N. Brune, H. Benioff, and M. Ewing. Long-period surface - ~ rl-

178 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS waves from the Chilean earthquake of May 22, 1960 recorded on linear strain seismographs. I. Geophys. Res., 66:2895-910. g. M. Ewing and M. Landisman. Shape and structure of ocean basins. In: Oceanography, ed. M. Sears, pp. 3-38. Wash., D.C.: Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci. (Publ. no. 67~. h. W. S. Broecker, R. D. Gerard, M. Ewing, and B. C. Heezen. Geochemistry and physics of ocean circulation. In: Oceanog- raphy, ed. M. Sears, pp. 301-22. Wash., D.C.: Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci. (Publ. no. 67~. i. D. B. Ericson, M. Ewing, G. Wollin, and B. C. Heezen. Atlantic deep-sea sediment cores. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 72:193-285. j. l. Brune, M. Ewing, and I. Kuo. Group and phase velocities for Rayleigh waves of period greater than 380 seconds. Science, 133:757. k. L. E. Alsop, G. H. Sutton, and M. Ewing. Free oscillations of the Earth observed on strain and pendulum seismographs. J. Geo- phys. Res., 66:631~1. 1. M. Talwani, I. L. Worzel, and M. Ewing. Gravity anomalies and crustal section across the Tonga trench. l. Geophys. Res., 66: 1265-78. m. J. Ewing and M. Ewing. A telemetering ocean-bottom seismo- graph. J. Geophys. Res., 66:3863-78. n. R. Gerard and M. Ewing. A large volume water sampler. Deep- Sea Res., 8:298-301. 1962 a. R. Gerard, M. G. Langseth, and M. Ewing. Thermal gradient measurements in the water and bottom sediment of the western Atlantic. I. Geophys. Res., 67:785 803. b. W. L. Donn, W. R. Farrand, and M. Ewing. Pleistocene ice vol- umes and sea level lowering. l. Geol., 70:206-14. c. W. L. Donn and M. Ewing. Atmospheric waves from nuclear explosions. J. Geophys. Res., 67: 1855{36. d. W. L. Donn and M. Ewing. Atmospheric waves from nuclear explosions. Part II: The Soviet test of 30 October 1961. ]. Atmos. Sci., 19:26~73. e. I. I. Ewing, I. L. Worzel, and M. Ewing. Sediment and oceanic structural history of the Gulf of Mexico. J. Geophys. Res., 67: 2509-27.

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 179 f. M. Ewing and L. Engel. Seismic shooting at sea. Sci. Am., 206: 116-26. g. I. Ewing and M. Ewing. Reflection profiling in and around the Puerto Rico trench. l. Geophys. Res., 67:472~39. h. W. I. Ludwig, M. Ewing, l. I. Ewing, and C. L. Drake. Discussion of a paper by C. H. Savit, D. M. Blue, and J. G. Smith, "Explora- tion seismic techniques applied to oceanic crustal studies." l. Geophys. Res., 67:4946~7. M. Ewing, l. Brune, and I. Kuo. Surface-wave studies of the Pacific crust and mantle. In: The Crust of the Pacific Basin, ed. G. A. MacDonald et al., Geophys. Monog. no. 6, pp.30~0. Wash., D.C.: Am. Geophys. Union. j. I. Dorman and M. Ewing. Numerical inversion of seismic surface wave dispersion data and crust-mantle structure in the New York-Pennsylvania area. l. Geophys. Res., 67 :5227 - 1. k. Y. Sato, T. Usami, and M. Ewing. Basic study of the oscillation of a homogeneous sphere. IV. Propagation of disturbances on the sphere. Geophys. Mag., 31:237-42. 1. S. Mueller and M. Ewing. Synthese normal dispergierter Wellen- zuge auf den Grundlagen der Theorie linearer Systeme. N.Y.: Lamont Geological Observatory. m. M. Ewing and I. Ewing. Rate of salt-dome growth. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 46:70~9. n. M. Landisman, S. Mueller, B. Bolt, and M. Ewing. Transient analysis of seismic core phases. Geophys. Pura Appl., 52:41-52. 1963 a. M. Ewing and J. Ewing. Sediments at proposed Amoco drilling sites. J. Geophys. Res., 68:251-56. b. W. L. Donn, R. L. Pfeffer, and M. Ewing. Propagation of air waves from nuclear explosions. Science, 139:307-17. c. M. Ewing, W. l. Ludwig, and l. I. Ewing. Geophysical investiga- tions in the submerged Argentine coastal plain. Part 1. Buenos Aires to Peninsular Valdez. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 74:27~91. d. D. B. Ericson, M. Ewing, and G. Wollin. Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary in deep-sea sediments. Science, 139:727-37. e. l- }- Groot and M. Ewing. Suspended clay in a water sample from the deep ocean. Science, 142:579 80. f. J. Ewing, X. Le Pichon, and M. Ewing. Upper stratification of Hudson apron region. J. Geophys. Res., 68:6303-16.

180 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS g. M. Ewing and W. L. Donn. Polar wandering and climate. In: Polar Wandering and Continental Drift, ed. A. C. Munyan, pp. 94 99. Tulsa: Soc. Econ. Paleontol. Mineral. h. Submarine geophysics. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 22:351-54. i. Sediments in ocean basins. In: Man, Science, Learning, and Educa- tion, ed. S. W. Higginbotham, pp. 41-59. Houston: William Marsh Rice Univ. i. Y. Sato, T. Usami, M. Landisman, and M. Ewing. Basic study on the oscillation of a sphere. Part V. Propagation of torsional disturbances on a radially heterogeneous sphere case of a homo- geneous mantle with a liquid core. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc., 8:44 63. k. C. Fray and M. Ewing. Pleistocene sedimentation and fauna of the Argentine shelf. 1. Wisconsin sea level as indicated in Ar- gentine continental shelf sediments. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- delphia, 115:113-52. 1. B. C. Heezen and M. Ewing. The mid-oceanic ridge. In: The Sea, ed. M. N. Hill, 3:388~10. N.Y.: Interscience. 1964 a. Comments on theory of glaciation. In: Problems in Palaeoclimatol- ogy, ed. A. E. M. Nairn, pp. 348-54. N.Y.: Interscience. b. M. Ewing, l. I. Ewing, and M. Talwani. Sediment distribution in the oceans; the mid-Atlantic ridge. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 75: 17-35. c. D. B. Ericson, M. Ewing, and G. Wollin. Sediment cores from the arctic and subarctic seas. Science, 144: 1 183-92. d. D. B. Ericson, M. Ewing, and G. Wollin. The Pleistocene epoch in deep-sea sediments. Science, 146:723-32. e. Marine geology. In: Ocean Sciences, ed. E. J. Long, pp. 15~71. Annapolis: United States Naval Institute. f. M. Ewing and I. Ewing. Distribution of oceanic sediments. In: Studies in Oceanography, pp. 525-37. Tokyo: Hidaka Jubilee Committee. g. M. Ewing, W. J. Ludwig, and J. I. Ewing. Sediment distribution in the ocean: Phe Argentine basin. I. Geophys. Res., 69: 2003-32. h. B. C. Heezen, R. I. Menzies, E. D. Schneider, M. Ewing, and N. C. L. Granelli. Congo submarine canyon. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 48:1 12~49.

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 181 i. l. T. Kuo, K. Hunkins, and M. Ewing. Observations of tidal variations of gravity at Palisades, New York. Communs. Obs. r. Belg., no. 236 (Ser. Geol., no. 69, Be Symposium International sur les marees terrestres): 13 1-40. 1965 a. W. L. Donn and M. Ewing. Pollen from Alaska and the origin of ice ages. Science, 147:632. b. M. Talwani, X. Le Pichon, and M. Ewing. Crustal structure of the mid-ocean ridges 2. Computed models from gravity and seismic refraction data. l. Geophys. Res., 70:341-52. c. M. G. Langseth, P. I. Grim, and M. Ewing. Heat-flow measure- ments in the east Pacific Ocean. l. Geophys. Res., 70:367-80. d. M. Ewing and E. M. Thorndike. Suspended matter in deep ocean water. Science, 147: 1291-94. e. W. I. Ludwig, I. I. Ewing, and M. Ewing. Seismic-refraction measurements in the Magellan straits. l. Geophys. Res., 70: 1855-76. f. The sediments of the Argentine basin. Quart. I. R. Astron. Soc., 6:10-27. g. M. Ewing and I. Ewing. The sediments of the Argentine basin. Anais. Acad. Bras. Cienc., 37(suppl.~:31-61. h. M. B. Jacobs and M. Ewing. Minerology of particulate matter suspended in sea water. Science, 149:17~80. i. L. R. Sykes and M. Ewing. The seismicity of the Caribbean re- gion. J. Geophys. Res., 70:5065-74. j. I. R. Conolly and M. Ewing. Pleistocene glacial-marine zones in North Atlantic deep-sea sediments. Nature(Lond.~:208: 135- 38. k. M. Ewing, W. l. Ludwig, and I. Ewing. Oceanic structural his- tory of the Bering Sea. I. Geophys. Res., 70:4593-4600. 1. W. I. Ludwig, B. Gunturi, and M. Ewing. Sub-bottom reflection measurements in the Tyrrhenian and Ionian seas. I. Geophys. Res., 70:471 ~23. m. J. R. Conolly and M. Ewing. Ice-rafted detritus as a climatic indicator in Antarctic deep-sea cores. Science, 150:1822-24. 1966 a. M. Ewing, X. Le Pichon, and J. Ewing. Crustal structure of the mid-ocean ridges 4. Sediment distribution in the South Atlantic

182 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Ocean and the Cenozoic history of the mid-Atlantic ridge. I. Geophys. Res., 70: 1611-36. b. }- Ewing and M. Ewing. Marine seismic studies. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 47:27~79. c. T. Saito, M. Ewing, and L. H. Burckle. Tertiary sediment from the mid-Atlantic ridge. Science, 151:1075-79. d. M. Ewing, T. Saito, l. I. Ewing, and L. H. Burckle. Lower Cre- taceous sediments from the northwest Pacific. Science, 152: 751-55. e. M. Ewing and I. Antoine. New seismic data concerning sedi- ments and diapiric structures in Si~sbee deep and upper conti- nental slope, Gulf of Mexico. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 50:479~504. f. W. I. Ludwig, I. I. Ewing, M. Ewing, S. Murachi, N. Den, S. Asano, H. Hotto, M. Hayakawa, T. Asanuma, K. Ichikawa, and I. Noguchi. Sediments and structure of the Japan trench. I. Geophys. Res., 71:2121-37. g. I. Talwani, X. Le Pichon, M. Ewing, G. H. Sutton, and I. L. Worzel. Comments on paper by W. Jason Morgan, "Gravity anomalies and convection currents 2. The Puerto Rico trench and mid-Atlantic rise." J. Geophys. Res., 71:3602-6. h. W. L. Donn and M. Ewing. A theory of ice ages III. Science, 152:1706-12. i. M. Talwani and M. Ewing. A continuous gravity profile over the Sigsbee Knolls. J. Geophys. Res., 71 :443~38. j. l. Ewing, I. L. Worzel, M. Ewing, and C. Windisch. Ages of Horizon A and the oldest Atlantic sediments. Science, 154: 1125-32. k. B. C. Heezen, M. Ewing, and G. L. Johnson. The Gulf of Corinth floor. Deep-Sea Res., 13:387~11. 1. I. Ewing, M. Ewing, and R. Leyden. Seismic-profiler survey of Blake Plateau. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 50:194~71. m. M. Ewing, X. Le Pichon, and M. G. Langseth. Comments on "Age of the ocean floor" by E. Orowan. Science, 154:416. n. M. G. Langseth, X. Le Pichon, and M. Ewing. Crustal structure of the mid-ocean ridges 5. Heat flow through the Atlantic Ocean floor and convection currents. I. Geophys. Res., 71:5321-55. O. T. Saito, L. H. Burckle, and M. Ewing. Lithology and paleontol- ogy of the reflective layer Horizon A. Science, 154:1173-76. p. J. T. Kuo and M. Ewing. Spacial variations of tidal gravity.

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 183 In: The Earth Beneath the Continents, ed. l. S. Steinhart, et al., Geophys. Monogr. no. lo, pp.595~10. Wash., D.C.: Am. Geo- phys. Union. q. M. Ewing and J. Ewing. Geology of the Gulf of Mexico. In: Exploiting the Ocean (Suppl. Trans. 2nd annual marine technol- ogy society conference and exhibition), pp. 145~4. Wash., D.C.: Marine Technology Society. 1967 a. E. M. Thorndike and M. Ewing. Light scattering in the sea. Society of photo-optical instrumentation engineers, seminar proceedings Oct. 1~11, 1966, A IV 1-7. b. I. Ewing, M. Talwani, M. Ewing, and T. Edgar. Sediments of the Caribbean. Stud. Prop. Oceanog., 5:88-102. c. M. Ewing, J. L. Worzel, and A. C. Vine. Early development of ocean bottom photography at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Lamont Geological Observatory. In: Deep-Sea Photography, ed. J. B. Hersey, pp. 13~1. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press. d. R. E. Wall and M. Ewing. Tension recorder for deep-sea winches. Deep-Sea Res., 14:321-24. e. M. Ewing, D. E. Hayes, and E. M. Thorndike. Corehead camera for measurements of currents and core orientation. Deep-Sea Res., 14:253-58. f. I. R. Conolly and M. Ewing. Sedimentation in the Puerto Rico trench. I. Sediment. Petrol., 37:4~59. g. M. Ewing, T. Saito, and X. Le Pichon. Reply to "Comments on mantle convection and mid-ocean ridges" by Peter R. Vogt and Ned A. Ostenso. J. Geophys. Res., 72:2085. h. E. T. Bunce, M. G. Langseth, R. L. Chase, and M. Ewing. Struc- ture of the western Somali basin. I. Geophys. Res., 72:2547-55. i. L. H. Burckle, T. Saito, and M. Ewing. A Cretaceous (Turonian) core from the Naturaliste plateau southeast Indian Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., 14:421-26. j. I. Ewing and M. Ewing. Sediment distribution on the mid-ocean ridges with respect to spreading of the sea floor. Science, 156: 159~92. k. M. Ewing and R. A. Davis. Lebensspuren photographed on the ocean floor. In: Deep-Sea Photography, ed. l. B. Hersey, pp. 25~94. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.

184 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1. R. Houtz, l. Ewing, M. Ewing, and A. G. Lonardi. Seismic reflec- tion profiles of the New Zealand plateau. J. Geophys. Res., 72: 47 13-29. m. G. V. Latham, R. S. Anderson, and M. Ewing. Pressure varia- tions produced at the ocean bottom by hurricanes. I. Geophys. Res., 72:5693-5704. n. E. M. Thorndike and M. Ewing. Photographic nephelometers for the deep sea. In: Deep-Sea Photography, ed. J. B. Hersey, pp. 1 13-16. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press. O. I. I. Groot, C. R. Groot, M. Ewing, L. Burckle, and I. R. Conolly. Spores, pollen, diatoms and provenance of the Argentine basin sediments. In: The quaternary history of the ocean basins. Prog. Oceanog., 4:17~217. 1968 a. A. A. Nowroozi, M. Ewing, I. E. Nafe, and M. Fliegel. Deep ocean current and its cc~rrelation with the ocean tide off the coast of northern California. J. Geophys. Res., 73:1921-32. b. M. Ewing, l. I. Ewing, R. E. Houtz, and R. Leyden. Sediment distribution in the Bellinghausen basin. In: Symposium on Antarc- tic Oceanography (held at Santiago, Chile, 1966), ed. R. I. Currie, pp. 8~100. Cambridge, Eng.: W. Heffer for S.C.A.R. c. J. Ewing, M. Ewing, T. Aitken, and W. J. Ludwig. North Pacific sediment layers measured by seismic profiling. In: The Crust and Mantle of the Pacific Area, ed. L. Knopoff et al., Geophys. Monogr. no. 12, 147-73. Wash., D.C.: Am. Geophys. Union. d. I. L. Worzel, R. Leyden, and M. Ewing. N-ewly discovered diapirs in Gulf of Mexico. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 52: 1191- 1203. e. W. R. Bryant, I. Antoine, M. Ewing, and B. Jones. Structure of Mexican continental shelf and slope, Gulf of Mexico. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 52:1204 28. f. W. l. Ludwig, I. I. Ewing, and M. Ewing. Structure of the Ar- gentine continental margin. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 52: 2337~8. g. M. Ewing and F. Mouzo. Ocean bottom photographs in the area of the oldest known outcrops, North Atlantic Ocean. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 61:787-93. h. M. Ewing and J. L. Worzel. Geophysical oceanographic studies at Lamont Geological Observatory. In: Selected Papers from the

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 185 Governor's Conference on Oceanography, pp. ~35. N.Y.: State Science and Technology Foundation. W. L. Donn and M. Ewing. The theory of an ice-free Arctic Ocean. Meterol. Monogr., 8:10~5. j. I. Ewing, M. Talwani, and M. Ewing. Sediment distribution in the Caribbean Sea. In: Transactions of the Fourth Caribbean Geological Conference, 1965, ed. I. B. Saunders, pp.317-324. Arima, Trini- dad: Caribbean Printers. k. M. Ewing, A. G. Lonardi, and I. I. Ewing. The sediments and topography of the Puerto Rico trench and outer ridge. In: Transactions of the Fourth Caribbean Geological Conference, 1965, ed. I. B. Saunders, pp. 325-34. Arima, Trinidad: Caribbean Printers. 1969 a. M. Ewing, K. Hunkins, and E. M. Thorndike. Some unusual photographs in the Arctic Ocean. I. Mar. Tech. Soc., 3:41~4. b. I. Ewing, R. Leyden, and M. Ewing. Refraction shooting with expendable sonobuoys. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 53: 174 81. c. M. B. Jacobs and M. Ewing. Suspended particulate matter: con- centration in the major oceans. Science, 163:38~83. d. A. A. Nowroozi, J. Kuo, and M. Ewing. Solid earth and oceanic tides recorded on the ocean floor off the coast of northern California. J. Geophys. Res., 74:605-14. M. B. Jacobs and M. Ewing. Mineral source and transport in waters of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Science, 163: 805-9. f. E. M. Thorndike and M. Ewing. Photographic determination of ocean-bottom current velocity. I. Mar. Tech. Soc., 3:45-50. g. R. E. Sheridan, R. E. Houtz, C. L. Drake, and M. Ewing. Struc- ture of the continental margin off Sierra Leone, West Africa. l. Geophys. Res., 74:2512-30. h. M. Ewing, R. Houtz, and }. Ewing. South Pacific sediment distri- bution. J. Geophys. Res., 74:2477-93. i. W. B. F. Ryan, E. M. Thorndike, M. Ewing, and D. A. Ross. Suspended matter in the Red Sea brines and its detection by light scattering. In: Hot Brines and Recent Heavy Metal Deposits in the Red Sea, ed. E. T. Degens and D. A. Ross, pp. 153-57. N.Y.: Springer-Verlag.

186 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS j. A. Miyashiro, F. Shido, and M. Ewing. Diversity and origin of abyssal tholeiite from the mid-Atlantic ridge near 24° and 30° north latitude. Contr. Mineral. Petrol., 23:3~52. k. A. Miyashiro, F. Shido, and M. Ewing. Composition and origin of serpentenites from the mid-Atlantic ridge near 24° and 30° north latitude. Contr. Mineral. Petrol., 23:117-27. 1. M. Ewing, S. Eittreim, M. Truchan, and }. E. Ewing. Sediment distribution in the Indian Ocean. Deep-Sea. Res., 16:231~8. m. G. Latham, M. Ewing, F. Press, and G. Sutton. The Apollo passive seismic experiment. Science, 165:241-50. n. C. A. Burk, M. Ewing, J. L. Worzel, A. O. Beall, W. A. Berggren, D. Bukry, A. G. Fischer, and E. A. Pessagno. Deep-sea drilling into the Challenger Knoll, central Gulf of Mexico. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 53:1338~7. O. M. Ewing, J. L. Worzel, and C. A. Burk. Introduction. In: Initial Reports of the Deep-Sea Drilling Project, Orange, Texas to Hoboken, N.~., 1 :3-9. Wash., D.C.: National Science Foundation. p. M. Ewing, J. L. Worzel, A. O. Beall, W. A. Berggren, D. Bukry, C. A. Burk, A. G. Fischer, and E. A. Pessagno. Sites 1-7. In: Initial Reports of the Deep-Sea Drilling Project, Orange, Texas to Hoboken, N.J., 1 :1~317. Wash., D.C.: National Science Founda- t~on. q. M. Ewing, }. L. Worzel, and C. A. Burk. Regional aspects of deep-water drilling in the Gulf of Mexico, east of the Bahama platform and on the Bermuda rise. In: Initial Reports of the Deep- Sea Drilling Project, Orange, Texas to Hoboken, N.J., 1:62~1 40. Wash., D.C.: National Science Foundation. r. S. Eittreim, M. Ewing, and E. M. Thorndike. Suspended matter along the continental margin of the North American basin. Deep-Sea Res., 16:613-24. s. M. Ewing and D. Hayes. Some problems of safe navigation of deep draft vessels. In: 14th Annual Tanker Conference, pp. 212-25. Wash., D.C.: American Petroleum Institute. 1970 a. G. V. Latham, M. Ewing, F. Press, G. Sutton, }. Dorman, Y. Nakamura, N. Toksoz, R. Wiggins, I. Derr, and F. Duennebier. Passive seismic experiment. Science, 167:455-57. b. A. Miyashiro, F. Shido, and M. Ewing. Petrologic models for the mid-Atlantic ridge. Deep-Sea Res., 17: 10~23.

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING . . 187 c. A. Miyashiro, F. Shido, and M. Ewing. Crystallization and differ- entiation in abyssal tholeiites and gabbros from mid-ocean ridges. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 7:361-65. d. E. J. W. Jones, M. Ewing, J. I. Ewing, and S. L. Eittreim. Influ- ences of Norwegian sea overflow water on sedimentation in the northern North Atlantic and Labrador Sea. l. Geophys. Res., 75: 1655~0. e. M. Ewing, L. V. Hawkins, and W. I. Ludwig. Crustal structure of the Coral Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 75:1953-62. f. R. W. Embly, J. I. Ewing, and M. Ewing. The Vidal deep-sea channel and its relationship to the Demerara and Barracuda abyssal plains. Deep-Sea Res., 17 :53~52. g. M. Ewing and S. D. Connary. Nepheloid layer in the North Pacific. In: Geological investigations of the North Pacific. Geol. Soc. Am. Mem., 126:41~2. h. }. R. Conolly and M. Ewing. Ice-rafted detritus in northwest Pacific deep-sea sediments. In: Geological investigations of the North Pacific. Geol. Soc. Am. Mem., 126:219~31. i. G. V. Latham, M. Ewing, F. Press, G. Sutton, I. Dorman, Y. Nakamura, N. Toksoz, R. Wiggins, J. Derr, and F. Duennebier. Apollo 11 passive seismic experiment. Proc. Apollo 11 Lunar Sci. Conf. (Supplement 1 to Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta), 3: 230~20. i. J. T. Kuo, R. C. Jachens, M. Ewing, and G. White. Transconti- nental tidal gravity profile across the United States. Science, 168:96~71. k. J. r. Kuo, R. C. Jachens, G. White, and M. Ewing. Tidal gravity measurements along a transcontinental profile across the United States. In: Sixth Symposium of Earth Tides, pp. l-11. Stras- bourg, Germany: Univ. of Strasbourg. 1. I. Ewing, C. Windisch, and M. Ewing. Correlation of Horizon A with Joides borehole results. J. Geophys. Res., 75:5645-53. m. G. Latham, M. Ewing, I. Dorman, F. Press. N. Toksoz, G. Sut- ton, R. Meissner, F. Duennebier, Y. Nakamura, R. Kovach, and M. Yates. Seismic data from man-made impacts on the moon. Science, 170:620-26. n. D. E. Hayes and M. Ewing. North Brazilian ridge and adjacent continental margin. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol.,54:212() 50. O. I. Ewing and M. Ewing. Seismic reflection. In: The Sea, ed. M. N. Hill, Apt. 1~: 1-51. N.Y.: Interscience.

188 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS p. D. E. Hayes and M. Ewing. Pacific boundary structure. In: The Sea, ed. M. N. Hill, 4 (pt. 2~:2~72. N.Y.: Interscience. 1971 a. J. I. Ewing, W. J. Ludwig, M. Ewing, and S. L. Eittreim. Struc- ture of the Scotia Sea and Falkland plateau. I. Geophys. Res., 76:71 18-37. b. D. E. Hayes and M. Ewing. The Louisville Ridge a possible extension of the Eltanin fracture zone. In: Antarctic Oceanology I, ed. I. L. Reid. Antarctic Res. Ser., 15:223-28. c. G. Wollin, D. B. Ericson, and M. Ewing. Late Pleistocene climates recorded in Atlantic and Pacific deep sea sediments. In: The Late Cenozoic Glacial Ages, ed. K. K. Turekian, pp. 19~214. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press. d. The late Cenozoic history of the Atlantic basin and its bearing on the cause of the ice ages. In: The Late Cenozoic Glacial Ages, ed. K. K. Turekian, pp. 565~73. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press. Foreworcl. Physics Chem. Earth, 8:vii-viii. f. X. Le Pichon, M. Ewing, and M. Truchan. Sediment transport and distribution in the Argentine basin. 2. Antarctic bottom current passage into the Brazil basin. Physics Chem. Earth, 8:29 48. g. M. Ewing, S. L. Eittreim, J. I. Ewing, and X. Le Pichon. Sediment transport and distribution in the Argentine basin. 3. Nepheloid layer and processes of sedimentation. Physics Chem. Earth, 8: 4~77. h. A. G. Lonardi and M. Ewing. Sediment transport and clistribu- iion in the Argentine basin. 4. Bathymetry of the continental margin, Argentine basin and other related provinces. Canyons and sources of sediment. Physics Chem. Earth, 8:7~121. i. M. Ewing and A. G. Lonardi. Sediment transport and distribu- tion in the Argentine basin. 5. Sedimentary structure of the Argentine margin, basin, and related provinces. Physics Chem. Earth, 8:123-25 1. j. A. G. Lonardi and M. Ewing. Sediment transport and distribu- tion in the Argentine basin. 6. Exploration and study of the Argentine basin. Physics Chem. Earth, 8:253~3. k. A. Miyashiro, F. Shido, and M. Ewing. Metamorphism in the mid-Atlantic ridge near 24° and 30°. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, A268:58~603.

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 189 1. D. R. Horn, M. Ewing, M. N. Detach, and B. M. Horn. Turbidites of the northeast Pacific. Sedimentology, 16:5~69. m. R. Leyden, M. Ewing, and E. S. W. Simpson. Geophysical recon- naissance on African shelf: 1. Cape Town to East London. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 55:651-57. n. R. Leyden, W. l. Ludwig, and M. Ewing. Structure of conti- nental margin off Punta del Este, Uruguay, and Rio de ~aneiro, Brazil, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 55:2161-73. o. M. Ewing, G. Latham, F. Press, G. Sutton, l. Dorman, Y. Naka- mura, R. Meissner, F. Duennebier, and R. Kovach. Seismology of the Moon and implications on internal structure, origin and evolution. In: Highlights of Astronomy, ed. De lager, 2:15~72. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Reidel (for the Int. Astron. Union). p. F. Shido, A. Miyashiro, and M. Ewing. Crystallization of abyssal tholeiites. Contr. Mineral. Petrol., 31:251-66. q. D. Kent, N. D. Opdyke, and M. Ewing. Climate change in the North Pacific using ice-rafted detritus as a climatic indicator. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 82:2741-54. r. W. I. Ludwig, R. E. Houtz, and M. Ewing. Sediment distribution in the Bering Sea: Bowers Ridge, Shirshov Ridged and enclosed basins. I. Geophys. Res., 76:6367-75. ~ , s. G. Latham, M. Ewing, I. Dorman, D. Lammlein, F. Press, N. Toksoz, G. Sutton, F. Duennebier, and Y. Nakamura. Moon- quakes. Science, 174 :687-92. t. D. R. Horn, M. Ewing, B. M. Horn, and M. N. Detach. Turbidites of the Hatteras and Sohm abyssal plains, western North Atlan- tic. Mar. Geol., 11 :287-323. u. M. Ewing, D. Horn, L. Sullivan, T. Aitken, and E. Thorndike. Photographing manganese nodules on the ocean floor. Ocean- ology Intern. Offshore Technol., 6(Dec.~:26-32. v. N. Den, W. ]. Ludwig, S. Murauchi, M. Ewing, H. Hotta, T. Asanuma, T. Yoshii, A. Kubotera, and K. Hagiwara. Sediments and structure of the Eauripic-New Guinea rise. I. Geophys. Res., 76:4711-72. w. W. J. Ludwig, S. Murauchi, N. Den, M. Ewing, H. Hotta, R. E. Houtz, T. Yoshii, T. Asanuma, K. Hagiwara, T. Sato, and S. Ando. Structure of Bowers Ridge, Bering Sea. I. Geophys. Res., 76:635~66. x. W. L. Donn, I. Dalins, V. McCarty, M. Ewing, and G. Kaschak. Air-coupled seismic waves at long range from Apollo launch- ings. Geophys. J., 26:161-71.

190 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS y. Columbus Iselin. Oceanus, 16 :14-15. z. I. I. Ewing, W. J. Ludwig, M. Ewing, and S. L. Eittreim. Structure of Scotia Sea and the Falkland Plateau. J. Geophys. Res., 76: 71 18-37. 1972 a. O. Wilhelm and M. Ewing. Geology and history of the Gulf of Mexico. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 83:575-99. b. R. Leyden, G. Bryan, and M. Ewing. Geophysical reconnaissance on African shelf: 2. Margin sediments from Gulf of Guinea to Walvis Ridge. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 56:682-93. c. D. R. Horn, M. Ewing, B. M. Horn, and M. N. Delach. World- wide distribution of manganese nodules. Ocean Industry, 7(Jan.~:2~29. d. S. Eittreim, A. L. Gordon, M. Ewing, E. M. Thorndike, and P. Bruchhausen. The nepheloid layer and observed bottom cur- rents in the Indian-Pacific Antarctic Sea. In: Studies in Physical Oceanography, ed. A. L. Gordon. on. 1~35. London: Gordon & Breach. e. S. Eittreim and M. Ewing. Suspended particulate matter in the deep waters of the North American basin. In: Studies in Physical Oceanography, ed. A. L. Gordon, pp. 123~7. London: Gordon & Breach. f. S. D. Connary and M. Ewing. The nepheloid layer and bottom circulation in the Guinea and Angola basins. In: Studies in Phys- ical Oceanography, ed. A. L. Gordon, pp. 16~84. London: Gordon & Breach. g. R. Leyden, P. Sheridan, and M. Ewing. Continental drift empha- sizing the history of the South Atlantic area, UNESCO/lUGS sym- posium, Montevideo, Uruguay, 1~19 October 1967, pp. 165-71. ~ This was never printed but was issued by Am. Geophys. Union as a microfilm; see Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 53 [ 19721: 164-851. h. S. Eittreim, P. M. Bruchhausen, and M. Ewing. Vertical distribu- tion of turbidity in the South Indian and South Australian basins. In: Antarctic Oceanology II, the Australian-New Zealand Sec- tor, ed. D. E. Hayes, Antarctic Res. Ser., 19:51-58. Wash., D.C.: Am. Geophys. Union. i. D. R. Horn, l. I. Ewing, and M. Ewing. Graded-bed sequences emplaced by turbidity currents north of 20° in the Pacific, Atlan- tic and Mediterranean. Sedimentology, 18:247-75.

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 19 j. M. N. Toksoz, F. Press, K. Anderson, A. Dainty, G. Latham, M. Ewing, }. Dorman, D. Lammlein, G. Sutton, F. Duennebier, and Y. Nakamura. Lunar crust: structure and composition. Science, 176:1012-16. k. M. N. Toksoz, F. Press, K. Anderson, A. Dainty, G. Latham, M. Ewing, I. Dorman, D. Lammlein, Y. Nakamura, G. Sutton, and F. Duennebier. Velocity structure and properties of the lunar crust. The Moon, 4:49~504. 1. G. Latham, M. Ewing, I. Dorman, D. Lammlein, F. Press, N. Toksoz, G. Sutton, F. Duennebier, and Y. Nakamura. Moon- quakes and lunar tectonism. The Moon, 4:373-82. m. G. Latham, M. Ewing, I. Dorman, D. Lemmlein, F. Press, N. Toksoz, G. Sutton, F. Duennebier, and Y. Nakamura. Moon- quakes and lunar tectonism results from Apollo passive seismic experiment. In: Proceedings of the third lunar science confer- ence, ed. D. R. Criswell. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, Suppl. 4, 3:251~26. n. W. L. Donn and M. Ewing. Resonant coupling of ocean Rayleigh waves to atmospheric shock waves from Apollo rockets. }. Geo- phys. Res., 77:701~21. O. M. N. Toksoz, F. Press, A. Dainty, K. Anderson, G. Latham, M. Ewing, J. Dorman, D. Lammlein, G. Sutton, and F. Duennebier. Structure, composition and properties of lunar crust. In: Pro- ceedings of the third lunar science conference, ed. D. R. Cris- well. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, Suppl. 3, 3:2527-44. p. G. Latham, M. Ewing, F. Press, G. Sutton, }. Dorman, Y. Naka- mura, N. Toksoz, D. Lammlein, and F. Duennebier. Comments on "Lunar seismograms for LM and ~IVB impacts interpreted as modulation mirage" by E. Strick. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 15:212-14. 1973 a. M. Ewing, G. Carpenter, C. Windisch, and }. Ewing. Sediment distribution in the oceans: the Atlantic. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 84:71-87. b. M. B. Jacobs, E. M. Thorndike, and M. Ewing. A comparison of suspended particulate matter from nepheloid and clear water. Mar. Geol., 14:1 17-28. c. W. J. Ludwig, S. Murauchi, N. Den, P. Buhl, H. Hotta, T. Asa- numa, T. Yoshii, N. Sakajiri, and M. Ewing. Structure of east

192 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS China Sea-west Philippine Sea margin off southern Kyushu, Japan. J. Geophys. Res., 78:2526-36. d. T. Yoshii, W. }. Ludwig, N. Den, S. Murauchi, M. Ewing, H. Hotta, P. Buhl, T. Asanuma, and N. Sakajiri. Structure of south- west Japan margin off Shikoku. J. Geophys. Res., 78:2517-25. R. Houtz, M. Ewing, D. Hayes, and B. Naini. Sediment isopachs in the Indian and Pacific Ocean sectors (105°E to 70°W). In: Antarctic Map Folio Series, Folio 17, Sediments 9-12 and Plate 5. Wash., D.C.: Am. Geogr. Soc. f. R. Leyden, M. Ewing, and S. Murauchi. Sonobuoy refraction measurements in east China Sea. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 57 :2396-2403. g. G. Latham, M. Ewing, l. Dorman, Y. Nakamura, F. Press, N. Toksoz, G. Sutton, F. Duennebier, and D. Lammlein. Lunar structure and dynamics-results from the Apollo passive seismic experiment. The Moon, 7:396~21. h. M. Ewing, R. W. Embley, and T. H. Shipley. Observations of shallow layering utilizing the pingerprobe echo-sounding sys- tem. Mar. Geol., 14:M55-M63. i. Y. Nakamura, D. Lammlein, G. Latham, M. Ewing, }. Dorman, F. Press, and N. Toksoz. New seismic data on the state of the deep lunar interior. Science, 181:49-51. G. Latham, l. Dorman, F. Duennebier, M. Ewing, D. Lammlein, and Y. Nakamura. Moonquakes, meteoroids, and the state of the lunar interior. In: Proceedings of the fourth lunar science con- ference, ed. W. A. Gose. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, Suppl. 4, 3:251~27. k. G. Latham, M. Ewing, }. Dorman, Y. Nakamura, F. Press, N. Toksoz, G. Sutton, F. Duennebier, and D. Lammlein. Lunar structure and dynamics-results from Apollo passive seismic ex- periment. The Moon, 7:396 420. . J- 1974 a. F. Shido, A. Miyashiro, and M. Ewing. Compositional variation in pillow lavas from the mid-Atlantic ridge. Mar. Geol., 16: 177-90. b. F. Shido, A. Miyashiro, and M. Ewing. Basalts and serpentinite from the Puerto Rico Trench, I. Petrology. Mar. Geol., 16: 191-203. c. S. D. Connary and M. Ewing. Penetration of Antarctic bottom

WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 193 water from the Cape basin into the Angola basin. }. Geophys. Res., 79:463~9. d. Y. Nakamura, I. Dorman, F. Duennebier, M. Ewing, D. Lamm- lein, and G. Latham. High frequency lunar teleseismic events. In: Proceedings of the fifth lunar science conference. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, Suppl. 5, 3:2883-90. e. Y. Nakamura, G. Latham, D. Lammlein, M. Ewing, F. Duen- nebier, and l. Dorman. Deep lunar interior inferred from the latest seismic data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 1:137~0. f. C. Urien and M. Ewing. Recent sediments and environments of southern Brazil, Uruguay, Buenos Aires and Rio Negro conti- nental shelf. In: The Geology of Continental Margins, ed. C. A. Burk and C. L. Drake, pp. 157-77. N.Y.: Springer-Verlag. g. S. K. Addy and M. Ewing. A new box corer designed for the investigation of manganese-nodule distribution in a sediment column. Mar. Geol., 17 :M 1 7-M25. h. D. R. Lammlein, G. Latham, }. Dorman, Y. Nakamura, and M. Ewing. Lunar seismicity, structure and tectonics. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 12: 1-2 1 . i. L. Eittreim and M. Ewing. Turbidity distribution in the deep waters of the western Atlantic trough. In: Suspended Solids in Water, ed. R. I. Gibbs, pp. 213-25. N.Y.: Plenum Press. 1975 a. J. S. Watkins, J. L. Worzel, M. H. Houston, M. Ewing, and J. B. Sinton. Deep seismic reflection results from the Gulf of Mexico: Part I. Science, 187 :834-36. b. G. Latham, Y. Nakamura, J. Dorman, F. Duennebier, M. Ewing, D. Lammlein. Rezul'taty passivnogo seismicheskogo eksperi- menta po programme "Apollon." In: Trudy Sovetsko-Amer~kanskoi konferentsii po kosmoLhimii Luny i planet, pp. 29~310. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Nauka. 1977 G. Latham, Y. Nakamura, I. Dorman, F. Duennebier, M. Ewing, and D. Lammlein. Results from the Apollo passive seismic ex- periment. In: Proceedings of Soviet-American conference on cosmochemistry of the moon and planets, ed. }. H. Pomeroy and N. I. Hubbard, NASA Spec. Publ., SP-370:389 401.

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Biographic Memoirs Volume 51 contains the biographies of deceased members of the National Academy of Sciences and bibliographies of their published works. Each biographical essay was written by a member of the Academy familiar with the professional career of the deceased. For historical and bibliographical purposes, these volumes are worth returning to time and again.

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