National Academies Press: OpenBook

Resources for Teaching Middle School Science (1998)

Chapter: 5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science

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Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

Investigating the technology of papermaking

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

CHAPTER 5
MULTIDISCIPLINARY AND APPLIED SCIENCE

Multidisciplinary and Applied Science—Core Materials

5.1 Evolution: Change over Time.

3rd ed. Anthea Maton, Jean Hopkins, Susan Johnson, and others. Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1997.

Program Overview The Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series is a program for middle school or junior high school students. Designed to cover all relevant areas of science, this program consists of 19 books, each in a particular topic area, such as sound and light, the planet earth, and evolution—change over time. Seven science themes are incorporated into the program; the themes are energy, evolution, patterns of change, scale and structure, systems and interactions, unity and diversity, and stability. For each unit, teaching materials, ancillary student materials, and some optional components are available.

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 7-8. Reading level: early 8. The texbook Evolution: Change over Time is organized in 3 chapters: (1) "Earth's History in Fossils," (2) "Changes in Living Things over Time," and (3) "The Path to Modern Humans." During the course, students are introduced to 6 types of fossils and to information on geologic eras and periods. They also learn about the biochemical, anatomical, and fossil evidence of evolution and about natural selection and the effects of overproduction, variation, migration, and isolation on evolutionary change. Students study the general characteristics of the primates and the characteristics that are unique to humans. They also examine some of the fossil and chemical evidence that allows scientists to study human evolution, and they find out about probable ancestors of humans.

Each chapter includes a lab investigation. Students make casts and molds of 3 small objects and compare the casts with the original objects. They draw a geologic time line to help them visualize the relationships between evolutionary events. They also measure their jaw and thumb indexes and compare them with those of a gorilla and Australopithecus to identify changes that occurred among earlier hominids and hominids of today.

Each chapter contains comprehensive reading sections that introduce major science concepts. Suggestions are provided for activities in which students "find out by doing," "find out by calculating," and "find out by writing." Other activities are also suggested—for example, researching the names of several index fossils

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

(fossils used to identify the age of sedimentary rock layers) or preparing a display of objects that represent a student's culture.

Other features include problem-solving challenges, science career descriptions, and science connections to real-world events or issues. The student edition closes with readings on 3 topics: (1) paleontologist Jack Horner's work on the behavior of dinosaurs, (2) the debate over the cause of the extinction of the great dinosaurs, (3) and a fictional account of the kind of life forms that may have evolved elsewhere in the universe.

Teacher's Edition In the teacher's wraparound edition, each chapter begins with a 2-page planning guide and a 2-page preview that summarizes each section within the chapter. The teacher's edition also provides suggestions for teaching, guiding, integrating, and closing lessons, as well as enrichments, extensions, and answers to questions in the student text.

Supplementary Laboratory Manual The supplementary lab manual provides 8 investigations directly correlated with the information presented in the student textbook. Examples of investigations include developing a model to demonstrate the half-life of a radioactive element; observing variations in kidney beans, pine needles, and maple leaves; and developing a model that illustrates natural selection in deer mice.

Program Resources and Support Materials A variety of materials, including some optional components, is available. A teacher's

ABOUT THE ANNOTATIONS IN "MULTIDISCIPLINARY AND APPLIED SCIENCE—CORE MATERIALS"

Entry Numbers

Curriculum materials are arranged alphabetically by title in each category (Core Materials, Supplementary Units, and Science Activity Books) in chapters 1 through 5 of this guide.

Each curriculum annotation has a two-part entry number: the chapter number is given before the period; the number after the period locates the entry within that chapter. For example, the first entry number in chapter 1 is 1.1; the second entry in chapter 2 is 2.2; and so on.

The entry numbers within each curriculum chapter run consecutively through Core Materials, Supplementary Units, and Science Activity Books.

Order of Bibliographic Information

Following is the arrangement of the facts of publication in the annotations in this section:

  • Title of publication

  • Number of edition, if applicable

  • Authors (an individual author or authors, an institutional author, or a project or program name under which the material was developed)

  • Series title

  • Series developer, if applicable

  • Place of publication, publisher, and date of publication

Recommended Grade Level

The grade level for each piece of material was recommended by teacher evaluators during the development of this guide. In some instances, the recommended grade level may differ slightly from the publisher's advertised level.

Key to Content Standard: 5-8

The key lists the content standards for grades 5-8 from the National Science Education Standards (NSES) that are addressed in depth by the item. A key is provided for core materials and supplementary units. (See appendix C.)

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

Price and Acquisition Information

Ordering information appears at the end of each entry. Included are—

  • Prices (of teacher's guides, student books, lab manuals, and kits or units)

  • Publisher/supplier (The name of a principal publisher/supplier, although not necessarily the sole source, for the items listed in the price category. Appendix A, "Publishers and Suppliers," provides the address, phone and fax numbers, and electronic ordering information, where available, for each publisher and supplier.)

  • Materials (various sources from which one might obtain the required materials)

Readers must contact publishers/suppliers for complete and up-to-date listings of the program resources and support materials available for a particular unit. Depending on the developer, these items may be required, optional, or both; they may be offered individually and/or in kits, packages, or boxes. Materials may change with revised editions. The prices given in this chapter for selected resources or materials are based on information from the publishers and suppliers but are not meant to represent the full range of ordering options.

Indexes of Curriculum Materials

The multiple indexes on pp. 449-78 allow easy access to the information in this guide. Various aspects of the curriculum materials—including titles, topics addressed in each unit, grade levels, and standards addressed—are the focus of seven separate indexes. For example, titles and entry numbers are listed in the "Title Index" on pp. 450-54. The "Index of Authors, Series, and Curriculum Projects," on pp. 455-57, provides entry numbers of any annotated titles in a particular series.

Overviews of Core and Supplementary Programs

Appendix D, "Overviews of Core and Supplementary Programs with Titles Annotated in This Guide," on pp. 441-48, lists, by program or series, the individual titles annotated in the sections "Core Materials" and "Supplementary Units" in the five curriculum chapters.

resource package contains the student edition and annotated teacher's editions of both the textbook and the lab manual, as well as a test book, an activity book, a review-and-reinforcement guide, and English and Spanish audiotapes for auditory and language learners. Other available materials include interactive videodiscs, transparencies, assessment materials, English and Spanish guides for language learners, a study guide, a teacher's desk reference, and a booklet of product-testing activities.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; evolution and equilibrium; form and function.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

LIFE SCIENCE: Diversity and adaptations of organisms.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth's history.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science.

Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-13-423450-2), $9.97. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-13-423211-9), $22.97. Teacher's resource package, $112.97. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Prentice Hall. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×
5.2 Integrated Science: Book One.

Alan Fraser, Ian Gilchrist, Tony Partridge, and others. Integrated Science series. Dallas, Tex.: J. M. LeBel, 1994.

Program Overview The Integrated Science series includes 3 full-year courses that integrate chemistry, physics, and the life, earth, and space sciences with environmental issues and emphasize the development of critical-thinking skills. Four major themes are incorporated in the program: energy, changes over time, systems and structures, and environmental interactions. Designed for students of different ability levels, the lessons are graded as "starting off," "going further," or "for the enthusiast." In addition to the student edition and teacher's manual, the program offers a variety of support materials.

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 6. Reading level: late 7. Integrated Science: Book One is organized in 14 chapters on these subjects: scientific measurements and the processes of science, living things, energy, matter, solvents and solutions, cells and reproduction, electricity, gases, heat, earth sciences, earth in space, and energy and the environment. Each chapter consists of 3 to 5 sections of 3 pages each. Sections begin with a hands-on activity or discussion.

Activities include, for example, calculating the volume of a drop of water, making a tin car racer, building a windmill that can lift a 50-gram mass, measuring the freezing temperature of water, determining the best way to filter muddy water, examining the reproductive parts of a flower, measuring lung capacity, classifying rocks, using weather maps to compare global patterns of winds and air pressures in summer and winter, and extracting metals from their ores.

Teacher's Manual The teacher's manual includes an overview of the organization of the student textbook, safety information, sample lesson plans, information on incorporating cooperative learning techniques, and a summary of the main ideas presented in each chapter of the student textbook. For each section of the student textbook, the teacher's manual includes an estimate of the time required to complete the section, a materials list, information on planning for and conducting activities, and sample answers to student questions.

Program Resources and Support Materials A variety of support materials is available, including a resource pack with additional activities, chapter review tests, a math-and-science process skills program, and transparencies.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; reproduction and heredity; populations and ecosystems; diversity and adaptations of organisms.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth's history; earth in the solar system.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Populations, resources, and environments; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor.

Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-920008-60-7), $37.95. Teacher's manual (ISBN 0-920008-61-5), $19.95. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: LeBel. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.3 Integrated Science: Book Two.

Alan Fraser, Ian Gilchrist, Tony Partridge, and Harry Herzer III. Integrated Science series. Dallas, Tex.: J. M. LeBel, 1995.

Program Overview The Integrated Science series includes 3 full-year courses that integrate chemistry, physics, and the life, earth, and space sciences with environmental issues and emphasize the development of critical-thinking skills. Four major themes are incorporated in the program: energy, changes over time, systems and structures, and environmental interactions. Designed for students of different ability levels, the lessons are graded as "starting off," "going further," or "for the enthusiast." In addition to the student edition and teacher's manual, the program offers a variety of support materials.

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 7. Reading level: middle 7. Integrated Science: Book Two is organized in 14 chapters on these subjects: hydrogen, metals, acids, and bases; the senses; forces and movement; the human body; electricity; earth in space; nutrition and health; the periodic table and materials;

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

electronics; volcanoes, earthquakes, and plate tectonics; weather, atmosphere, and oceans; geologic time; energy; and the environment. Each chapter consists of 1 to 7 sections of 3 pages each. Sections begin with a hands-on activity or discussion.

Activities include, for example, investigating the reactivity series of metals; using an indicator to determine whether substances are acids or bases; experimenting with a newton balance; making an electromagnet; using tide tables to determine the relationship between the position of the moon and the height of the tide; comparing the speed at which microbes grow in different conditions; investigating the qualitative relationships between current, voltage, and resistance; and using a geological time scale chart to correlate fossil layers with geological times.

Teacher's Manual The teacher's manual includes an overview of the organization of the student textbook, safety information, sample lesson plans, information on incorporating cooperative learning techniques, and a summary of the main ideas presented in each chapter of the student textbook. For each section of the student textbook, the teacher's manual includes an estimate of the time required to complete the section, a materials list, information on planning for and conducting activities, and sample answers to student questions.

Program Resources and Support Materials A variety of support materials is available, including a resource pack with additional activities, chapter review tests, a math-and-science process skills program, and transparencies.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; evolution and equilibrium.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; motions and forces; transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; reproduction and heredity; populations and ecosystems; diversity and adaptations of organisms.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth's history; earth in the solar system.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Personal health; natural hazards; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; history of science.

Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-920008-45-6), $37.95. Teacher's manual (ISBN 0-920008-67-4), $19.95. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: LeBel. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.4 Investigating Diversity and Limits.

Middle School Science and Technology series. Developed by Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) (Colorado Springs, Colo.). Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1994.

Program Overview The Middle School Science and Technology series is a 3-year thematic program that integrates the life, earth, and physical sciences and emphasizes technology as a process for solving problems. The curriculum includes investigations, simulations, debates, plays, outdoor activities, research projects, and creative-writing projects. The titles of the 3 year-long courses—Investigating Patterns of Change, Investigating Diversity and Limits, and Investigating Systems and Change—reflect the program's unifying themes. Each course incorporates cooperative learning strategies. Components of the program include the student book, teacher's edition, teacher's resource package, implementation guide, and kit of materials.

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 7-8. Reading level: early 9. During the 4 units in Investigating Diversity and Limits, students focus on the following questions: (1) What is normal? (2) How does technology account for my limits? (3) Why are things different? and (4) Why are we different? During the course, students learn about the distribution of characteristics in humans and other organisms, about how broad the "normal" range is, and about the diversity of matter and its limits. They explore the concept of setting standards—for example, speed limits based on human reaction time. They find out how technology can help humans overcome their limits.

Students also study the particle theory of matter as an example of the development and use of a scientific model to explain the properties of materials. They study the chromosome theory of inheritance as an explanation for diversity among humans. They examine ethical issues associated with genetic engineering.

Among the activities in the course, for example, students collect data on human limits and diversity by doing investigations about vision and graphing the data to produce normal curves. They also devise tests or methods to determine the best paper towel from among a sampling of brands; this activity introduces them

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

to the concepts of criteria, constraints, and final decisions as they apply to the design of a product. Students also design toy boats and airplanes to explore the design process and product diversity.

Material in the 4 units is presented in 3 formats: readings, investigations, and "connections" sections. The readings explain concepts and ideas underlying the investigations; the investigations, many of which are open-ended, pose a question for students to answer or a problem for them to solve; the connections features, consisting of activities or discussions, allow students to reflect on their work and to make connections between key ideas.

Other text features include "sidelights" and "how to" sections. Sidelights present material such as career descriptions, interesting facts, or historical highlights related to unit topics and themes. Examples include discussions of the limits and diversity of animal senses—such as the poor eyesight of bats and their use of echolocation—or the importance of ergonomics to the design process. "How to" sections explain a particular skill, such as constructing a graph.

Teacher's Edition This wraparound edition includes background information and an overview of each unit, including an overview of the cooperative learning skills emphasized. The guide also provides information on teaching strategies, lesson preparation notes, and materials charts.

Program Resources and Support Materials A combination teacher's guide and resource book offers a 2-week introductory unit for students in cooperative learning. It also includes safety procedures, blackline masters, and other information designed to enhance the teaching of the program. Topics include cooperative learning, learning styles, concept mapping, assessment strategies, and suggestions for integrating educational technology. A program implementation guide is also available.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; form and function.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; reproduction and heredity; diversity and adaptations of organisms.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science.

Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-8403-6678-7), $44.90. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-8403-6679-5), $89.90. Teacher's resource package, $69.90. Kit, $1,403.90. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.5 Investigating Patterns of Change.

Middle School Science and Technology series. Developed by Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) (Colorado Springs, Colo.). Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1994.

Program Overview The Middle School Science and Technology series is a 3-year thematic program that integrates the life, earth, and physical sciences and emphasizes technology as a process for solving problems. The curriculum includes investigations, simulations, debates, plays, outdoor activities, research projects, and creative-writing projects. The titles of the 3 year-long courses—Investigating Patterns of Change, Investigating Diversity and Limits, and Investigating Systems and Change—reflect the program's unifying themes. Each course incorporates cooperative learning strategies. Components of the program include the student book, teacher's edition, teacher's resource package, implementation guide, and kit of materials.

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 6-7. Reading level: early 8. In Investigating Patterns of Change, students learn about a variety of patterns in the natural world and about the relationship between patterns and prediction. The 4 units in the course focus on the following questions: (1) How does my world change? (2) How do we explain patterns of change on earth? (3) How do we adjust to patterns of change? and (4) How can we change patterns?

During the course, students use photographs to search for patterns in nature; they identify factors that can change the patterns in plant growth or in how well a medicine works; and they learn to use patterns to make predictions and to develop scientific explanations. Students also learn how scientists and others have recognized and used patterns to develop explanations of some of the earth's features. They look at the locations of volcanoes and earthquakes and learn about the ages of rocks and the surface features of the ocean floor in order to develop their own explanation for earthquakes and volcanoes. Students learn about patterns that support the theory of plate tectonics, about patterns

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

related to the occurrence of weather, and about patterns such as garbage generation and accumulation associated with the increasing size of human populations.

Examples of investigations include interpreting sales charts from a fast-food company and predicting future sales results, looking at maps to discover patterns on the earth, observing the pattern of air movements in a convection box, testing the wind-resistance of different building shapes, and examining water movement in model landfills to understand how water can move through landfills and become polluted.

Material in the 4 units is presented in 3 formats: readings, investigations, and "connections" sections. The readings explain concepts and ideas underlying the investigations; the investigations, many of which are open-ended, pose a question for students to answer or a problem for them to solve; the connections features, consisting of activities or discussions, allow students to reflect on their work and to make connections between key ideas.

Other text features include "sidelights" and "how to" sections. Sidelights present material such as career descriptions, interesting facts, or historical highlights related to unit topics and themes. Examples include discussions of lodestones and the meaning of the term "in the doldrums." "How to" sections explain a particular skill, such as rounding off numbers or using a balance.

Teacher's Edition This wraparound edition includes background information and an overview of each unit, including an overview of the cooperative learning skills emphasized. The guide also provides teaching strategies, lesson preparation notes, and materials charts.

Program Resources and Support Materials A combination teacher's guide and resource book offers a 2-week introductory unit for students in cooperative learning. It also includes safety procedures, blackline masters, and other information designed to enhance the teaching of the program. Topics include cooperative learning, learning styles, concept mapping, assessment strategies, and suggestions for integrating educational technology. A program implementation guide is also available.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; form and function.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth's history; earth in the solar system.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Populations, resources, and environments; natural hazards; risks and benefits; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science.

Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-8403-6676-0), $44.90. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-8403-6677-9), $89.90. Teacher's resource package, $69.90. Kit, $1,351.90. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.6 Investigating Systems and Change.

Middle School Science and Technology series. Developed by Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) (Colorado Springs, Colo.). Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1994.

Program Overview The Middle School Science and Technology series is a 3-year thematic program that integrates the life, earth, and physical sciences and emphasizes technology as a process for solving problems. The curriculum includes investigations, simulations, debates, plays, outdoor activities, research projects, and creative-writing projects. The titles of the 3 year-long courses—Investigating Patterns of Change, Investigating Diversity and Limits, and Investigating Systems and Change—reflect the program's unifying themes. Each course incorporates cooperative learning strategies. Components of the program include the student book, teacher's edition, teacher's resource package, implementation guide, and kit of materials.

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 8+. Reading level: early 11. During the 4 units in Investigating Systems and Change, students focus on the following questions: (1) How much can things change and still remain the same? (2) How do things change? (3) How can we improve our use of energy? and (4) What are the limits to growth? During the course, students learn about systems in and out of balance, including human body processes and how drugs affect those processes. Students are introduced to the theory of evolution as an example of an idea that has changed over time and as a scientific explanation for changes in living organisms. They also learn about the role of technological systems in solving energy problems. Finally, through the study of population

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

systems, students learn about the interrelationships that influence systemwide change.

Examples of activities include investigating chemical balance in the stomach, constructing a scatter plot on the length and width of replicas of fossilized horse teeth to determine how horses have changed over time, designing and constructing a water-heating system, building and using a simple galvanometer as they investigate the benefits and costs of using different energy inputs to generate electricity, and observing the growth of a Daphnia colony.

Material in the 4 units is presented in 3 formats: readings, investigations, and "connections" sections. The readings explain concepts and ideas underlying the investigations; the investigations, many of which are open-ended, pose a question for students to answer or a problem for them to solve; the connections features, consisting of activities or discussions, allow students to reflect on their work and to make connections between key ideas.

Other text features include "sidelights" and "how to" sections. Sidelights present material such as career descriptions, interesting facts, or historical highlights related to unit topics and themes. Examples include discussions of the history of vaccines and ozone depletion. "How to" sections explain a particular skill, such as determining pulse rate or constructing a scatter plot.

Teacher's Edition This wraparound edition includes background information and an overview of each unit, including an overview of the cooperative learning skills emphasized. The guide also provides information on teaching strategies, lesson preparation notes, and materials charts.

Program Resources and Support Materials A combination teacher's guide and resource book offers a 2-week introductory unit for students in cooperative learning. It also includes safety procedures, blackline masters, and other information designed to enhance the teaching of the program. Topics include cooperative learning, learning styles, concept mapping, assessment strategies, and suggestions for integrating educational technology. A program implementation guide is also available.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; evolution and equilibrium; form and function.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; regulation and behavior; populations and ecosystems; diversity and adaptations of organisms.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Earth's history.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Personal health; populations, resources, and environments; natural hazards; risks and benefits; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science.

Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-8403-6680-9), $44.90. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-8403-6681-7), $89.90. Teacher's resource package, $69.90. Kit, $2,495.00. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.7 The Local Environment.

2nd ed. Francis M. Pottenger III and Donald B. Young. Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST) series. FAST 1. Honolulu, Hawaii: Curriculum Research and Development Group, 1992.

Program Overview The Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST) series is an interdisciplinary science program consisting of 3 courses for middle, junior, and senior high school students. Each 1-year course is organized in 3 strands—physical science (chemistry and physics), ecology (biological and earth sciences), and relational study. The ecology and physical science strands, which provide the formal science content, are intended to be presented concurrently by alternating short sequences of investigations from each strand. The relational study strand integrates the sciences, technology, and society. Components of the program include the student book, teacher's guide, several reference booklets for each course, and other optional teacher support materials.

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 7-8. Reading level: late 8. The Local Environment is organized in 9 units consisting of 88 lab investigations. In the physical science strand of this textbook, students investigate basic concepts, including mass, volume, and density, as well as the relationships between density and buoyancy. They also investigate the melting, freezing, boiling, and condensing of pure substances and mixtures and use their knowledge of changes of state to identify unknown substances. They invent heat-measuring devices and derive the calorie as a standard unit of heat measurement.

In the ecology strand of the course, students investigate plants, animals, and the physical environment, focusing on interrelationships

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

among them. They learn about plant growth, animal care, the water cycle, soil composition, the atmosphere, weather and climate, field mapping, and population sampling. They investigate the effects of scarification on the germination of seeds, consider the effect of the environment on plant propagation, and build a weather station and analyze the data they collect.

In the relational study strand, students focus on the interrelationships of physical science and ecology by using their knowledge of the environment and of the properties of matter to study air pollution and water resource management issues.

Each lab investigation contains brief background information, directions, and questions to guide student learning. The investigations are designed for small, cooperative groups. An appendix provides information on basic units of metric measurement and directions on how to use measurement devices such as a balance and a graduated cylinder.

Teacher's Guide Keyed to investigations in the student book, this guide contains teaching suggestions, advice on classroom procedures, and detailed discussions of the conceptual and practical progression of the student investigations. It also includes materials and equipment lists, suggested schedules, and other information for using the program.

Program Resources and Support Materials A variety of support materials is available, including 6 student reference booklets—on field mapping, weather instruments, air pollution, plant propagation, animal care, and sampling methods. These booklets describe the use of instruments, suggest experimental designs, outline laboratory techniques, and provide supplemental information for investigations. A student record book with data tables and space for recording notes and observations is also available.

An instructional guide for teachers explains the philosophy and design of the FAST program and suggests schedules, sequences, and strategies for organizing and managing classes. An evaluation guide includes tests for assessing laboratory skills and understanding of concepts and an inventory of skills and concepts.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; regulation and behavior.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Populations, resources, and environments; natural hazards; risks and benefits; science and technology in society.

Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-937049-67-0), $21.95. Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-937049-68-9), $85.00. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: University of Hawaii at Manoa. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.8 Matter and Energy in the Biosphere.

2nd ed. Francis M. Pottenger III, Donald B. Young, and E. Barbara Klemm. Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST) series. FAST 2. Honolulu, Hawaii: Curriculum Research and Development Group, 1994.

Program Overview The Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST) series is an interdisciplinary science program consisting of 3 courses for middle, junior, and senior high school students. Each 1-year course is organized in 3 strands—physical science (chemistry and physics), ecology (biological and earth sciences), and relational study. The ecology and physical science strands, which provide the formal science content, are intended to be presented concurrently by alternating short sequences of investigations from each strand. The relational study strand integrates the sciences, technology, and society. Components of the program include the student book, teacher's guide, several reference booklets for each course, and other optional teacher support materials.

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 8+. Reading level: middle 8. Matter and Energy in the Biosphere is organized in 8 units consisting of 69 lab investigations and activities designed to teach students about the transfer of matter and energy through ecosystems. In the physical sciences strand of this textbook, students investigate the nature of light and heat, search for evidence of an atomic structure of matter, and explore the kinetic molecular model of matter. In the ecology strand, they investigate the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition, and they develop an understanding of the interdependence of all living organisms. In the relational study strand, they engage in decision-making situations

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

that require them to analyze such global problems as shortages of food or of fossil fuel. They also design, create, and maintain a balanced microecosystem and a forced microecosystem, and they measure all inputs and outputs of each system.

Each lab investigation contains brief background information, directions, and questions to guide student learning. The investigations are designed for small, cooperative groups. An appendix provides information on basic units of metric measurement and directions on how to use measurement devices such as a balance and a graduated cylinder.

Teacher's Guide Keyed to investigations in the student book, this guide contains teaching suggestions, advice on classroom procedures, and detailed discussions of the conceptual and practical progression of the student investigations. It also includes materials and equipment lists, suggested schedules, and other information for using the program.

Program Resources and Support Materials A variety of support materials is available, including 6 student reference booklets—on elements and compounds, gases, chromatography, composting, components of biomass, and field productivity. These booklets describe the use of instruments, suggest experimental designs, outline laboratory techniques, and provide additional information.

An instructional guide for teachers explains the philosophy and design of the FAST program and suggests schedules, sequences, and strategies for organizing and managing classes. An evaluation guide includes tests for assessing laboratory skills and understanding of concepts and an inventory of skills and concepts.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; populations and ecosystems.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Populations, resources, and environments; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: History of science.

Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-937049-83-2), $21.95. Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-937049-84-0), $85.00. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: University of Hawaii at Manoa. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.9 Middle Grades Science: A Problem-Solving Approach, Sixth Grade.

Helen M. Parke, Charles R. Coble, and Rita M. Elliott. Middle Grades Science series. Greenville, N.C.: Helen Meriwether Parke, 1996.

Program Overview The Middle Grades Science series is an integrated science program for middle school students (grades 6, 7, and 8). The program uses a "spiral" approach to teaching science content and is designed around an evolving story line. Each year-long course is based on investigations of a series of questions that focus on scientific concepts and their relationship to the real-world. Concepts are drawn from biology, chemistry, earth and space science, and physics. Components of the program include teacher's guides—1 for each grade level, a program handbook, and a technology supplement.

Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 6. Reading level: early 7. Middle Grades Science: A Problem-Solving Approach, Sixth Grade consists of 5 modules that address the following questions: (1) Where are we in the solar system? (2) How can we tell where we are? (3) How do we interact with our dynamic world? (4) What do we need to survive? and (5) What do we need to do to survive? During the unit, students explore the features and characteristics of the components of our solar system; the relative position and relative motion of the earth with respect to the sun; navigation methods; rocks and soil; properties of air; the composition of the earth's atmosphere; the different forms of water and the location of water on the earth's surface; classification of life forms; and the relationships between populations, communities, and ecosystems.

Among the activities in the module, for example, students make a scale model of the relative sizes of the planets, construct and use a compass, and investigate the relationship between the apparent motion of the sun and shadow movement. They also examine soil samples to determine the composition of soil, design insulators and conductors from different materials, and observe the growth and development of mealworms, pumpkin seeds, and mold.

Investigations in the unit range from hands-on activities to "WeSearches," requiring teams of students

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

to search the literature and the Internet for information. Questions are used throughout the unit to engage students in the investigations, to foster deeper inquiry, or to make connections with other ideas. Also included are suggestions for activities to help students make connections with art, mathematics, social studies, creative writing, and communication skills. Background information for the teacher is presented at the beginning of each lesson. Blackline masters for student handouts and suggestions for homework and student assessment are provided.

Program Resources and Support Materials A teacher's handbook provides an overview of the Middle Grades Science program, an in-depth view of one of the lessons, and information on the alignment of the curriculum content with North Carolina's state science framework, with the National Research Council's National Science Education Standards, and with the Benchmarks of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. A technology supplement provides sample science lessons that incorporate the use of technology; the supplement includes 5 lessons for the sixth-grade course.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; populations and ecosystems.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth in the solar system.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science.

Prices: Teacher's guide, $40. Handbook, $10. Technology supplement, $30. Publisher/supplier: Helen M. Parke. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.10 Middle Grades Science: A Problem-Solving Approach, Seventh Grade.

Helen M. Parke, Charles R. Coble, and Rita M. Elliott. Middle Grades Science series. Greenville, N.C.: Helen Meriwether Parke, 1996.

Program Overview The Middle Grades Science series is an integrated science program for middle school students (grades 6, 7, and 8). The program uses a "spiral" approach to teaching science content and is designed around an evolving story line. Each year-long course is based on investigations of a series of questions that focus on scientific concepts and their relationship to the real-world. Concepts are drawn from biology, chemistry, earth and space science, and physics. Components of the program include teacher's guides—1 for each grade level, a program handbook, and a technology supplement.

Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 7. Reading level: early 7. Middle Grades Science: A Problem-Solving Approach, Seventh Grade consists of 4 modules that address the following questions: (1) What is a system? (2) What causes systems to operate? (3) How are systems connected? and (4) What happens to systems? Topics addressed in the unit include human body systems, the chemical and physical properties of matter, weather, forces and motion, energy transformations, photosynthesis, food as energy, genetics, and the environment.

Among the activities, students compare the automobile "system" to the human body system, determine the density of different metal cubes, and observe chemical reactions. They also collect weather data using weather instruments, they observe the relationship between plant growth and sunlight, and they research different sources and types of pollution.

Investigations in the unit range from hands-on activities to "WeSearches," requiring teams of students to search the literature and the Internet for information. Questions are used throughout the unit to engage students in the investigations, to foster deeper inquiry, or to make connections with other ideas. Also included are suggestions for activities to help students make connections with art, mathematics, social studies, creative writing, and communication skills. Background information for the teacher is presented at the beginning of each lesson. Blackline masters for student handouts and suggestions for homework and student assessment are provided.

Program Resources and Support Materials A teacher's handbook provides an overview of the Middle Grades Science program, an in-depth view of one of the lessons, and information on the alignment of the curriculum content with North Carolina's state science framework, with the National Research Council's National Science Education Standards, and with the Benchmarks of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. A technology supplement provides sample science lessons that incorporate the use of technology; the supplement includes 1 lesson for the seventh-grade course.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; form and function.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; motions and forces; transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; reproduction and heredity; regulation and behavior; populations and ecosystems.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Populations, resources, and environments; natural hazards; risks and benefits; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science.

Prices: Teacher's guide, $40. Handbook; $10. Technology supplement, $30. Publisher/supplier: Helen M. Parke. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.11 Middle Grades Science: A Problem-Solving Approach, Eighth Grade.

Helen M. Parke, Charles R. Coble, and Rita M. Elliott. Middle Grades Science series. Greenville, N.C.: Helen Meriwether Parke, 1996.

Program Overview The Middle Grades Science series is an integrated science program for middle school students (grades 6, 7, and 8). The program uses a "spiral" approach to teaching science content and is designed around an evolving story line. Each year-long course is based on investigations of a series of questions that focus on scientific concepts and their relationship to the real-world. Concepts are drawn from biology, chemistry, earth and space science, and physics. Components of the program include teacher's guides—1 for each grade level, a program handbook, and a technology supplement.

Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 8. Reading level: middle 7. Middle Grades Science: A Problem-Solving Approach, Eighth Grade consists of 4 modules that address the following questions: (1) What is the scale of change? (2) How does change occur? (3) What are controlling factors of change? and (4) How do people change their environment? Topics addressed in the unit include geological changes over time, extinction, diversity and natural selection, matter and chemical reactions, energy transformations, electricity and magnetism, and the effect of human choices on changes in the local environment.

Among the activities, students use models to visualize changes in the crust of the earth through continental drift, and they compare limb skeletons of different animals. They also observe chemical reactions, identify materials that act as conductors and insulators of electrical current, and research the environmental impact of road construction.

Investigations in the unit range from hands-on activities to "WeSearches," requiring teams of students to search the literature and the Internet for information. Questions are used throughout the unit to engage students in the investigations, to foster deeper inquiry, or to make connections with other ideas. Also included are suggestions for activities to help students make connections with art, mathematics, social studies, creative writing, and communication skills. Background information for the teacher is presented at the beginning of each lesson. Blackline masters for student handouts and suggestions for homework and student assessment are provided.

Program Resources and Support Materials A teacher's handbook provides an overview of the Middle Grades Science program, an in-depth view of one of the lessons, and information on the alignment of the curriculum content with North Carolina's state science framework, with the National Research Council's National Science Education Standards, and with the Benchmarks of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. A technology supplement provides sample science lessons that incorporate the use of technology; the supplement includes 5 lessons for the eighth-grade course.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; evolution and equilibrium.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Populations and ecosystems; diversity and adaptations of organisms.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth's history.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Populations, resources, and environments; natural hazards; risks and benefits.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science.

Prices: Teacher's guide, $40. Handbook, $10. Technology supplement, $30. Publisher/supplier: Helen M. Parke. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×
5.12 Models and Designs.

Full Option Science System (FOSS) series. Developed by Lawrence Hall of Science (Berkeley, Calif.). Hudson, N.H.: Delta Education, 1992.

Program Overview The Full Option Science System (FOSS) program is a K-6 science curriculum consisting of 27 stand-alone modules. The 8 modules for grades 5-6 are organized under topics in the life, physical, and earth sciences and in scientific reasoning and technology. They can be used in any order. The FOSS program is designed to engage students in scientific concepts through multisensory, hands-on laboratory activities. All modules of the program incorporate 5 unifying themes— (1) pattern, (2) structure, (3) interaction, (4) change, and (5) system. The components of a FOSS module are a teacher's guide and a kit of materials.

Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 5-6 The Models and Designs module provides students with experiences that develop the concept of a scientific model and engage them in the processes of design and construction. Students work in cooperative groups to create solutions to a variety of real-world problems as they consider the relationship of structure to function. They use their senses to investigate sealed black boxes, and then they develop conceptual models of the boxes' contents and construct physical models to test their ideas. Students engineer a model that replicates the behavior of another model—a fanciful device called a hum dinger. They construct a self-propelled cart of their own design and modify the cart to perform specific tricks.

Models and Designs consists of 4 activities, requiring about 12 class sessions to complete. The teacher's guide includes a module overview, the 4 individual activity folios, duplication masters (in English and Spanish) for student sheets, and an annotated bibliography.

This module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; form and function.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Nature of science.

Prices: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-7826-0075-1), $101. Complete kit, $495. Publisher/supplier: Delta Education. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit.

5.13 The Nature of Science.

3rd ed. Anthea Maton, Jean Hopkins, Susan Johnson, and others. Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1997.

Program Overview The Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series is a program for middle school or junior high school students. Designed to cover all relevant areas of science, this program consists of 19 books, each in a particular topic area, such as the nature of science, sound and light, and the planet earth. Seven science themes are incorporated into the program; the themes are energy, evolution, patterns of change, scale and structure, systems and interactions, unity and diversity, and stability. For each unit, teaching materials, ancillary student materials, and some optional components are available.

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 7-8. Reading level: middle 7. The Nature of Science, which helps students develop the attitudes and skills necessary for the study of science, is organized in 3 chapters: (1) "What Is Science?," (2) "Measurement and the Sciences," and (3) "Tools and the Sciences." During the course, students use the scientific method of problem solving. They become familiar with the basic rules of lab safety. They learn how to make measurements using the metric system and are introduced to the metric units for length, mass, volume, and temperature and to the tools (such as the metric ruler, triple-beam balance, and Celsius thermometer) for making measurements in those units. Students also learn about the different kinds of microscopes, telescopes, and other scientific instruments that scientists use.

Each chapter includes a lab investigation. Students explore variables that affect the growth of bread mold. They compare measurements of the same objects to discover the uncertainty of measurements. They construct and use a refracting telescope.

Each chapter contains comprehensive reading sections that introduce science methods and skills. Suggestions are provided for activities in which students "find out by doing," "find out by reading," and "find out by writing." Other activities are also suggested—for example, finding out if salt affects plant growth, or creating a measurement system using classroom objects as standards.

Other features include problem-solving challenges, science career descriptions, and science connections to real-world events or issues.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

The student edition closes with readings on 3 topics: (1) physicist Stephen Hawking's search for a link between the quantum theory and the force of gravity, (2) efforts to regulate the whaling industry, and (3) a fictional account of space mining.

Teacher's Edition In the teacher's wraparound edition, each chapter begins with a 2-page planning guide and a 2-page preview that summarizes each section within the chapter. The teacher's edition also provides suggestions for teaching, guiding, integrating, and closing lessons, as well as enrichments, extensions, and answers to questions in the student text.

Supplementary Laboratory Manual The supplementary lab manual provides 8 investigations directly correlated with the information presented in the student textbook. Examples of investigations include forming a hypothesis about whether seeds need water to grow, testing the hypothesis, and drawing a conclusion based on the observations; learning how to measure the volume and temperature of a liquid accurately; and observing objects under a microscope.

Program Resources and Support Materials A variety of materials, including some optional components, is available. A teacher's resource package contains the student edition and annotated teacher's editions of both the textbook and the lab manual, as well as a test book, an activity book, a review-and-reinforcement guide, and English and Spanish audiotapes for auditory and language learners. Other available materials include interactive videodiscs, transparencies, assessment materials, English and Spanish guides for language learners, a study guide, a teacher's desk reference, and a booklet of product-testing activities.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science.

Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-13-418708-3), $9.97. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-13-423260-7), $22.97. Teacher's resource package, $112.97. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Prentice Hall. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.14 Prime Science: Level A.

Prime Science Education Group. Prime Science series. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1998.

Program Overview The Prime Science series is an interdisciplinary science program for middle and high school students. It consists of 5 textbooks (Levels A, B, and C for grades 6, 7, and 8, respectively, and Levels 1 and 2 for grades 9 and 10). The program uses a "spiral" approach to teaching science content and skills. Concepts from biology, chemistry, earth and space science, and physics, as well as the applications of science, are incorporated throughout the program. Science topics are introduced in personal and social contexts—for example, ideas about speed and motion are presented in the context of travel and road safety. Each course consists of a student textbook, a teacher's guide, and a test bank on a diskette.

Student Textbook Recommended grade level: 6. Reading level: middle 6. Prime Science: Level A is organized in 8 chapters that cover a wide range of topics: phase changes of matter; insulators and conductors; the structure of plant and animal cells; how individual animals and plants vary; the growth of trees and the production of paper; the moon, satellites, and space travel; personal hygiene and appearance; electricity, computers, and electronics; and human growth and development. The amount of time devoted to individual topics varies widely, depending on the difficulty of the concepts being presented.

Each chapter begins with an introductory page, which sets the context for the chapter. The bulk of each chapter consists of activity pages. Examples of activities include using litmus paper to test soil acidity, testing the effectiveness of a solvent, comparing rotten wood with wood that has not been attacked by fungi, observing and recording the phases of the moon, assembling simple circuits and drawing conventional diagrams to represent them, and experimenting to find out how shampoo works. Suggestions are given at the end of each unit for further activities, discussions, or reports. An "in brief" section at the end of each chapter provides a summary of the key ideas developed in the chapter. A "things to do" section provides additional ideas for extension activities.

Teacher's Guide The teacher's guide provides detailed guidelines and suggestions for lab work, demonstrations, and writing activities. It also provides chapter overviews, lesson notes, materials lists, safety requirements, blackline masters for student work, answers to student

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

textbook questions, and sample assessment items with answers. A test bank is available on diskette.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; form and function.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; reproduction and heredity; regulation and behavior.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth in the solar system.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Personal health; populations, resources, and environments; natural hazards; risks and benefits; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science.

Prices: Student textbook (ISBN 0-7872-0357-2), $24.90. Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-7872-0358-0), $99.90. Publisher/supplier: Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.15 Prime Science: level B.

Prime Science Education Group. Prime Science series. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1998.

Program Overview The Prime Science series is an interdisciplinary science program for middle and high school students. It consists of 5 textbooks (Levels A, B, and C for grades 6, 7, and 8, respectively, and Levels 1 and 2 for grades 9 and 10). The program uses a "spiral" approach to teaching science content and skills. Concepts from biology, chemistry, earth and space science, and physics, as well as the applications of science, are incorporated throughout the program. Science topics are introduced in personal and social contexts—for example, ideas about speed and motion are presented in the context of travel and road safety. Each course consists of a student textbook, a teacher's guide, and a test bank on a diskette.

Student Textbook Recommended grade level: 7. Reading level: middle 6. Prime Science: level B is organized in 9 chapters that cover a wide range of topics: light, mirrors, and lenses; fruits and vegetables and where they come from; the chemistry of combustion; storing and transferring energy; soil, rocks, and minerals; human health; sound; plant growth; and fabrics. The amount of time devoted to individual topics varies widely, depending on the difficulty of the concepts being presented.

Each chapter begins with an introductory page, which sets the context for the chapter. The bulk of each chapter consists of activity pages. Examples of activities include recording light meter readings at different distances from a bulb, examining flowers and pollen grains under a microscope, exploring the use of binary codes to produce music or control a car, studying the effect of heat on different materials, drawing energy flow diagrams for moving toys, observing the different types of particles present in a soil sample, and investigating the effectiveness of aspirin for prolonging the freshness of cut flowers. An "in brief" section at the end of each chapter provides a summary of the key ideas developed in the chapter. A "things to do" section provides additional ideas for extension activities.

Teacher's Guide The teacher's guide provides detailed guidelines and suggestions for lab work, demonstrations, and writing activities. It also provides chapter overviews, lesson notes, materials lists, safety requirements, blackline masters for student work, answers to student textbook questions, and sample assessment items with answers. A test bank is available on diskette.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; form and function.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; motions and forces; transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; reproduction and heredity; regulation and behavior; populations and ecosystems.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth in the solar system.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Personal health; populations, resources, and environments; risks and benefits; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor, history of science.

Prices: Student textbook (ISBN 0-7872-0359-9), $24.90. Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-7872-0360-2), $99.90. Publisher/supplier: Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×
5.16 Prime Science: Level C.

Prime Science Education Group. Prime Science series. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1998.

Program Overview The Prime Science series is an interdisciplinary science program for middle and high school students. It consists of 5 textbooks (Levels A, B, and C for grades 6, 7, and 8, respectively, and Levels 1 and 2 for grades 9 and 10). The program uses a "spiral" approach to teaching science content and skills. Concepts from biology, chemistry, earth and space science, and physics, as well as the applications of science, are incorporated throughout the program. Science topics are introduced in personal and social contexts—for example, ideas about speed and motion are presented in the context of travel and road safety. Each course consists of a student textbook, a teacher's guide, and a test bank on a diskette.

Student Textbook Recommended grade level: 8. Reading level: middle 7. Prime Science: Level C is organized in 10 chapters that cover a wide range of topics: plants and plant growth, food chains and food webs, forces, simple machines, water and the water cycle, earth and the solar system, color and light, lenses and mirrors, food, speed and motion, human growth and development, properties and uses of materials, electricity, electromagnets, weather, and pollution.

Each chapter begins with an introductory page, which sets the context for the chapter. The bulk of each chapter consists of activity pages. Examples of activities include investigating how changes in conditions—such as light—influence the rate of photosynthesis; making and testing reinforced beams; making and testing a model backhoe; investigating the properties of carbonated water; exploring the refraction of light by prisms; testing foods for the presence of starch, sugar, fats, or protein; investigating the relationship between speed and braking distance for a model car; designing an educational campaign about AIDS; and comparing the physical properties of metals, ceramics, plastics, and woods. An "in brief" section at the end of each chapter provides a summary of the key ideas developed in the chapter. A "things to do" section provides additional ideas for extension activities.

Teacher's Guide The teacher's guide provides detailed guidelines and suggestions for lab work, demonstrations, and writing activities. It also provides chapter overviews, lesson notes, materials lists, safety requirements, blackline masters for student work, answers to student textbook questions, and sample assessment items with answers. A test bank is available on diskette.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; form and function.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; motions and forces; transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living organisms; reproduction and heredity; populations and ecosystems.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth in the solar system.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Personal health; natural hazards; risks and benefits; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: History of science.

Prices: Student textbook (ISBN 0-7872-0361-0), $29.90. Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-7872-0362-9), $99.90. Publisher/supplier: Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.17 Science Interactions: Course 1.

Bill Aldridge, Russell Aiuto, Jack Ballinger, and others. Science Interactions series. New York, N.Y.: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 1995.

Program Overview The Science Interactions series is a complete program for middle or junior high school students, consisting of 3 textbooks— Course 1, Course 2, and Course 3. This integrated program is based on the premise that many areas of science depend on the fundamentals of physics and chemistry. During the 3-year program, each course first introduces basic concepts of physics and chemistry, followed by related topics in life and earth sciences and further topics in physics and chemistry. Each course also incorporates 4 science themes—energy, systems and interactions, scale and structure, and stability and change. In addition, connections are made among the sciences and with other subjects such as art and literature. Extensive sets of materials and resources, including some optional components, are available.

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 6-7. Reading level: middle 6. Science Interactions: Course 1 is organized in 5 units: (1) "Observing the World around You," (2) "Interactions

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

in the Physical World," (3) "Interactions in the Living World," (4) "Changing Systems," and (5) "Wave Motion." During the course, students use sight and hearing to observe patterns and landforms on earth and in the sky. They identify and classify substances by their physical and chemical properties. They gain an appreciation of the similarities and differences among living organisms. Students also investigate motion and learn how the motion of water, wind, and ice changes the physical appearance of the earth and how it can change the overall ecology of the planet. They study waves, earthquakes, volcanoes, and the interactions between earth and the moon.

Examples of the lab investigations that students conduct during Course 1 are these: observing how colored lights and pigments affect what we see, determining how the length of an air column affects pitch, investigating the solubility of table sugar in water at different temperatures, determining the effect of water on the speed of seed germination, conducting an experiment to examine factors that affect the period of a pendulum, and plotting the location of active volcanoes and earthquakes.

Each of the 19 chapters in Course 1 contains a variety of brief reading sections, charts, tables, and graphics. These are interwoven with "explore" activities to introduce students to new concepts; "find out" activities that require students to explore concepts in greater depth and to collect and analyze data; and longer "investigate" activities that encourage students to form hypotheses, manipulate variables, and collect quantitative data. The activities offer a combination of open-ended and structured hands-on experiences.

Special end-of-unit reading shorts feature explanations of how everyday items work; highlight teens in science; and provide science connections to society, technology, art, history, geography, literature, and other subjects.

Teacher's Edition The wraparound teacher's edition provides information on the conceptual and thematic development of each lesson; includes strategies to motivate, teach, assess, extend, and close each lesson; and provides multicultural perspectives, chapter organizers, ideas for student journal activities, and suggestions for student portfolios.

Supplementary Laboratory Manual The supplementary lab manual provides 39 additional investigations—complete with set-up diagrams, data tables, and space for student responses—directly correlated with the information presented in the student textbook. For example, students construct a sextant and determine approximate latitude in degrees. They also discover what happens when they shine a light through 2 prisms; dissect a preserved cow eye; and investigate the effect of particle size, temperature, and stirring on the dissolving rate of a solute.

In other investigations, students identify acids and bases, observe differences between cyanobacteria and bacteria, and build a condition chamber for pillbugs to determine what environmental conditions pillbugs prefer. They also measure and analyze the flight times of a projectile, graph data on tides and predict future changes in sea level, and compare the velocities of points at different locations on earth as the earth rotates. Extension activities are included with each lab.

Program Resources and Support Materials A full range of resource materials is available, including science discovery activities, activity masters, home activities, a study guide, concept maps for each chapter, critical-thinking and problem-solving exercises, multicultural activities, assessments, color transparencies, Spanish-language resources, and videodisc programs.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; evolution and equilibrium; form and function.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; motions and forces; transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; reproduction and heredity; regulation and behavior; populations and ecosystems; diversity and adaptations of organisms.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth's history; earth in the solar system.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Populations, resources, and environments; natural hazards; risks and benefits; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science.

Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-02-826752-4), $43.45. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-02-826753-2), $55.62. Teaching resources package, $286.61. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×
5.18 Science Interactions: Course 2.

Bill Aldridge, Russell Aiuto, Jack Ballinger, and others. Science Interactions series. New York, N.Y.: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 1995.

Program Overview The Science Interactions series is a complete program for middle or junior high school students, consisting of 3 textbooks— Course 1, Course 2, and Course 3. This integrated program is based on the premise that many areas of science depend on the fundamentals of physics and chemistry. During the 3-year program, each course first introduces basic concepts of physics and chemistry, followed by related topics in life and earth sciences and further topics in physics and chemistry. Each course also incorporates 4 science themes—energy, systems and interactions, scale and structure, and stability and change. In addition, connections are made among the sciences and with other subjects such as art and literature. Extensive sets of materials and resources, including some optional components, are available.

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 7-8. Reading level: early 9. Science Interactions: Course 2 is organized in 5 units: (1) "Forces in Action," (2) "Energy at Work," (3) "Earth Materials and Resources," (4) "Air: Molecules in Motion," and (5) "Life at the Cellular Level." During the course, students explore the physical forces that act on moving objects, they learn about the forces that cause earthquakes and volcanoes, and they learn about the forces that cause blood to flow within the blood vessels. Students also learn to compare and contrast metallic and nonmetallic materials, and they learn about the special properties of some minerals. They observe how gases are affected by temperature and pressure as they study gases, atoms, and molecules. They learn about the structures of different cells and the functions of the structures, and they learn about the basic chemical reactions that occur in cells and why these reactions are essential to life.

Examples of the lab investigations that students conduct during the 5 units are these: predicting and experimentally verifying the effect of mass on acceleration; measuring and comparing an earthworm's pulse with a human pulse; designing an experiment to test reaction time; identifying minerals using different methods; and designing an experiment to observe the effect of exercise on the amount of carbon dioxide exhaled by the lungs.

Each of the 19 chapters in Course 2 contains a variety of brief reading sections, charts, tables, and graphics. These are interwoven with "explore" activities to introduce students to new concepts; "find out" activities that require students to explore concepts in greater depth and to collect and analyze data; and longer "investigate" activities that encourage students to form hypotheses, manipulate variables, and collect quantitative data. The activities offer a combination of open-ended and structured hands-on experiences.

Special end-of-unit reading shorts feature explanations of how everyday items work; highlight teens in science; and provide science connections to society, technology, art, history, geography, literature, and other subjects.

Teacher's Edition The wraparound teacher's edition provides information on the conceptual and thematic development of each lesson; includes strategies to motivate, teach, assess, extend, and close each lesson; and provides multicultural perspectives, chapter organizers, ideas for student journal activities, and suggestions for student portfolios.

Supplementary Laboratory Manual The supplementary lab manual provides 37 additional investigations—complete with set-up diagrams, data tables, and space for student responses—directly correlated with the information presented in the student textbook. For example, students determine the densities of freshwater, brine, and an egg; they use information from 5 seismograph stations to compute the location of an earthquake's epicenter; and they compare the properties of a single fixed pulley and a block and tackle. They also test foods for protein, construct a wave tank to simulate the action of waves on shorelines, construct a small solar water heater, and build and use a simple device to measure wind speed. Extension activities are included with each lab.

Program Resources and Support Materials A full range of resource materials is available, including science discovery activities, activity masters, home activities, a study guide, concept maps for each chapter, critical-thinking and problem-solving exercises, multicultural activities, assessments, color transparencies, Spanish-language resources, and videodisc programs.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; evolution and equilibrium; form and function.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; motions and forces; transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth's history.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Populations, resources, and environments; natural hazards; risks and benefits; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science.

Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-02-826804-0), $43.45. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-02-826805-9), $55.62. Teaching resources package, $286.61. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.19 Science Interactions: Course 3.

Bill Aldridge, Russell Aiuto, Jack Ballinger, and others. Science Interactions series. New York, N.Y.: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 1995.

Program Overview The Science Interactions series is a complete program for middle or junior high school students, consisting of 3 textbooks— Course 1, Course 2, and Course 3. This integrated program is based on the premise that many areas of science depend on the fundamentals of physics and chemistry. During the 3-year program, each course first introduces basic concepts of physics and chemistry, followed by related topics in life and earth sciences and further topics in physics and chemistry. Each course also incorporates 4 science themes—energy, systems and interactions, scale and structure, and stability and change. In addition, connections are made among the sciences and with other subjects such as art and literature. Extensive sets of materials and resources, including some optional components, are available.

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 8+. Reading level: middle 9. Science Interactions: Course 3 is organized in 5 units: (1) "Electricity and Magnetism," (2) "Atoms and Molecules," (3) "Our Fluid Environment," (4) "Changes in Life and Earth over Time," and (5) "Observing the World around You." During the course, students learn about electricity, magnetism, and electromagnetic waves; they become familiar with the basic structure of matter and its behavior; they learn how the movement of molecules is related to the overall movement of air and water in earth's atmosphere and oceans; and they study about the movement of blood in the human body. Students also learn about the movements of continents and the forces that cause those movements, the fossil record, and the concept of evolution. They learn about fission and fusion reactions and about changes in the solar system and the universe over time.

Examples of the lab activities that students conduct are these: experimenting to determine some of the factors that affect the strength of an electromagnet, and demonstrating the thermal expansion of a solid. Students also make a psychrometer to measure relative humidity, conduct tests to discover if lipids or carbohydrates are present in foods, and model magnetic data to support the hypothesis of seafloor spreading. They also construct a geologic time scale, and they measure the movement of sunspots to estimate the sun's period of rotation.

Each of the 20 chapters in Course 3 contains a variety of brief reading sections, charts, tables, and graphics. These are interwoven with "explore" activities to introduce students to new concepts; "find out" activities that require students to explore concepts in greater depth and to collect and analyze data; and longer "investigate" activities that encourage students to form hypotheses, manipulate variables, and collect quantitative data. The activities offer a combination of open-ended and structured hands-on experiences.

Special end-of-unit reading shorts feature explanations of how everyday items work; highlight teens in science; and provide science connections to society, technology, art, history, geography, literature, and other subjects.

Teacher's Edition The wraparound teacher's edition provides information on the conceptual and thematic development of each lesson; includes strategies to motivate, teach, assess, extend, and close each lesson; and provides multicultural perspectives, chapter organizers, ideas for student journal activities, and suggestions for student portfolios.

Supplementary Laboratory Manual The supplementary lab manual provides 41 additional investigations—complete with set-up diagrams, data tables, and space for student responses—directly correlated with the information presented in the student textbook. For example, students construct wet cells and electromagnets; they observe chemical reactions between metals and solutions containing ions of metals and then rank the metals by their activities; and they determine the relationship between reaction rate and temperature for the decomposition of sodium hypochlorite. Students also observe and record weather associated with various types of clouds, determine the relative amounts of vitamin C in different types of orange juice, and examine and compare genetic traits such as the shape of ear lobes. They also build an astronomical telescope, and they photograph the North Star in a time exposure and determine how many

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

degrees the earth rotated during the time exposure. Extension activities are included with each lab.

Program Resources and Support Materials A full range of resource materials is available, including science discovery activities, activity masters, home activities, a study guide, concept maps for each chapter, critical-thinking and problem-solving exercises, multicultural activities, assessments, color transparencies, Spanish-language resources, and videodisc programs.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; evolution and equilibrium; form and function.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; motions and forces; transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; reproduction and heredity; regulation and behavior; diversity and adaptations of organisms.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth's history; earth in the solar system.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Risks and benefits; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science.

Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-02-826856-3), $43.45. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-02-826857-1), $55.62. Teaching resources package, $286.61. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.20 SciencePlus Technology and Society: Level Green.

Earl S. Morrison, Alan Moore, Nan Armour, and others. SciencePlus Technology and Society series. Austin, Tex.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1997.

Program Overview The SciencePlus Technology and Society series consists of 3 year-long courses for middle school students. Each of the 3 textbooks—designated Level Green, Level Red, and Level Blue—integrates the life, earth, and physical sciences and incorporates the program's 5 science themes: energy, systems, structures, changes over time, and cycles. Cross-disciplinary connections are emphasized, and the impacts of scientific, technological, and science-related social issues are explored. For each course, an extensive set of materials and resources, including some optional components, is available for students and teachers.

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 6-7. Reading level: late 8. SciencePlus Technology and Society: Level Green is organized in 8 units: (1) "Science and Technology," (2) "Patterns of Living Things," (3) "It's a Small World," (4) "Investigating Matter," (5) "Chemical Changes," (6) "Energy and You," (7) "Temperature and Heat," and (8) "Our Changing Earth."

The course addresses the following topics: (1) Students learn about the nature of science and what scientists do. (2) They explore the characteristics of living things. (3) They learn about microorganisms and the relationships that exist between people and microorganisms. (4) They discuss matter and its properties. (5) They learn about the chemical nature of substances they encounter in everyday life. (6) They explore the concept of energy and its different forms. (7) They investigate the difference between heat and temperature. (8) They study how weathering, erosion, and deposition shape the surface of the earth.

Sample lab activities in this textbook include using a microscope to examine onion skin cells and human cheek cells; culturing microorganisms in the classroom, and then examining them under a microscope; and making compost. Students also construct a working thermometer, learn how to handle chemicals safely, observe chemical reactions, and make an acid-base indicator from cabbage leaves. In other activities, they construct a galvanometer, measure rates of energy consumption, test insulating materials, and create a model of tectonic plate movement by convection currents.

The 8 units in Level Green contain a total of 26 chapters. Each chapter consists of 2 to 5 lessons on closely related subject matter. At the beginning of each chapter, students describe what they already know about a subject by writing or drawing in a "ScienceLog." Then, through a variety of hands-on activities called "explorations," they observe scientific principles in action and test their misconceptions about specific science concepts. Reading sections on science concepts are interwoven with the activities.

Review sections are included at the end of each chapter and each unit. Special end-of-unit reading sections make connections among science, technology, society, and the arts. Other unit shorts are "weird science"—explanations of unusual creatures or phenomena—and stories about the lives and work of scientists.

The student edition is available with or without the "SourceBook," an in-text science reference that provides additional information which reinforces and extends each unit. Because it is not designed for hands-on exploration, the "SourceBook" lends itself to reading at home or outside the classroom.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

Teacher's Edition The wraparound teacher's edition includes a 6-page introductory section for each unit. These sections and the wraparound margins contain information on applying unit themes, using program videodiscs, and managing the program. Planning charts provide suggestions for organizing content, materials, activities, and program resources. Also included are homework options; an assessment planning guide; a resources section; suggestions for creating customized instructional programs; and teaching strategies, exercises, and multicultural extensions.

Program Resource and Support Materials A variety of support materials is available, including 8 teaching resource booklets (1 for each unit) with reproducible worksheets and assessment materials and the student "SourceBook." Other support materials include transparencies; a materials guide; instructions, barcodes, and worksheets for using Science Discovery, a videodisc program; audiocassette tapes in English and Spanish for each unit; assessment checklists and rubrics; and a list of test items (test generator software is also available).

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; form and function.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; reproduction and heredity; regulation and behavior; diversity and adaptations of organisms.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth's history.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Personal health; risks and benefits; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science.

Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-03-095090-2), $62.50. Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-03-095091-0), $114.50. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Harcourt Brace. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.21 SciencePlus Technology and Society: Level Red.

Earl S. Morrison, Alan Moore, Nan Armour, and others. SciencePlus Technology and Society series. Austin, Tex.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1997.

Program Overview The SciencePlus Technology and Society series consists of 3 year-long courses for middle school students. Each of the 3 textbooks—designated Level Green, Level Red, and Level Blue—integrates the life, earth, and physical sciences and incorporates the program's 5 science themes: energy, systems, structures, changes over time, and cycles. Cross-disciplinary connections are emphasized, and the impacts of scientific, technological, and science-related social issues are explored. For each course, an extensive set of materials and resources, including some optional components, is available for students and teachers.

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 7-8. Reading level: middle 8. SciencePlus Technology and Society: Level Red is organized in 8 units: (1) "Interactions," (2) "Diversity of Living Things," (3) "Solutions," (4) "Force and Motion," (5) "Structures and Design," (6) "The Restless Earth," (7) "Toward the Stars," and (8) "Growing Plants."

The course addresses the following topics: (1) Students identify some of the relationships—such as commensalism, mutualism, and parasitism—that exist among living things, and they investigate the interactions between humans and the environment. (2) They examine the diversity of living things, the possible reasons for diversity, and how scientists make sense of this diversity. (3) They investigate the properties of solutions. (4) They learn about the concepts of force and motion. (5) They explore the integrity of structures and the forces acting on these structures. (6) They study the processes of geological change. (7) They examine the structure of the universe and explore the theories used to explain common astronomical events. (8) They examine the relationship between the environment and plant life.

Sample lab activities in this textbook include studying a woodland, a forest floor, or a pond community in detail; analyzing water-soluble inks using paper chromatography; constructing and using force meters. Students also learn about the formation of igneous rocks by experimenting with stearic acid; they test the strength of different shapes made of different materials; they simulate the life of a star; and they investigate the effects of 5 variables on the growth of 3 types of plants.

The 8 units in Level Red contain a total of 25 chapters. Each chapter consists of 2 to 5 lessons on closely related subject matter. At the beginning of each chapter, students describe what they already know about a subject by writing or drawing in a "ScienceLog." Then, through a variety of hands-on activities called

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

"explorations," they observe scientific principles in action and test their misconceptions about specific science concepts. Reading sections on science concepts are interwoven with the activities.

Review sections are included at the end of each chapter and each unit. Special end-of-unit reading sections make connections among science, technology, society, and the arts. Other unit shorts are "weird science"—explanations of unusual creatures or phenomena—and stories about the lives and work of scientists.

The student edition is available with or without the "SourceBook," an in-text science reference that provides additional information, which reinforces and extends each unit. Because it is not designed for hands-on exploration, the "SourceBook" lends itself to reading at home or outside the classroom.

Teacher's Edition The wraparound teacher's edition includes a 6-page introductory section for each unit. These sections and the wraparound margins contain information on applying unit themes, using program videodiscs, and managing the program. Planning charts provide suggestions for organizing content, materials, activities, and program resources. Also included are homework options; an assessment planning guide; a resources section; suggestions for creating customized instructional programs; and teaching strategies, exercises, and multicultural extensions.

Program Resource and Support Materials A variety of support materials is available, including 8 teaching resource booklets (1 for each unit) with reproducible worksheets and assessment materials and the student "SourceBook." Other support materials include transparencies; a materials guide; instructions, barcodes, and worksheets for using Science Discovery, a videodisc program; audiocassette tapes in English and Spanish for each unit; a guide to special activities designed to introduce students to hands-on science; assessment checklists and rubrics; and a list of test items (test generator software is also available).

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; evolution and equilibrium; form and function.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Motions and forces; transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; regulation and behavior; populations and ecosystems; diversity and adaptations of organisms.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth's history; earth in the solar system.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Populations, resources, and environments; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science.

Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-03-095093-7), $62.50. Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-03-095094-5), $114.50. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Harcourt Brace. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.22 SciencePlus Technology and Society: Level Blue.

Earl S. Morrison, Alan Moore, Nan Armour, and others. SciencePlus Technology and Society series. Austin, Tex.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1997.

Program Overview The SciencePlus Technology and Society series consists of 3 year-long courses for middle school students. Each of the 3 textbooks—designated Level Green, Level Red, and Level Blue—integrates the life, earth, and physical sciences and incorporates the program's 5 science themes: energy, systems, structures, changes over time, and cycles. Cross-disciplinary connections are emphasized, and the impacts of scientific, technological, and science-related social issues are explored. For each course, an extensive set of materials and resources, including some optional components, is available for students and teachers.

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 8+. Reading level: middle 8. SciencePlus Technology and Society: Level Blue is organized in 8 units. Each unit focuses on 1 major scientific concept, which is developed through a thematic approach. The 8 units are (1) "Life Processes"; (2) "Particles"; (3) "Machines, Work, and Energy"; (4) "Oceans and Climates"; (5) "Electromagetic Systems"; (6) "Sound"; (7) "Light"; and (8) "Continuity of Life."

The course addresses the following topics: (1) Students explore some of the processes of living things, including photosynthesis, diffusion, osmosis, transpiration, and respiration. (2) They examine the particle model of matter. (3) They learn about the concepts of force, energy, work, and power that underlie the operation of machines. (4) They develop an understanding of oceanography, meteorology, and climatology. (5) They explore the relationship between electricity and magnetism. (6) They

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

learn what sound is, how it is created, and how it travels. (7) They examine the fundamental properties of light and its interaction with matter. (8) They study how characteristics are passed from one generation to the next.

Sample lab activities in this textbook include experimenting to determine where the starch in plants comes from and investigating the differences between sugar and starch molecules. Students also construct a model car powered by a rubber band; measure the dew point; and make and calibrate a hydrometer, then use it to measure the density of artificial seawater. They also create weather maps, make chemical cells and test the cells with a galvanometer, investigate the variables that affect the pitch of a stringed instrument, analyze the spectral components of white light, and simulate Mendel's experiments with pea plants.

The 8 units in Level Blue contain a total of 23 chapters. Each chapter consists of 2 to 5 lessons on closely related subject matter. At the beginning of each chapter, students describe what they already know about a subject by writing or drawing in a "ScienceLog." Then, through a variety of hands-on activities called "explorations," they observe scientific principles in action and test their misconceptions about specific science concepts. Reading sections on science concepts are interwoven with the activities.

Review sections are included at the end of each chapter and each unit. Special end-of-unit reading sections make connections among science, technology, society, and the arts. Other unit shorts are "weird science"—explanations of unusual creatures or phenomena—and stories about the lives and work of scientists.

The student edition is available with or without the "SourceBook," an in-text science reference that provides additional information which reinforces and extends each unit. Because it is not designed for hands-on exploration, the "SourceBook" lends itself to reading at home or outside the classroom.

Teacher's Edition The wraparound teacher's edition includes a 6-page introductory section for each unit. These sections and the wraparound margins contain information on applying unit themes, using program videodiscs, and managing the program. Planning charts provide suggestions for organizing content, materials, activities, and program resources. Also included are homework options; an assessment planning guide; a resources section; suggestions for creating customized instructional programs; and teaching strategies, exercises, and multicultural extensions.

Program Resource and Support Materials A variety of support materials is available, including 8 teaching resource booklets (1 for each unit) with reproducible worksheets and assessment materials and the student "SourceBook." Other support materials include transparencies; a materials guide; instructions, barcodes, and worksheets for using Science Discovery, a videodisc program; audiocassette tapes in English and Spanish for each unit; a guide to special activities designed to introduce students to hands-on science; assessment checklists and rubrics; and a list of test items (test generator software is also available).

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; form and function.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; motions and forces; transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; reproduction and heredity; regulation and behavior.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth's history; earth in the solar system.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science.

Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-03-095096-1), $62.50. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-03-095097-X), $114.50. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Harcourt Brace. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.23 Science 2000: Grade 6.

Science 2000 series. Developed by Decision Development Corp. San Ramon, Calif.: Decision Development Corp., 1995.

Program Overview The Science 2000 series is an integrated, multimedia science curriculum designed to introduce middle school students (grades 5 through 8) to 6 important themes of science: energy, evolution, patterns of change, scale and structure, stability, and systems and interactions. A separate, year-long course containing 4 units is offered for each grade. Each unit in a course takes from 7 to 9 weeks to complete. Students use videodisc imagery, software simulations, databases, hands-on investigations, and worksheets to explore real-world scientific questions. For each course, an extensive set of materials is available for students and teachers.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

Curriculum Resource Guide Recommended grade level: 6. The Science 2000 curriculum for sixth-grade students is composed of 4 units: (1) "Earth's Changing Environments," (2) "Growth and Development," (3) "Applying Forces—The Physics of Building," and (4) "Chemistry of Food." Each unit, which has a series of lesson "clusters," requires students to explore general and then more specific investigative questions or problems.

Topics explored during the course include environments and ecosystems, characteristics of living things, climate and weather, interdependence of life, geology, adaptation, oceanography, flow of energy and matter, human growth and development, the physics of motion, simple tools and machines, chemical reactions, metabolism, and nutrition and diet.

Examples of broad questions that students explore include these: "What is an environment and what types of environments occur on Earth?" "How do living things grow and develop?" "How can you use simple tools to design and build a playground?" and "What is food and why do our bodies need it?" To find out how things grow and change, for example, students calculate and plot the average of students' heights and weights, look at images in a database to see what happens when cells undergo mitosis, demonstrate mitosis with rod-shaped balloons on strings, and chart the human life cycle.

Many lessons take more than 50 minutes to complete. All lessons include student investigations—either controlled experiments, field observations, computer simulations, discussions, research projects, presentations, or a combination of these forms of investigation. Instructions for implementing activities are found in the lessons themselves, and text is hot-linked to databases and other files. Students interact with the computer directly or work from lessons and student activities that are also provided in print form. Teacher information for each lesson, which is accessed separately, includes a list of supplies, background information, procedures, and extensions.

Teacher's Guide Organized in a 3-ring binder, the teacher's guide is designed to familiarize teachers with the Science 2000 program and its components. It provides background information on the Science 2000 curriculum, reviews hardware requirements and procedures for installing the software, explains how to use the Science 2000 software, and offers teaching tips and strategies. It also provides a step-by-step "trial run" chapter for learning how to use the program (including how to plan lessons, print out documents, interact with students, and provide instructions).

Program Resources and Support Materials The course includes blackline masters for student investigations, a set of preprinted lesson plans, and 2 videodiscs. Videodisc audio tracks are provided in both English and Spanish.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; evolution and equilibrium; form and function.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; motions and forces; transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; reproduction and heredity; populations and ecosystems; diversity and adaptations of organisms.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth's history; earth in the solar system.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Personal health; risks and benefits.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science.

Prices: Curriculum resource guide, $350.00. Teacher's guide, $39.95. Videodiscs, $499.00. Site license, $4,500.00. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Decision Development Corp. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.24 Science 2000: Science 1 (Grade 7).

Science 2000 series. Developed by Decision Development Corp. San Ramon, Calif.: Decision Development Corp., 1996.

Program Overview The Science 2000 series is an integrated, multimedia science curriculum designed to introduce middle school students (grades 5 through 8) to 6 important themes of science: energy, evolution, patterns of change, scale and structure, stability, and systems and interactions. A separate, year-long course containing 4 units is offered for each grade. Each unit in a course takes from 7 to 9 weeks to complete. Students use videodisc imagery, software simulations, databases, hands-on investigations, and worksheets to explore real-world scientific questions. For each course, an extensive set of materials is available for students and teachers.

Curriculum Resource Guide Recommended grade level: 7. The Science 2000 curriculum for seventh-grade

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

students is composed of 4 units: (1) "The Fore People and the Kuru Disease," (2) "Lake Investigation," (3) "Bicycle Investigation," and (4) "Earth's Place in the Universe." Each unit, which has a series of lesson "clusters," requires students to explore general and then more specific investigative questions or problems.

Topics explored during the course include human body systems, nutrition, infectious diseases, genetics, populations and ecosystems, the environment, weather, erosion and siltation, water chemistry, photosynthesis, eutrophication, friction, speed, velocity, gravity, energy resources, space exploration, planetary motion, the solar system, geologic time, and plate tectonics.

Examples of the broad questions that students explore include these: "How do heredity and the environment affect our health and our lives?" "How do we evaluate the health of a lake?" "How does a bicycle move?" "What is weather?" and "How does the earth fit into the universe?" To find out how each member of a lake system is connected, for example, students learn how to read and make topographic maps, draw cross-sections of a lake and its watershed environment showing different habitat zones, view video clips illustrating food chains in aquatic ecosystems, and conduct a week-long experiment to determine the factors that are necessary for photosynthesis to take place.

Many lessons take more than 50 minutes to complete. All lessons include student investigations—either controlled experiments, field observations, computer simulations, discussions, research projects, presentations, or a combination of these forms of investigation. Instructions for implementing activities are found in the lessons themselves, and text is hot-linked to databases and other files. Students interact with the computer directly or work from lessons and student activities that are also provided in print form. Teacher information for each lesson, which is accessed separately, includes a list of supplies, background information, procedures, and extensions.

Teacher's Guide Organized in a 3-ring binder, the teacher's guide is designed to familiarize teachers with the Science 2000 program and its components. It provides background information on the Science 2000 curriculum, reviews hardware requirements and procedures for installing the software, explains how to use the Science 2000 software, and offers teaching tips and strategies. It also provides a step-by-step "trial run" for learning how to use the program (including how to plan lessons, print out documents, interact with students, and provide instructions).

Program Resources and Support Materials The course includes blackline masters for student investigations, a set of preprinted lesson plans, and 2 videodiscs. Videodisc audio tracks are provided in both English and Spanish.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; change, constancy, and measurement; evolution and equilibrium; form and function.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; motions and forces; transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; reproduction and heredity; populations and ecosystems; diversity and adaptations of organisms.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth's history; earth in the solar system.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Personal health; populations, resources, and environments; natural hazards; risks and benefits; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science.

Prices: Curriculum resource guide, $350.00. Teacher's guide, $39.95. Videodiscs, $499.00. Site license, $4,500.00. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Decision Development Corp. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.25 Science 2000: Science 2 (Grade 8).

Science 2000 series. Developed by Decision Development Corp. San Ramon, Calif.: Decision Development Corp., 1995.

Program Overview The Science 2000 series is an integrated, multimedia science curriculum designed to introduce middle school students (grades 5 through 8) to 6 important themes of science: energy, evolution, patterns of change, scale and structure, stability, and systems and interactions. A separate, year-long course containing 4 units is offered for each grade. Each unit in a course takes from 7 to 9 weeks to complete. Students use videodisc imagery, software simulations, databases, hands-on investigations, and worksheets to explore real-world scientific questions. For each course, an extensive set of materials is available for students and teachers.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

Curriculum Resource Guide Recommended grade level: 8+. The Science 2000 curriculum for eighth-grade students is composed of 4 units: (1) "The Lost Children: Genetics and Heredity," (2) "The Sun and Global Climate Change," (3) "Ears to the Sky: Energy Transformations," and (4) "Natural Disasters." Each unit, which has a series of lesson "clusters," requires students to explore general and then more specific investigative questions or problems.

Topics explored during the course include DNA, heredity, genetic engineering, climate and weather, humans and the environment, oceanography, pollution, electricity, magnetism, communication devices, sound and hearing, light and optics, plate tectonics, natural disasters, nuclear energy, and energy transfer.

Examples of the broad questions that students explore include these: "How can we determine whether two people are biologically related?" "How do the sun and atmosphere shape global climate?" "How do we communicate over long distances?" "Where and how do natural disasters affect land and structures built by man?" To explore sound and communication over distances, for example, students watch a video on dolphin communication and discuss various ways animals communicate; they determine the frequency of a pendulum and examine the relationship between frequency and wavelength; they investigate electricity, current, and voltage by making a wet-cell battery; and they examine how telegraphs and telephones work.

Many lessons take more than 50 minutes to complete. All lessons include student investigations—either controlled experiments, field observations, computer simulations, discussions, research projects, presentations, or a combination of these forms of investigation. Instructions for implementing activities are found in the lessons themselves, and text is hot-linked to databases and other files. Students interact with the computer directly or work from lessons and student activities that are also provided in print form. Teacher information for each lesson, which is accessed separately, includes a list of supplies, background information, procedures, and extensions.

Teacher's Guide Organized in a 3-ring binder, the teacher's guide is designed to familiarize teachers with the Science 2000 program and its components. It provides background information on the Science 2000 curriculum, reviews hardware requirements and procedures for installing the software, explains how to use the Science 2000 software, and offers teaching tips and strategies. It also provides a step-by-step "trial run" for learning how to use the program (including how to plan lessons, print out documents, interact with students, and provide instructions).

Program Resources and Support Materials The course includes blackline masters for student investigations, a set of preprinted lesson plans, and 2 videodiscs. Videodisc audio tracks are provided in both English and Spanish.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; chánge, constancy, and measurement; evolution and equilibrium; form and function.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; motions and forces; transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; reproduction and heredity; diversity and adaptations of organisms.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth's history; earth in the solar system.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Natural hazards; risks and benefits; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science.

Prices: Curriculum resource guide, $350.00. Teacher's guide, $39.95. Videodiscs, $499.00. Site license, $4,500.00. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Decision Development Corp. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.26 Scientific Theories.

Robert C. Knott and Herbert D. Thier. Science Curriculum Improvement Study 3 (SCIS 3) series. Hudson, N.H.: Delta Education, 1993.

Program Overview The Science Curriculum Improvement Study (SCIS) series focuses on the concepts and processes of science for grades K-6. The most current version of the series—SCIS 3—consists of 13 units: a kindergarten unit and 2 sequences of 6 units each in physical-earth science and life-environmental science for grades 1 through 6. Two units are designed for grade 6. The components of a SCIS 3 unit are a teacher's guide and a kit of materials.

Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 6. In this unit, students are introduced to the meaning of scientific

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

theories through the study of electric circuits, magnets, light, and earthquakes. The unit consists of 25 chapters, organized in 7 sections: (1) "Review," (2) "Scientific Theories," (3) "A Color Theory," (4) "A Magnetic Field Theory," (5) "An Electricity Theory," (6) "A Ray Theory of Light," and (7) "An Earthquake Theory."

During the unit, students have the opportunity to develop and test their own theories to explain their observations. Among the activities, for example, they compare interaction at a distance (between magnets) with touching interaction (electric circuits). They explore the periodic motion of pendulums. They also test their hypotheses concerning their investigation of electric circuit puzzles and a mystery box. Students use prisms and filters to develop their first detailed scientific theory—a theory of colored light.

In other activities, students devise a magnetic field theory to explain magnetic interaction at a distance. They also develop an electricity theory to describe and explain the transfer of electrical energy from a battery to energy receivers in a closed electric circuit. Students use lenses and mirrors to formulate a ray theory of light, and they develop theories to explain the causes and effects of earthquakes.

The unit requires about 45 class sessions to complete. The teacher's guide includes an introduction to the unit, lesson plans for each of the 7 sections, a glossary, and blackline masters for a student journal. Science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment are provided.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Transfer of energy.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Nature of science.

Prices: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-87504-941-9), $39.50. Kit, $715.00. Publisher/supplier: Delta Education. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit.

5.27 The Technology of Paper.

Science and Technology for Children (STC) series. Developed by National Science Resources Center (Washington, D.C.). Burlington, N.C.: Carolina Biological Supply, 1997.

Program Overview The Science and Technology for Children (STC) series consists of 24 inquiry-centered curriculum units for grades 1-6, with 4 units at each grade level. Students learn about topics in the life, earth, and physical sciences. The technological applications of science and the interactions among science, technology, and society are addressed throughout the program. The STC units, each of which takes about 16 class sessions to complete, encourage participatory learning and the integration of science with mathematics, language arts, social studies, and art. The components of an STC unit are a teacher's guide, a student activity book with simple instructions and illustrations, and a kit of materials.

Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 6. Reading level: 7. In The Technology of Paper, students explore paper and the science of papermaking, as well as the connection between the properties of many forms of paper and the uses of the paper. They also have the opportunity to design their own recycled greeting card, stationery, or postcard.

In the first part of the unit, students explore the nature and properties of paper by collecting different types of paper, examining them under a microscope, and performing a number of tests, such as a smoothness and a tear-resistance test. The tests introduce them to the idea of a "fair test," or controlled experiment. Students then recycle a paper sample, identify the variables that affect its properties (such as the way pulp is prepared, the type of fiber, or kinds of additives in it), and they compare the processes of making paper by hand and by machine. In the final lessons, students work through 4 steps in a technological design process as they develop and evaluate their own paper product.

The Technology of Paper is a 17-lesson unit. The teacher's guide includes a unit overview, the 17 lesson plans, an annotated bibliography, and reproducible masters. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment.

Appendixes in the teacher's guide include directions for setting up a school paper-recycling center and provide a list of organizations, paper companies, and individuals that can be used as resources for the unit. The student activity book that accompanies this unit provides reading selections, helpful illustrations, and directions for completing activities.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; form and function.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Natural hazards; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science.

Prices: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-89278-684-1), $24.95. Student activity book (ISBN 0-89278-685-X), $3.50. Kit, $689.95. Publisher/supplier: Carolina Biological Supply. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit.

5.28 Variables.

Full Option Science System (FOSS) series. Developed by Lawrence Hall of Science (Berkeley, Calif.). Hudson, N.H.: Delta Education, 1993.

Program Overview The Full Option Science System (FOSS) program is a K-6 science curriculum consisting of 27 stand-alone modules. The 8 modules for grades 5-6 are organized under topics in the life, physical, and earth sciences and in scientific reasoning and technology. They can be used in any order. The FOSS program is designed to engage students in scientific concepts through multisensory, hands-on laboratory activities. All modules of the program incorporate 5 unifying themes—(1) pattern, (2) structure, (3) interaction, (4) change, and (5) system. The components of a FOSS module are a teacher's guide and a kit of materials.

Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 5-6. In Variables, students investigate the concept "variable" as they design and conduct their own experiments with pendulums, airplanes, boats, and catapults. They systematically investigate weight, release position, and length of pendulums to find out which of these variables affects the number of swings completed in a given period of time. They make paper boats of various heights and determine how many pennies each boat can hold before sinking. They build windup airplanes to fly along a string, and then they control variables such as the number of times the propeller is wound, the weight of the plane, and the slope of the string in measuring how far the planes will fly. They catapult objects of various sizes and weights to investigate the variables that contribute to the highest and longest flips.

Variables consists of 4 major activities, requiring a total of about 20 class sessions. The teacher's guide includes a module overview, the 4 activity folios, duplication masters (in English and Spanish) for the student sheets, and an annotated bibliography.

This module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Motions and forces.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Nature of science.

Prices: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-7826-0052-2), $101. Kit, $319. Publisher/supplier: Delta Education. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

Multidisciplinary and Applied Science—Supplementary Units

5.29 Chemicals in Foods: Additives.

Chemical Education for Public Understanding Program (CEPUP) series. Developed by Lawrence Hall of Science (Berkeley, Calif.). Menlo Park, Calif.: Addison-Wesley, 1993.

Program Overview The Chemical Education for Public Understanding Program (CEPUP) series consists of 12 modules for grades 7-9. The modules focus on chemicals and the interaction of chemicals with people and the environment. The series promotes the use of scientific principles, processes, and evidence in public decision making. The components of a CEPUP module are a teacher's guide and a kit of materials. (SEPUP—the Science Education for Public Understanding Program—is the second phase of the project that began as CEPUP.)

Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 7-8+. Chemicals in Foods: Additives consists of 8 activities during which students examine food additives and their effect on food quality. Among the activities, for example, students investigate the effects of selected natural and synthetic substances on the rate of apple browning. They examine food labels from home to determine what additives are present in their own diets. They also investigate the chemical and physical properties of 3 common food additives—citric acid, modified food starch, and guar gum.

In other activities, students investigate the role microorganisms play in food spoilage, and they learn how chemical food preservatives are used to increase the safety of the food supply. They also design an experiment to investigate the effect of selected variables on the growth of active yeast cultures. They conduct a simulated test for the presence of pesticide residues in samples of black-eyed peas, and they rate the risks of eating foods prepared or stored in different ways.

The 8 activities in Chemicals in Foods: Additives each take 1 to 2 class periods of 40 to 50 minutes. Included in the slim, wire-bound book are reproducible student sheets, directions for guiding activities and discussions, and an end-of-unit assessment.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Personal health; risks and benefits; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Nature of science.

Prices: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-201-29489-3), $19.99. Kit, $239.99. Publisher/supplier: Sargent-Welch/VWR Scientific. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit.

5.30 Classifying Fingerprints.

Nancy Cook. Real-World Mathematics through Science series. Developed by Washington Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) Group (Seattle, Wash.). Menlo Park, Calif.: Innovative Learning Publications, 1995.

Program Overview The Real-World Mathematics through Science series consists of 10 units for grades 6-8. Each unit combines pre-algebra topics with science explorations to motivate students in both areas of study. Students work in cooperative groups to solve open-ended problems and make connections between real-world mathematics and science.

Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 6-8. Classifying Fingerprints contains 6 activities that teach students about the different types of fingerprint patterns, methods of classifying and filing fingerprints, and some of the mathematics involved with fingerprint analysis. The unit allows students to study a real-world use of a number system other than the decimal system, since the most widely used method of classifying fingerprints is a binary system.

During the unit, students make a full set of prints and analyze the prints of their right index finger. They learn about several binary systems of fingerprint classification and file their prints according to one of the systems. They also analyze and graph class data on the distribution of their prints' loops, arches, and whorls, and they investigate

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

family prints to see if whorl patterns might be inherited.

Each activity includes an overview, background information, teaching procedures, discussion and assessment questions, and reproducible student sheets. In addition to the activities, which each require 2 periods of 40 to 50 minutes, Classifying Fingerprints includes links to careers, history, technology, and writing. Students are asked, for example, to write a short essay presenting their own ideas for uses of fingerprinting and to learn what FBI agents do. Real-life examples are used throughout the unit, and students are required to collect and analyze evidence.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Nature of science; history of science.

Price: $18.95 (ISBN 0-201-49310-1).

Publisher/supplier: Addison-Wesley/Longman. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

ABOUT THE ANNOTATIONS IN "MULTIDISCIPLINARY AND APPLIED SCIENCE—SUPPLEMENTARY UNITS"

Entry Numbers

Curriculum materials are arranged alphabetically by title in each category (Core Materials, Supplementary Units, and Science Activity Books) in chapters 1 through 5 of this guide.

Each curriculum annotation has a two-part entry number: the chapter number is given before the period; the number after the period locates the entry within that chapter. For example, the first entry number in chapter 1 is 1.1; the second entry in chapter 2 is 2.2; and so on.

The entry numbers within each curriculum chapter run consecutively through Core Materials, Supplementary Units, and Science Activity Books.

Order of Bibliographic Information

Following is the arrangement of the facts of publication in the annotations in this section:

  • Title of publication

  • Number of edition, if applicable

  • Authors (an individual author or authors, an institutional author, or a project or program name under which the material was developed)

  • Series title

  • Series developer, if applicable

  • Place of publication, publisher, and date of publication

Recommended Grade Level

The grade level for each piece of material was recommended by teacher evaluators during the development of this guide. In some instances, the recommended grade level may differ slightly from the publisher's advertised level.

Key to Content Standard: 5-8

The key lists the content standards for grades 5-8 from the National Science Education Standards (NSES) that are addressed in depth by the item. A key is provided for core materials and supplementary units. (See appendix C.)

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

Price and Acquisition Information

Ordering information appears at the end of each entry. Included are—

  • Prices (of teacher's guides, student books, lab manuals, and kits or units)

  • Publisher/supplier (The name of a principal publisher/supplier, although not necessarily the sole source, for the items listed in the price category. Appendix A, "Publishers and Suppliers," provides the address, phone and fax numbers, and electronic ordering information, where available, for each publisher and supplier.)

  • Materials (various sources from which one might obtain the required materials)

Readers must contact publishers/suppliers for complete and up-to-date listings of the program resources and support materials available for a particular unit. Depending on the developer, these items may be required, optional, or both; they may be offered individually and/or in kits, packages, or boxes. Materials may change with revised editions. The prices given in this chapter for selected resources or materials are based on information from the publishers and suppliers but are not meant to represent the full range of ordering options.

Indexes of Curriculum Materials

The multiple indexes on pp. 449-78 allow easy access to the information in this guide. Various aspects of the curriculum materials—including titles, topics addressed in each unit, grade levels, and standards addressed—are the focus of seven separate indexes. For example, titles and entry numbers are listed in the "Title Index" on pp. 450-54. The "Index of Authors, Series, and Curriculum Projects," on pp. 455-57, provides entry numbers of any annotated titles in a particular series.

Overviews of Core and Supplementary Programs

Appendix D, "Overviews of Core and Supplementary Programs with Titles Annotated in This Guide," on pp. 441-48, lists, by program or series, the individual titles annotated in the sections "Core Materials" and "Supplementary Units" in the five curriculum chapters.

5.31 Climate and Farming.

Module 3.5. Foundations and Challenges to Encourage Technology-based Science (FACETS) series. Developed by American Chemical Society (Washington, D.C.). Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1996.

Program Overview The Foundations and Challenges to Encourage Technology-based Science (FACETS) program consists of 3 series of 8 modules each for grades 6-8. Each module focuses on a topic in the life, earth, or physical sciences. The time needed to complete FACETS modules varies from 2 to 4 weeks. Each module consists of a student book and a teacher's guide.

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 8. In the module Climate and Farming, students learn how climatic conditions are analyzed and matched with the crop plants best suited to those conditions. The module emphasizes responding to climate changes rather than possible causes of climate change such as global warming. Students learn what climate is and what factors affect it. They analyze a series of data sets on temperature and rainfall, set up a long-term investigation of the effects of temperature on seed germination and plant growth, and make climatograms of various cities in the United States. Next, students look at how the characteristics that make up biomes have an effect on what actually lives in their environment, and they work with elementary genetics to get a sense of how crop plants can

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

be bred to withstand certain climatic conditions. In the final activity, students draw on their research in climate and farming to plan a garden with plants especially suited to the local climate.

Climate and Farming is divided into 6 activities that each take between 1 and 3 class periods to complete. Two short reading sections at the end of the module provide limited background information on biomes and on global warming.

Teacher's Guide The wraparound teacher's guide includes a unit overview, a time line for completing the module, a materials list, background information, and teaching suggestions.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Change, constancy, and measurement.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

LIFE SCIENCE: Reproduction and heredity; populations and ecosystems.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Populations, resources, and environments.

Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-7872-1476-0), $7.90. Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-7872-1477-9), $14.90. Publisher/supplier: Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.32 Determining Threshold Limits.

Chemical Education for Public Understanding Program (CEPUP) series. Developed by Lawrence Hall of Science (Berkeley, Calif.). Menlo Park, Calif.: Addison-Wesley, 1990.

Program Overview The Chemical Education for Public Understanding Program (CEPUP) series consists of 12 modules for grades 7-9. The modules focus on chemicals and the interaction of chemicals with people and the environment. The series promotes the use of scientific principles, processes, and evidence in public decision making. The components of a CEPUP module are a teacher's guide and a kit of materials. (SEPUP—the Science Education for Public Understanding Program—is the second phase of the project that began as CEPUP.)

Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 7-8+. Determining Threshold Limits contains 6 activities that introduce students to ways in which scientists test products for the presence and amount of potentially toxic substances. During the activities, students determine their taste threshold for salt in water solutions by tasting drops of saltwater of known concentrations. They experiment with 2 reagents and 4 known solutions to discover the identity of unknown solutions (both single and combination solutions). They learn how to determine the concentration of an unknown salt solution quantitatively (in parts per million). They also simulate 2 controlled animal experiments in which they explore the effect of a potentially toxic substance (silver nitrate) on "rats" (salt solution and potassium chromate). Using given experimental data, they explore the difference between acute and chronic toxicity. They also learn about how real-life animal experiments are conducted and about the problems involved in trying to extrapolate data from animal studies to human tolerances.

The 6 activities in Determining Threshold Limits each take 1 or 2 periods of 40 to 50 minutes. Included in the slim, wire-bound book are reproducible student sheets, directions and information for guiding activities and discussions, and an end-of-unit test.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Evidence, models, and explanation.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Risks and benefits.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Nature of science.

Prices: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-201-28418-9), $19.99. Kit, $144.99. Publisher/supplier: Sargent-Welch/VWR Scientific. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit.

5.33 Energy Transformations: Fourth Module in Bio-Related Technologies Unit.

4th ed. Integrated Mathematics, Science, and Technology (IMaST) Project. IMaST series. Normal, Ill.: Center for Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education, Illinois State University, 1996.

Program Overview The Integrated Mathematics, Science, and Technology (IMaST) series for middle school includes 6 modules. The materials in each are designed to be used by a team of mathematics, science, and technology teachers concurrently

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

over a 9-week period. Each module includes a teacher's guide and a student book.

Student Book Recommended grade level: 7-8. The Energy Transformations module ties together energy transformations relating to wellness, food production, and waste management. Over the course of the module, students collect and display data (using tables, graphs, and spread-sheets) about types of foods that fuel their bodies. They calculate the cost per gram and determine the number of calories per gram of various food items. They also work with figures relating to energy usage to develop skills with scientific notation and exponents.

In other activities, students examine the flow of energy through a food chain. They experiment to determine the factors that affect the amount of heat energy absorbed by a calorimeter, and they use the calorimeter to measure and compare the energy stored in food and in fuels. Students design, build, and test a solar car. They also build and test a model wind turbine that transfers wind energy into mechanical energy, and then into electrical energy.

The 10 activities in Energy Transformations are organized in 3 groups, according to their emphasis on mathematics, science, or technology. Three sections following the activities provide background reading and basic information on relevant energy topics.

Teacher's Guide Accompanying the activities in the teacher's guide are brief directions, along with ideas for class discussions, and extension activities. Guidelines for assessing student performance are provided.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Populations and ecosystems.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Science and technology in society.

Prices: Student book, $5.50. Teacher's guide, $10.00. Publisher/supplier: Illinois State University. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.34 Food Production: Second Module in Bio-Related Technologies Unit.

4th ed. Integrated Mathematics, Science and Technology (IMaST) Project. IMaST series. Normal, Ill.: Center for Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education, Illinois State University, 1996.

Program Overview The Integrated Mathematics, Science, and Technology (IMaST) series for middle school includes 6 modules. The materials in each are designed to be used by a team of mathematics, science, and technology teachers concurrently over a 9-week period. Each module includes a teacher's guide and a student book.

Student Book Recommended grade level: 7-8. The Food Production module involves students in activities that focus primarily on the appropriate use of materials and technology to produce food. A simulation game that allows students to explore food and hunger issues is suggested as an introductory activity. Among the 18 activities in the unit, students learn data collection methods by conducting a survey on preferred summer farm jobs; they interpret graphs of world grain production, population, and meat consumption; and they develop checkbook record keeping skills for an imaginary farm enterprise. Students also design and conduct controlled experiments with plants over 5 weeks to identify the variables that affect a crop; they examine and test the characteristics of soil to discover what type is best for plants; they identify the parts of a seed and the conditions needed for seeds to germinate; and they design, build, and test a hydroponics system.

The 18 activities in Food Production are organized in 3 groups, according to their emphasis on mathematics, science, or technology. Three sections following the activities provide background reading and basic information on topics related to food production.

Teacher's Guide Accompanying the activities in the teacher's guide are brief directions, along with ideas for class discussions, and extension activities. Guidelines for assessing student performance are provided.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; populations and ecosystems.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Populations, resources, and environments; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science.

Prices: Student book, $11.00. Teacher's guide, $19.50. Publisher/supplier: Illinois State University. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×
5.35 Forecasting: Discovering, Simplifying, and Applying Patterns.

4th ed. Integrated Mathematics, Science and Technology (IMaST) Project. IMaST series. Normal, Ill.: Center for Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education, Illinois State University, 1996.

Program Overview The Integrated Mathematics, Science, and Technology (IMaST) series for middle school includes 6 modules. The materials in each are designed to be used by a team of mathematics, science, and technology teachers concurrently over a 9-week period. Each module includes a teacher's guide and a student book.

Student Book Recommended grade level: 8+. The module Forecasting: Discovering, Simplifying, and Applying Patterns involves students in discovering, collecting, and manipulating data about patterns found in the natural and manufactured worlds—particularly patterns related to airplanes and flight. The module also shows students how the ability to recognize and express patterns algebraically—in graphs, for example—leads to the ability to predict future trends. Throughout the module, students develop, graph, and solve linear equations verbally, tabularly, graphically, and symbolically.

Among the activities, students communicate the landing positions of different counters by naming points on a coordinate grid using ordered pairs. They also translate an English expression into an algebraic expression using a variable; they examine the relationship between distance, speed, and time through experiments with launchers (for model planes) built by the class; and they solve equations using the balance method. Students also determine the effect of changing 1 variable in a pendulum system; they investigate and graph information about the behavior of elastic devices, which is an important factor in certain airplane components; and they use the principle of center of mass to balance prototype planes. In other activities, students use ordered pairs to define the shape of an airplane, as is done with computer numerical controlled (CNC) machines. They design, evaluate, and analyze a working prototype airplane.

The 19 activities in Forecasting are organized in 3 groups, according to their emphasis on mathematics, science, or technology. Three sections following the activities provide background reading and basic information on patterns, their context, and their social application.

Teacher's Guide Accompanying the activities in the teacher's guide are brief directions, along with ideas for class discussions, and extension activities. Guidelines for assessing student performance are provided.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; form and function.

Science as inquiry: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Motions and forces.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Nature of science.

Prices: Student book, $13.50. Teacher's guide, $24.50. Publisher/supplier: Illinois State University. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.36 Handling Information.

Module 3.8. Foundations and Challenges to Encourage Technology-based Science (FACETS) series. Developed by American Chemical Society (Washington, D.C.). Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1996.

Program Overview The Foundations and Challenges to Encourage Technology-based Science (FACETS) program consists of 3 series of 8 modules each for grades 6-8. Each module focuses on a topic in the life, earth, or physical sciences. The time needed to complete FACETS modules varies from 2 to 4 weeks. Each module consists of a student book and a teacher's guide.

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 8. In the module Handling Information, students are introduced to the concept of systems—and in particular to communication networks as systems on which people rely constantly—as they investigate how information is handled and transmitted both in their school and in the world at large. Students first play a game to help them understand the importance of the encoding, transmission, and decoding processes. Then they analyze how information gets into, out of, and around their school. They compare different methods of acquiring information—such as by telephone, regular mail, World Wide Web, and fax—in terms of cost, efficiency, and other factors. They investigate some of the simpler science and technology behind commonly used communication methods—voice, paper and ink, and electrical transmissions. In the final activity, students design a communications plan for their school building and present their plan to an audience of students and teachers.

Handling Information is divided into 6 activities that each take between 1 and 4 class periods to complete.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

Two short reading sections at the end of the module provide limited background information on how language is used to communicate and on how information is sometimes used as a control measure.

Teacher's Guide The wraparound teacher's guide includes a unit overview, a time line for completing the module, a materials list, background information, and teaching suggestions.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Transfer of energy.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Nature of science.

Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-7872-1486-8), $7.90. Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-7872-1487-6), $14.90. Publisher/supplier: Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.37 Height-O-Meters.

Reprinted with revisions. Cary I. Sneider. Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) series. Berkeley, Calif: Lawrence Hall of Science, 1991.

Program Overview The Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) series includes more than 50 teacher's guides and handbooks for preschool through grade 10. About 35 of these are appropriate for middle school. The series also includes several assembly presenter's guides and exhibit guides. New guides and handbooks continue to be developed, and current titles are revised frequently. The series is designed to teach key science and mathematics concepts through activity-based learning. The time needed to complete GEMS units varies from about 2 to 10 class sessions.

Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 6-8+. The booklet Height-O-Meters helps students construct a simple cardboard device called a Height-O-Meter (technically, a clinometer), which can be used to measure the angular height of an object in degrees. Students construct and calibrate their Height-O-Meters to read zero degrees when they are pointed horizonally. They learn how to use their instruments to determine the height of the school flagpole. They also perform an experiment to compare how high a styrofoam ball and a rubber ball can be thrown.

The teacher's guide includes background information and step-by-step directions for the activities (which require 4 sessions of 45 to 50 minutes each). An extension section suggests activities that clarify the relationship between angular and linear height, illustrate how forest rangers use triangulation to spot fires, introduce the tangent function, and explain how astronomers measure the distance to stars. After completing this unit, students can use their Height-O-Meters to track the altitudes of model rockets as described in the GEMS teacher's guide, Experimenting with Model Rockets (see 1.28).

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Understandings about science and technology.

Price: $10.50 (ISBN 0-912511-22-2). Publisher/supplier: LHS GEMS. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.38 Hot Water and Warm Homes from Sunlight.

Reprinted with revisions. Alan Gould. Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) series. Berkeley, Calif.: Lawrence Hall of Science, 1995.

Program Overview The Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) series includes more than 50 teacher's guides and handbooks for preschool through grade 10. About 35 of these are appropriate for middle school. The series also includes several assembly presenter's guides and exhibit guides. New guides and handbooks continue to be developed, and current titles are revised frequently. The series is designed to teach key science and mathematics concepts through activity-based learning. The time needed to complete GEMS units varies from about 2 to 10 class sessions.

Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 5-8. In Hot Water and Warm Homes from Sunlight, students perform experiments with model houses and water heating to investigate solar power. An introductory activity on the experimental design and results of a plant-growth study introduces students to the concept and essential elements of a controlled experiment. Students then build model houses to determine how windows affect passive solar heating of the house. They use aluminum pie pans as model

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

water heaters to investigate the effect of clear covers on water-heating efficiency. Students relate their findings to the greenhouse effect and play a game to simulate the greenhouse effect.

Each of the 5 lesson plans (requiring a total of 5 or 6 class sessions of 45 minutes each) includes an overview, a list of materials, suggestions for preparation, directions for the activity, and extensions. Reproducible masters of patterns and student data sheets are included in the teacher's guide.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Transfer of energy.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Science and technology in society.

Price: $13.50 (ISBN 0-912511-24-9). Publisher/supplier: LHS GEMS. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.39 How Might Life Evolve on Other Worlds?

SETI [Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence] Academy Planet Project. Life in the Universe Series. Englewood, Colo.: Teacher Ideas Press, 1995.

Program Overview The Life in the Universe Series consists of 6 units, including the 3 volumes in the SETI Academy Planet Project. Each book in the SETI Academy Planet Project is designed to be a complete unit in itself as well as a subunit of a 3-unit course. During the activities in the 3 units, each student plays the role of a "cadet" at the SETI [Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence] Academy, a fictitious institution. (The SETI Institute is an actual scientific organization.)

Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 7-8+. How Might Life Evolve on Other Worlds? engages students in interdisciplinary activities related to the evolution of life on earth and asks them to apply their knowledge of this topic to the search for life on planets beyond our solar system. Within this context, the book deals primarily with the evolution of the atmosphere and the biosphere on earth.

During the unit, students use microscopes to observe bacteria, cyanobacteria, green algae, and planaria—some of the descendants of ancient organisms; they also conduct an experiment to see which of these organisms give off oxygen. Students make a "fossil jar" showing how sedimentary rock layers form with fossils inside. They play a game to learn about the process of natural selection, watch a video that describes the later stages of evolution on earth, and construct a record sheet showing geologic periods. Students learn how a dichotomous classification key works. They also design an extraterrestrial life form using some of the characteristics that distinguish life forms on earth.

Organized in 12 "missions," or chapters, the activities in How Might Life Evolve on Other Worlds? take 4 weeks to complete. The guide includes background information, directions for activities, discussion ideas, extensions, and reproducible blackline masters for student logbooks.

Program Resources and Support Materials A video—History of Earth—and a poster are available for use with this unit.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; evolution and equilibrium.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; diversity and adaptations of organisms.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Earth's history.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Understandings about science and technology.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science.

Prices: Teacher's guide (ISBN 1-56308-325-6), $27.50. Videotape, $30.50. Publisher/supplier: Teacher Ideas Press. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.40 How Telecommunication Works: How People Use Energy to Communicate.

Scholastic Science Place series. Developed in cooperation with Ann Arbor Hands-on Museum. New York, N.Y.: Scholastic, 1997.

Program Overview The Scholastic Science Place series is a K-6 program with 42 units, 6 for each grade level. The 6 units for grade 6 are organized under topics in the life, earth, and physical sciences. Three key themes—(1) scale and structure, (2) systems and interactions, and (3) patterns of change—are incorporated into the program. For each unit, teaching materials, student materials, and some optional components are available.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 6-8. Through the activities in How Telecommunication Works, students explore what telecommunication is, how it works, and how it relates to sound and energy. Among the activities, for example, students observe how sound moves through different materials, they compare sound energy at varying distances from a sound source, and they use a spring to observe the characteristics of a compression wave. They also make models of a microphone, build a speaker to observe how it converts electric signals back into sound, and model digital recording by using a graph.

In other activities, students send a code using light, build a model of a radio tuner, and make models of the interface between a camera and a television set. At the end of the unit, they design and build a model of an interactive menu that can understand and respond to spoken words.

How Telecommunication Works is a 17-lesson unit consisting of approximately 18 class sessions, typically 60 to 90 minutes in duration.

Teacher's Edition The conceptual goals of the unit are presented in the lesson-by-lesson story line in the teacher's guide. Each lesson also includes background information; a complete lesson plan, including suggestions for assessing performance and integrating the curriculum; and a list of the materials required. For each lesson there is also a list of the relevant National Science Education Standards (developed by the National Research Council) and Project 2061 Benchmarks (developed by the American Association for the Advancement of Science).

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Transfer of energy.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Science and technology in society.

Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-590-95538-1), $7.95. Teacher's edition, (ISBN 0-590-95465-2), $27.00. Unit, $275.00. Consumable kit, $89.00. Publisher/supplier: Scholastic. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit.

5.41 If Shipwrecks Could Talk.

R. Duncan Mathewson III. Delta Science Module (DSM) II series. Hudson, N.H.: Delta Education, 1995.

Program Overview The Delta Science Module (DSM) series has 51 life, physical, and earth science units for grades K-8 that emphasize science concepts, science content, and process skills. The series includes 12 modules for grades 5-6 and 8 modules for grades 6-8. Each requires about 3 to 4 weeks to complete and includes a teacher's guide and materials for a class of 32 students.

Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 6-8. If Shipwrecks Could Talk introduces students to the subjects of shipwrecks and marine archeology. On a map, students identify the continents and oceans of the world, labeling the principal surface currents of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. They probe an ocean-floor model and interpret the data to create a series of depth profiles. They also plot major sixteenth- to nineteenth-century maritime shipping routes in the Americas and locate some historic shipwreck sites.

In other activities, students experiment with objects that sink or float in water and apply what they learn to the design of model cargo ships. They construct and calibrate a floating compass and then plot the course of a historic voyage using a modern magnetic compass. Students also assemble a model quadrant and use it to determine their position as they "navigate" around the classroom. They discover that water pressure increases with depth and speculate about the effect of this pressure on an underwater diver. They also observe the effects of water pressure on a volume of confined air and relate what they learn to a diver's ability to breathe under water. Students examine a variety of everyday objects, learning to view them as artifacts of contemporary life; they map a shipwreck site and examine and interpret the pattern of artifacts found there; and they examine the conflicting interests of shipwreck salvagers and archaeologists.

The 11 activities in If Shipwrecks Could Talk generally take 1 or 2 class sessions of 30 to 60 minutes each. They can be done by students working individually or in groups.

In addition to directions for activities, the teacher's guide provides a module overview, a schedule of activities, objectives for each activity, background information, materials management and preparation tips, sample answers to discussion questions, teaching suggestions, and reinforcement activities. Also included are reproducible activity sheets for student work and a performance-based assessment. A "connections" feature at the end of each activity provides suggestions for extending or applying the concepts in the activity.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Nature of science; history of science.

Prices: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-87504-164-7), $27.95. Kit, $379.00. Refill package, $75.00. Publisher/supplier: Delta Education. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit.

5.42 Investigating and Evaluating STS Issues and Solutions: A Worktext for STS Education.

John M. Ramsey, Trudi L. Volk, and Harold R. Hungerford. Champaign, Ill.: Stipes, 1997.

Program Overview Investigating and Evaluating STS [science-technology-society] Issues and Solutions: A Worktext for STS Education is a semester-long skill-development program designed for middle school students. The program focuses on science and technology and on how science and technology interact with society. It emphasizes the processes needed by students as they investigate, evaluate, and take action on STS issues.

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 6-8+. Emphasizing the importance of responsible citizen action, the 7 chapters in Investigating and Evaluating STS Issues and Solutions begin with an overview of the nature of science and technology, their relationship to one another, and how they interact with society.

Students are then introduced to issue analysis and the roles of human beliefs and values in negotiating science and technology issues. They classify issues in terms of the type of investigation (primary or secondary) that would produce the best information on those issues, and they learn how to use different information sources (government agencies, periodicals, and knowledgeable people in the community).

Students are also introduced to ways of using surveys, questionnaires, and other data-gathering techniques, and they learn how to interpret and communicate data using graphs and tables. Students then choose and investigate a topic independently, using the techniques and skills they have acquired. Finally, they find out about specific ways of taking responsible action on issues, such as letter writing, changing consumer habits, and political action.

Teacher's Edition The teacher's edition includes a supplementary section with background information on teaching the program, detailed teaching notes for each chapter, and additional data sheets.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Personal health; populations, resources, and environments; natural hazards; risks and benefits; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science.

Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-87563-717-5), $12.60. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-87563-718-3), $24.20. Publisher/supplier: Stipes. Materials: Available locally.

5.43 Investigating Chemical Processes: Your Island Factory.

Chemical Education for Public Understanding Program (CEPUP) series. Developed by Lawrence Hall of Science (Berkeley, Calif.). Menlo Park, Calif.: Addison-Wesley, 1992.

Program Overview The Chemical Education for Public Understanding Program (CEPUP) series consists of 12 modules for grades 7-9. The modules focus on chemicals and the interaction of chemicals with people and the environment. The series promotes the use of scientific principles, processes, and evidence in public decision making. The components of a CEPUP module are a teacher's guide and a kit of materials. (SEPUP—the Science Education for Public Understanding Program—is the second phase of the project that began as CEPUP.)

Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 7-8+. Investigating Chemical Processes: Your Island Factory contains 6 activities during which students explore the role of chemicals and chemical processes in manufacturing industries and the effect of such chemicals on people and their environment—in this case, on an island community. During the activities, students examine their attitudes toward and knowledge about 4 different industries—computers, food processing, chemical manufacturing, and oil refining. They read brief descriptions of the chemical processes involved in these industries. They learn the meaning of such

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

concepts as reactant, product, and by-product by investigating a simple reaction in which a mixture of vinegar and salt is used to remove oxidation from copper pennies.

In other activities, students imagine they live on an island that has large deposits of limestone and marble, which leads to their developing a plan to produce gypsum. Students synthesize gypsum in the lab in a 2-step procedure. Next, they design a plan for an island factory (for large-scale production), taking into account the availability of raw materials, disposal of wastes, energy management, and labor.

The 6 activities in Investigating Chemical Processes each take 1 or 2 periods of 40 to 50 minutes. Included in the slim, wire-bound book are reproducible student sheets, directions for guiding activities and discussions, and an end-of-unit test.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Risks and benefits; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Nature of science.

Prices: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-201-28432-4), $19.99. Kit, $174.99. Publisher/supplier: Sargent-Welch/VWR Scientific. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit.

5.44 JASON IV Curriculum: Baja California Sur.

JASON Project series. Developed by National Science Teachers Association (NSTA). Washington, D.C.: NSTA, 1992.

Program Overview Each year, the JASON Project—administered by the JASON Foundation for Education—embarks on a 2-week scientific expedition to a remote location. The project develops a science and technology curriculum module to prepare students to participate in the expedition using interactive telecommunication. The JASON Project series currently consists of 9 such modules.

Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 6-8+. The JASON IV Curriculum: Baja California Sur contains 21 lessons and more than 70 activities that prepared students for live satellite participation in a March 1993 expedition to Baja California Sur to study whales in the San Ignacio Lagoon and hydrothermal vent communities in the Guaymas Basin of the Sea of Cortez. During the module, students learn about past JASON Projects and about the goals of the JASON IV expedition. They also find out about the technological innovations that make such expeditions work—for example, robotics, sonar technology, and fiber optics. They learn about the science involved in the expedition—tectonic geological processes, photosynthesis, chemosynthesis, and the physiology, behavior, and migration pattern of gray whales—as well as about the social and cultural history of Baja California and the pros and cons of whaling.

Among the activities, students build models of some of the devices that JASON scientists used to collect and retrieve samples from the ocean floor. They plot points from soundings of the Guaymas Basin and draw a profile of the seafloor. They also locate and describe geological features above and below the ocean surface, build a model of a hydrothermal vent community, piece together a model of a gray whale's skeleton, and experiment with using whalelike sounds for communication.

Each activity includes objectives, step-by-step teaching procedures, and a materials list. Most of the activities were developed for middle school students, but suggestions are included for adapting the activities for use with older or younger students. In addition to the activities, the module contains background materials for the teacher, reproducible student worksheets and readings, resource lists, and a glossary.

Program Resources and Support Materials The module also contains a poster, a large map of the ocean floor, several small maps, and complete materials for several games and simulations. A videotape— Sea of Cortez Highlights—is also available.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; evolution and equilibrium; form and function.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; regulation and behavior; populations and ecosystems; diversity and adaptations of organisms.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth's history.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Science and technology in society.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science.

Price: Teacher's guide, $15. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: JASON Foundation for Education. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.45 JASON VI: Island Earth, Hawai'i Expedition Curriculum.

JASON Foundation for Education. JASON Project series. Waltham, Mass.: JASON Foundation for Education, 1994.

Program Overview Each year, the JASON Project—administered by the JASON Foundation for Education—embarks on a 2-week scientific expedition to a remote location. The project develops a science and technology curriculum module to prepare students to participate in the expedition using interactive telecommunication. The JASON Project series currently consists of 9 such modules.

Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 4-8. JASON VI: Island Earth, Hawai'i Expedition Curriculum contains 17 lessons, 31 activities, and more than 100 exercises that prepared students for live satellite participation in a 1995 research expedition to Hawaii to study volcanoes and what they reveal about the formation of the earth and the solar system. During the module, students learn about the organization of our solar system and about island ecology. They also learn about the technological innovations, such as planetary probes, robots, satellites, remote sensing, aerial photography, fiber optics, and computer communications, that accompany many of today's expeditions. They study about geoscience concepts—plate tectonics, terrestrial volcanic activity, and planetary volcanism—as well as life science concepts relevant to the expedition—animal migration, island biogeography, and adaptation. They are introduced to the history, culture, and people of Hawaii both before and after the arrival of Captain James Cook, the first documented European to reach the Islands.

Among the activities, students simulate the formation of an island chain, design and build a particulate trap, collect seismic data using the Internet, and predict the morphological characteristics of Hawaiian honeycreeper birds. They investigate how data are transmitted from a probe back to earth, simulate a volcanic eruption, examine causes of volcanism on other planets, compare the colonization of the Galapagos and the Hawaiian Islands, and display Hawaiian 'ohana (family) values through a pantomime.

Each activity includes objectives, step-by-step teaching procedures, a materials list, and suggestions for adapting the activities to use with older or younger students. In addition to the activities, the module contains background materials for the teacher, reproducible student worksheets and readings, resource lists, and a glossary.

Program Resources and Support Materials The module also contains a poster and a topographic map of Hawaii. A network of distributed resources is available on the Internet through the JASON Online Systems. JASON Discovery Kits, which contain materials and instructions for conducting a selection of curriculum experiments in the fields of astronomy, geology, and technology, are also available.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; evolution and equilibrium; form and function.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Transfer of energy.

LIFE SCIENCE: Reproduction and heredity; regulation and behavior; populations and ecosystems; diversity and adaptations of organisms.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth's history; earth in the solar system.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Populations, resources, and environments; natural hazards; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science.

Price: Teacher's guide, $28. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: JASON Foundation for Education. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.46 Life: Here? There? Elsewhere? The Search for Life on Venus and Mars.

SETI [Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence] Institute. Life in the Universe Series. Englewood, Colo.: Teacher Ideas Press, 1996.

Program Overview The Life in the Universe Series consists of 6 units, including the 3 volumes in the SETI Academy Planet Project. Each book in the SETI Academy Planet Project is designed to be a complete unit in itself as well as a subunit of a 3-unit course. During the activities in the 3 units, each student plays the role of a "cadet" at the SETI [Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence] Academy, a fictitious institution. (The SETI Institute is an actual scientific organization.)

Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 7-8+. Life: Here? There? Elsewhere?

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

engages students in activities designed to explore the possibility of life on Venus or Mars and to find out about methods used to detect life in the atmosphere and soil of earth. Comparative planetology and exobiology (the study of life outside or beyond the earth) are used to help students discover that life is not always intelligent, nor always easy to recognize.

During the unit, students construct an orbital model of earth, Mars, Venus, and the sun, and they learn about conditions on the 3 planets and why the search for life in the solar system is focused on these planets. They also learn about scale and powers of 10. They culture a microscopic organism and see whether it can grow under simulated Martian conditions. They design a spacecraft-lander system to search for life at a specific site on Mars or Venus. Students also "discover" life (dormant brine shrimp eggs) in apparently lifeless soil, they test soils for the presence of carbohydrates and proteins, and they build "life traps" (nutrient gelatin dishes) to capture microbial life present in earth's atmosphere and figure out how they could use these traps on Venus or Mars. Finally, they analyze simulated data from a Viking mission to decide if life is present on Mars.

Organized in 14 sequential "missions," or chapters, the activities can take 4 to 6 weeks to complete. The guide includes background information, directions for activities, discussion ideas, extensions, and reproducible blackline masters.

Program Resources and Support Materials Powers-of-10 cards, a poster, and a videotape—Voyages to Earth, Mars, and Venus—accompany the teacher's guide.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; evolution and equilibrium.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

LIFE SCIENCE: Diversity and adaptations of organisms.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Earth in the solar system.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Science and technology in society.

Price: Kit, $90. Publisher/supplier: Teacher Ideas Press. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.47 Manufacturing.

4th ed. Integrated Mathematics, Science and Technology (IMaST) Project. IMaST series. Normal, Ill.: Center for Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education, Illinois State University, 1996.

Program Overview The Integrated Mathematics, Science, and Technology (IMaST) series for middle school includes 6 modules. The materials in each are designed to be used by a team of mathematics, science, and technology teachers concurrently over a 9-week period. Each module includes a teacher's guide and a student book.

Student Book Recommended grade level: 7-8+. The module Manufacturing engages students in activities related to contemporary manufacturing and engineering processes and helps them develop an understanding of the importance of manufacturing to society. The module begins with 2 optional introductory activities in which students design and manufacture a custom book cover and investigate the operations of a manufacturing plant.

Then, during the unit's 32 activities, students learn to measure for precision using metric or standard measure; they work with geoboards to find the area of triangles and parallelograms; and they examine the mathematics involved with scaling work. Students also examine the qualities of a box of new pencils to develop an understanding of the manufacturing term "tolerance interval," used for levels of acceptable standards. They classify sample materials used in manufacturing according to 4 categories—polymers, metals, ceramics, and composites; and they investigate the physical and chemical properties of different materials.

In other activities, students test materials for strength, flammability, porosity, resistance to scratches, or adhesive nature. They identify the impact manufacturing materials might have on living organisms. They also design, build, and use jigs and fixtures to control a tool or a work piece during manufacturing processing, and they design and build a prototype of a product.

The 32 activities in Manufacturing are organized in 3 groups, according to their emphasis on mathematics, science, or technology. Three sections following the activities provide background reading on manufacturing and its impact on people and societies.

Teacher's Guide Accompanying the activities in the teacher's guide are brief directions, ideas for class discussions, and extension activities. Guidelines for assessing student performance are provided.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter.

LIFE SCIENCE: Regulation and behavior.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Populations, resources, and environments; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Nature of science.

Prices: Student book, $13.50. Teacher's guide, $24.50. Publisher/supplier: Illinois State University. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.48 Packaging.

Module 1.3. Foundations and Challenges to Encourage Technology-based Science (FACETS) series. Developed by American Chemical Society (Washington, D.C.). Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1996.

Program Overview The Foundations and Challenges to Encourage Technology-based Science (FACETS) program consists of 3 series of 8 modules each for grades 6-8. Each module focuses on a topic in the life, earth, or physical sciences. The time needed to complete FACETS modules varies from 2 to 4 weeks. Each module consists of a student book and a teacher's guide.

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 6. In the module Packaging , students investigate packaging materials and their assembly and learn about some of the science and technology involved in packaging. Students first investigate how packaging shapes are made—from flat pieces with fold lines, forming a package of a particular shape. They analyze the pluses and minuses of different packaging shapes, and they design and make models of a package for shipping glass olive oil bottles.

Students also investigate the properties—strength, elasticity, ability to be shaped, tearability, and water repulsion—of different packaging materials. They take a field trip to a grocery store to observe different types of packaging, and they gather data on the "environmental friendliness" of packages they see; then they write to manufacturers that they think could use more ecologically friendly packaging for certain products. In the final activity, students design a single serving package for a "designer" cookie. The package meets certain specifications for size, appearance, and performance.

Packaging is divided into 5 activities, which each take between 1 and 4 class periods to complete. Four short reading sections at the end of the module provide limited background information on how packages are shaped to contain their products and to be stacked, on some of the basic science behind the most commonly used polymers in packaging, and on what is meant by "environmentally friendly" packaging.

Teacher's Guide The wraparound teacher's guide includes a unit overview, a time line for completing the module, a materials list, background information, and teaching suggestions.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Form and function.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Nature of science.

Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-7872-1435-3), $7.90. Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-7872-1436-1), $14.90. Publisher/supplier: Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.49 Paper Towel Testing.

Reprinted with revisions. Cary I. Sneider and Jacqueline Barber. Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) series. Berkeley, Calif.: Lawrence Hall of Science, 1990.

Program Overview The Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) series includes more than 50 teacher's guides and handbooks for preschool through grade 10. About 35 of these are appropriate for middle school. The series also includes several assembly presenter's guides and exhibit guides. New guides and handbooks continue to be developed, and current titles are revised frequently. The series is designed to teach key science and mathematics concepts through activity-based learning. The time needed to complete GEMS units varies from about 2 to 10 class sessions.

Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 5-7. In Paper Towel Testing , students design and conduct scientific tests to compare the qualities of several brands of paper towels. Teams of students plan and conduct controlled experiments to determine which brand is most absorbent and which has the greatest wet strength. They discuss their results and plan and conduct follow-up experiments. Results are averaged and compared. After calculating the unit cost of each brand of paper towel, students reexamine their findings and discuss which brand is the best buy.

The teacher's guide includes background information, detailed instructions for conducting the activities, and summary outlines of the 4 sessions, which require 30 to 35 minutes each. Reproducible masters of student data sheets are included.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; change, constancy, and measurement.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Nature of science.

Price: $9 (ISBN 0-912511-65-6).

Publisher/supplier: LHS GEMS.

Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.50 Steamed Up!

Michigan Science Education Resources Project. New Directions Teaching Units. Lansing, Mich.: Michigan Department of Education, 1993.

Program Overview The New Directions Teaching Units focus on developing scientific literacy and conceptual understanding. They were designed to reflect the ideas about teaching, learning, and curriculum in the Michigan Essential Goals and Objectives for K-12 Science Education, which were developed by the Michigan Science Education Resources Project. Several New Directions Teaching Units can be used with middle school students.

Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 5-7. Steamed Up! helps students understand how evaporation and condensation work at the molecular and macroscopic levels. The unit also helps students develop familiarity with the scientific approach to experimentation and with ways in which results of such experiments can be applied to real-world problems.

During the first cluster of lessons, students review their prior knowledge of water and evaporation. Working cooperatively and individually, they explain what they think happens when a shirt dries. Then they design, set up, and carry out experiments to test factors such as heat, light, and moving air that affect the rate of evaporation.

In the second cluster of lessons, students read a "fog" story containing several situations that involve condensation. Then they construct a closed system and manipulate conditions within the system to cause evaporation and condensation to occur. They also develop an explanation for one of the condensation situations in the "fog" story and draw a cartoon strip illustrating it. In the final activity students use the information they have learned in the unit to design and/or explain a real-world device such as a hair dryer, humidifier, or steam iron that employs the principles of evaporation and condensation to perform its function.

Steamed Up! has 13 lessons and takes about 22 class sessions to complete. The teacher's guide contains background information, lab preparation notes, answers to questions posed in the unit's separate reproducible student pages, and information about student misconceptions and how to address them.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Evidence, models, and explanation.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science.

Price: $18. Publisher/supplier: Battle Creek Area Math/Science Center. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.51 A Sunken Ship.

Module 2.8. Foundations and Challenges to Encourage Technology-based Science (FACETS) series. Developed by American Chemical Society (Washington, D.C.). Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1996.

Program Overview The Foundations and Challenges to Encourage Technology-based Science (FACETS) program consists of 3 series of 8 modules each for grades 6-8. Each module focuses on a topic in the life, earth, or physical sciences. The time needed to complete FACETS modules varies from 2 to 4 weeks. Each module consists of a student book and a teacher's guide.

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 7. In the module A Sunken Ship, students are involved in a simulation about salvaging the cargo on board a mythical ship that sank in the Atlantic Ocean 50 years ago. In the process, they work with several science concepts, including the solubility of sodium chloride, the effect of saltwater on certain metals, the noncompressibility of liquids, and the conservation of matter.

Students first use plastic soda bottles to make models of the ocean where the ship sank. They investigate the compressibility of gases and the noncompressibility of liquids to determine the fate of fuel barrels that were on board the ship. They observe the effect of immersion in saltwater on copper, steel, and silver. They refer to the financial pages from a newspaper to calculate the value of the gold, silver, and platinum that were on board the ship. Finally, they prepare a brief proposal for a salvage operation to a funding agency.

In addition to the science in the module, students use map skills (identifying latitude and longitude; reading depth levels; working with scale); mathematics (calculating the total cost of a salvage venture, setting

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

up a budget, making a model to scale); and language arts skills (writing a proposal to a funding agency).

A Sunken Ship is divided into 6 activities that each take between 1 and 3 class periods to complete. Three short reading sections at the end of the module provide limited background information on how a ship is structured, the chemistry of corrosion, and the technology used in undersea explorations.

Teacher's Guide The wraparound teacher's guide includes a unit overview, a time line for completing the module, a materials list, background information, and teaching suggestions.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Risks and benefits; science and technology in society.

Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-7872-1443-4), $7.90. Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-7872-1444-2), $14.90. Publisher/supplier: Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.52 Threads.

Module 3.1. Foundations and Challenges to Encourage Technology-based Science (FACETS) series. Developed by American Chemical Society (Washington, D.C.). Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1996.

Program Overview The Foundations and Challenges to Encourage Technology-based Science (FACETS) program consists of 3 series of 8 modules each for grades 6-8. Each module focuses on a topic in the life, earth, or physical sciences. The time needed to complete FACETS modules varies from 2 to 4 weeks. Each module consists of a student book and a teacher's guide.

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 8. In the module Threads, students investigate the physical and chemical properties of a variety of natural and synthetic fibers. During these investigations, they gain first-hand experience with problems of experimental design, conducting experiments, interpreting data, and forming conclusions.

Students first conduct a survey of the types of fibers used in garments. They examine fibers under a microscope using several levels of magnification. They also watch a demonstration led by the teacher that illustrates how flame tests can be used to identify fibers. Students design a way of testing fibers for tensile strength. They investigate how well soiled fabrics can be cleaned using water at various temperatures and different cleaning agents. In the last activity, students draw on their research on fabrics and fibers to design a school-related garment that uses the best possible fabrics and fibers for the purposes of the garment.

Threads is divided into 6 activities that each take between 1 and 4 class periods to complete. Three short reading sections at the end of the module provide limited background information on using a microscope and on the composition of fibers, as well as their characteristics.

Teacher's Guide The wraparound teacher's guide includes a unit overview, a time line for completing the module, a materials list, background information, and teaching suggestions.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Evidence, models, and explanation.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Nature of science.

Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-7872-1482-5), $7.90. Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-7872-1483-3), $14.90. Publisher/supplier: Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.53 Wellness: First Module in Bio-Related Technologies Unit.

4th ed. Integrated Mathematics, Science and Technology (IMaST) Project. IMaST series. Normal, Ill.: Center for Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education, Illinois State University, 1996.

Program Overview The Integrated Mathematics, Science, and Technology (IMaST) series for middle school includes 6 modules. The materials in each are designed to be used by a team of mathematics, science, and technology teachers concurrently over a 9-week period. Each module includes a teacher's guide and a student book.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

Student Book Recommended grade level: 7. The module Wellness engages students in activities related to nutrition, exercise, and communicable diseases. Many of the activities are relevant to students' lifestyles, encouraging them to think about their eating and exercise habits. In an optional introductory activity, students conduct a "wellness fair" to evaluate their level of fitness. Then, during the 13 activities in the module, they calculate "golden" ratios from measurements they take of each other's bodies; they build and use a paper protractor to measure the range of motion in their wrists, thumbs, and fingers; and they calculate their base metabolic rate and plan a diet or menu based on that rate.

In other activities, students investigate how bones, joints, and muscles make motion possible. They use a calorimeter to measure the amount of energy per gram released during the burning of food samples; and they design, build, and test a prosthetic hand. They also learn how a communicable disease spreads through a population, and they plan and produce an educational wellness video.

The 13 activities in Wellness are organized in 3 groups, according to their emphasis on mathematics, science, or technology. Three sections following the activities provide background reading and basic information on health topics related to the module.

Teacher's Guide Accompanying the activities in the teacher's guide are brief directions, along with ideas for class discussions, and extension activities. Guidelines for assessing student performance are provided.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; form and function.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Personal health; risks and benefits; science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Nature of science.

Prices: Student book, $7.50. Teacher's guide, $15.75. Publisher/supplier: Illinois State University. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.54 A World in Motion II: The Design Experience, Challenge 2.

A World in Motion II: The Design Experience series. Developed by Education Development Center (Newton, Mass.) for Society of Automotive Engineers, International, and the SAE Foundation. Pittsburgh, Pa.: SAE International, 1996.

Program Overview: A World in Motion II: the Design Experience series consists of 3 units on using science, mathematics, and technology to explore the process of design. Each unit engages students in a problem-solving context for which they must create a design or solution to address a particular need or problem. The active participation of volunteers in the classroom is a distinguishing feature of this series.

Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 7. In A World in Motion II: The Design Experience, Challenge 2, students respond to a request for proposals from a fictitious toy company to develop designs for new motorized, gear-driven toys that meet a specific set of requirements. Students work in design teams to develop a proposal and a prototype for a toy of their own design. To participate in this program, a teacher must form a partnership with a business or organization willing to provide voluntary support for the classroom.

Science and mathematics concepts examined in the unit include force and friction, simple machines, levers and gears, torque, and the relationship between gear ratios and the radius of a wheel. During the activities in this 8-week unit, students identify the target market; gather and synthesize information; predict a plausible solution; design, develop, and test a prototype or potential design; and prepare for a presentation of their design ideas.

Program Resources and Support Materials The teacher's guide is available separately or as part of a teacher's kit. The teacher's kit also includes posters, 4 implementation videotapes, and a CD-ROM resource disc. Kits with hands-on laboratory materials for constructing prototypes are also available.

Key to Content Standards: 5-8

(see app. C)

UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; form and function.

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Motions and forces.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Science and technology in society.

HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science.

Prices: Free upon establishment of partnership with local business or organization. Publisher/supplier: SAE International. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
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Multidisciplinary and Applied Science—Science Activity Books

5.55 The Art and Science Connection: Hands-on Activities for Intermediate Students.

Kimberley Tolley. Menlo Park, Calif.: Innovative Learning, 1994.

Recommended grade level: 4-8. The Art and Science Connection for intermediate students is a sourcebook of creative art activities that integrate art and science concepts and processes. The 30 lessons are organized around 3 conceptual themes of science: structure, interactions, and energy. Activities include the following art forms: drawing, painting, sculpture, bas-relief, printmaking, collage, graphic arts, textiles, and mixed media.

Each lesson includes an overview, student objectives, a list of materials, step-by-step teaching instructions, extension ideas, and suggested resources. Blackline masters for activity sheets, tips for classroom management and working with art and science materials, safety precautions, and a glossary are included.

Price: $19.95 (ISBN 0-201-45545-5). Publisher/supplier: Addison-Wesley/Longman. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

ABOUT THE ANNOTATIONS IN "MULTIDISCIPLINARY AND APPLIED SCIENCE—SCIENCE ACTIVITY BOOKS"

Entry Numbers

Curriculum materials are arranged alphabetically by title in each category (Core Materials, Supplementary Units, and Science Activity Books) in chapters 1 through 5 of this guide.

Each curriculum annotation has a two-part entry number: the chapter number is given before the period; the number after the period locates the entry within that chapter. For example, the first entry number in chapter 1 is 1.1; the second entry in chapter 2 is 2.2; and so on.

The entry numbers within each curriculum chapter run consecutively through Core Materials, Supplementary Units, and Science Activity Books.

Order of Bibliographic Information

Following is the arrangement of the facts of publication in the annotations in this section:

  • Title of publication

  • Number of edition, if applicable

  • Authors (an individual author or authors, an institutional author, or a project or program name under which the material was developed)

  • Series title

  • Series developer, if applicable

  • Place of publication, publisher, and date of publication

Recommended Grade Level

The grade level for each piece of material was recommended by teacher evaluators during the development of this guide. In some instances, the recommended grade level may differ slightly from the publisher's advertised level.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

Price and Acquisition Information

Ordering information appears at the end of each entry. Included are—

  • Prices (of teacher's guides, activity books, and kits or units)

  • Publisher/supplier (The name of a principal publisher/supplier, although not necessarily the sole source, for the items listed in the price category. Appendix A, "Publishers and Suppliers," provides the address, phone and fax numbers, and electronic ordering information, where available, for each publisher and supplier.)

  • Materials (various sources from which one might obtain the required materials)

Readers must contact publishers/suppliers for complete and up-to-date ordering information, since prices are subject to change and materials may also change with revised editions. The prices given in this chapter are based on information from publishers and suppliers but are not meant to represent the full range of ordering options.

Indexes of Curriculum Materials

The multiple indexes on pp. 449-78 allow easy access to the information in this guide. Various aspects of the curriculum materials—including titles, topics addressed in each unit, and grade levels—are the focus of seven separate indexes. For example, titles and entry numbers are listed in the "Title Index" on pp. 450-54. The "Index of Authors, Series, and Curriculum Projects," on pp. 455-57, provides entry numbers of any annotated titles in a particular series.

5.56 The Ben Franklin Book of Easy and Incredible Experiments: Activities, Projects, and Science Fun.

A Franklin Institute Science Museum Book. New York, N.Y.: John Wiley, 1995.

Recommended grade level: 4-8. This book contains more than 60 activities related to 6 subjects that interested Benjamin Franklin: (1) observation and experimentation, (2) meteorology, (3) electricity, (4) sound and music, (5) paper and printing, and (6) lenses and vision. Among the activities, for example, students play an observation game, make a weather station, experiment with static electricity, build their own printing press, and make and use a kaleidoscope. They also create an orchestra with handmade flutes, water chimes, and a shoe-box guitar.

Each of the 6 chapters in the book begins with entertaining historical anecdotes about Franklin, his inventions, or the experiments he did; entries from his journals or letters are often included. Each activity includes a list of materials, scientific background or explanations, step-by-step procedures, illustrations, and suggestions for extensions. All of the activities use inexpensive, readily available materials and can be done in any order.

Price: $12.95 (ISBN 0-471-07638-4). Publisher/supplier: Wiley. Materials: Available locally.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×
5.57 Classroom 2061: Activity-Based Assessments in Science Integrated with Mathematics and Language Arts.

Elizabeth Hammerman and Diann Musial. Palatine, Ill.: IRI/Skylight Training and Publishing, 1995.

Recommended grade level: 4-8. Classroom 2061: Activity-Based Assessments in Science Integrated with Mathematics and Language Arts includes performance assessments and practical guidelines for developing such assessments. This teacher's guide is organized in 2 sections. The first focuses on "the new visions" for science, mathematics, and language arts education and provides guidelines for developing meaningful, integrated performance assessments.

The second section includes a set of 10 performance assessments linked to national standards. The assessments incorporate a variety of ways to assess students' concept understanding, process-skill acquisition, habits of mind, and ability to make real-world connections. Most of the assessments include more than one activity, a writing prompt, and a set of criterion-referenced questions that can be used in conjunction with the activities. Reproducible student masters are included.

Price: $22.95 (ISBN 1-57517-004-3). Publisher/supplier: IRI/Skylight. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.58 Critical Issues in Today's World: A Module for Grades 4-7.

Marilyn Bodourian and Louis A. Iozzi. Science-Technology-Society: Preparing for Tomorrow's World series. Longmont, Colo.: Sopris West, 1993.

Recommended grade level: 6-8. Critical Issues in Today's World contains 10 activity modules designed to help students explore and consider solutions to current science and technology problems or issues. The emphasis is on increasing students' ability to analyze issues that arise in a technological society and on enhancing their awareness of their own role in the process of technological change. The 10 modules examine (1) decision making, (2) technology, (3) inventions, (4) artificial intelligence, (5) energy, (6) transportation, (7) environmental concerns, (8) oceans, (9) endangered species, and (10) conservation.

Among the activities, for example, students examine a model for making decisions, discuss whether inventions are always good, and analyze what dangerous or boring tasks currently done by people could be done by robots in the future. Students also prepare a transportation plan for a new city, participate in a simulation to decide if an amendment should be added to the Clean Air Act, and think about what would happen if all birds became extinct.

Each module begins with background readings and discussion questions and is meant to stand-alone, as are most of the exercises or activities. Designed to develop analytical skills, the activities include writing exercises, scenario discussions, and informal and formal debates. Most of them are paper-and-pencil exercises; many combine science and social studies. This 3-ring-binder includes student pages, teaching guidelines for each activity, and background information on the program.

Price: $60 (ISBN 0-944584-80-2). Publisher/supplier: Sopris West. Materials: Available locally.

5.59 Earth and Physical Science: Content and Learning Strategies.

Mary Ann Christison and Sharron Bassano. Science Through Active Reading (STAR) series. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1992.

Recommended grade level: 6-8+. Earth and Physical Science: Content and Learning Strategies is a specialized text for middle school and secondary ESL (English as a Second Language) students or for students experiencing difficulty using a traditional science textbook. One of 4 books in the Science Through Active Reading (STAR) series, it is designed to help students with limited English proficiency develop the science vocabulary, critical-thinking skills, and learning strategies needed for higher-level schoolwork. Largely a reading text, this book integrates exercises in reading comprehension, vocabulary, and learning strategies with hands-on science activities in 6 areas of science: meteorology, topography, oceanography, astronomy, and physics and chemistry. Topics covered include the difference between weather and climate, the water cycle, drainage basins, rocks, ocean movement, properties of matter, and Newton's laws of motion. In the hands-on activities, for example, students work together to compare and contrast different soils, model ocean currents, or play with a ball to explore inertia.

Each chapter features a very brief introduction to a science topic, to be read by the teacher and students together. This introduction is followed by critical-thinking activities, directions for simple hands-on group experiments, prereading focus questions to help students read selectively, reading sections, self-evaluation activities, and extension activities. Each chapter also includes diagrams and charts to help students' comprehension and learning. All of the activities emphasize cooperative groups and peer-tutoring. The teacher's edition includes an answer key for the prereading focus questions.

Prices: Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-8013-0986-7), $12.84. Student edition (ISBN 0-8013-0348-6), $11.12. Publisher/supplier: Addison-Wesley/Longman. Materials: Available locally.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×
5.60 Everyday Science: Real-Life Activities.

John M. Scott. Portland, Maine: Walch, 1988.

Recommended grade level: 5-8. Everyday Science offers more than 300 ideas for short activities and simple demonstrations designed to heighten students' interest in science. The activities are organized in 16 chapters by topic. The wide range of topics includes motion and forces, space travel, weather, oceanography, matter, energy, senses, photosynthesis, electricity, and astronomy.

Among the activities, for example, students explore the pressure-volume relationship of a gas using a basting tube and a glass of water; they see how convection currents work by heating a glass coffeepot filled with sawdust and water; and they make a compass galvanometer out of a cardboard cylinder, insulated wire, and a small compass.

Each chapter begins with several pages of stories, examples, applications, or "believe-it-or-not" anecdotes illustrating how science principles operate in everyday situations or events. Examples include explanations of why golf balls are dimpled or of how Newton's laws operate when a car is being driven. Simple directions are then given for carrying out related activities at home or in the classroom. The activities require simple equipment and ordinary household items. Some activities are open-ended; others are solved for students.

Price: $17.95 (ISBN 0-8251-2705-X). Publisher/supplier: Walch. Materials: Available locally.

5.61 Exciting Science and Engineering: A Series of Problem Solving Tasks for Seven to Fourteen Year Olds.

Heslington, York, England: Chemical Industry Education Centre, 1995.

Recommended grade level: 6-8. Exciting Science and Engineering contains 9 units for 11- to 14-year-olds. Most units include 2 or 3 lessons or activities. In each unit, students are involved in problem solving as they investigate real-life situations or stories such as being snowbound, constructing Stonehenge, or getting rid of dampness in an apartment building. The book is designed to help students see that the science they learn in school can be used to solve real-world problems.

Topics addressed include noise pollution, the use of dynamos for bicycle lights, industrial problems involving the transportation and dissolving of salt, the scientific principles involved in floating and sinking (a shipwreck is analyzed), coastline erosion, and the properties of hydrocarbons in pipelines. In the unit on condensation, for example, students explore the causes of condensation, design a simple dehumidifier, and evaluate commercial anti-condensation systems. In the unit on Stonehenge, they consider the scale of Stonehenge and the kinds of problems involved in its construction; they investigate how simple machines, such as levers or ramps, must have been used by Neolithic people to move the enormous rocks at the site; and they try to figure how the lintels could have been raised. Throughout the activities, students must apply integrated scientific principles to find solutions. Each activity has suggestions for involving a local engineer or scientist in the classroom as an adviser or as a contributor to discussions.

Each unit provides background information, teaching notes, a brief description of possible roles in the unit for an engineer, and student sheets, where appropriate. Because the guide is published in Great Britain, some words may need to be Americanized (for example, "flats" or "petrol" may be unfamiliar to students).

Price: $70. Publisher/supplier: Chemical Industry Education Centre. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.62 Fingerprinting.

Reprinted with revisions. Jeremy John Ahouse and Jacqueline Barber. Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) series. Berkeley, Calif.: Lawrence Hall of Science, 1993.

Recommended grade level: 4-7. In the unit Fingerprinting, students explore the similarities and variations of fingerprints. They take their own fingerprints, devise a scheme for classifying fingerprints, and apply their classification skills to solve a crime. In session 1 students use pencils, paper, and tape to take their fingerprints. In session 2 they group 10 different fingerprints according to the way they look. Students are then introduced to the standard arch-loop-whorl system of fingerprint classification. In the final session, they apply their knowledge of fingerprints to determine which of 5 suspects robbed a safe. The mystery scenario, "Who Robbed the Safe?" includes plot and character sketches. Examples of extension activities include fingerprint art, an introduction to genetics, and role-playing news reporters covering the crime scene.

Fingerprinting includes 3 or 4 sessions of 30 to 60 minutes each. The lesson plan for each session includes an overview, a list of materials, blackline masters of student worksheets, and complete instructions for planning and conducting the activity. This teacher's guide also includes answers to typical student

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

questions, summary outlines for the 3 sessions, literature connections, and assessment suggestions for fifth-grade students.

Price: $9 (ISBN 0-912511-21-4). Publisher/supplier: LHS GEMS. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.63 Forecasting the Future: Exploring Evidence for Global Climate Change.

Education Department, Stephen Birch Aquarium-Museum, in collaboration with Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate at Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Arlington, Va.: National Science Teachers Association, 1996.

Recommended grade level: 8+. Forecasting the Future is designed to help students understand the science behind climate and global climate change. The first section of the guide includes a detailed narrative of scientific background, which may need to be interpreted or adapted for student use. The section explains the clues that scientists study to find out about climate in the past and where they find them, how scientists measure the earth's temperature, the importance of water in climate change, how living organisms contribute or respond to climate change, and the role human beings can play in limiting greenhouse gases.

The second section of the guide offers 14 stand-alone activities that explore various aspects of climate and cover a range of disciplines: plant and animal biology, chemistry, geology, meteorology, and physics. For example, students study fish scales to identify changes in environmental conditions experienced by a fish. They create a simulated sediment bed with pollen grains and take core samples and analyze them. They also expose soil samples to sunlight to study the relationship between heat, evaporation, and erosion. In other activities, they examine tree rings, and they observe phase changes in water due to heating and cooling and relate these changes to climate zones. Several activities promote the concept of change over time. Reproducible student pages and teacher's pages are included for each activity.

The third section of the guide includes tips on designing science lessons that employ scientific inquiry and 40 ideas for extension activities. The last section includes a geological time line; a glossary; and an annotated bibliography of resources, including books, teacher's guides, and Internet resources that deal with climate change.

Price: $21.95 (ISBN 0-87355-139-7). Publisher/supplier: National Science Teachers Association. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.64 Great Moments in Science: Experiments and Readers Theatre.

Kendall Haven. Englewood, Colo.: Teacher Ideas Press, 1996.

Recommended grade level: 5-8. Great Moments in Science contains 12 stories about historic moments in the development of Western science. Included are stories about the work and discoveries of Archimedes, Galileo, Franklin, Newton, Pasteur, Mendel, and Goddard, among others. Topics addressed include levers, gravity, air pressure, electricity, heat, comets, microorganisms, heredity, rocketry, radioactivity, and the discovery of penicillin.

The stories are presented in the form of scripts for reading aloud; each script includes 4 to 6 roles. Several simple experiments after each story allow students to replicate or learn more about the "science moment" described in the story. For example, students investigate levers and beams as Archimedes did. They observe the swinging of a pendulum as Galileo did. They also study the growth of common bread molds as Pasteur did. The experiments, mostly done in small groups, allow students many opportunities to investigate sources of error in scientific research and to revise the design, conduct, and materials of their experiments. Each story and experiment has brief scientific background information, step-by-step instructions, and a list of references for further reading.

Price: $24.50 (ISBN 1-56308-355-8). Publisher/supplier: Teacher Ideas Press. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.65 Historical Connections in Mathematics: Resources for Using History of Mathematics in the Classroom. Vol I.

Wilbert Reimer and Luetta Reimer. Historical Connections in Mathematics series. Fresno, Calif.: AIMS Education Foundation, 1992.

Recommended grade level: 5-8. Volume I of Historical Connections in Mathematics is a collection of resources designed to help teachers integrate the history of mathematics into their teaching. The book emphasizes how people have discovered and developed mathematics, and it stresses that the process of problem solving is as important as the solution.

Organized in 10 chapters, each on a famous mathematician, the book provides portraits, concise biographical information, and interesting anecdotal stories—on Pythagoras, Archimedes, Napier, Galileo, Fermat, Pascal, Newton, Euler, Germain, and Gauss. Also included are reproducible puzzles, crosswords, skits, games, and other activities that allow students to make connections with social studies, language arts, and science.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

Not all of the activities replicate the exact problems worked on by the famous mathematicians, but they do represent the areas of interest of those mathematicians. For example, students use a technique that Archimedes used to calculate how many kernels of popcorn it would take to fill their classroom. They complete a table to discover Fermat's Two-Square Theorem. They also solve the same mathematical problem given to Gauss when he was 10 years old. Complete solutions and suggestions for using the activities are included.

Price: Teacher's guide (ISBN 1-881431-35-5), $16.95. Publisher/supplier: AIMS Education Foundation. Materials: Available locally.

5.66 Historical Connections in Mathematics: Resources for Using History of Mathematics in the Classroom. Vol. III.

Wilbert Reimer and Luetta Reimer. Historical Connections in Mathematics series. Fresno, Calif.: AIMS Education Foundation, 1995.

Recommended grade level: 5-8. Volume III of Historical Connections in Mathematics is a collection of resources designed to help teachers integrate the history of mathematics into their teaching. The book emphasizes how people have discovered and developed mathematics, and it stresses that the process of problem solving is as important as the solution. Organized in 10 chapters, each on a famous mathematician, the book provides portraits, concise biographical information, and interesting anecdotal stories—on Eratosthenes, Fibonacci, Descartes, Agnesi, Lagrange, Somerville, Dodgson, Venn, Noether, and Polya. Also included are reproducible puzzles, crosswords, skits, games, and other activities that allow students to make connections with social studies, language arts, and science.

Not all of the activities replicate the exact problems worked on by the famous mathematicians, but they do represent the areas of interest of those mathematicians. For example, students use a method developed by Eratosthenes to find all the prime numbers between 1 and 100. They create Fibonacci-like mathematical sequences. They also solve the puzzles called doublets that Charles Dodgson (also known as Lewis Carroll) invented.

Complete solutions and suggestions for using the activities are provided at the back of the book. An appendix includes a collection of programs for the TI-82 graphic calculator. The programs may be modified for use with other programmable calculators.

Price: Teacher's guide (ISBN 1-881431-49-5), $16.95. Publisher/supplier: AIMS Education Foundation. Materials: Available locally.

5.67 Investigating Apples.

Christine V. Johnson. Real-World Mathematics through Science series. Developed by Washington Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) Group (Seattle, Wash.). Menlo Park, Calif.: Innovative Learning Publications, 1995.

Recommended grade level: 6-8. Investigating Apples contains 6 activities that teach students the basics of statistical analysis by having them collect, organize, and interpret data related to apples. Students also learn how apples are cultivated and sized. Working in cooperative groups, they measure the masses of different varieties of size-80 apples, and they organize their data by preparing and analyzing line plots. They also explore stem plots and box plots as additional methods for displaying and analyzing data. They investigate the relationship between an apple's height and mass and its diameter and mass by constructing and analyzing scatter plots. At the end of the unit, they conduct and analyze a survey with their families on the texture and flavor of 3 varieties of apples.

During the unit, students discuss the uncertainty of measurement, the importance of statistical reasoning, and the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of organizing data. Short readings introduce them to careers in pomology (the science of growing fruit) and statistics and to the role of statistics in improving and monitoring apple-storage procedures.

Each activity requires 1 or 2 class sessions of 40 to 50 minutes and includes an overview, a materials list, background information, teaching procedures, discussion and assessment questions, and reproducible student record sheets.

Price: $18.95 (ISBN 0-201-49040-4). Publisher/supplier: Addison-Wesley/Longman. Materials: Available locally.

5.68 Learning about Learning.

Jacqueline Barber, Katharine Barrett, Kevin Beals, and others. Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) series. Berkeley, Calif.: Lawrence Hall of Science, 1996.

Recommended grade level: 6-8. Learning about Learning contains 10 activities that allow students to explore questions of how individual humans and animals learn, of how learning helps humans survive, and of how the brain changes with learning. Students consider these questions as they explore the human organism, animal behavior, health and safety, product testing, the ethics of experimentation, and what scientists do. The activities include simulations, a play, stories, hands-on investigations, and discussions.

Among the activities, for example, students make tactile mazes and test the mazes on a blindfolded partner to investigate how limiting sensory information makes learning more

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

challenging. They attempt to solve 2 health-related mysteries that are based on true stories of how scientists learn. They also investigate how animals and humans learn what is safe to eat and why there is a need for regulations applying to food, drugs, and cosmetics.

In other activities, students read and discuss "Genie," the true story about a girl raised in isolation. They measure and compare diagrams of brain cells from rats raised in "impoverished" environments and those raised in "enriched" environments. They engage in a dialogue about the benefits and costs of learning from conducting research with humans or animals.

Each activity in this unit takes 45 to 60 minutes to complete. The guide includes background information for the teacher, summary outlines for each activity, extensions, assessments activities, and reproducible student pages.

Price: $25.50 (ISBN 0-912511-95-8). Publisher/supplier: LHS GEMS. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.69 Minds-on Science: For the Sake of the Nation.

Minds-on Science series. Developed by National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution (Washington, D.C.). Water-town, Mass.: Tom Snyder Productions, 1995.

Recommended grade level: 7-8+. During the activities in Minds-on Science: For the Sake of the Nation, a videodisc activity kit, students role-play the science adviser to the President of the United States. The scenario is that the nation is facing both urgent and long-term problems, and students must make a decision about the nation's scientific policy: Should the federal government focus its money and energy on biotechnology, space exploration, or the environment?

To help make their decision, students review conflicting data and opinions from 4 advisers—a congressional representative, an engineer, a scientist, and an economist. Through video segments and short scientific readings in their student portfolios, they also become familiar with "big science" projects—such as the Manhattan Project, the Space Program, and the Human Genome Project—and how these projects have affected people's lives. In short paper-and pencil activities, students look at how science pervades their everyday lives, calculate how they can reduce their contribution to pollution, think about items they would take on a space trip, and consider how a genetically engineered item differs from the original. Eight extension activities are also suggested. They include conducting an experiment that illustrates the greenhouse effect, modeling the process of DNA profiling, or interviewing adults about scientific changes they have witnessed in their lifetime.

Students work cooperatively in teams of 4 as they gather information and do the activities. At the end of the unit, they must reach a consensus and decide as a class what direction scientific research should take. They watch the consequences of their decision on the video, then face a new dilemma and must make a second decision.

Including the extensions, the activities in Minds-on Science: For the Sake of the Nation take about 4 to 5 weeks to complete. The kit includes the videodisc, 28 student portfolios, and a teacher's guide.

Prices: Videodisc kit, $245.95. Software for Macintosh or Windows (optional), $49.50. Publisher/supplier: Tom Snyder Productions. Materials: Available in kit.

5.70 Minds-on Science: The Impact of Discovery.

Minds-on Science series. Developed by National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution (Washington, D.C.). Watertown, Mass.: Tom Snyder Productions, 1995.

Recommended grade level: 7-8. During the activities in Minds-on Science: The Impact of Discovery, a videodisc activity kit, students role-play a research scientist who has just discovered a compound that improves memory in laboratory rats. Students must decide what to do next: Should they publish the results, hold a press conference to announce the discovery to the world, or start a company to sell the compound?

To help make their decision, students review conflicting data and opinions from 4 advisers—a scientist, a friend, a doctor, and a business-person. Through video segments and short scientific readings in their student portfolios, they also develop an understanding of the brain, memory, the scientific method, and the process of turning a scientific discovery into a new product or medicine. In short paper-and-pencil activities, students conduct a memory experiment, look at safety problems with food and drugs, and consider the pros and cons of animal testing. Seven extension activities are suggested. They include designing and carrying out a memory experiment, tracking science in the news, or interviewing adults about scientific developments they have witnessed in their lifetime.

Students work cooperatively in teams of 4 as they gather information and do the activities. At the end of the unit, they must reach a consensus and make a decision as a class on what to do with the company. Students watch the consequences of their decision on the video, then face a new dilemma and must make a second decision.

Including the extensions, the activities in Minds-on Science: The Impact of Discovery take about 4 to

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
×

5 weeks to complete. The kit includes the videodisc, 28 student portfolios, and a teacher's guide.

Prices: Videodisc kit, $249.95. Software for Macintosh or Windows (optional), $49.95. Publisher/supplier: Tom Snyder Productions. Materials: Available in kit.

5.71 Multiculturalism in Mathematics, Science, and Technology: Readings and Activities.

Menlo Park, Calif.: Addison-Wesley, 1993.

Recommended grade level: 8+. Multiculturalism in Mathematics, Science, and Technology is designed to help teachers infuse multicultural education into their science and mathematics classes. Divided into 37 short stand-alone units, the book features more than 50 activities and readings that highlight the achievements of a broad spectrum of individuals and cultures—from the Zuni, to Omar Khayyam, to the ancient Egyptians.

Among the activities, for example, students use the ancient Egyptian method of multiplication to calculate 11 × 33. They also test young corn and potato plants in ways that parallel the experiments of Native-American agriculturalists, and they simulate the method the Celts used to make butter.

Each unit begins with a 1-page reading on the achievements of the individual or the culture highlighted in the unit. Critical-thinking questions then encourage learning and reflection, and 1 or 2 activities give students an idea of the mathematical or scientific reasoning used by the subject of the unit. The book contains many paper-and-pencil activities that require analysis or interpretation of collected data. Knowledge of algebra and geometry is required for some activities. Although the activities in each unit may be used independently of the readings, it is recommended that units be treated as a whole.

Teaching notes are provided for each unit. They include specific suggestions for using the readings and activities, limited background information, preparation tips, and extension ideas.

Price: $22.20 (ISBN 0-201-29417-6). Publisher/supplier: Addison-Wesley/Longman. Materials: Available locally.

5.72 Multicultural Science and Math Connections: Middle School Projects and Activities.

Beatrice Lumpkin and Dorothy Strong. Walch Reproducible Books. Portland, Maine: Walch, 1995.

Recommended grade level: 5-8+. Multicultural Science and Math Connections is organized in 2 parts, each containing units that feature a culture or an individual. The book includes more than 80 science and mathematics activities and projects that introduce students to brilliant discoveries of 17 cultures from Africa to the Arctic. Also featured are contributions of 10 outstanding scientists and mathematicians—for example, Lewis Latimer, Leon Roddy, and Mae Jemison.

Among the activities, for example, students learn about and make an Egyptian carpenter's level. They make a model planetarium of an ancient observatory in Kenya. They also build and use an Inca abacus, and they study Native American teepee designs.

Each unit includes an introductory classroom activity and background information presented through a short reading about the experiences of young people from the time and culture of interest or about events in the life of the scientist or mathematician. Critical-thinking questions follow, and additional science, mathematics, or class research or experimentation projects are suggested.

The units are designed to be used as a whole but can also be used individually. The materials are inexpensive and readily available. Answers to the critical-thinking questions are provided.

Price: $24.95 (ISBN 0-8251-2659-2). Publisher/supplier: Walch. Materials: Available locally.

5.73 Science and Technology by Design: 3.

Colin Webb. Sydney, Australia: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1992.

Recommended grade level: 5-6. The activities in Science and Technology by Design: 3 involve investigating, designing, making, and using technology. The nearly 100 activities are organized in 10 units. Students (1) design and calibrate simple measuring instruments; (2) use the activity of microorganisms in practical ways such as making bread, cottage cheese, and yogurt; (3) investigate structures built by animals, by various civilizations, and by contemporary society; (4) investigate space; (5) explore concepts related to the muscular and skeletal systems, body movement, circulation, respiration, diet, reactions and learning; (6) investigate the use of levers, wheels, gears, and pulleys performing design tasks; (7) investigate the various forms of energy and the ways people use energy in their homes, for transport, and as food; (8) look at a variety of testing procedures, such as market research surveys; (9) investigate things that are used for entertainment; and (10) examine aspects of packaging.

Science and Technology by Design: 3 provides an introduction for each unit. The 2-page activities consist of a reproducible student page that presents the challenge and notes for the teacher explaining the scientific concept involved, along with ideas to stimulate discussion.

Prices: Aust. $51.95 (ISBN 0-7295-2854-5). Publisher/supplier: Harcourt Brace, Australia. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
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5.74 Science Experiments and Projects for Students.

Julia H. Cothron, Ronald N. Giese, and Richard J. Rezba. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1996.

Recommended grade level: 7-8+. Using Science Experiments and Projects for Students, students can practice the skills they need to create and conduct their own original experiments and assess their work. Written for students, the guide is designed to teach the fundamentals of planning and conducting science experiments using the scientific method—that is, generating experimental ideas, developing an experimental design, collecting and presenting data, conducting statistical analysis, using library resources, and writing about and presenting scientific findings in the classroom or in a competition.

The 14 chapters in the book could be used individually but are sequenced to be treated as a whole. Each chapter addresses an aspect of the scientific method in detail through a structured sequence of readings, skill-building exercises, activities, practice problems, and self-assessments. In the chapter on analyzing experimental data, for example, students learn to distinguish among quantitative, qualitative, ratio, interval, ordinal, and nominal data. They also select the appropriate measures of central tendency and variation for a given set of data, describe 3 ways to find the central value of a set of data, describe 4 ways to report the variation in a set of data, construct a data table and graph for sets of quantitative and qualitative data, and use a checklist to evaluate data tables and graphs and to identify needed improvements.

Science Experiments and Projects for Students is the student version of Students and Research: Practical Strategies for Science Classrooms and Competitions. (See 1.106.)

Price: $18.95 (ISBN 0-7872-2826-5). Publisher/supplier: Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.75 Science Is …

2nd ed. Susan V. Bosak. Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada: Scholastic Canada; and Markham, Ontario, Canada: The Communication Project, 1991.

Recommended grade level: 1-8. Science Is … is a comprehensive collection of more than 450 activities, experiments, projects, games, puzzles, and stories organized by type of activity, by subject area, and by topic. The 3 types of activities are as follows: (1) "Quickies" are short activities that require few or no materials and can be done on the spur of the moment. They might be used to introduce basic concepts in a subject area. (2) "Make Time" activities require a little planning, some readily available and inexpensive materials, and at least 30 minutes to complete. These activities often deal with key subject area concepts in depth. (3) "One Leads to Another"—activities within a subject area that build upon one another—emphasize a key theme for the subject area or result in a completed project and require some planning.

Within each type, activities are organized in 10 subject areas: (1) discovering science, (2) matter and energy, (3) humans, (4) the environment, (5) rocks, (6) plants, (7) living creatures, (8) weather, (9) the heavens, and (10) applying science. In addition to the 10 subject areas, activities are organized in 40 topics that interrelate activities within and between subject areas. A master chart shows where items on the 40 topics can be found in the 10 subject areas.

Each activity in Science Is … includes a 2-line introduction, a materials list, and procedures, as well as appropriate background information and other fact-filled boxes. This sourcebook also includes a section for teachers on how to use the book, an extensive list of resources, and an index.

Price: $29.95 (ISBN 0-590-74070-9). Publisher/supplier: Idea Factory. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.76
Science on a Shoestring.

2nd ed. Kara Strongin and Gloria Strongin. Menlo Park, Calif.: Addison-Wesley, 1991.

Recommended grade level: K-8. This second edition of Science on a Shoestring includes 62 investigations grouped under 3 themes—matter, change, and energy. Students investigate how matter behaves, interacts, and how it can change; they become aware of the changes occurring in themselves and in their environment; and they become more aware of the effects of gravity, magnetism, electricity, sound, and light upon them and their environment. Most investigations may be introduced without regard to sequence.

Each lesson in Science on a Shoestring includes a suggested grade level; a list of required materials (all inexpensive and easily obtainable); a short vocabulary list; a brief overview of the activity, including an explanation of the concepts involved; and step-by-step procedures for conducting the activity. Most lessons offer ideas for home investigations, and questions for discussion and/or evaluation. A master list of materials is included.

Price: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-201-25760-2), $18.95. Publisher/supplier: Addison-Wesley/Longman. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
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5.77 Science Projects in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: A Guide for Elementary and Secondary School Teachers.

National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Boulder, Colo.: American Solar Energy Society, 1991.

Recommended grade level: 6-8+. Science Projects in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency is a resource book with suggestions and information for developing experimental and nonexperimental projects related to solar energy, renewable energy technologies, and other related areas such as superconductivity and energy storage. Rather than being an instruction book with complete directions and answers for projects or experiments, this idea book is designed to help teachers and students develop and conduct their own experiments or science-fair projects.

The book has 4 sections: (1) an outline of ways teachers can help students during an experimental project; (2) a review of how to do a science project—that is, the steps in the scientific method; (3) more than 100 ideas for projects in energy efficiency and sources of information or tips relevant to that topic; and (4) an excellent annotated list of resources, many of which are free, including books, articles, films, slide presentations, and software packages related to solar and renewable energy.

Included in the section on project ideas is a short introduction to each topic, hints on how to set up and conduct possible experiments, bibliographic references, a list of special equipment required, and schematics for setups.

Price: $10. Publisher/supplier: National Energy Foundation. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.78 Sciencewise, Book 2: Discovering Scientific Process through Problem Solving.

Dennis Holley. Pacific Grove, Calif.: Critical Thinking Books and Software, 1996.

Recommended grade level: 5-8. Sciencewise, Book 2 is a resource guide containing 54 demonstrations and activities designed to develop students' creative-thinking, problem-solving, and "inventioneering" skills. Specific principles or concepts are demonstrated in the exercises, but the emphasis is on active involvement of the students in learning science process skills. The guide features 2 types of exercises: "Dynamic Demos" and "Creative Challenges."

In the first type, the 36 teacher-led demonstration activities, students do the thinking and the teacher does the doing. The teacher sets up and presents a problem situation ("What will happen if …" or "Why did that happen?"). Using guided questions and manipulating apparatus and equipment, the teacher helps the student understand the problem, make accurate observations and reasonable predictions, and arrive at a conclusion or answer to the problem. The activities include, for example, investigating whether a jar of sand will roll as far as a jar of water (and why or why not), or thinking of ways to blow up a balloon that is inside a container—without touching the balloon or removing the stopper from the container that holds the balloon.

With the 18 Creative Challenges, students are asked to develop a solution to a problem (given a particular set of rules) using the scientific process skills shown by the teacher in the demonstrations. For example, they are asked to invent a new use for a wire coat hanger; to design and build a device that will float as many pennies as possible; or to construct a maze that will take a marble from the top of a shoe-box to the bottom of the box in 30 seconds.

Each demonstration activity includes a teacher section that lists materials needed, step-by-step procedures, outcomes and explanations, extensions, and ways the activity can be continued at home. A student record sheet is also provided. Each challenge activity includes a student page and a teacher's page.

Price: $21.95 (ISBN 0-89455-648-7). Publisher/supplier: Critical Thinking Books. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.79 Super Science Activities: Favorite Lessons from Master Teachers.

Rob Beattie, Diane Bredt, Janet Graeber, and others. Palo Alto, Calif.: Dale Seymour Publications, 1988.

Recommended grade level: 5-8+. Super Science Activities includes 25 lessons in the physical, earth, and life sciences from the repertoires of 8 science teachers. Topics include plate tectonics, earthquakes, genetics, ecology, electricity, and chromatography. Examples of activities include inventing a seismograph, using chromatography to identify the author of a mystery note, building a working battery, and creating a balanced ecosystem in an aquarium.

Super Science Activities contains 6 units, each with 3 to 5 lessons and a bibliography. Each lesson has background information, vocabulary, a list of materials, classroom management suggestions, step-by-step procedures, and enrichment activities.

Price: $18.95 (ISBN 0-86651-445-7). Publisher/supplier: Dale Seymour. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
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5.80 The Teaching Tank Discovery Book.

Vol. 1. Paul J. Reinbold and David R. Burgess. Nashua, N.H.: Captivation, 1996.

Recommended grade level: 5-8. Volume 1 of The Teaching Tank Discovery Book contains directions for 50 activities meant to be done with a simple device called a "teaching tank"—a 2-sided Plexiglas container. The activities, many of which are demonstrations, cover a wide range of topics in the life, earth, and physical sciences. For example, students use the tank for observing root growth, for growing stalactites and stalagmites, or for predicting and observing the effect of wind on evaporation rate. They also use it to observe the work of enzymes in the digestion of foods, to observe a model of the internal gaseous forces within a volcano, or to measure the mass of various solids.

Each lesson includes a list of objectives, a materials list, a reference diagram showing how the tank is used, step-by-step procedures, thought-provoking questions for students, and brief teaching notes or explanations of results.

Price: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-9633907-0-8), $21.95. Teaching tank, $32.95. Publisher/supplier: Captivation. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.81 The Teaching Tank Discovery Book.

Vol. 2. Gordon Corbett and David R. Burgess. Nashua, N.H.: Captivation, 1996.

Recommended grade level: 5-8. Volume 2 of The Teaching Tank Discovery Book contains directions for 50 activities meant to be done with a simple device called a "teaching tank"—a 2-sided Plexiglas container. The activities, many of which are demonstrations, cover a wide range of topics in the life, earth, and physical sciences. For example, students use the tank for determining that displacement is essential to the functioning of a submarine, for observing the influence of temperature on the action of yeast, or for demonstrating that surface tension of water can be broken by soap or detergent. They also use it for observing the separation of plant pigments using paper chromatography or for creating a model of a thermocline.

Each lesson includes a list of objectives, a materials list, a reference diagram showing how the tank is used, step-by-step procedures, thought-provoking questions for students, and brief teaching notes or explanations of results.

Price: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-9633907-1-6), $21.95. Teaching tank, $32.95. Publisher/supplier: Captivation. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.82 Technology Science Mathematics Connection Activities.

James LaPorte and Mark Sanders. Developed by TSM [Technology Science Mathematics] Integration Project, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Blacksburg, Va.). New York, N.Y.: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 1996.

Recommended grade level: 7-8+. This unit, in a 3-ring-binder format, contains 6 problem-solving activities designed to facilitate team teaching among technology, science, and mathematics teachers. (The activities are for 3-teacher teams, but implementation suggestions are given for pairs or individual teachers.) During the unit, students must simultaneously apply the concepts, principles, and skills they learn in 3 subject areas—science, mathematics, and technology—to design, construct, and evaluate solutions to stated problems. They are asked to design, construct, and evaluate a working model of a self-propelled toy power boat, a composite beam made from 2 or more recyclable materials, an insulation panel, a magnetically levitated vehicle, a model hydroponic farming system, and a model rocket.

A typical activity requires several days to a week in science and mathematics classes and 1 to 3 weeks in a technology laboratory. Each activity has an introductory overview that provides a general idea of the activity and its goal, followed by the technology, science, and mathematics components. In developing a working model of a toy powerboat, for example, students design, construct, and test their boat hulls and propulsion systems in technology class; they study Newton's laws of motion, as well as buoyancy and conservation of energy in science class; and they study symmetry, balance, volume, and surface area in mathematics class.

Each activity includes a suggested sequence of instruction, background information, resources, teaching notes for the different components, questions to guide student discussion and thinking, reproducible student sheets, and links to standards of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Each activity is also correlated with Glencoe textbooks in technology, science, and mathematics.

Price: Teacher's resource binder (ISBN 0-02-636947-8), $64.46. Publisher/supplier: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.83 Thematic Applications: Sciences II.

Technology-Based Solutions series. Developed by Twin Discovery Systems. Freeport, N.Y.: Educational Activities, 1995.

Recommended grade level: 6-8. Thematic Applications: Sciences II is a CD-ROM with 67 computer-based activities that allow students to learn about topics in environmental, life, earth, and physical science. The activities, which can be completed individually or collaboratively, incorporate computer literacy, mathematics, writing, science, social studies,

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
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art, and research. They require students to locate, manipulate, organize, and analyze data. Generally, students use the word processor, database, spreadsheet, or draw/paint program to complete each activity. For example, they make a graph from a spreadsheet showing the number of endangered and threatened animal and plant species, they create an illustration of the food chain in a tropical rainforest using a paint or draw program, and they write an environmental newsletter using desktop publishing. They also identify and collect information on the 10 highest active volcanoes in the world, and they research and write a report on the superconducting supercollider.

The CD-ROM uses either Claris-Works for Macintosh or Microsoft Works for Windows. Students must know how to use these applications before they can complete the activities. All of the activities are designed so that students can conduct their research on the computer using an electronic encyclopedia or other reference source. Full-video clips and clip art illustrations are included on the CD-ROM for students to use as they create documents or reports. A list of relevant Web sites for obtaining information is provided. Students are encouraged to consult research sources such as the Internet, CD-ROM encyclopedias, books, and periodicals.

The CD-ROM comes with a teacher's guide that summarizes the goals, skills, and research requirements for each activity. The activities can be tailored for different grade levels; the time they require depends on the level of detail teachers assign.

Price: Unit, $99. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Educational Activities. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

5.84 Transformations: Science, Technology and Society.

Developed by American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers [AIME] (New York, N.Y.). New York, N.Y.: AIME, 1991.

Recommended grade level: 7-8. Transformations is a series of 8 videotapes of 15 minutes each, with companion teacher's guides, designed to motivate learning and enhance science instruction in middle school classrooms. Hosted by 4 high school members of a rock-'n'-roll band, each video unit explores a major theme through a set of specific topics and connections. The videotapes are on (1) problem solving, (2) geology and mapping, (3) energy resources and the environment, (4) electronics and computers, (5) heat and electrical power, (6) microbes and mining, (7) recycling, and (8) technology and values.

Each video features a site visit to a place where young engineers and technicians explain how science and technology relate to their everyday problems. In the video on recycling, for example, the band finds itself overwhelmed by trash while trying to practice at a band member's house. The band makes 2 visits to recycling facilities, where they are hosted by a young recycling supervisor, and the band also investigates the value of recycling. Among the activities, students calculate how much solid waste they generate every year, examine different types of packaging, and construct a model landfill.

The video programs maintain a rapid visual pace, and the band members perform songs with lyrics that underscore questions raised in the unit. Each videotape comes with a 16-page teacher's guide that presents background material, summarizes key concepts, offers short follow-up classroom activities and project ideas, and lists research topics and resources such as recent book titles and organizations. Reproducible activity masters are also included.

Price: Teacher's guides, with set of 8 videos, $125. Publisher/supplier: Karol Media. Materials: Available locally.

5.85 The Whole Cosmos Catalog of Science Activities.

2nd ed. Joe Abruscato and Jack Hassard. Glenview, Ill.: Good Year Books, 1991.

Recommended grade level: 5-8. The Whole Cosmos Catalog of Science Activities is an oversized book containing a collection of more than 275 stand-alone science activities, puzzles, board games, biographies, and creative arts activities that cover topics in life, earth, physical, and aerospace science, along with science and technology subjects such as computers and biomaterials. Among the activities, for example, students make spore prints, grow brine shrimp from fertilized eggs, build a sand sculpture, play pendulum games, or build a small spectroscope.

Each idea or activity includes a very brief introduction to concepts, directions for experiments or activities, and black-and-white illustrations or diagrams to guide student work. Some of the activities are abstracted or adapted from various curriculum projects, including the Science Curriculum Improvement Study (SCIS), Science—A Process Approach (SAPA), and the Earth Science Curriculum Project (ESCP), among others. All of the activities can be done with inexpensive and readily available materials.

Price: $14.95 (ISBN 0-673-16753-4). Publisher/supplier: Scott Foresman/Addison-Wesley. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
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Suggested Citation:"5. Multidisciplinary and Applied Science." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1998. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5774.
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Next: 6. Sources of Information on Educational Software and Multimedia Programs »
Resources for Teaching Middle School Science Get This Book
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With age-appropriate, inquiry-centered curriculum materials and sound teaching practices, middle school science can capture the interest and energy of adolescent students and expand their understanding of the world around them.

Resources for Teaching Middle School Science, developed by the National Science Resources Center (NSRC), is a valuable tool for identifying and selecting effective science curriculum materials that will engage students in grades 6 through 8. The volume describes more than 400 curriculum titles that are aligned with the National Science Education Standards.

This completely new guide follows on the success of Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science, the first in the NSRC series of annotated guides to hands-on, inquiry-centered curriculum materials and other resources for science teachers.

The curriculum materials in the new guide are grouped in five chapters by scientific area--Physical Science, Life Science, Environmental Science, Earth and Space Science, and Multidisciplinary and Applied Science. They are also grouped by type--core materials, supplementary units, and science activity books.

Each annotation of curriculum material includes a recommended grade level, a description of the activities involved and of what students can be expected to learn, a list of accompanying materials, a reading level, and ordering information.

The curriculum materials included in this book were selected by panels of teachers and scientists using evaluation criteria developed for the guide. The criteria reflect and incorporate goals and principles of the National Science Education Standards. The annotations designate the specific content standards on which these curriculum pieces focus.

In addition to the curriculum chapters, the guide contains six chapters of diverse resources that are directly relevant to middle school science. Among these is a chapter on educational software and multimedia programs, chapters on books about science and teaching, directories and guides to science trade books, and periodicals for teachers and students.

Another section features institutional resources. One chapter lists about 600 science centers, museums, and zoos where teachers can take middle school students for interactive science experiences. Another chapter describes nearly 140 professional associations and U.S. government agencies that offer resources and assistance.

Authoritative, extensive, and thoroughly indexed--and the only guide of its kind--Resources for Teaching Middle School Science will be the most used book on the shelf for science teachers, school administrators, teacher trainers, science curriculum specialists, advocates of hands-on science teaching, and concerned parents.

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